Publications by authors named "Jieun Lee"

253 Publications

Alteration of Gut Microbiota After Antibiotic Exposure in Finishing Swine.

Front Microbiol 2021 12;12:596002. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Microbiology and Functionality Research Group, World Institute of Kimchi, Gwangju, South Korea.

Subclinical doses of antimicrobials are commonly used in the swine industry to control infectious diseases and growth performance. Accumulating evidence suggests that swine administered with antibiotics are susceptible to disease development due to disruption of the beneficial gut microbial community, which is associated with host immune regulation, nutrient digestion, and colonization resistance against pathogens. In this study, we found that finishing swine administered with lincomycin showed gut dysbiosis and increased diarrhea incidence compared with control swine. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was used to analyze the gut microbiota in finishing swine administered with lincomycin. The relative abundance of detrimental microbes, such as species of , , , and was increased in the feces of lincomycin-administered finishing swine, but that of bacteria associated with fiber degradation, such as species of , , and was decreased. Moreover, administration of lincomycin significantly increased the enrichment of metabolic pathways related to pathogenicity and deficiency of polysaccharide degradation. These results suggest that lincomycin treatment could cause severe disruption of the commensal microbiota in finishing swine.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.596002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7906994PMC
February 2021

Corrigendum to "Deriving hazardous concentrations of phenol in soil ecosystems using a species sensitivity distribution approach" [J. Hazard. Mater. 399 (2020) 123036].

J Hazard Mater 2021 Feb 20;413:125397. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Environmental Health Science, Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125397DOI Listing
February 2021

Age and sex dependent association of uric acid and incident hypertension.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2020 Dec 29. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Cardiovascular Center, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: A previous meta-analysis suggested that the relationship between hyperuricemia and hypertension may be stronger in younger individuals and women. We aimed to investigate the age and sex dependent association of uric acid (UA) and incident hypertension.

Methods And Results: We analyzed data from the Health Examinees Study, a community-based prospective cohort study conducted in Korea from 2004 to 2013. It included 29,088 non-hypertensive subjects aged 40-79 (age, 52.5 ± 7.8 years; men, 31.4%) who had serum UA measurement and participated in the follow-up survey. The risk factors of hypertension were assessed using Cox regression. Over a mean 3.8 years of follow-up, 1388 men (15.2%) and 1942 women (9.7%) were newly diagnosed with hypertension. Upon age- and sex-based stratification, the risk of hypertension was highest in hyperuricemic subjects aged 40-49 years (HR: women, 2.16; men, 1.30). Across the entire cohort, the risk of incident hypertension was higher in groups with higher serum UA levels, and highest in women aged 40-49 years (HR, 1.44; P < 0.001). On multivariable linear regression analysis, the higher the baseline serum UA level, the greater the increase in blood pressure during follow-up, and this effect was strongest in women aged 40-49 years (β = 0.87 and P < 0.01 for systolic blood pressure).

Conclusions: The relationship between uric acid and incident hypertension tended to be dependent on age and sex. Younger women are at highest risk of UA-related incident hypertension.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2020.12.015DOI Listing
December 2020

Microsphere-coupled light emission control of van der Waals heterostructures.

Nanoscale 2021 Feb;13(7):4262-4268

Department of Physics and Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 16499, Korea and Institute of Applied Physics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) integrated into photonic structures provide an intriguing playground for the development of novel optoelectronic devices with improved performance. Here, we show the enhanced light emission from TMDC based van der Waals heterostructures through coupling with microsphere cavities. We observe cavity-induced emission enhancement of TMDC materials which varies by an order of magnitude, depending on the size of the microsphere and thickness of the supporting oxide substrate. Furthermore, we demonstrate microsphere cavity-enhanced electroluminescence of a van der Waals light emitting transistor, showing the potential of 2D material based hybrid optoelectronic structures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr06510bDOI Listing
February 2021

Recent advances in tumor microenvironment-targeted nanomedicine delivery approaches to overcome limitations of immune checkpoint blockade-based immunotherapy.

J Control Release 2021 Feb 8;332:109-126. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Bioengineering, Institute for Bioengineering and Biopharmaceutical Research Hanyang University, 04763 Seoul, South Korea; BK 21 FOUR Education and Research Group for Biopharmaceutical Inovation Leader, Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Cancer immunotherapy has revolutionized the standard of care for solid tumors in multiple disease sites. In light of this, immune checkpoint blockade, directly interfering with various immunosuppressive mechanisms in tumor sites, has been actively studied. Inhibitors of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA 4) and programmed cell death 1 receptor (PD-1) / programmed cell death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) could successfully increase survival rate in patients with advanced cancers including melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer, leading to increased survival and different patterns of response including durable response and pseudo-progression. Despite continued development of the immune checkpoint blockades, however, fairly low overall response rate (ORR) levels have been reported for patients with various types of cancer. Fewer than 13% of patients with cancer were reported to respond to immune checkpoint blockades and some patients were diagnosed with severe immune-related adverse events (irAEs). The tumor microenvironment, controlled via various components and mediators, is regarded as the primary cause responsible for failure of immune checkpoint blockades in clinical investigations. In fact, there has been a clinical report that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition in tumor microenvironment enhanced ORR of PD-1 inhibitors for 29.7% in EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients. Therefore, to enhance the effectiveness and reduce adverse effects of immune checkpoint blockades, the majority of studies have focused on targeting and suppressing the immunosuppressive characteristics of the tumor microenvironment. Herein, we review the components and mediators of tumor microenvironment responsible for failure of immune checkpoint blockades and introduce the recent approaches of tumor microenvironment component-targeted nanomedicine delivery capable of enhancing the efficacy of immune checkpoint blockades. Understanding the active targeting candidates of tumor microenvironment components and the associated treatment strategies could offer insights into the development of combination therapeutics boosting immune checkpoint blockades for clinical applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2021.02.002DOI Listing
February 2021

Molecular Weight Distribution of Two Types of Living Chains Formed during Nitroxide-Mediated Polymerization of Styrene.

