Publications by authors named "Jill Barnholtz-Sloan"

344 Publications

Proteins inform survival-based differences in patients with glioblastoma.

Neurooncol Adv 2020 Jan-Dec;2(1):vdaa039. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Background: Improving the care of patients with glioblastoma (GB) requires accurate and reliable predictors of patient prognosis. Unfortunately, while protein markers are an effective readout of cellular function, proteomics has been underutilized in GB prognostic marker discovery.

Methods: For this study, GB patients were prospectively recruited and proteomics discovery using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS) was performed for 27 patients including 13 short-term survivors (STS) (≤10 months) and 14 long-term survivors (LTS) (≥18 months).

Results: Proteomics discovery identified 11 941 peptides in 2495 unique proteins, with 469 proteins exhibiting significant dysregulation when comparing STS to LTS. We verified the differential abundance of 67 out of these 469 proteins in a small previously published independent dataset. Proteins involved in axon guidance were upregulated in STS compared to LTS, while those involved in p53 signaling were upregulated in LTS. We also assessed the correlation between LS MS/MS data with RNAseq data from the same discovery patients and found a low correlation between protein abundance and mRNA expression. Finally, using LC-MS/MS on a set of 18 samples from 6 patients, we quantified the intratumoral heterogeneity of more than 2256 proteins in the multisample dataset.

Conclusions: These proteomic datasets and noted protein variations present a beneficial resource for better predicting patient outcome and investigating potential therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/noajnl/vdaa039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212893PMC
March 2020

Gliomas display distinct sex-based differential methylation patterns based on molecular subtype.

Neurooncol Adv 2020 Jan-Dec;2(1):vdaa002. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Background: Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor and one of many cancers where males are diagnosed with greater frequency than females. However, little is known about the sex-based molecular differences in glioblastomas (GBMs) or lower grade glioma (non-GBM) subtypes. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism involved in regulating gene transcription. In glioma and other cancers, hypermethylation of specific gene promoters downregulates transcription and may have a profound effect on patient outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine if sex-based methylation differences exist in different glioma subtypes.

Methods: Molecular and clinical data from glioma patients were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas and grouped according to tumor grade and molecular subtype ( mutation and 1p/19q chromosomal deletion). Sex-specific differentially methylated probes (DMPs) were identified in each subtype and further analyzed to determine if they were part of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) or associated with differentially methylated DNA transcription regulatory binding motifs.

Results: Analysis of methylation data in 4 glioma subtypes revealed unique sets of both sex-specific DMPs and DMRs in each subtype. Motif analysis based on DMP position also identified distinct sex-based sets of DNA-binding motifs that varied according to glioma subtype. Downstream targets of 2 of the GBM-specific transcription binding sites, and , showed differential gene expression consistent with increased methylation mediating downregulation.

Conclusion: DNA methylation differences between males and females in 4 glioma molecular subtypes suggest an important, sex-specific role for DNA methylation in epigenetic regulation of gliomagenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/noajnl/vdaa002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212920PMC
January 2020

Sexually dimorphic impact of the iron-regulating gene, , on survival in glioblastoma.

Neurooncol Adv 2020 Jan-Dec;2(1):vdaa001. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: The median survival for patients with glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults, has remained approximately 1 year for more than 2 decades. Recent advances in the field have identified GBM as a sexually dimorphic disease. It is less prevalent in females and they have better survival compared to males. The molecular mechanism of this difference has not yet been established. Iron is essential for many biological processes supporting tumor growth and its regulation is impacted by sex. Therefore, we interrogated the expression of a key component of cellular iron regulation, the (homeostatic iron regulatory) gene, on sexually dimorphic survival in GBM.

Methods: We analyzed TCGA microarray gene expression and clinical data of all primary GBM patients (-wild type) to compare tumor mRNA expression of with overall survival, stratified by sex.

Results: In low expressing tumors (below median expression, = 220), survival is modulated by both sex and MGMT status, with the combination of female sex and MGMT methylation resulting in over a 10-month survival advantage ( < .0001) over the other groups. Alternatively, expression of above the median (high , = 240) is associated with significantly worse overall survival in GBM, regardless of MGMT methylation status or patient sex. Gene expression analysis uncovered a correlation between high expression and expression of genes associated with immune function.

Conclusions: The level of expression in GBM has a sexually dimorphic impact on survival. Whereas expression below the median imparts a survival benefit to females, high expression is associated with significantly worse overall survival regardless of established prognostic factors such as sex or MGMT methylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/noajnl/vdaa001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212901PMC
February 2020

Long-term trends in glioblastoma survival: implications for historical control groups in clinical trials.

Neurooncol Pract 2020 Mar 1;7(2):158-163. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Department of Neuro-Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA.

Background: Historical controls continue to be used in early-phase brain tumor trials. We aim to show that historical changes in survival trends for glioblastoma (GBM) call into question the use of noncontemporary controls.

Methods: We analyzed data from 46 106 primary GBM cases from the SEER database (1998-2016). We performed trend analysis on survival outcomes (2-year survival probability, median survival, and hazard ratios) and patient characteristics (age, sex, resection extent, and treatment type).

Results: In 2005-2016 (ie, the post-Stupp protocol era), fitting a parameter independently to each year, there was a demonstrable increase in median survival (R = 0.81, < .001) and 2-year survival probability (R = 0.55, = .006) for GBM. Trend analysis of the hazard ratio showed a significant time-dependent downward trend (R = 0.62, = .002). When controlling, via multivariable Cox regression modeling, for age, sex, resection extent, and treatment type, there was a persistent downward trend in hazard ratios with increases in calendar time, especially in the most recent data.

