Publications by authors named "Jie Xu"

2,213 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Application of Multi-Slice Computed Tomography for the Preoperative Diagnosis and Classification of Pulmonary Cystic Echinococcosis.

Pathogens 2021 Mar 16;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Radiology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 201999, China.

Pulmonary cystic echinococcosis remains a serious threat to public health. A standardized, imaging-based classification method for pulmonary echinococcosis has not yet been developed despite the existence of a standardized ultrasound classification method and treatment plan for hepatic cystic echinococcosis. Chest computed tomography (CT) images from 34 cases of pulmonary cystic echinococcosis with 46 lesions were used for classification based on the World Health Organization (WHO) standardized ultrasound classification of hepatic cystic echinococcosis. CT findings were compared with intraoperative observations and postoperative pathological results to assess accuracy. Pulmonary cystic echinococcosis was common in women (14/34, 41.2%) and children (14/34, 41.2%) with a single cyst (28/46, 60.9%). Most lesions were classified as cystic echinococcosis 1(CE1, 19/46) or cystic echinococcosis 3(CE3, 21/46). Blood leukocytosis was mostly observed in CE3 lesions (100%, 9/9) ( < 0.05). The preoperative CT diagnosis of pulmonary cystic echinococcosis had an accuracy rate of 100%. The preoperative CT typing, and postoperative pathological typing had a coincidence rate of 97.8% (45/46). Our study provided a classification method based on CT imaging for pulmonary cystic echinococcosis that can be used during pre-surgical planning to reduce patient's postoperative complications and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10030353DOI Listing
March 2021

Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma: clinical follow-up and analysis of sequential pathologic specimens of untreated patients shows persistent or progressive disease.

Mod Pathol 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Hematopathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a distinctive type of T-cell lymphoma that arises around textured-surface breast implants. In a subset of patients, this disease can involve surrounding tissues, spread to regional lymph nodes, and rarely metastasize to distant sites. The aim of this study was to assess sequential pathologic specimens from patients with breast implant-associated ALCL to better understand the natural history of early-stage disease. To achieve this goal, we searched our files for patients who had breast implant-associated ALCL and who had undergone earlier surgical intervention with assessment of biopsy or cytologic specimens. We then focused on the patient subset in whom a definitive diagnosis was not established, and patients did not receive current standard-of-care therapy at that time. We identified a study group of ten patients with breast implant-associated ALCL in whom pathologic specimens were collected 0.5 to 4 years before a definitive diagnosis was established. A comparison of these serial biopsy specimens showed persistent disease without change in pathologic stage in three patients, progression in five patients, and persistence versus progression in two patients. Eventually, six patients underwent implant removal with complete capsulectomy and four underwent partial capsulectomy. Seven patients also received chemotherapy because of invasive disease, three of whom also received radiation therapy, two brentuximab vedotin after chemotherapy failure, and one allogeneic stem cell transplant. Eight patients achieved complete remission and two had partial remission after definitive therapy. At time of last follow-up, six patients were alive without disease, one had evidence of disease, one died of disease, and two patients died of unrelated cancers. In summary, this analysis of sequential specimens from patients with breast implant-associated ALCL suggests these neoplasms persist or progress over time if not treated with standard-of-care therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00842-6DOI Listing
June 2021

Research and correlation analysis on the dripper contamination of carteolol hydrochloride eye drops.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Ophthalmology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China; Department of Ophthalmology, Dushu Lake Hospital Affiliated to Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Background: Multi-dose eye drops are easily contaminated by microorganisms, and reportedly, the highest contamination rate can reach 96.46%. The use of contaminated eye drops can cause serious eye infections.

Methods: Carteolol hydrochloride eye drops provided by glaucoma patients who visited the ophthalmic clinic of the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University from May 2018 to December 2019 were collected. Microbial culture was carried out on the eye drops, and the microbial species were identified by standard procedures. At the same time, the unsealing time, storage method, hand cleaning before dripping, and contact with the eyelid or the surrounding environment during infusion were recorded. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the risk factors associated with the contamination of carteolol hydrochloride eye drops.

Results: A total of 244 bottles of carteolol hydrochloride eye drops were collected, and the positive rate of flora culture was 6.6%. A total of 18 strains of bacteria were isolated. The most common bacteria were Staphylococcus epidermidis and Corynebacterium. Univariate analysis showed that the risk factors associated with contamination were the unsealing time, the frequency of daily use, contact with the eyelid or the surrounding environment during the infusion process, and the use of more than 2 kinds of eye drops at the same time. Multivariate analysis showed that the unsealing time, the frequency of daily use, and contact with the eyelid or the surrounding environment were independent risk factors associated with contamination.

Conclusions: A long unsealing time, frequent use, and non-standard operation can increase the risk of eye drop contamination, which cannot be ignored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-1237DOI Listing
June 2021

Necklace-like ultrathin silver telluride nanowire films and their reversible structural phase transition.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Division of Nanomaterials & Chemistry, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Department of Chemistry, Institute of Biomimetic Materials & Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China.