Macromol Rapid Commun 2021 Feb 4:e2000624. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, 46241, Korea.

Different types of polymer chains generated during the nitroxide-mediated polymerization of styrene are separated for the first time, and their molecular weight distribution (MWD) is investigated. Living and dead chains are monitored during the reaction; specifically, two types of living chains derived from the initiation of the alkoxyamine (RT) and the self-initiation of styrene and dead chains present in the as-prepared polystyrene (PS). To distinguish between each polymer species, different numbers of hydroxyl groups are introduced onto the T and R groups of the alkoxyamine (one and two groups, respectively). Each living and dead chains is resolved according to the distinct number of hydroxyl groups on its chain-end using high-performance liquid chromatography. Molecular structures of the fractionated PS are characterized using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and the results of which show two distinct initiation paths: one originating from RT and the other from the self-initiation of styrene. Molecular weight and MWD are measured using size-exclusion chromatography and reveal a narrow MWD for the living chains derived from RT. Contrastingly, a broad and skewed MWD is observed for the other living chains derived from the self-initiation of styrene and the dead chains.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/marc.202000624DOI Listing
February 2021

Herbal medicine treatment for patients with chronic subdural hematoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Complement Ther Clin Pract 2021 Jan 22;43:101307. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Cardiology and Neurology, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background And Purpose: In Asian countries, herbal medicines have been used to treat Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) as an adjunctive therapy. This review aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of herbal medicine on treating CSDH and preventing recurrent CSDH.

Methods: A literature search was conducted on PubMed, CENTRAL, Scopus, CiNii, KTKP, NDSL, OASIS, and CNKI for randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of herbal medicines on CSDH.

Results: Seven studies (n = 646) were included. The overall methodological quality of these studies was low. In the herbal group, the meta-analysis indicated statistically significant improvements in the total effective rate and recurrence rate as compared with those in the non-herbal group. Herbal treatments were found to be relatively safe.

Conclusion: Herbal medicines might be efficacious in the management of CSDH and prevent its recurrence. Further rigorous studies will have to be conducted in order to make more definite conclusions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2021.101307DOI Listing
January 2021

Patients with Parkinson Disease in a Traditional Korean Medicine Hospital: A Five-Year Audit.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 12;2021:6842863. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Cardiology and Neurology, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea.

Parkinson disease (PD) patients' demand for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has thus been increasing. We investigated the characteristics of PD patients who visited the Korean Medicine Hospital, the official CAM clinic in Korea. The medical records of PD patients were reviewed retrospectively. The demographic and disease-related characteristics, motivation for visiting, and treatment modalities were collected and analyzed. Medical records from 618 patients were reviewed. Most patients (67.6%) had been already diagnosed with PD at the initial visit. The most frequent complaint was gait disturbance. Previously diagnosed patients visited most frequently for add-on CAM therapies. The most frequently used CAM therapy was acupuncture. The most frequently prescribed herbal medicine was modified Ukgansan. We found the main reason for seeking out CAM was to compensate for the effects of conventional therapies. Further prospective studies will be necessary to collect enough data and evaluate the effectiveness of CAM therapies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6842863DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7815403PMC
January 2021

Feasibility and Reliability of Two-Dimensional Shear-Wave Elastography of the Liver of Clinically Healthy Cats.

Front Vet Sci 2020 23;7:614750. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

College of Veterinary Medicine and the Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

Given the broad overlap of normal and abnormal liver tissue in the subjective evaluation of the liver in conventional B-mode ultrasonography, there is a need for a non-invasive and quantitative method for the diagnosis of liver disease. Novel two-dimensional shear-wave elastography (2-D SWE) can measure tissue stiffness by propagation of the shear wave induced using acoustic radiation force impulse in real time. To the best of our knowledge, two-dimensional shear-wave measurement of the liver in cats has not been reported to date. This study assessed the feasibility, reliability, normal values, and related influencing factors of 2-D SWE for assessment of the feline liver without anesthesia and breath-holding. Two-dimensional shear-wave ultrasonography was performed by two evaluators at the right and left sides of the liver. Twenty-nine client-owned clinically healthy adult cats were included. The means and standard deviations for the shear-wave speed and stiffness in the right liver were 1.52 ± 0.13 m/s and 6.94 ± 1.26 kPa, respectively, and those for the left liver were 1.61 ± 0.15 m/s and 7.90 ± 1.47 kPa, respectively. Shear-wave speed ( = 0.005) and stiffness ( = 0.002) were significantly lower in the right liver when compared to the left. The intraclass correlation value for liver stiffness was 0.835 and 0.901 for the right and left liver, respectively, indicating high interobserver agreement. Age, weight, body condition score (BCS), gabapentin administration, and measurement depths were not significantly correlated with liver stiffness or elastography measurements ( > 0.05). Our findings suggest that 2-D SWE measurements of the liver are not influenced significantly by age, weight, or BCS and can be reliably performed without anesthesia and breath-holding in cats. The values determined here can help form the basis for reference elastography values for evaluation of the feline liver.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.614750DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7785986PMC
December 2020

Effects of -derived prodigiosin on UV-induced ROS production, inflammation and cytotoxicity in HaCaT human skin keratinocytes.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2020 Dec 23. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Environmental Diseases Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea.