Conclusion: Contemporary GBM patients face a different overall hazard profile from their historical counterparts, which is evident in changes in measures of patient survival and parametric hazard modeling. Though there was a plateau in these measures before 2005 (pre-Stupp protocol), there is no evidence of a new plateau in recent years even when controlling for known prognostic factors (age, sex, resection extent, and treatment type), suggesting that it may be insufficient to match contemporary patients and noncontemporary controls on the basis of these factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nop/npz046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318862PMC
March 2020

Assessment of polygenic architecture and risk prediction based on common variants across fourteen cancers.

Nat Commun 2020 07 3;11(1):3353. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Leeds Institute of Cancer and Pathology, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have led to the identification of hundreds of susceptibility loci across cancers, but the impact of further studies remains uncertain. Here we analyse summary-level data from GWAS of European ancestry across fourteen cancer sites to estimate the number of common susceptibility variants (polygenicity) and underlying effect-size distribution. All cancers show a high degree of polygenicity, involving at a minimum of thousands of loci. We project that sample sizes required to explain 80% of GWAS heritability vary from 60,000 cases for testicular to over 1,000,000 cases for lung cancer. The maximum relative risk achievable for subjects at the 99th risk percentile of underlying polygenic risk scores (PRS), compared to average risk, ranges from 12 for testicular to 2.5 for ovarian cancer. We show that PRS have potential for risk stratification for cancers of breast, colon and prostate, but less so for others because of modest heritability and lower incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16483-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7335068PMC
July 2020

European genetic ancestry associated with risk of childhood ependymoma.

Neuro Oncol 2020 11;22(11):1637-1646

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Background: Ependymoma is a histologically defined central nervous system tumor most commonly occurring in childhood. Population-level incidence differences by race/ethnicity are observed, with individuals of European ancestry at highest risk. We aimed to determine whether extent of European genetic ancestry is associated with ependymoma risk in US populations.

Methods: In a multi-ethnic study of Californian children (327 cases, 1970 controls), we estimated the proportions of European, African, and Native American ancestry among recently admixed Hispanic and African American subjects and estimated European admixture among non-Hispanic white subjects using genome-wide data. We tested whether genome-wide ancestry differences were associated with ependymoma risk and performed admixture mapping to identify associations with local ancestry. We also evaluated race/ethnicity-stratified ependymoma incidence data from the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS).

Results: CBTRUS data revealed that African American and Native American children have 33% and 36%, respectively, reduced incidence of ependymoma compared with non-Hispanic whites. In genetic analyses, a 20% increase in European ancestry was associated with a 1.31-fold higher odds of ependymoma among self-reported Hispanics and African Americans (95% CI: 1.08-1.59, Pmeta = 6.7 × 10-3). Additionally, eastern European ancestral substructure was associated with increased ependymoma risk in non-Hispanic whites (P = 0.030) and in Hispanics (P = 0.043). Admixture mapping revealed a peak at 20p13 associated with increased local European ancestry, and targeted fine-mapping identified a lead variant at rs6039499 near RSPO4 (odds ratio = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.45-2.73; P = 2.2 × 10-5) but which was not validated in an independent set of posterior fossa type A patients.

Conclusions: Interethnic differences in ependymoma risk are recapitulated in the genomic ancestry of ependymoma patients, implicating regions to target in future association studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noaa130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7846152PMC
November 2020

JAM-A functions as a female microglial tumor suppressor in glioblastoma.

Neuro Oncol 2020 11;22(11):1591-1601

Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio.

Background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor and has a dismal prognosis. Previously, we identified that junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A), a cell adhesion molecule, is highly elevated in human GBM cancer stem cells and predicts poor patient prognosis. While JAM-A is also highly expressed in other cells in the tumor microenvironment, specifically microglia and macrophages, how JAM-A expression in these cells affects tumor growth has yet to be determined. The goal of this study was to understand the role of microenvironmental JAM-A in mediating GBM growth.

Methods: Male and female wild-type (WT) and JAM-A-deficient mice were transplanted intracranially with the syngeneic glioma cell lines GL261 and SB28 and were assessed for differences in survival and microglial activation in tumors and in vitro. RNA-sequencing was performed to identify differentially regulated genes among all genotypes, and differences were validated in vitro and in vivo.

Results: We found that JAM-A-deficient female mice succumbed to GBM more quickly compared with WT females and JAM-A-deficient and male WT mice. Analysis of microglia in the tumors revealed that female JAM-A-deficient microglia were more activated, and RNA-sequencing identified elevated expression of Fizz1 and Ifi202b specifically in JAM-A-deficient female microglia.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that JAM-A functions to suppress pathogenic microglial activation in the female tumor microenvironment, highlighting an emerging role for sex differences in the GBM microenvironment and suggesting that sex differences extend beyond previously reported tumor cell-intrinsic differences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noaa148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7690368PMC
November 2020

Relative survival after diagnosis with a primary brain or other central nervous system tumor in the National Program of Cancer Registries, 2004 to 2014.

Neurooncol Pract 2020 Jun 16;7(3):306-312. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States, Hinsdale, Illinois, USA.

Background: The majority of reported cancer survival statistics in the United States are generated using the National Cancer Institute's publicly available Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data, which prior to 2019 represented 28% of the US population (now 37%). In the case of rare cancers or special subpopulations, data sets based on a larger portion of the US population may contribute new insights into these low-incidence cancers. The purpose of this study is to characterize the histology-specific survival patterns for all primary malignant and nonmalignant primary brain tumors in the United States using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR).

Methods: Survival data were obtained from the NPCR (includes data from 39 state cancer registries, representing 81% of the US population). Relative survival rates (RS) with 95% CI were generated using SEER*Stat 8.3.5 from 2004 to 2014 by behavior, histology, sex, race/ethnicity, and age at diagnosis.