Ultrathin necklace-like Ag2Te nanowires with a diameter of 10 nm and a length of several micrometers are fabricated by a simple solution-based process at low temperature, and the Ag2Te nanowire films are fabricated by a Langmuir-Blodgett technique. A reversible structural phase transition of the nanowire films obtained can be observed, and in addition is also reflected by the electrical properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc01399hDOI Listing
June 2021

Saikosaponins and the deglycosylated metabolites exert liver meridian guiding effect through PXR/CYP3A4 inhibition.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 17:114344. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control & Pharmacovigilance (China Pharmaceutical University), Ministry of Educational, Nanjing, 210009, China; State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicine, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 210009, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Radix Bupleuri (RB), traditionally used to treat inflammatory disorders and infectious diseases, represents one of the most successful and widely used herbal drugs in Asia over the past 2000 years. Being realized the role in regulating metabolism and controlling Yin/Yang, RB is not only chosen specifically for treating liver meridian and the corresponding organs, but also believed to have liver meridian guiding property and help potentiate the therapeutic effects of liver. However, the ingredients in RB with liver meridian guiding property and the underly mechanism have not been comprehensively investigated.

Aim Of Study: Considering the important role of CYP3A4 in first-pass metabolism and the liver exposure of drugs, the present study aimed to determine whether saikosaponins (SSs) and the corresponding saikogenins (SGs) have a role in inhibiting the catalytic activity of CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes and HepG2 hepatoma cells and whether they could suppress CYP3A4 expression by PXR-mediated pathways in HepG2 hepatoma cells.

Materials And Methods: The effect of SSs and SGs on CYP3A4-mediated midazolam1'-hydroxylation activities in pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs) was first studied. Dose-dependent experiments were performed to obtain the half inhibit concentration (IC) values. HepG2 cells were used to assay catalytic activity of CYP3A4, reporter function, mRNA levels, and protein expression. The inhibitory effects of SSa and SSd on CYP3A4 activity are negligible, while the corresponding SGs (SGF and SGG) have obvious inhibitory effects on CYP3A4 activity, with IC values of 0.45 and 1.30 μM. The similar results were obtained from testing CYP3A4 catalytic activity in HepG2 cells, which correlated well with the suppression of the mRNA and protein levels of CYP3A4. Time-dependent testing of CYP3A4 mRNA and protein levels, as well as co-transfection experiments using the CYP3A4 promoter luciferase plasmid, further confirmed that SSs and SGs could inhibit the expression of CYP3A4 at the transcription level. Furthermore, PXR protein expression decreased in a concentration- and time-dependent manner after cells were exposed to SSs and SGs. PXR overexpression and RNA interference experiments further showed that SSs and SGs down-regulate the catalytic activity and expression of CYP3A4 in HepG2 may be mainly through PXR-dependent manner.

Conclusion: SSs and SGs inhibit the catalytic activity and expression of CYP3A4 in a PXR-dependent manner, which may be highly related to the liver meridian guiding property of RB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114344DOI Listing
June 2021

Hypermethylation of Hepatic Mitochondrial Provokes Systemic Insulin Resistance.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jun 2;8(11):2004507. Epub 2021 May 2.

Center for Mitochondrial Biology and Medicine The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education School of Life Science and Technology Xi'an Jiaotong University Xi'an Shaanxi 710049 China.

Mitochondrial epigenetics is rising as intriguing notion for its potential involvement in aging and diseases, while the details remain largely unexplored. Here it is shown that among the 13 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encoded genes, NADH-dehydrogenase 6 () transcript is primarily decreased in obese and type 2 diabetes populations, which negatively correlates with its distinctive hypermethylation. Hepatic mtDNA sequencing in mice unveils that presents the highest methylation level, which dramatically increases under diabetic condition due to enhanced mitochondrial translocation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) promoted by free fatty acid through adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. Hepatic knockdown of or overexpression of similarly impairs mitochondrial function and induces systemic insulin resistance both in vivo and in vitro. Genetic or chemical targeting hepatic DNMT1 shows significant benefits against insulin resistance associated metabolic disorders. These findings highlight the pivotal role of epigenetic network in regulating mitochondrial function and onset of insulin resistance, shedding light on potential preventive and therapeutic strategies of insulin resistance and related metabolic disorders from a perspective of mitochondrial epigenetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202004507DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8188198PMC
June 2021

Air pollutants and outpatient visits for influenza-like illness in Beijing, China.

PeerJ 2021 2;9:e11397. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Laboratorial of Science and Technology, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Background: Air pollution leads to many adverse health conditions, mainly manifested by respiratory or cardiac symptoms. Previous studies are limited as to whether air pollutants were associated to influenza-like illness (ILI). This study aimed to explore the association between air pollutants and outpatient visits for ILI, especially during an outbreak of influenza.

Methods: Daily counts of hospital visits for ILI were obtained from Peking University Third Hospital between January 1, 2015, and March 31, 2018. A generalized additive Poisson model was applied to examine the associations between air pollutants concentrations and daily outpatient visits for ILI when adjusted for the meteorological parameters.

Results: There were 35862 outpatient visits at the fever clinic for ILI cases. Air quality index (AQI), PM, PM, CO and O on lag0 days, as well as nitrogen dioxide (NO) and sulfur dioxide (SO) on lag1 days, were significantly associated with an increased risk of outpatient visits for ILI from January 2015 to November 2017. From December 2017 to March 2018, on lag0 days, air pollutants PM [risk ratio (RR) = 0.971, 95% CI: 0.963-0.979], SO (RR = 0.892, 95% CI: 0.840-0.948) and CO (RR = 0.306, 95% CI: 0.153-0.612) were significantly associated with a decreased risk of outpatient visits for ILI. Interestingly, on the lag2 days, all the pollutants were significantly associated with a reduced risk of outpatient visits for ILI except for O. We did not observe the linear correlations between the outpatient visits for ILI and any of air pollutants, which were instead associated via a curvilinear relationship.