Prodigiosins, which are natural tripyrrole red pigments and synthetic derivatives, reportedly have multiple biological effects mainly on various types of cancer cells. However, the effects of bacterial prodigiosin on non-cancerous HaCaT human skin keratinocytes have not been reported. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the functional activities of prodigiosin derived from cultures of the bacterium in HaCaT cells. Cell viability, the cell proliferation rate, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in vitro were assayed following treatment of HaCaT cells with prodigiosin. Prodigiosin did not cause cytotoxicity and notably increased proliferation of HaCaT cells. Furthermore, prodigiosin reduced ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced ROS production and the inflammatory response in HaCaT cells. More importantly, prodigiosin reduced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and increased collagen synthesis in UV-irradiated HaCaT cells, demonstrating that it elicits anti-aging effects. In conclusion, our results reveal that -derived prodigiosin is a potential natural product to develop functional cosmetic ingredients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.2011.11024DOI Listing
December 2020

Integral Use of Thromboelastography With Platelet Mapping to Guide Appropriate Treatment, Avoid Complications, and Improve Survival of Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019-Related Coagulopathy.

Crit Care Explor 2020 Dec 21;2(12):e0287. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Metropolitan Emergency Medical Services Medical Directors Alliance, Dallas, TX.

Objectives: Coagulopathy of coronavirus disease 2019 is largely described as hypercoagulability, yet both thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications occur. Although therapeutic and prophylactic anticoagulant interventions have been recommended, empiric use of antifactor medications (heparin/enoxaparin) may result in hemorrhagic complications, including death. Furthermore, traditional (antifactor) anticoagulation does not address the impact of overactive platelets in coronavirus disease 2019. The primary aim was to evaluate if algorithm-guided thromboelastography with platelet mapping could better characterize an individual's coronavirus disease 2019-relatedcoagulopathic state and, secondarily, improve outcomes.

Design Setting And Patients: Coronavirus disease 2019 patients ( = 100), receiving thromboelastography with platelet mapping assay upon admission to an 800-bed tertiary-care hospital, were followed prospectively by a hospital-based thromboelastography team. Treating clinicians were provided with the option of using a pre-established algorithm for anticoagulation, including follow-up thromboelastography with platelet mapping assays. Two groups evolved: 1) patients managed by thromboelastography with platelet mapping algorithm (algorithm-guided-thromboelastography); 2) those treated without thromboelastography with platelet mapping protocols (non-algorithm-guided). Outcomes included thrombotic/hemorrhagic complications, pulmonary failure, need for mechanical ventilation, acute kidney injury, dialysis requirement, and nonsurvival.

Interventions: Standard-of-care therapy with or without algorithm-guided-thromboelastography support.

Measurements And Main Results: Although d-dimer, C-reactive protein, and ferritin were elevated significantly in critically ill (nonsurvivors, acute kidney injury, pulmonary failure), they did not distinguish between coagulopathic and noncoagulopathic patients. Platelet hyperactivity (maximum amplitude-arachidonic acid/adenosine diphosphate > 50 min), with or without thrombocytosis, was associated with thrombotic/ischemic complications, whereas severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 100,000/μL) was uniformly fatal. Hemorrhagic complications were observed with decreased factor activity (reaction time > 8 min). Non-algorithm-guided patients had increased risk for subsequent mechanical ventilation (relative risk = 10.9; < 0.0001), acute kidney injury (relative risk = 2.3; = 0.0017), dialysis (relative risk = 7.8; < 0.0001), and death (relative risk = 7.7; < 0.0001), with 17 of 28 non-algorithm-guided patients (60.7%) dying versus four algorithm-guided-thromboelastography patients (5.6%) ( < 0.0001). Thromboelastography with platelet mapping-guided antiplatelet treatment decreased mortality 82% ( = 0.0002), whereas non-algorithm-guided (compared with algorithm-guided-thromboelastography) use of antifactor therapy (heparin/enoxaparin) resulted in 10.3-fold increased mortality risk ( = 0.0001).

Conclusions: Thromboelastography with platelet mapping better characterizes the spectrum of coronavirus disease 2019 coagulation-related abnormalities and may guide more tailored, patient-specific therapies in those infected with coronavirus disease 2019.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCE.0000000000000287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7769351PMC
December 2020

The complete mitochondrial genome of the fall armyworm, Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae), firstly collected in Korea.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2019 Nov 8;4(2):3918-3920. Epub 2019 Nov 8.

Department of Plant Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, The Republic of Korea.