Results: Overall, there were 488 314 cases from 2004 to 2014. Overall 5-year RS was 69.8% (95% CI = 69.6%-69.9%). Five-year RS was 35.9% (95% CI = 35.6%-36.1%) for malignant and 90.2% (95% CI = 90.1%-90.4%) for nonmalignant tumors. Pilocytic astrocytoma had the longest 5-year RS (94.2%, 95% CI = 93.6%-94.6%) of all glioma subtypes, whereas glioblastoma had the shortest 5-year RS (6.1%, 95% CI = 6.0%-6.3%). Nonmalignant nerve sheath tumors had the longest 5-year RS (99.3%, 95% CI = 99.1%-99.4%). Younger age and female sex were associated with increased survival for many histologies.

Conclusions: Survival after diagnosis with primary brain tumor varies by behavior, histology, and age. Using such a database that includes more than 80% of the US population may represent national survival patterns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nop/npz059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7274192PMC
June 2020

Association between urbanicity and surgical treatment among patients with primary glioblastoma in the United States.

Neurooncol Pract 2020 Jun 8;7(3):299-305. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Department of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH.

Background: Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common and most lethal primary malignant brain tumor. Extent of surgical resection is one of the most important prognostic factors associated with improved survival. Historically, patients living in nonmetropolitan counties in the United States have limited access to optimal treatment and health care services. The aim of this study is to determine whether there is an association between urbanicity and surgical treatment patterns among US patients with primary GB.

Methods: Cases with histologically confirmed, primary GB diagnosed between 2005 and 2015 were obtained from the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the National Cancer Institute. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to assess the association between urbanicity and receipt of surgical treatment (gross total resection [GTR]/subtotal resection [STR] vs biopsy only/none) and extent of resection (GTR vs STR), adjusted for age at diagnosis, sex, race, US regional division, and primary tumor site.

Results: Patients residing in nonmetropolitan counties were 7% less likely to receive surgical treatment (odds ratio [OR] = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89-0.96, < .0001). Among those who received surgical treatment, metropolitan status was not significantly associated with receiving GTR vs STR (OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.94-1.04, = .620).

Conclusions: Among US patients with GB, urbanicity is associated with receipt of surgical treatment, but among patients who receive surgery, urbanicity is not associated with extent of resection. These results point to potential differences in access to health care for those in nonmetropolitan areas that warrant further exploration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nop/npaa001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7274182PMC
June 2020

Retrospective clinical trial experimentally validates glioblastoma genome-wide pattern of DNA copy-number alterations predictor of survival.

APL Bioeng 2020 Jun 15;4(2):026106. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA.

Modeling of genomic profiles from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) by using recently developed mathematical frameworks has associated a genome-wide pattern of DNA copy-number alterations with a shorter, roughly one-year, median survival time in glioblastoma (GBM) patients. Here, to experimentally test this relationship, we whole-genome sequenced DNA from tumor samples of patients. We show that the patients represent the U.S. adult GBM population in terms of most normal and disease phenotypes. Intratumor heterogeneity affects and profiling technology and reference human genome specifics affect <1% of the classifications of the tumors by the pattern, where experimental batch effects normally reduce the reproducibility, i.e., precision, of classifications based upon between one to a few hundred genomic loci by >30%. With a 2.25-year Kaplan-Meier median survival difference, a 3.5 univariate Cox hazard ratio, and a 0.78 concordance index, i.e., accuracy, the pattern predicts survival better than and independent of age at diagnosis, which has been the best indicator since 1950. The prognostic classification by the pattern may, therefore, help to manage GBM pseudoprogression. The diagnostic classification may help drugs progress to regulatory approval. The therapeutic predictions, of previously unrecognized targets that are correlated with survival, may lead to new drugs. Other methods missed this relationship in the roughly 3B-nucleotide genomes of the small, order of magnitude of 100, patient cohorts, e.g., from TCGA. Previous attempts to associate GBM genotypes with patient phenotypes were unsuccessful. This is a proof of principle that the frameworks are uniquely suitable for discovering clinically actionable genotype-phenotype relationships.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5142559DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7229984PMC
June 2020

Electronic Medical Record Search Engine (EMERSE): An Information Retrieval Tool for Supporting Cancer Research.

JCO Clin Cancer Inform 2020 05;4:454-463

Department of Informatics, University of California, Irvine, CA.

Purpose: The Electronic Medical Record Search Engine (EMERSE) is a software tool built to aid research spanning cohort discovery, population health, and data abstraction for clinical trials. EMERSE is now live at three academic medical centers, with additional sites currently working on implementation. In this report, we describe how EMERSE has been used to support cancer research based on a variety of metrics.

Methods: We identified peer-reviewed publications that used EMERSE through online searches as well as through direct e-mails to users based on audit logs. These logs were also used to summarize use at each of the three sites. Search terms for two of the sites were characterized using the natural language processing tool MetaMap to determine to which semantic types the terms could be mapped.

Results: We identified a total of 326 peer-reviewed publications that used EMERSE through August 2019, although this is likely an underestimation of the true total based on the use log analysis. Oncology-related research comprised nearly one third (n = 105; 32.2%) of all research output. The use logs showed that EMERSE had been used by multiple people at each site (nearly 3,500 across all three) who had collectively logged into the system > 100,000 times. Many user-entered search queries could not be mapped to a semantic type, but the most common semantic type for terms that did match was "disease or syndrome," followed by "pharmacologic substance."

Conclusion: EMERSE has been shown to be a valuable tool for supporting cancer research. It has been successfully deployed at other sites, despite some implementation challenges unique to each deployment environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/CCI.19.00134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7265780PMC
May 2020

Cardiometabolic comorbidities and epithelial ovarian cancer risk among African-American women in the African-American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES).

Gynecol Oncol 2020 07 30;158(1):123-129. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Studies that have examined the association between cardiovascular comorbidities and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) have yielded inconsistent results. It remains unknown whether cardiometabolic disease is associated with EOC in African American (AA) women, who have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease and lower risk of EOC than White women. Here, we estimate the effect of cardiovascular comorbid conditions and EOC risk among AA women.