Conclusions: We found that the air pollutants may be associated with an increased risk of outpatient visits for ILI during the non-outbreak period and with a decreased risk during the outbreak period, which may be linked with the use of disposable face masks and the change of outdoor activities. These findings expand the current knowledge of ILI outpatient visits correlated with air pollutants during an influenza pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11397DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179240PMC
June 2021

Single-Cell Profiling Reveals Transcriptional Signatures and Cell-Cell Crosstalk in Anti-PLA2R Positive Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy Patients.

Front Immunol 2021 31;12:683330. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Nephrology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease of the kidney glomerulus. It may gradually progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) characterized by increased proteinuria, which leads to serious consequences. Although substantial advances have been made in the understanding of the molecular bases of IMN in the last 10 years, certain questions remain largely unanswered. To define the transcriptomic landscape at single-cell resolution, we analyzed kidney samples from 6 patients with anti-PLA2R positive IMN and 2 healthy control subjects using single-cell RNA sequencing. We then identified distinct cell clusters through unsupervised clustering analysis of kidney specimens. Identification of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and enrichment analysis as well as the interaction between cells were also performed. Based on transcriptional expression patterns, we identified all previously described cell types in the kidney. The DEGs in most kidney parenchymal cells were primarily enriched in genes involved in the regulation of inflammation and immune response including IL-17 signaling, TNF signaling, NOD-like receptor signaling, and MAPK signaling. Moreover, cell-cell crosstalk highlighted the extensive communication of mesangial cells, which infers great importance in IMN. IMN with massive proteinuria displayed elevated expression of genes participating in inflammatory signaling pathways that may be involved in the pathogenesis of the progression of IMN. Overall, we applied single-cell RNA sequencing to IMN to uncover intercellular interactions, elucidate key pathways underlying the pathogenesis, and identify novel therapeutic targets of anti-PLA2R positive IMN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.683330DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8202011PMC
May 2021

Bioactive sesquiterpenes from Inula helenium.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Jun 6;114:105066. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Key Laboratory of Combinatorial Biosynthesis and Drug Discovery, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China. Electronic address:

Twenty-one eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes, including five new compounds, were isolated from the roots of Inula helenium. The structures of the new compounds (1-5) were determined by extensive spectroscopic data interpretation, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and ECD calculations. Six compounds can synergistically enhance cisplatin effect against ovarian cancer cells, the structure - activity relationship for the synergistic effect of these compounds with cisplatin was revealed for the first time, which provides useful clues to develop novel sensitizers to overcome drug resistance in cancer. In addition, fifteen sesquiterpenes exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity, which provided promising candidates for development of anti-inflammatory agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.105066DOI Listing
June 2021

Deep-learning models for the detection and incidence prediction of chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes from retinal fundus images.

Nat Biomed Eng 2021 Jun 15;5(6):533-545. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Peking University Third Affiliated Hospital, Beijing, China.

Regular screening for the early detection of common chronic diseases might benefit from the use of deep-learning approaches, particularly in resource-poor or remote settings. Here we show that deep-learning models can be used to identify chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes solely from fundus images or in combination with clinical metadata (age, sex, height, weight, body-mass index and blood pressure) with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.85-0.93. The models were trained and validated with a total of 115,344 retinal fundus photographs from 57,672 patients and can also be used to predict estimated glomerulal filtration rates and blood-glucose levels, with mean absolute errors of 11.1-13.4 ml min per 1.73 m and 0.65-1.1 mmol l, and to stratify patients according to disease-progression risk. We evaluated the generalizability of the models for the identification of chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes with population-based external validation cohorts and via a prospective study with fundus images captured with smartphones, and assessed the feasibility of predicting disease progression in a longitudinal cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41551-021-00745-6DOI Listing
June 2021

Hydrogen Binding Initiated Activation of O-H Bonds on a Nitrogen-Doped Surface for Catalytic Oxidation of Biomass Hydroxyl Compounds.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, 457 Zhongshan Road, 116023, Dalian, CHINA.

Hydrogen binding of molecules on specific solid surface is an attractive interaction that can be employed as driving force for chemical bond activation, material directed assembly, protein protection, etc. However, the lack of quantitative characterization method for hydrogen bonds (HBs) on surface seriously limits its application. Herein, we measured the standard Gibbs free energy change (ΔG 0 ) of surface HBs using NMR technique. HBs accepting ability of surface was investigated in term of comparing ΔG 0 values by employing model biomass platform 5-hydroxymethylfurfural on a series of Co-N-C-n catalysts with electron-rich doped-nitrogen contents adjusted. Reducing the ΔG 0 effectively improves HBs accepting ability of the nitrogen-doped surface, and promotes the O-H bonds selectively initiated activation in the oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. As a result, the reaction kinetics is accelerated and the rate constant is significantly increased. In addition to excellent catalytic performance, the turnover frequency (TOF) value for this oxidation is extremely higher than the reported non-noble metal catalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202103604DOI Listing
June 2021

Restriction of Iron Loading into Developing Seeds by A YABBY Transcription Factor Safeguards Successful Reproduction in Arabidopsis.