The fall armyworm, , is a serious pest in large numbers on more than 350 plant species in the world. We have determined a 15,388 bp mitogenome of which includes 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNAs. The base composition was AT-biased (81.3%). Phylogenetic trees present that Korean placed in basal position of clade. mitochondrial genome can be used for understanding recent active migration of .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2019.1688119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7707783PMC
November 2019

O-GlcNAcylation regulates dopamine neuron function, survival and degeneration in Parkinson disease.

Brain 2020 12;143(12):3699-3716

School of Life Sciences, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 44919, Republic of Korea.

The dopamine system in the midbrain is essential for volitional movement, action selection, and reward-related learning. Despite its versatile roles, it contains only a small set of neurons in the brainstem. These dopamine neurons are especially susceptible to Parkinson's disease and prematurely degenerate in the course of disease progression, while the discovery of new therapeutic interventions has been disappointingly unsuccessful. Here, we show that O-GlcNAcylation, an essential post-translational modification in various types of cells, is critical for the physiological function and survival of dopamine neurons. Bidirectional modulation of O-GlcNAcylation importantly regulates dopamine neurons at the molecular, synaptic, cellular, and behavioural levels. Remarkably, genetic and pharmacological upregulation of O-GlcNAcylation mitigates neurodegeneration, synaptic impairments, and motor deficits in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. These findings provide insights into the functional importance of O-GlcNAcylation in the dopamine system, which may be utilized to protect dopamine neurons against Parkinson's disease pathology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7805798PMC
December 2020

Towards the Development of Nonlinear Approaches to Discriminate AF from NSR Using a Single-Lead ECG.

Entropy (Basel) 2020 May 8;22(5). Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (Paro. AF) is challenging to identify at the right moment. This disease is often undiagnosed using currently existing methods. Nonlinear analysis is gaining importance due to its capability to provide more insight into complex heart dynamics. The aim of this study is to use several recently developed nonlinear techniques to discriminate persistent AF (Pers. AF) from normal sinus rhythm (NSR), and more importantly, Paro. AF from NSR, using short-term single-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. Specifically, we adapted and modified the time-delayed embedding method to minimize incorrect embedding parameter selection and further support to reconstruct proper phase plots of NSR and AF heart dynamics, from MIT-BIH databases. We also examine information-based methods, such as multiscale entropy (MSE) and kurtosis (Kt) for the same purposes. Our results demonstrate that embedding parameter time delay ( τ ), as well as MSE and Kt values can be successfully used to discriminate between Pers. AF and NSR. Moreover, we demonstrate that τ and Kt can successfully discriminate Paro. AF from NSR. Our results suggest that nonlinear time-delayed embedding method and information-based methods provide robust discriminating features to distinguish both Pers. AF and Paro. AF from NSR, thus offering effective treatment before suffering chaotic Pers. AF.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e22050531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7517025PMC
May 2020

A systematic protocol of microplastics analysis from their identification to quantification in water environment: A comprehensive review.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Feb 19;403:124049. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, 727 Taejong-ro, Yeongdo-gu, Busan 49112, South Korea. Electronic address:

With microplastics (MPs) being detected in aquatic environments, numerous studies revealed that they caused severe environmental issues, including damage to ecosystems and human health. MPs transport persistent organic pollutants by adsorbing them, and in nanoplastics this phenomenon is exacerbated by increased surface area. Despite their environmental risk, systematic protocol for qualitative and quantitative analysis are yet to be established in environmental analytical chemistry. Current analytical technologies on MP identification have technological limits with regard to detecting small sized particles (<1 µm), underestimation of MPs with organic contaminants, and physico-chemically altered particles by weathering and photo degradation. According to the published works, MPs are spread in living organisms through the food web, and are even detected in bottled water. To determine its eco-toxicity and removal by biodegradation, its accuracy, reliability, and reproducibility should be ensured by establishing a systematic protocol of MP identification. This review compares procedures, applicability, and limitations of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermo-analytical methods for identifying MPs. Finally, it suggests systematic protocols for MPs analysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124049DOI Listing
February 2021

Eye-glass polishing wastewater as significant microplastic source: Microplastic identification and quantification.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Feb 16;403:123991. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, 727 Taejong-ro, Yeongdo-gu, Busan 49112, South Korea. Electronic address:

Microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) seriously contaminate environments by adsorbing environmentally hazardous chemicals. NPs (<1 µm) are not removed by conventional wastewater treatment processes, and have strong sorption capacity for the environmentally hazardous chemicals because of their high surface area. This study revealed that large amounts of MPs are generated in the eye-glass lens polishing process. Qualitative analyses of MPs were performed via Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. Particle size distribution was measured through particle size analysis based on light diffraction. MPs were quantified in the wastewater by measuring the mass balance using membrane filtration with polyaluminum chloride coagulation. One liter of wastewater contained 1380-62,539 g MPs and 0.0136-0.0324 mg NPs. Wastewater from 140,000 eye-glass shops in South Korea is discharged into wastewater plants, and about 57 g NPs per day pass through the wastewater treatment process. The amount of NPs that accumulate daily is likely to increase dramatically. Increased heavy metal concentrations after acid digestion confirmed that MPs in the wastewater adsorbed heavy metals. Detection of various types of volatile organic compounds in the wastewater indicated that workers in eye-glass shops are exposed to the significantly hazardous environments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123991DOI Listing
February 2021