Methods: Data were available from 593 ovarian carcinoma patients and 752 controls enrolled in the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES). Participants were asked to self-report a history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes and any current medication use. The relationship between hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and medications taken for these conditions was determined using multivariate logistic regression.

Results: Hypertension was associated with an increased risk (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01, 1.73), whereas diabetes and hyperlipidemia were associated with a decreased risk (aOR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.49, 0.91 and aOR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.47, 0.80, respectively) of EOC. Use of anti-diabetic medication was inversely associated with EOC risk, as was use of lipid lowering medications (in the overall study population), which were predominantly statins. Among women with hypertension, use of anti-hypertensive medications was inversely associated with EOC risk, with associations that were most pronounced for diuretics, ARBs and ACE inhibitors.

Conclusion: Hypertension was associated with an increased EOC risk in this patient population, whereas an inverse association was observed for diabetes and hyperlipidemia. The decreased risk of EOC identified with use of anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetes or lipid-lowering medications could have implications for risk reduction strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2020.04.700DOI Listing
July 2020

Sex Differences in Cancer Incidence and Survival: A Pan-Cancer Analysis.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 07 29;29(7):1389-1397. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio.

Background: Sex plays an important role in the incidence, prognosis, and mortality of cancers, but often is not considered in disease treatment.

Methods: We quantified sex differences in cancer incidence using the United States Cancer Statistics (USCS) public use database and sex differences in cancer survival using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) public use data from 2001 to 2016. Age-adjusted male-to-female incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were generated by primary cancer site, race, and age groups. In addition, age-adjusted hazard ratios with 95% CI by sex within site were generated.

Results: In general, cancer incidence and overall survival were lower in males than females, with Kaposi sarcoma (IRR: 9.751; 95% CI, 9.287-10.242; < 0.001) having highest male-to-female incidence, and thyroid cancers (HR, 1.774; 95% CI, 1.707-1.845) having largest male-to-female survival difference. Asian or Pacific Islanders had particularly high male-to-female incidence in larynx cancers (IRR: 8.199; 95% CI, 7.203-9.363; < 0.001), relative to other races. Among primary brain tumors, germ cell tumors had the largest male-to-female incidence (IRR: 3.03; 95% CI, 2.798-3.284, < 0.001).

Conclusions: Overall, incidence and survival of cancer vary significantly by sex, with males generally having lower incidence and survival compared with females. Male-to-female incidence differences were also noted across race and age groups. These results provide strong evidence that the fundamental biology of sex differences affects cancers of all types.

Impact: This study represents the most recent and comprehensive reporting of sex differences in cancer incidence and survival in the United States. Identifying disadvantaged groups is critical as it can provide useful information to improve cancer survival, as well as to better understand the etiology and pathogenesis of specific cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0036DOI Listing
July 2020

Descriptive epidemiology of chordomas in the United States.

J Neurooncol 2020 May 28;148(1):173-178. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Purpose: Chordomas account for 1% to 4% of all bone malignancies and 0.5% of all primary intracranial central nervous system tumors. Prior epidemiologic literature is based on limited population data. The purpose of this study is to provide the largest and most inclusive population based study of the descriptive epidemiology of chordomas.

Methods: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Program of Cancer Registries were queried for chordoma in all locations. Age-adjusted incidence per 100,000 persons was calculated by age, sex, race, and ethnicity. Annual percentage change was calculated using Joinpoint.

Results: From 2004 to 2014, a total of 3670 chordomas were diagnosed in the US. The most common location was cranial (38.7%), followed by sacral (34.3%) and spinal (27.0%). The average age-adjusted incidence rate was 0.088 per 100,000 persons per year (95% CI 0.086-0.091), with an annual percentage change of 1.29% (95% CI 0.31-2.28%). For all chordomas, the incidence peaks in the 75-84 year age group. The male-to-female incidence rate ratio is 1.54 (p < 0.001). American Indian/Alaskan Native and Black patients had a statistically lower incidence rate than White and Asian/Pacific Islander patients.

Conclusion: Approximately 0.088 chordomas per 100,000 persons are newly diagnosed in the US each year, with cranial location being the most common, followed by sacral and spinal. Incidence increases with age, and men are at a significantly higher risk than women. This investigation represents the largest population-based epidemiologic study of chordomas in the US.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-020-03511-xDOI Listing
May 2020

Glioblastoma in adults: a Society for Neuro-Oncology (SNO) and European Society of Neuro-Oncology (EANO) consensus review on current management and future directions.

Neuro Oncol 2020 08;22(8):1073-1113

Leeds Institute of Medical Research at St James's, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Glioblastomas are the most common form of malignant primary brain tumor and an important cause of morbidity and mortality. In recent years there have been important advances in understanding the molecular pathogenesis and biology of these tumors, but this has not translated into significantly improved outcomes for patients. In this consensus review from the Society for Neuro-Oncology (SNO) and the European Association of Neuro-Oncology (EANO), the current management of isocitrate dehydrogenase wildtype (IDHwt) glioblastomas will be discussed. In addition, novel therapies such as targeted molecular therapies, agents targeting DNA damage response and metabolism, immunotherapies, and viral therapies will be reviewed, as well as the current challenges and future directions for research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noaa106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7594557PMC
August 2020

Mechanisms and therapeutic implications of hypermutation in gliomas.