Mol Plant 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China;. Electronic address:

Iron (Fe) storage in plant seeds is not only necessary for seedling establishment following germination, but also a major source of dietary Fe for human and animal life. Seed Fe accumulation was known to be low during early seed development. However, the underlying mechanism and biological significance remain elusive. Here, we show that reduced expression of Arabidopsis YABBY transcription factor INNER NO OUTER (INO) increases embryonic Fe accumulation, while transgenic overexpression of INO has opposite effect. INO is highly expressed during early seed development, and that decreased expression of INO increases the expression of NATURAL RESISTANCE ASSOCIATED MACROPHAGE PROTEIN 1 (NRAMP1), a gene encoding a transporter contributing to Fe loading into the seed. The relatively high embryonic Fe accumulation conferred by decreased expression of INO is rescued by the nramp1 loss-of-function mutation. We further demonstrate that INO represses NRAMP1 expression by binding to NRAMP1 specific promoter region. Moreover, we show that excessive Fe loading into developing seeds in ino mutants produces more oxidative damage, leading to increased cell death and seed abortion, a phenotype that can be rescued by nramp1 mutation. Taken together, these results indicate that INO plays an important role in safeguarding reproduction by reducing Fe loading into developing seeds via repression of NRAMP1 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2021.06.005DOI Listing
June 2021

The pathologic diagnosis of mantle cell lymphoma.

Histol Histopathol 2021 Jun 11:18351. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Hematopathology, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a mature B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma usually characterized by t(11;14) (q13;q32), or CCND1 translocation and Cyclin D1 over expression. A very small subset of MCL may lack the t(11;14) (q13;q32) translocation and Cyclin D1 over expression, but show alternative translocations involving CCND2 and CCND3, and over expression of SOX11. In general, MCL has been considered a very aggressive and incurable lymphoma and patients with MCL usually have a poor prognosis. However, indolent variants, including in situ mantle cell neoplasm and the recently recognized leukemic non-nodal MCL do exist. In recent years, genome-wide molecular genetic studies have revealed a characteristic MCL genetic profile. This review will focus on the pathologic diagnosis of MCL using the traditional morphological and immunophenotypic strategies combined with cytogenetic characteristics and recently identified molecular profile. Morphological subtypes, immunophenotypic variants, recently recognized indolent variants, as well as MCL risk stratification will also be discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14670/HH-18-351DOI Listing
June 2021

A stochastic collocation approach for parabolic PDEs with random domain deformations.

Comput Math Appl 2021 Jul 15;93:32-49. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Boston University, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, 111 Cummington Mall, Boston, MA 02215.

In this article we analyze the linear parabolic partial differential equation with a stochastic domain deformation. In particular, we concentrate on the problem of numerically approximating the statistical moments of a given Quantity of Interest (QoI). The geometry is assumed to be random. The parabolic problem is remapped to a fixed deterministic domain with random coefficients and shown to admit an extension on a well defined region embedded in the complex hyperplane. The stochastic moments of the QoI are computed by employing a collocation method in conjunction with an isotropic Smolyak sparse grid. Theoretical sub-exponential convergence rates as a function to the number of collocation interpolation knots are derived. Numerical experiments are performed and they confirm the theoretical error estimates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.camwa.2021.04.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8186465PMC
July 2021

Inhibition of miR-431-5p attenuated liver apoptosis through KLF15/p53 signal pathway in S100 induced autoimmune hepatitis mice.

Life Sci 2021 Jun 7;280:119698. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Accurate Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Liver Diseases, Wenzhou Key Laboratory of Hepatology, Hepatology Institute of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325006, China. Electronic address:

Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of miR-431-5p on hepatocyte apoptosis in AIH.

Materials And Methods: We used intraperitoneal injection of S100 to establish AIH mouse model and injected AAV into tail vein on day 14 of modeling to regulate miR-431-5p expression. The expression of ALT, AST, IgG and apoptosis-related proteins Bax, Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase 3 were measured in each group. Cellular experiments were performed using miR-431-5p mimics or inhibitors to transfect LPS-stimulated AML12 cells, and apoptosis was verified using Western blot and Hoechst 33342/PI Double Staining. The target of miR-431-5p, KLF15, was screened using databases and verified by the luciferase reporter assay. The relationship between KLF15 and p53 was verified by si-KLF15 and PFTβ (a p53-specific inhibitor).

Key Findings: Here, we observed that the increase in the level of miR-431-5p was accompanied by a decrease in the expression of Krüppel-like zinc finger transcription factor 15 (KLF15). In addition, the deletion of miR-431-5p significantly reduced hepatocyte apoptosis in AIH mice induced by liver S100 and apoptosis of AML12 cells induced by LPS stimulation, accompanied by decreased expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 as well as increased expression of Bcl-2. Moreover, KLF15 was the direct and functional target of miR-431-5p. Furthermore, miR-431-5p negatively regulated the expression of KLF15, and KLF15 deletion partially abolished the inhibitory effect of miR-431-5p deletion on apoptosis by activating p53 signaling.