Additive manufacturing of the core template for the fabrication of an artificial blood vessel: the relationship between the extruded deposition diameter and the filament/nozzle transition ratio.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Jan 22;118:111406. Epub 2020 Aug 22.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, 2 Busandaehak-ro 63 beon-gil, Busan 46241, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

An artificial blood vessel with a tubular structure was additively manufactured via fused deposition modeling (FDM) starting from a single strand of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) filament coated with a specific thickness of biocompatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), followed by removal of the inner core via hydrogen peroxide leaching under sonication. In particular, we examined the relationship between the extruded deposition diameter and the filament migration speed/nozzle control speed (referred to as the filament/nozzle transition ratio), which is almost independent of the extruded deposition flow rate due to the weak die-swelling and memory effects of the extruded PVA arising from its intrinsically low viscoelasticity. The chemical stability of the PDMS during sonication in the hydrogen peroxide solution was then determined by spectroscopic techniques. The PDMS displayed no mechanical degradation in the hydrogen peroxide solution, resulting in similar fracture elongation and yield strength to those of the pristine specimen without the leaching treatment. As a further advantage, the inside surface of the PDMS was smooth regardless of the hydrogen peroxide leaching under sonication. The potential application of the as-developed scaffold in soft tissue engineering (particularly that involving vascular tissue regeneration) was demonstrated by the successful transplantation of the artificial blood vessel in a right-hand surgical replica used in a clinical simulation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2020.111406DOI Listing
January 2021

The urethra of healthy female dogs can be normally narrowed due to the urethral flexure in retrograde CT urethrography.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2021 Jan 25;62(1):61-67. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

College of Veterinary Medicine and the Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Quantitative analysis of urethral size in male dogs by retrograde CT urethrography using a power injector is a recently reported technique. The aim of the current, prospective, analytical study was to apply the same method to six, healthy, intact female Beagle dogs. The proximal (P < .0001) and middle (P = .0010) urethral volumes significantly differed between the empty and distended bladder states, although no significant difference was observed in the distal volume (P = .0971). Unlike male dogs, female dogs showed two patterns of the urethral course: a straight urethra and urethral flexure. The urethral flexure was always related to intrapelvic position of the urinary bladder, and the more caudal the location of the vesicourethral junction beyond the pecten of the pubic bone, the more marked the appearance of the urethral flexure. Analysis of the urethral diameter at five sites (adopted from the previous radiographic study) was performed, and the urethral diameter showed a significant difference between the empty and the distended bladder states at sites 1 (vesicourethral junction, P < .0001), 2 (P < .0001), and 3 (P = .0244). However, there were no significant differences at sites 4 (P = .2516) and 5 (inflatable retention bulb, P = .1260). The urinary bladder may be in part intrapelvically located in clinically healthy female dogs, and urethral flexure and urethral narrowing can result from the intrapelvic location of the bladder. Narrowing of the urethra should be interpreted with caution when the pelvic bladder is identified.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vru.12926DOI Listing
January 2021

Genome-scale CRISPR screening identifies cell cycle and protein ubiquitination processes as druggable targets for erlotinib-resistant lung cancer.

Mol Oncol 2021 Feb 28;15(2):487-502. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Department of Life Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea.

Erlotinib is highly effective in lung cancer patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. However, despite initial favorable responses, most patients rapidly develop resistance to erlotinib soon after the initial treatment. This study aims to identify new genes and pathways associated with erlotinib resistance mechanisms in order to develop novel therapeutic strategies. Here, we induced knockout (KO) mutations in erlotinib-resistant human lung cancer cells (NCI-H820) using a genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 sgRNA library to screen for genes involved in erlotinib susceptibility. The spectrum of sgRNAs incorporated among erlotinib-treated cells was substantially different to that of the untreated cells. Gene set analyses showed a significant depletion of 'cell cycle process' and 'protein ubiquitination pathway' genes among erlotinib-treated cells. Chemical inhibitors targeting genes in these two pathways, such as nutlin-3 and carfilzomib, increased cancer cell death when combined with erlotinib in both in vitro cell line and in vivo patient-derived xenograft experiments. Therefore, we propose that targeting cell cycle processes or protein ubiquitination pathways are promising treatment strategies for overcoming resistance to EGFR inhibitors in lung cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1878-0261.12853DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7858278PMC
February 2021

Real-World Clinical Data of Palbociclib in Asian Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients: Experiences from Eight Institutions.

Cancer Res Treat 2020 Oct 28. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Incheon, Korea.

Purpose: Use of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors improved survival outcome of hormone receptor (HR) positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients, including Asian population. However, Asian real-world data of palbociclib is limited. We analyzed the real-world clinical practice patterns and outcome in HR-positive, MBC Asian patients treated with palbociclib.

Materials And Methods: Between April 2017 to November 2019, 169 HR-positive, human epidermal growth factor-2-negative MBC patients treated with letrozole or fulvestrant plus palbocilib were enrolled from eight institutions. Survival outcome (progression-free survival [PFS]), treatment response and toxicity profiles were analyzed.