Nature 2020 04 15;580(7804):517-523. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Drug Development Department (DITEP), INSERM U1015, Université Paris Saclay, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

A high tumour mutational burden (hypermutation) is observed in some gliomas; however, the mechanisms by which hypermutation develops and whether it predicts the response to immunotherapy are poorly understood. Here we comprehensively analyse the molecular determinants of mutational burden and signatures in 10,294 gliomas. We delineate two main pathways to hypermutation: a de novo pathway associated with constitutional defects in DNA polymerase and mismatch repair (MMR) genes, and a more common post-treatment pathway, associated with acquired resistance driven by MMR defects in chemotherapy-sensitive gliomas that recur after treatment with the chemotherapy drug temozolomide. Experimentally, the mutational signature of post-treatment hypermutated gliomas was recapitulated by temozolomide-induced damage in cells with MMR deficiency. MMR-deficient gliomas were characterized by a lack of prominent T cell infiltrates, extensive intratumoral heterogeneity, poor patient survival and a low rate of response to PD-1 blockade. Moreover, although bulk analyses did not detect microsatellite instability in MMR-deficient gliomas, single-cell whole-genome sequencing analysis of post-treatment hypermutated glioma cells identified microsatellite mutations. These results show that chemotherapy can drive the acquisition of hypermutated populations without promoting a response to PD-1 blockade and supports the diagnostic use of mutational burden and signatures in cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2209-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8235024PMC
April 2020

Cancer Imaging Phenomics via CaPTk: Multi-Institutional Prediction of Progression-Free Survival and Pattern of Recurrence in Glioblastoma.

JCO Clin Cancer Inform 2020 03;4:234-244

Center for Biomedical Image Computing and Analytics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Purpose: To construct a multi-institutional radiomic model that supports upfront prediction of progression-free survival (PFS) and recurrence pattern (RP) in patients diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) at the time of initial diagnosis.

Patients And Methods: We retrospectively identified data for patients with newly diagnosed GBM from two institutions (institution 1, n = 65; institution 2, n = 15) who underwent gross total resection followed by standard adjuvant chemoradiation therapy, with pathologically confirmed recurrence, sufficient follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to reliably determine PFS, and available presurgical multiparametric MRI (MP-MRI). The advanced software suite Cancer Imaging Phenomics Toolkit (CaPTk) was leveraged to analyze standard clinical brain MP-MRI scans. A rich set of imaging features was extracted from the MP-MRI scans acquired before the initial resection and was integrated into two distinct imaging signatures for predicting mean shorter or longer PFS and near or distant RP. The predictive signatures for PFS and RP were evaluated on the basis of different classification schemes: single-institutional analysis, multi-institutional analysis with random partitioning of the data into discovery and replication cohorts, and multi-institutional assessment with data from institution 1 as the discovery cohort and data from institution 2 as the replication cohort.

Results: These predictors achieved cross-validated classification performance (ie, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) of 0.88 (single-institution analysis) and 0.82 to 0.83 (multi-institution analysis) for prediction of PFS and 0.88 (single-institution analysis) and 0.56 to 0.71 (multi-institution analysis) for prediction of RP.

Conclusion: Imaging signatures of presurgical MP-MRI scans reveal relatively high predictability of time and location of GBM recurrence, subject to the patients receiving standard first-line chemoradiation therapy. Through its graphical user interface, CaPTk offers easy accessibility to advanced computational algorithms for deriving imaging signatures predictive of clinical outcome and could similarly be used for a variety of radiomic and radiogenomic analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/CCI.19.00121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7113126PMC
March 2020

Cancer Informatics for Cancer Centers (CI4CC): Building a Community Focused on Sharing Ideas and Best Practices to Improve Cancer Care and Patient Outcomes.

JCO Clin Cancer Inform 2020 02;4:108-116

Duke University School of Medicine and Duke Comprehensive Cancer Center, Raleigh, NC.

Cancer Informatics for Cancer Centers (CI4CC) is a grassroots, nonprofit 501c3 organization intended to provide a focused national forum for engagement of senior cancer informatics leaders, primarily aimed at academic cancer centers anywhere in the world but with a special emphasis on the 70 National Cancer Institute-funded cancer centers. Although each of the participating cancer centers is structured differently, and leaders' titles vary, we know firsthand there are similarities in both the issues we face and the solutions we achieve. As a consortium, we have initiated a dedicated listserv, an open-initiatives program, and targeted biannual face-to-face meetings. These meetings are a place to review our priorities and initiatives, providing a forum for discussion of the strategic and pragmatic issues we, as informatics leaders, individually face at our respective institutions and cancer centers. Here we provide a brief history of the CI4CC organization and meeting highlights from the latest CI4CC meeting that took place in Napa, California from October 14-16, 2019. The focus of this meeting was "intersections between informatics, data science, and population science." We conclude with a discussion on "hot topics" on the horizon for cancer informatics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/CCI.19.00166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7186581PMC
February 2020

Association of Maximal Extent of Resection of Contrast-Enhanced and Non-Contrast-Enhanced Tumor With Survival Within Molecular Subgroups of Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma.

JAMA Oncol 2020 04;6(4):495-503

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco.

Importance: Per the World Health Organization 2016 integrative classification, newly diagnosed glioblastomas are separated into isocitrate dehydrogenase gene 1 or 2 (IDH)-wild-type and IDH-mutant subtypes, with median patient survival of 1.2 and 3.6 years, respectively. Although maximal resection of contrast-enhanced (CE) tumor is associated with longer survival, the prognostic importance of maximal resection within molecular subgroups and the potential importance of resection of non-contrast-enhanced (NCE) disease is poorly understood.

Objective: To assess the association of resection of CE and NCE tumors in conjunction with molecular and clinical information to develop a new road map for cytoreductive surgery.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective, multicenter cohort study included a development cohort from the University of California, San Francisco (761 patients diagnosed from January 1, 1997, through December 31, 2017, with 9.6 years of follow-up) and validation cohorts from the Mayo Clinic (107 patients diagnosed from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2014, with 5.7 years of follow-up) and the Ohio Brain Tumor Study (99 patients with data collected from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2011, with a median follow-up of 10.9 months). Image accessors were blinded to patient groupings. Eligible patients underwent surgical resection for newly diagnosed glioblastoma and had available survival, molecular, and clinical data and preoperative and postoperative magnetic resonance images. Data were analyzed from November 15, 2018, to March 15, 2019.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Overall survival.