Significance: In summary, miR-431-5p may be a potential therapeutic target for AIH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119698DOI Listing
June 2021

Subchronic nonylphenol exposure induced anxiety-like behavior and decreased expressions of regulators of synaptic plasticity in rats.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 1;282:130994. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

School of Public Health, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, Guizhou, 563000, PR China. Electronic address:

Studies have shown that there were associations between endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and anxiety. Nonylphenol (NP) is an EDC with weak estrogen activity. This study aimed to clarify whether subchronic exposure of NP at environmental concentrations induces anxiety-like behavior, and effects of NP on the regulators (NMDAR2B, PSD-95, Synapsin1) expressions of synaptic plasticity in vivo and in vitro experiments. In vivo, 40 male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (each with 10 rats): low dose (0.4 mg/kg/day, L-NP), middle-dose (4 mg/kg/day, M - NP), high-dose (40 mg/kg/day, H-NP) and corn oil (Control) groups. In vitro, HT22 cells were divided into a control group (Control), NP group (NP, 20 μM), glutamine acid receptor inhibitor group (MK-801, 10 μM) and MK-801 + NP group. The concentration of NP in the hippocampus rised with the increase of NP exposure concentration in the treatment groups (F = 7.542, P = 0.001). Compared with the control group, the residence time in the dark box after NP exposure had extended (F = 117.927, P < 0.01). The duration (F = 112.054, P < 0.01) and the number of times (F = 13.514, P < 0.01) to enter the closed arm in the NP exposure group significantly increased. There were more neurons degeneration and nuclear shrinkage in the M - and H- NP groups, while the average number of shrinked neurons increased with the increasing dose of NP exposure. The protein expressions of PSD-95 (F = 97.723, P < 0.01), Synapsin1 (F = 41.797, P < 0.01) and NMDAR2B (F = 3.440, P = 0.036) in the NP group were lower than those of the control. Simultaneously, the expressions of PSD-95, Synapsin1 and NMDAR2B in the hippocampus were down-regulated; the mRNA expression of PSD-95 (F = 19.950, P < 0.01), Synapsin1 (F = 3.498, P = 0.035) and NMDAR2B (F = 9.293, P < 0.01) genes in the hippocampus decreased in the M - and H-NP groups. In vitro, the trend of the fluorescence intensity expressed by PSD-95 (F = 2.606, P = 0.124) and Synapsin1 (F = 20.573, P < 0.01) among the groups was: MK-801 + NP group < MK-801 < NP group. The protein expressions of PSD-95 (F = 5.699, P = 0.022), Synapsin1 (F = 10.820, P = 0.003) and NMDAR2B (F = 6.041, P = 0.019) were down-regulated. These results suggested that subchronic exposure to environmental concentrations of NP induced anxiety, and reduced the protein and/or mRNA expressions of regulators of synaptic plasticity (PSD-95, Synapsin1, NMDAR2B).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130994DOI Listing
June 2021

Apatinib plus ifosfamide and etoposide for relapsed or refractory osteosarcoma: A retrospective study in two centres.

Oncol Lett 2021 Jul 24;22(1):552. Epub 2021 May 24.

Musculoskeletal Tumor Center, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing 100044, P.R. China.

For osteosarcoma that progresses following first-line chemotherapy, prognosis remains poor although anti-angiogenesis tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been verified to prolong progression-free survival. Apatinib has led to positive responses in the treatment of refractory osteosarcoma. However, it demonstrates only short-lived activity, and the disease control rate of musculoskeletal lesions is worse compared with that of pulmonary lesions. This treatment failure has been partly overcome by the addition of ifosfamide and etoposide (IE). The present study retrospectively compared the activity of apatinib + IE in relapsed or refractory osteosarcoma in two sarcoma centres in China. The included patients had received a combination of apatinib 500 mg (orally) daily and the IE regimen (n=33) between June 3 2017 and July 17 2020. The tumour burden was considerable in these patients: 16/33 (48.5%) Patients had lung and musculoskeletal lesions, and 31/33 (93.9%) patients had progressed to two lines of therapies at baseline. With a median follow-up duration of 28.4 [interquartile range (IQR), 16.1-38.3] months, 21/33 (63.6%) patients had objective responses, and the median event-free survival was 11.4 (IQR, 6.7-18.4) months. The median overall survival time was 19.8 (IQR, 13.1-30.6) months. At the last follow-up, 16/33 patients had tumour downstaging, and all lesions had been completely resected. For osteosarcoma with multiple sites of metastasis, apatinib + IE demonstrated clinically meaningful antitumor activity and delayed disease progression in patients with recurrent or refractory osteosarcoma after failure of chemotherapy. This combination with manageable toxicity deserves further investigation in prospective trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2021.12813DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170178PMC
July 2021

The Clinical, Radiologic, and Prognostic Differences Between Pediatric and Adult Patients With Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Antibody-Associated Encephalomyelitis.