Results: Median age of letrozole plus palbociclib (145 patients, 85.8%) and fulvestrant plus palbociclib (24 patients, 14.2%) was 58 and 53.5 years, with median follow-up duration of 14.63 months (range 0.2 to 33.9 months). Median PFS (mPFS) of letrozole plus palbociclib and fulvestrant plus palbociclib was 25.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]; 19.1 to not reached) and 6.37 months (95% CI; 5.33 to not reached), comparable to previous phase 3 trials. In letrozole plus palbociclib arm, luminal A (hazard ratio, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.20 to 6.80; p=0.017) and patients with good performance (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 0-1, [hazard ratio, 3.68; 95% CI, 1.70 to 7.96]) showed better mPFS. In fulvestrant plus palbociclib group, chemotherapy naïve patients showed better mPFS (hazard ratio, 12.51, 95% CI, 1.59 to 99.17; p=0.017). The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse event was neutropenia (letrozole 86.3%, fulvestrant 88.3%).

Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first real-world data of palbociclib reported in Asia. Palbociclib showed comparable benefit to previous phase 3 trials in Asian patients during daily clinical practice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4143/crt.2020.451DOI Listing
October 2020

iCSDB: an integrated database of CRISPR screens.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 01;49(D1):D956-D961

Department of Bio-Information Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Republic of Korea.

High-throughput screening based on CRISPR-Cas9 libraries has become an attractive and powerful technique to identify target genes for functional studies. However, accessibility of public data is limited due to the lack of user-friendly utilities and up-to-date resources covering experiments from third parties. Here, we describe iCSDB, an integrated database of CRISPR screening experiments using human cell lines. We compiled two major sources of CRISPR-Cas9 screening: the DepMap portal and BioGRID ORCS. DepMap portal itself is an integrated database that includes three large-scale projects of CRISPR screening. We additionally aggregated CRISPR screens from BioGRID ORCS that is a collection of screening results from PubMed articles. Currently, iCSDB contains 1375 genome-wide screens across 976 human cell lines, covering 28 tissues and 70 cancer types. Importantly, the batch effects from different CRISPR libraries were removed and the screening scores were converted into a single metric to estimate the knockout efficiency. Clinical and molecular information were also integrated to help users to select cell lines of interest readily. Furthermore, we have implemented various interactive tools and viewers to facilitate users to choose, examine and compare the screen results both at the gene and guide RNA levels. iCSDB is available at https://www.kobic.re.kr/icsdb/.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkaa989DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7779034PMC
January 2021

Analysis of Cross-Association between mRNA Expression and RNAi Efficacy for Predictive Target Discovery in Colon Cancers.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Oct 23;12(11). Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Research Institute of Women's Health, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul 04310, Korea.

The availability of large-scale, collateral mRNA expression and RNAi data from diverse cancer cell types provides useful resources for the discovery of anticancer targets for which inhibitory efficacy can be predicted from gene expression. Here, we calculated bidirectional cross-association scores (predictivity and descriptivity) for each of approximately 18,000 genes identified from mRNA and RNAi (i.e., shRNA and sgRNA) data from colon cancer cell lines. The predictivity score measures the difference in RNAi efficacy between cell lines with high vs. low expression of the target gene, while the descriptivity score measures the differential mRNA expression between groups of cell lines exhibiting high vs. low RNAi efficacy. The mRNA expression of 90 and 74 genes showed significant ( < 0.01) cross-association scores with the shRNA and sgRNA data, respectively. The genes were found to be from diverse molecular classes and have different functions. Cross-association scores for the mRNA expression of six genes ( and ) with both shRNA and sgRNA efficacy were significant. These genes were interconnected in cancer-related transcriptional networks. Additional experimental validation confirmed that siHNF1B efficacy is correlated with mRNA expression levels in diverse colon cancer cell lines. Furthermore, and gene expression, with which shRNA efficacy displayed significant scores, were found to correlate with the survival rate from colon cancer patient data. This study demonstrates that bidirectional predictivity and descriptivity calculations between mRNA and RNAi data serve as useful resources for the discovery of predictive anticancer targets.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7690798PMC
October 2020

Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction Between Esophageal and Gastric Adenocarcinomas.

Ann Surg 2020 Oct 19. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Department of Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: To investigate the molecular characteristics of AGEJ compared with EAC and gastric adenocarcinoma.

Summary Of Background Data: Classification of AGEJ based on differential molecular characteristics between EAC and gastric adenocarcinoma has been long-standing controversy but rarely conducted due to anatomical ambiguity and epidemiologic difference.

Methods: The molecular classification model with Bayesian compound covariate predictor was developed based on differential mRNA expression of EAC (N = 78) and GCFB (N = 102) from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort. AGEJ/cardia (N = 48) in TCGA cohort and AGEJ/upper third GC (N = 46 pairs) in Seoul National University cohort were classified into the EAC-like or GCFB-like groups whose genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic characteristics were compared.

Results: AGEJ in both cohorts was similarly classified as EAC-like (31.2%) or GCFB-like (68.8%) based on the 400-gene classifier. The GCFB-like group showed significantly activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase-AKT signaling with decreased expression of ERBB2. The EAC-like group presented significantly different alternative splicing including the skipped exon of RPS24, a significantly higher copy number amplification including ERBB2 amplification, and increased protein expression of ERBB2 and EGFR compared with GCFB-like group. High-throughput 3D drug test using independent cell lines revealed that the EAC-like group showed a significantly better response to lapatinib than the GCFB-like group (P = 0.015).