Results: Among the 761 patients included in the development cohort (468 [61.5%] men; median age, 60 [interquartile range, 51.6-67.7] years), younger patients with IDH-wild-type tumors and aggressive resection of CE and NCE tumors had survival similar to that of patients with IDH-mutant tumors (median overall survival [OS], 37.3 [95% CI, 31.6-70.7] months). Younger patients with IDH-wild-type tumors and reduction of CE tumor but residual NCE tumors fared worse (median OS, 16.5 [95% CI, 14.7-18.3] months). Older patients with IDH-wild-type tumors benefited from reduction of CE tumor (median OS, 12.4 [95% CI, 11.4-14.0] months). The results were validated in the 2 external cohorts. The association between aggressive CE and NCE in patients with IDH-wild-type tumors was not attenuated by the methylation status of the promoter region of the DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase.

Conclusions And Relevance: This study confirms an association between maximal resection of CE tumor and OS in patients with glioblastoma across all subgroups. In addition, maximal resection of NCE tumor was associated with longer OS in younger patients, regardless of IDH status, and among patients with IDH-wild-type glioblastoma regardless of the methylation status of the promoter region of the DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase. These conclusions may help reassess surgical strategies for individual patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.6143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7042822PMC
April 2020

Facilitating Cancer Epidemiologic Efforts in Cleveland via Creation of Longitudinal De-Duplicated Patient Data Sets.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 04 27;29(4):787-795. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Cleveland Institute for Computational Biology, Department of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio.

Background: Cleveland, Ohio, is home to three major hospital systems serving approximately 80% of the Northeast Ohio population. The Cleveland Clinic, University Hospitals Health System, and MetroHealth are direct competitors for primary and specialty care, and patient overlap between these systems is high. Fragmentation of health data that exist in silos at these health systems produces an overestimation of disease burden due to double and sometimes triple counting of patients. As a result, longitudinal population-based studies across the Cleveland patient population are impeded unless accurate and actionable clinically derived health data sets can be created.

Methods: The Cleveland Institute for Computational Biology has developed the De-Duplicate and De-Identify Research Engine (DeDeRE) that, without any exchange of personal health identifiers (PHI) between health systems, will effectively de-duplicate the patients between one or more health entities.

Results: The immediate utility of this software for cancer epidemiology is the increased accuracy in measuring cancer burden and the potential to perform longitudinal studies with de-duplicated, de-identified data sets.

Conclusions: The DeDeRE software developed and tested here accomplishes its goals without exposing PHIs using a state-of-the-art, trusted privacy preservation network enabled by a hash-based matching algorithm.

Impact: This paper will guide the reader through the functions currently developed in DeDeRE and how a healthcare organization (HCO) employing the release version of this technology can begin sharing data with one or more additional HCOs in a collaborative and noncompetitive manner to create a regional population health resource for cancer researchers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-0815DOI Listing
April 2020

The epidemiology of spinal schwannoma in the United States between 2006 and 2014.

J Neurosurg Spine 2019 Dec 27:1-6. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

1Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor & Neuro-Oncology Center and.

Objective: Spinal schwannoma remains the third most common intradural spinal tumor following spinal meningioma and ependymoma. The available literature is generally limited to single-institution reports rather than epidemiological investigations. As of 1/1/2004, registration of all benign central nervous system tumors in the United States became mandatory after the Benign Brain Tumor Cancer Registries Amendment Act took action, which provided massive resources for United States population-based epidemiological studies. This article describes the epidemiology of spinal schwannoma in the United States from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2014.

Methods: In this study, the authors utilized the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States, which corresponds to 100% of the American population. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Program of Cancer Registries and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results program provide the resource for this data registry. The authors included diagnosis years 2006 to 2014. They used the codes per the International Coding of Diseases for Oncology, 3rd Edition: histology code 9560/0 and site codes C72.0 (spinal cord), C70.1 (spinal meninges), and C72.1 (cauda equina). Rates are per 100,000 persons and are age-adjusted to the 2000 United States standard population. The age-adjusted incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals are calculated by age, sex, race, and ethnicity.

Results: There were 6989 spinal schwannoma cases between the years 2006 and 2014. The yearly incidence eminently increased between 2010 and 2014. Total incidence rate was 0.24 (95% CI 0.23-0.24) per 100,000 persons. The peak adjusted incidence rate was seen in patients who ranged in age from 65 to 74 years. Spinal schwannomas were less common in females than they were in males (incidence rate ratio = 0.85; p < 0.001), and they were less common in blacks than they were in whites (IRR = 0.52; p < 0.001) and American Indians/Alaska Natives (IRR = 0.50; p < 0.001) compared to whites. There was no statistically significant difference in incidence rate between whites and Asian or Pacific Islanders (IRR = 0.92; p = 0.16).

Conclusions: The authors' study results demonstrated a steady increase in the incidence of spinal schwannomas between 2010 and 2014. Male sex and the age range 65-74 years were associated with higher incidence rates of spinal schwannomas, whereas black and American Indian/Alaska Native races were associated with lower incidence rates. The present study represents the most thorough assessment of spinal schwannoma epidemiology in the American population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.10.SPINE191025DOI Listing
December 2019

Multiscale, multimodal analysis of tumor heterogeneity in IDH1 mutant vs wild-type diffuse gliomas.

PLoS One 2019 27;14(12):e0219724. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

GE Research Center, Niskayuna, NY, United States of America.