Front Neurol 2021 20;12:679430. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Pediatrics, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

To evaluate the clinical differences between pediatric and adult patients with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated encephalomyelitis (MOG-EM). We retrospectively reviewed the clinical features of pediatric and adult patients with MOG-EM in our center between November 2015 and October 2020. Twenty-eight pediatric patients and 25 adults were admitted to our study. Bilateral optic neuritis (BON) was the most common initial phenotype in the pediatric group but less common in the adult group (28.57 vs. 0%, = 0.0119). Almost half of the adult patients presented with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disease (NMOSD), which was less prevalent among the pediatrics (48 vs. 21.43%, = 0.0414). Visual impairment was the most common symptom in both groups during the initial attack (pediatric group, 39.29%; adult group, 64%) and throughout the full course (pediatric group, 57.14%; adult group, 72%). More pediatric patients suffered from fever than adult patients at onset (pediatric group, 28.57%; adult group, 4%; = 0.0442) and throughout the full course (pediatric group, 39.29%; adult group, 12%; = 0.0245). Multiple patchy lesions in subcortical white matter (pediatric group, 40.74%; adult group, 45%), periventricular (pediatric group, 25.93%; adult group, 35%), infratentorial (pediatric group, 18.52%; adult group, 30%) and deep gray matter (pediatric group, 25.93%; adult group, 20%) were frequent in all cases, no significant difference was found between the two groups, while bilateral optic nerve involvement was more frequent in pediatric group (61.54 vs. 14.29%, = 0.0042) and unilateral optic nerve involvement was higher in adult group (64.29 vs. 15.38%, = 0.0052). At the last follow-up, adult patients had a higher average EDSS score (median 1.0, range 0-3) than pediatrics (median 0.0, range 0-3), though not significant ( = 0.0752). Patients aged 0-9 years (61.54%) and 10-18 years (70%), and patients presenting with encephalitis/meningoencephalitis (100%) and ADEM (75%) were more likely to recover fully. Visual impairment was the dominant symptom in both pediatric and adult patients, while fever was more frequent in pediatric patients. Data suggested that BON and bilateral optic nerve involvement were more common in pediatric cases whereas NMOSD and unilateral optic nerve involvement were more prevalent in adults. The younger patients and patients presenting with encephalitis/meningoencephalitis and ADEM tended to recover better.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.679430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8173107PMC
May 2021

Genome-wide detection of enhancer-hijacking events from chromatin interaction data in rearranged genomes.

Nat Methods 2021 Jun 3;18(6):661-668. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Feinberg School of Medicine Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Recent efforts have shown that structural variations (SVs) can disrupt three-dimensional genome organization and induce enhancer hijacking, yet no computational tools exist to identify such events from chromatin interaction data. Here, we develop NeoLoopFinder, a computational framework to identify the chromatin interactions induced by SVs, including interchromosomal translocations, large deletions and inversions. Our framework can automatically resolve complex SVs, reconstruct local Hi-C maps surrounding the breakpoints, normalize copy number variation and allele effects and predict chromatin loops induced by SVs. We applied NeoLoopFinder in Hi-C data from 50 cancer cell lines and primary tumors and identified tens of recurrent genes associated with enhancer hijacking. To experimentally validate NeoLoopFinder, we deleted the hijacked enhancers in prostate adenocarcinoma cells using CRISPR-Cas9, which significantly reduced expression of the target oncogene. In summary, NeoLoopFinder enables identification of critical oncogenic regulatory elements that can potentially reveal therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41592-021-01164-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8191102PMC
June 2021

Thoracoscopic radical resection in the treatment of NSCLC patients (stage IIIA) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

J BUON 2021 Mar-Apr;26(2):313-319

Department of Oncology, Binzhou People's Hospital, Binzhou 256610, China.

Purpose: We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of thoracoscopic radical resection of lung cancer in the treatment of patients with stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Methods: A total of 132 NSCLC patients (stage IIIA) were collected. Among them, 66 received preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy and thoracoscopic radical resection of lung cancer (NACT group), and 66 underwent thoracoscopic radical resection of lung cancer directly (control group). Next, the downstaging of the tumor was analyzed after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and the R0 resection rate, surgical conditions, postoperative complications, and changes in the levels of serum tumor markers were compared between the two groups of patients.

Results: The response rate of neoadjuvant chemotherapy was 51.5% (34/66), and the overall downstaging rate was 53.0% (35/66) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, with 34 cases of T downstaging and 35 cases of N downstaging. The operative time was clearly shorter in the NACT group than that in control group. The R0 resection rate in the NACT group was prominently higher than that in the the control group. The follow-up results uncovered that the 3-year overall survival (OS) and 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 50.0% and 21.2% in the NACT group, and 36.4% and 6.1% in the control group, respectively. Based on the results of log-rank test, the OS and PFS of patients in the NACT group were markedly better than those in the control group.

Conclusions: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy benefits patients with NSCLC (stage IIIA), and it is capable of effectively leading to pathological down-staging, elevating the R0 resection rate, significantly improving the survival of patients and considerably repressing the progression of the disease.
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June 2021

Is Cancer an Independent Risk Factor for Fatal Outcomes of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients?

Arch Med Res 2021 May 24:2670. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China. Electronic address:

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a novel virus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has brought new challenges for global health systems.

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate whether pre-diagnosed cancer was an independent risk factor for fatal outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients.

Method: A comprehensive search was conducted in major databases of PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE to identify all published full-text studies as of January 20, 2021. Inter-study heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran's Q-statistic and I² test. A meta-analysis of random- or fixed-effects model was used to estimate the effect size. Publication bias, sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis were also carried out.

Results: The confounders-adjusted pooled effects (pooled odds ratio [OR] = 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31-1.65; pooled hazard ratio [HR] = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.21-1.54) indicated that COVID-19 patients with pre-diagnosed cancer were more likely to progress to fatal outcomes based on 96 articles with 6,518,992 COVID-19 patients. Further subgroup analyses by age, sample size, the proportion of males, region, study design and quality rating exhibited consistent findings with the overall effect size.