Conclusions: AGEJ was the combined entity of the EAC-like and GCFB-like groups with consistently different molecular characteristics in both Seoul National University and TCGA cohorts. The EAC-like group with a high Bayesian compound covariate predictor score could be effectively targeted by dual inhibition of ERBB2 and EGFR.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000004303DOI Listing
October 2020

Determination of hazardous concentrations of 2,4-dinitrophenol in freshwater ecosystems based on species sensitivity distributions.

Aquat Toxicol 2020 Nov 28;228:105646. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Environmental Health Science, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) is a phenolic compound used as a wood preservative or pesticide. The chemical is hazardous to freshwater organisms. Although 2,4-DNP poses ecological risks, only a few of its aquatic environmental risks have been investigated and very limited guidelines for freshwater aquatic ecosystems have been established by governments. This study addresses the paucity of 2,4-DNP toxicity data for freshwater ecosystems and the current lack of highly reliable trigger values for this highly toxic compound. We conducted acute bioassays using 12 species from nine taxonomic groups and chronic assays using five species from four taxonomic groups to improve the quality of the dataset and enable the estimation of protective concentrations based on species sensitivity distributions. The acute and hazardous concentrations of 2,4-DNP in 5% of freshwater aquatic species (HC) were determined to be 0.91 (0.32-2.65) mg/L and 0.22 (0.11-0.42) mg/L, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a suggested chronic HC for 2,4-DNP and it provides the much-needed fundamental data for the risk assessment and management of freshwater ecosystems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2020.105646DOI Listing
November 2020

How useful are malaria risk maps at the country level? Perceptions of decision-makers in Kenya, Malawi and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Malar J 2020 Oct 2;19(1):353. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: Declining malaria prevalence and pressure on external funding have increased the need for efficiency in malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Modelled Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) maps are increasingly becoming available and provide information on the epidemiological situation of countries. However, how these maps are understood or used for national malaria planning is rarely explored. In this study, the practices and perceptions of national decision-makers on the utility of malaria risk maps, showing prevalence of parasitaemia or incidence of illness, was investigated.

Methods: A document review of recent National Malaria Strategic Plans was combined with 64 in-depth interviews with stakeholders in Kenya, Malawi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The document review focused on the type of epidemiological maps included and their use in prioritising and targeting interventions. Interviews (14 Kenya, 17 Malawi, 27 DRC, 6 global level) explored drivers of stakeholder perceptions of the utility, value and limitations of malaria risk maps.

Results: Three different types of maps were used to show malaria epidemiological strata: malaria prevalence using a PfPR modelled map (Kenya); malaria incidence using routine health system data (Malawi); and malaria prevalence using data from the most recent Demographic and Health Survey (DRC). In Kenya the map was used to target preventative interventions, including long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp), whilst in Malawi and DRC the maps were used to target in-door residual spraying (IRS) and LLINs distributions in schools. Maps were also used for operational planning, supply quantification, financial justification and advocacy. Findings from the interviews suggested that decision-makers lacked trust in the modelled PfPR maps when based on only a few empirical data points (Malawi and DRC).

Conclusions: Maps were generally used to identify areas with high prevalence in order to implement specific interventions. Despite the availability of national level modelled PfPR maps in all three countries, they were only used in one country. Perceived utility of malaria risk maps was associated with the epidemiological structure of the country and use was driven by perceived need, understanding (quality and relevance), ownership and trust in the data used to develop the maps.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-020-03425-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7530951PMC
October 2020

Exercise Therapies for Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Parkinsons Dis 2020 8;2020:2565320. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Department of Cardiology and Neurology, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea.

Recently, rehabilitative exercise therapies have been described as an important method of overcoming the limitations of the conventional therapies for Parkinson's disease. The present study aimed to evaluate efficacy and safety of exercise therapies for Parkinson's disease. Randomized controlled trials that evaluated exercise therapies in patients with Parkinson's disease until December 2016 were searched for in five electronic databases: PubMed, CENTRAL, EMBASE, OASIS, and CNKI. Eighteen studies (1,144 patients) were included. The overall methodological quality was not high. Patients who underwent exercise therapies exhibited statistically significant improvements in the total UPDRS, UPDRS II and III, Berg Balance Scale, preferred walking speed, and Timed Up and Go Test compared to patients who underwent nonexercise therapies. In comparison to patients who performed regular activity, patients who underwent exercise therapies exhibited statistically significant improvements in the total UPDRS, UPDRS II, and UPDRS III. Exercise therapies were found to be relatively safe. Exercise therapies might promote improvements in the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. However, due to the small number of randomized controlled trials and methodological limitations, we are unable to draw concrete conclusions. Therefore, further studies with better designs will be needed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/2565320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7495242PMC
September 2020

Modulation of the Gut Microbiota Alters the Tumour-Suppressive Efficacy of Tim-3 Pathway Blockade in a Bacterial Species- and Host Factor-Dependent Manner.

Microorganisms 2020 Sep 11;8(9). Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Microbiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Youngtongku Wonchondong San 5, Suwon 442-749, Korea.