Glioma is recognized to be a highly heterogeneous CNS malignancy, whose diverse cellular composition and cellular interactions have not been well characterized. To gain new clinical- and biological-insights into the genetically-bifurcated IDH1 mutant (mt) vs wildtype (wt) forms of glioma, we integrated data from protein, genomic and MR imaging from 20 treatment-naïve glioma cases and 16 recurrent GBM cases. Multiplexed immunofluorescence (MxIF) was used to generate single cell data for 43 protein markers representing all cancer hallmarks, Genomic sequencing (exome and RNA (normal and tumor) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quantitative features (protocols were T1-post, FLAIR and ADC) from whole tumor, peritumoral edema and enhancing core vs equivalent normal region were also collected from patients. Based on MxIF analysis, 85,767 cells (glioma cases) and 56,304 cells (GBM cases) were used to generate cell-level data for 24 biomarkers. K-means clustering was used to generate 7 distinct groups of cells with divergent biomarker profiles and deconvolution was used to assign RNA data into three classes. Spatial and molecular heterogeneity metrics were generated for the cell data. All features were compared between IDH mt and IDHwt patients and were finally combined to provide a holistic/integrated comparison. Protein expression by hallmark was generally lower in the IDHmt vs wt patients. Molecular and spatial heterogeneity scores for angiogenesis and cell invasion also differed between IDHmt and wt gliomas irrespective of prior treatment and tumor grade; these differences also persisted in the MR imaging features of peritumoral edema and contrast enhancement volumes. A coherent picture of enhanced angiogenesis in IDHwt tumors was derived from multiple platforms (genomic, proteomic and imaging) and scales from individual proteins to cell clusters and heterogeneity, as well as bulk tumor RNA and imaging features. Longer overall survival for IDH1mt glioma patients may reflect mutation-driven alterations in cellular, molecular, and spatial heterogeneity which manifest in discernable radiological manifestations.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0219724PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6934292PMC
March 2020

Sex is an important prognostic factor for glioblastoma but not for nonglioblastoma.

Neurooncol Pract 2019 Dec 18;6(6):451-462. Epub 2019 May 18.

Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States, Hinsdale, IL.

Background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and most malignant glioma. Nonglioblastoma (non-GBM) gliomas (WHO Grades II and III) are invasive and also often fatal. The goal of this study is to determine whether sex differences exist in glioma survival.

Methods: Data were obtained from the National Cancer Database (NCDB) for years 2010 to 2014. GBM (WHO Grade IV; N = 2073) and non-GBM (WHO Grades II and III; N = 2963) were defined using the histology grouping of the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States. Non-GBM was divided into oligodendrogliomas/mixed gliomas and astrocytomas. Sex differences in survival were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for known prognostic variables.

Results: There was a female survival advantage in patients with GBM both in the unadjusted ( = .048) and adjusted ( = .003) models. Unadjusted, median survival was 20.1 months (95% CI: 18.7-21.3 months) for women and 17.8 months (95% CI: 16.9-18.7 months) for men. Adjusted, median survival was 20.4 months (95% CI: 18.9-21.6 months) for women and 17.5 months (95% CI: 16.7-18.3 months) for men. When stratifying by age group (18-55 vs 56+ years at diagnosis), this female survival advantage appeared only in the older group, adjusting for covariates ( = .017). Women (44.1%) had a higher proportion of methylated (O-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) than men (38.4%). No sex differences were found for non-GBM.

Conclusions: Using the NCDB data, there was a statistically significant female survival advantage in GBM, but not in non-GBM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nop/npz019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6899055PMC
December 2019

Bevacizumab for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer patients with synchronous brain metastases.

Sci Rep 2019 11 28;9(1):17792. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Bevacizumab is FDA-approved in the treatment of primary brain tumors, but its efficacy in patients with brain metastases could be better-studied. This study examines a population of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with synchronous brain metastases to identify predictors of the decision to use bevacizumab and survival following bevacizumab treatment. Primary cancer registry data were used to determine which NSCLC patients diagnosed in the years 2010 through 2012 had synchronous brain metastases at the time of diagnosis, and Medicare claims used to identify a population of patients treated with bevacizumab. Record of bevacizumab treatment was found for 81 and 666 patients with and without brain metastases, respectively. After adjusting for clinical and demographic characteristics, bevacizumab was associated with 0.88 times the hazard of mortality in the elderly NSCLC population (95% CI: 0.81-0.96, p: 0.003) and a corresponding hazard ratio of 0.75 in the population of elderly NSCLC patients with synchronous brain metastases (95% CI: 0.59-0.96, p: 0.020). Bevacizumab may benefit NSCLC patients with synchronous brain metastases more than it does patients without intracranial disease, possibly as a result of its multiple potential mechanisms of action simultaneously inhibiting angiogenesis and minimizing vasogenic edema.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-54513-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6882803PMC
November 2019

Longitudinal molecular trajectories of diffuse glioma in adults.

Nature 2019 12 20;576(7785):112-120. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Besta, Milano, Italy.

The evolutionary processes that drive universal therapeutic resistance in adult patients with diffuse glioma remain unclear. Here we analysed temporally separated DNA-sequencing data and matched clinical annotation from 222 adult patients with glioma. By analysing mutations and copy numbers across the three major subtypes of diffuse glioma, we found that driver genes detected at the initial stage of disease were retained at recurrence, whereas there was little evidence of recurrence-specific gene alterations. Treatment with alkylating agents resulted in a hypermutator phenotype at different rates across the glioma subtypes, and hypermutation was not associated with differences in overall survival. Acquired aneuploidy was frequently detected in recurrent gliomas and was characterized by IDH mutation but without co-deletion of chromosome arms 1p/19q, and further converged with acquired alterations in the cell cycle and poor outcomes. The clonal architecture of each tumour remained similar over time, but the presence of subclonal selection was associated with decreased survival. Finally, there were no differences in the levels of immunoediting between initial and recurrent gliomas. Collectively, our results suggest that the strongest selective pressures occur during early glioma development and that current therapies shape this evolution in a largely stochastic manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1775-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6897368PMC
December 2019

Disparities in the use of stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of lung cancer brain metastases: a SEER-Medicare study.

Clin Exp Metastasis 2020 02 8;37(1):85-93. Epub 2019 Nov 8.

Department of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences, Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Institute for Computational Biology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, 2-526 Wolstein Research Bldg, 2103 Cornell Rd, Cleveland, OH, 44106-7295, USA.

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a costly procedure used to irradiate disease tissue while sparing healthy tissue, ideally limiting the side effects of treatment. SRS is frequently used in the setting of lung cancer, which is associated with greater rates of BM, though its cost may lead to potentially inequitable use across patient populations. This study investigates potential disparities in the use of SRS to treat Medicare patients. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results cancer registry data for patients diagnosed between the years 2010 and 2012 were examined to identify lung cancer patients diagnosed with BM at the same time as their primary cancer (SBM). Medicare claims for SRS were identified; the odds of having SRS claims and hazards of mortality associated with those odds were examined with respect to various clinical and demographic characteristics. Of 74,142 Medicare-enrolled patients diagnosed with lung cancer, 9192 were diagnosed with SBM and 3259 of those patients received SRS. Adjusting for clinical and demographic characteristics, males with SBM had 0.85 times the odds of SRS compared to females with SBM. Black patients and those of other race had significantly lower odds of evidence of SRS compared to WNH patients. SRS may not be delivered equitably among Medicare patients. Males and minority patients may have decreased odds of SRS and worse survival compared to female and WNH patients, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10585-019-10005-2DOI Listing
February 2020

Association of cancer center type with treatment patterns and overall survival for patients with sacral and spinal chordomas: an analysis of the National Cancer Database from 2004 to 2015.

J Neurosurg Spine 2019 Nov;32(2):311-320

1Department of Neurological Surgery, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center.

Objective: Chordomas of the spine and sacrum are a rare but debilitating cancer and require complex multidisciplinary care. Studies of other such rare cancers have demonstrated an association of high-volume and/or multidisciplinary centers with improved outcomes and survival. Such an association has been proposed for chordomas, but evidence to support this claim is lacking. The authors performed a study to investigate if treatment facility type is associated with patterns of care and survival for patients with spinal and sacral chordomas by assessing records from a US-based cancer database.

Methods: In this observational retrospective cohort study, the authors identified 1266 patients from the National Cancer Database with vertebral column or sacral chordomas diagnosed between 2004 and 2015. The primary study outcome was overall survival, and secondary outcomes included odds of receiving treatment and time to treatment, defined as radiation therapy, surgery, and/or any treatment, including surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or participation in clinical trials. The results were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, level of education, income, and Charlson/Deyo score.

Results: Of the 1266 patients identified, the mean age at diagnosis was 59.70 years (SD 16.2 years), and the patients were predominantly male (n = 791 [62.50%]). Patients treated at community cancer programs demonstrated an increased risk of death (HR 1.98, 95% CI 1.13-3.47, p = 0.018) when compared to patients treated at academic/research programs (ARPs). The median survival was longest for those treated at ARPs (131.45 months) compared to community cancer programs (79.34 months, 95% CI 48.99-123.17) and comprehensive community cancer programs (CCCPs) (109.34 months, 95% CI 84.76-131.45); 5-year survival rates were 76.08%, 52.71%, and 61.57%, respectively. Patients treated at community cancer programs and CCCPs were less likely to receive any treatment compared to those treated at ARPs (OR 6.05, 95% CI 2.62-13.95, p < 0.0001; OR 3.74, 95% CI 2.23-6.28, p < 0.0001, respectively). Patients treated at CCCPs and community cancer programs were less likely to receive surgery than those treated at ARPs (OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.82-3.97, p = 0.010; OR = 2.64, 95% CI 1.22-5.71, p = 0.014, respectively). Patients were more likely to receive any treatment (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.40-0.87, p = 0.007) and surgery (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.38-0.88, p < 0.0001) within 30 days at a CCCP compared to an ARP. There were no differences in odds of receiving radiation therapy or time to radiation by facility type.

Conclusions: Clinical care at an ARP is associated with increased odds of receiving treatment that is associated with improved overall survival for patients with spinal and sacral chordomas, suggesting that ARPs provide the most comprehensive specialized care for patients with this rare and devastating oncological disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.7.SPINE19566DOI Listing
November 2019

CBTRUS Statistical Report: Primary Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors Diagnosed in the United States in 2012-2016.

Neuro Oncol 2019 11;21(Suppl 5):v1-v100

Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States, Hinsdale, Illinois, USA.

The Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS), in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute, is the largest population-based registry focused exclusively on primary brain and other central nervous system (CNS) tumors in the United States (US) and represents the entire US population. This report contains the most up-to-date population-based data on primary brain tumors available and supersedes all previous reports in terms of completeness and accuracy. All rates are age-adjusted using the 2000 US standard population and presented per 100,000 population. The average annual age-adjusted incidence rate (AAAIR) of all malignant and non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors was 23.41 (Malignant AAAIR = 7.08, non-Malignant AAAIR = 16.33). This rate was higher in females compared to males (25.84 versus 20.82), Whites compared to Blacks (23.50 versus 23.34), and non-Hispanics compared to Hispanics (23.84 versus 21.28). The most commonly occurring malignant brain and other CNS tumor was glioblastoma (14.6% of all tumors), and the most common non-malignant tumor was meningioma (37.6% of all tumors). Glioblastoma was more common in males, and meningioma was more common in females. In children and adolescents (age 0-19 years), the incidence rate of all primary brain and other CNS tumors was 6.06. An estimated 86,010 new cases of malignant and non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors are expected to be diagnosed in the US in 2019 (25,510 malignant and 60,490 non-malignant). There were 79,718 deaths attributed to malignant brain and other CNS tumors between 2012 and 2016. This represents an average annual mortality rate of 4.42. The five-year relative survival rate following diagnosis of a malignant brain and other CNS tumor was 35.8%, and the five-year relative survival rate following diagnosis of a non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors was 91.5%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noz150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6823730PMC
November 2019
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