T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein-3 (Tim-3) is an immune checkpoint molecule and a target for anti-cancer therapy. In this study, we examined whether gut microbiota manipulation altered the anti-tumour efficacy of Tim-3 blockade. The gut microbiota of mice was manipulated through the administration of antibiotics and oral gavage of bacteria. Alterations in the gut microbiome were analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Gut dysbiosis triggered by antibiotics attenuated the anti-tumour efficacy of Tim-3 blockade in both C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. Anti-tumour efficacy was restored following oral gavage of faecal bacteria even as antibiotic administration continued. In the case of oral gavage of or , transferred bacterial species and host mouse strain were critical determinants of the anti-tumour efficacy of Tim-3 blockade. Bacterial gavage did not increase the alpha diversity of gut microbiota in antibiotic-treated mice but did alter the microbiome composition, which was associated with the restoration of the anti-tumour efficacy of Tim-3 blockade. Conclusively, our results indicate that gut microbiota modulation may improve the therapeutic efficacy of Tim-3 blockade during concomitant antibiotic treatment. The administered bacterial species and host factors should be considered in order to achieve therapeutically beneficial modulation of the microbiota.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8091395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7564046PMC
September 2020

Herbal medicine treatment for Alzheimer disease: A protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Aug;99(33):e21745

Department of Cardiology and Neurology, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a leading progressive neurodegenerative disease worldwide, but treating it is challenging in clinical practice. This review is aimed at evaluating the efficacy and safety of herbal medicine for treating AD.

Methods And Analysis: We will search for randomized controlled trials related to the effect and safety of herbal medicine for AD in the following databases: PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Excerpta Medica Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated system, Korean Traditional Knowledge Portal, and Citation Information by National Institute for Informatics. The risk of bias will be evaluated using the Cochrane risk-of-bias assessment tool. After screening the studies, a meta-analysis will be performed. The primary outcome will be the Mini-Mental State Examination score. Secondary outcomes will consist of other scales for cognitive function and other aspects, such as behavioral and psychological symptoms and plasma levels of amyloid-β.

Results: This study will provide the current status of evidence for herbal medicine to treat AD.

Conclusion: The results of this review will determine the efficacy and safety of herbal medicine for AD.

Ethics And Dissemination: Ethical approval is not required, as this study is based on a review of published research. This review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and disseminated both electronically and in print.

Trial Registration Number: Research Registry reviewregistry933.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000021745DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7437827PMC
August 2020

Dizygotic twin sisters with normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism caused by an FGFR1 gene variant.

Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2020 Sep 29;25(3):192-197. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Pediatrics, Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang, Korea.

Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is a rare genetic disorder that is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. It is characterized by absent or incomplete pubertal development owing to an isolated defect in the production, secretion, or action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. The incidence of IHH is estimated at 1:30,000 in males and 1:125,000 in females. Although the vast majority of IHH cases are sporadic, some X-linked recessive, autosomal dominant, and autosomal recessive modes of inheritance have been described. IHH can be classified into Kallmann syndrome with anosmia and normosmic IHH. Here, we report dizygotic twin sisters with normosmic IHH who showed short stature and absence of puberty as a result of a variant of the FGFR1 gene. They had a normal sense of smell, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed well-defined olfactory bulbs. The older sister and the twins' mother had cleft palate, while the younger sister did not. The mother had menarche at the age of 16 years after hormonal replacement owing to delayed puberty. Molecular analysis of the FGFR1 gene identified a missense variant c.874C>G (p.His292Asp) in the twins and their mother. Herein, we described the clinical heterogeneity observed in the 2 affected twins who carry an identical variant in the FGFR1 gene. Further studies of the effects of modifier genes and epigenetic factors on the expression of FGFR1, as well as the various clinical manifestations of its mutations, are warranted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.6065/apem.1938148.074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7538301PMC
September 2020

Attentional Patterns Toward Pain-Related Information: Comparison Between Chronic Pain Patients and Non-pain Control Group.

Front Psychol 2020 5;11:1990. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Psychology, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South Korea.

Although the evidence for attentional bias to pain-related information among individuals with chronic pain has been well established, there are a number of inconsistencies in the research that have been observed due to sample characteristics. Therefore, the present study expanded upon previous studies by including patients with a variety of chronic pain conditions and compared a chronic pain patient sample with healthy community sample. We also investigated how pain catastrophizing and other psychological factors in chronic pain patients affected attentional patterns to pain-related information. Forty chronic pain patients from the departments of neurology and rheumatology of an academic medical center hospital and 40 participants without chronic pain from a university that is located in Seoul, South Korea were recruited for the present study. Patients observed pictures of faces displaying pain that were presented simultaneously with faces with neutral expressions, while their eye movements were measured using an eye-tracking system. Independent -tests were conducted to investigate attentional preferences to pain stimuli between the chronic pain and control groups. No significant attentional differences in pain-neutral pairs were found for both chronic pain and control group. A one-way MANOVA was conducted to examine the role of pain catastrophizing on psychological factors and attentional engagement to pain stimuli. No significant results for the attentional bias to pain stimuli among chronic pain patients may indicate that chronic pain patients who have suffered from chronic pain for a long time and have been treated for their chronic pain in the hospital may interpret pain-related information not as threatening. Clinical implications related to use in pain treatment and future research suggestions are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7419647PMC
August 2020