Conclusion: Our analysis provides the objective findings based on the adjusted effect estimates that pre-diagnosed cancer is an independent risk factor for fatal outcome of COVID-19 patients. During the current COVID-19 pandemic, health workers should pay particular attention to cancer care for cancer patients and should prioritize cancer patients for vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arcmed.2021.05.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8142843PMC
May 2021

Efficacy Estimation of Microbubble-Assisted Local Sonothrombolysis Using a Catheter with a Series of Miniature Transducers.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 May 26;12(6). Epub 2021 May 26.

Academy for Engineering & Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200240, China.

Intravascular ultrasound has good prospects for clinical applications in sonothrombolysis. The catheter-based side-looking intravascular ultrasound thrombolysis (e.g., Ekosonic catheters) used in clinical studies has a high frequency (2 MHz). The lower-frequency ultrasound requires a larger-diameter transducer. In our study, we designed and manufactured a small ultrasound-based prototype catheter that can emit a lower frequency ultrasound (1.1 MHz). In order to evaluate the safety and efficacy of local low-frequency ultrasound-enhanced thrombolysis, a microbubble (MB) was introduced to augment thrombolysis effect of locally delivered low-intensity ultrasound. The results demonstrated that combination of ultrasound and MB realized higher clot lysis than urokinase-only treatment (17.0% ± 1.2% vs. 14.9% ± 2.7%) under optimal ultrasound settings of 1.1 MHz, 0.414 MPa, 4.89 W/cm, 5% duty cycle and MB concentration of 60 μg/mL. When urokinase was added, the fibrinolysis accelerated by MB and ultrasound resulted in a further increased thrombolysis rate that was more than two times than that of urokinase alone (36.7% ± 5.5% vs. 14.9% ± 2.7%). However, a great quantity of ultrasound energy was required to achieve substantial clot lysis without MB, leading to the situation that temperature accumulated inside the clot became harmful. We suggest that MB-assisted local sonothrombolysis be considered as adjuvant therapy of thrombolytic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12060612DOI Listing
May 2021

Resilience Coping in Preschool Children: The Role of Emotional Ability, Age, and Gender.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 10;18(9). Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Education Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210046, China.

Background: In the process of children's physical and mental development, emotional ability is an important part of their cognitive and social ability. Resilience in the face of difficulties or setbacks and other adversity will also produce differences in adaptability, thus affecting physical and mental development.

Objectives: This study aimed to measure the effect of children's emotional ability on resilience and to provide an in-depth analysis based on age and gender differences.

Methodology: A total of 300 preschool children aged 3-6 years old in kindergartens of China were randomly selected as the research subjects. Through a combination of experiments and questionnaires, the emotional ability and resilience of children were measured, and differences were analyzed according to the actual situation, using age and gender.

Results: Children of different ages have significant differences in the dimensions and total scores of emotional ability and resilience, but only some of the resilience dimensions have significant gender differences. Moreover, the emotional ability has a significant positive effect on resilience.

Discussions: The results confirm the influence of children's emotional ability on resilience, but the research hypothesis has not been fully verified.

Limitations: This study has the limitations of a single measurement method and a more effective research tool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18095027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126066PMC
May 2021

An updated meta-analysis on the association between tuberculosis and COVID-19 severity and mortality.

J Med Virol 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27119DOI Listing
June 2021

Integrated multiplatform-based metabonomics and network analysis to explore the mechanism of Polygonum cuspidatum on hyperlipidemia.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Jun 18;1176:122769. Epub 2021 May 18.

Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance (Ministry of Education), State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicine, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210000, China. Electronic address:

Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor and pathological basis for cardiovascular diseases. Polygonum cuspidatum (HZ), a famous traditional Chinese medicine, is frequently used to treat hyperlipidemia. However, little is known about its underlying mechanism. Herein, an integrated approach combining multiplatform-based metabonomics and network analysis was adopted to elucidate the ameliorative mechanism of HZ on hyperlipidemia. The global metabolomic characters of HZ on hyperlipidemia were investigated by GC-MS and LC-MS based metabonomics. Significant metabonomic alterations were observed in hyperlipidemic group, which could be restored by HZ supplementation. Furthermore, the drug-ingredients-target-metabolic pathway network was constructed, and the result indicated that HZ exhibited hypolipidemic efficacy through resveratrol, polydatin, torachrysone-8-O-β-D-(6'-oxayl)-glucoside, physciondiglucoside, (+)-catechin, β-sitosterol, quercetin, luteolin and physovenine acting on phospholipase A2, unspecific monooxygenase, arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase, aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase, alcohol dehydrogenase and triacylglycerol lipase. In conclusion, this study explored potential mechanism of HZ on hyperlipidemia with the aid of the integrated approach combining multiplatform-based metabonomics and network analysis, which might provide a theoretical basis for the clinical application of HZ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2021.122769DOI Listing
June 2021

Effect of hyperglycemia on microglial polarization after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

Life Sci 2021 Aug 27;279:119660. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Science, Ningxia Medical University, Ningxia Key Laboratory of Cerebrocranial Diseases, Incubation Base of National Key Laboratory, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750004, China. Electronic address:

Hyperglycemia has been shown to aggravate ischemic brain damage, in which the inflammatory reaction induced by hyperglycemia is involved in the worsening of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the role of microglial polarization in hyperglycemia-aggravating cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury remains unknown. The present study investigated whether diabetic hyperglycemia inhibited or activated microglia, as well as microglial subtypes 1 and 2. Rats were used to establish the diabetic hyperglycemia and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. The markers CD11b, CD16, CD32, CD86, CD206, and Arg1 were used to show M1 or M2 microglia. The results revealed increased neurological deficits, infarct volume, and neural apoptosis in rats with hyperglycemia subjected to MCAO for 30 min and reperfused at 1, 3, and 7 days compared with the normoglycemic rats. Microglia and astrocyte activation and proliferation were inhibited in hyperglycemic rats. Furthermore, M1 microglia polarization was promoted, while that of M2 microglia was inhibited in hyperglycemic rats. These findings suggested that the polarization of M1 and M2 microglia is activated and inhibited, respectively, in hyperglycemic rats and may be involved in the aggravated brain damage caused by ischemia-reperfusion in diabetic hyperglycemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119660DOI Listing
August 2021

Ginsenoside CK inhibits obese insulin resistance by activating PPARγ to interfere with macrophage activation.

Microb Pathog 2021 Aug 26;157:105002. Epub 2021 May 26.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchum, 130117. China. Electronic address:

Obesity is often accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation, which aggravates the disorder of lipid metabolism and leads to insulin resistance (IR). Macrophage activation plays an important role in inflammation. Ginsenoside Compound K (CK) is an active metabolite of ginsenoside Rb1, which is adopting to an anti-inflammatory effective substance. In order to clarify the mechanism of ginsenoside CK on the regulation of macrophage activation in adipose tissue, the macrophage model was incubated with the supernatant of hypertrophic adipocytes, and the co-culture models of Raw264.7 and 3T3-L1 were established. The levels of related cytokines, macrophage polarization and protein expression in inflammatory signaling pathway were measured. The results showed that ginsenoside CK significantly inhibited the increase of MCP-1 and TNF-α induced by the supernatant of hypertrophic adipocytes, promoted the expression of IL-10, inhibited the activation of inflammatory macrophages and increased the expression of anti-inflammatory macrophages. Similarly, ginsenoside CK inhibited the migration of Raw264.7, blocked the activation of NF-κB, and up-regulated the expression of PPARγ. In addition, ginsenoside CK also promotes the expression of IRS-1 in insulin signal pathway. The experimental results proved that ginsenoside CK plays a crucial role in alleviating inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity, and inhibits macrophage activation through the key protein PPARγ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.105002DOI Listing
August 2021

Improving the genome assembly of rabbits with long-read sequencing.

Genomics 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Center for Advanced Models for Translational Sciences and Therapeutics, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Electronic address:

The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is important as a biomedical model given its unique features in immunity and metabolism. The current reference genome OryCun2.0 established with whole-genome shotgun sequencing was quite fragmented and had not been updated for ten years. In this work, we provided a new rabbit genome assembly UM_NZW_1.0 to improve OryCun2.0 by leveraging the contig lengths based on long-read sequencing and a wealth of available Illumina paired-end sequence data. UM_NZW_1.0 showed a remarkable increase of continuity compared with OryCun2.0, with 5 times longer contig N50 and approximately 75% gaps closed. Many of the closed gaps were overlapped with protein-coding genes or transcriptional features, resulting in an enhancement of gene annotations. In particular, UM_NZW_1.0 presented a more complete landscape of the MHC region and the IGH locus, therefore provided a valuable resource for future researches on rabbits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2021.05.031DOI Listing
May 2021

Smoking is independently associated with an increased risk for COVID-19 mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis based on adjusted effect estimates.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Introduction: Smoking can cause muco-ciliary clearing dysfunction and poor pulmonary immunity, leading to more severe infection. We performed this study to explore the association between smoking and mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients utilizing a quantitative meta-analysis on the basis of adjusted effect estimates.

Methods: We conducted a systematic search of the online databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Embase. Only articles reporting adjusted effect estimates on the association between smoking and the risk of mortality among COVID-19 patients in English were included. Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) was fitted to assess the risk of bias. A random-effects model was applied to calculate the pooled effect with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI).

Results: A total of 73 articles with 863,313 COVID-19 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Our results indicated that smoking was significantly associated with an increased risk for death in patients with COVID-19 (pooled relative risk = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.12-1.27). Sensitivity analysis indicated that our results were stable and robust.

Conclusion: Smoking was independently associated with an increased risk for mortality in COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntab112DOI Listing
May 2021

Hospital-based case control study and animal study on the relationship between nonylphenol exposure and depression.

PeerJ 2021 18;9:e11384. Epub 2021 May 18.

School of Public Health, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, Guizhou, PR China.

Objectives: The aim of this work is to explore the association between chronic exposure to nonylphenol (NP), a representative environmental endocrine disruptor (EED), and the risk of depression and its potential mechanism.

Methods: A hospital-based case control study was conducted from August to December 2018. Forty-one patients with confirmed depression and 47 healthy volunteers were recruited. In vitro, 20 rats were randomly divided into the control group (corn oil) and NP exposure group (=10 per group), which were gavaged at a dose of 4 mg/kg w/day for 180 days.

Results: The depressed patient group had higher Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) (<0.001) and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) (<0.001) scores than the healthy group. The serum NP level (=0.009) in the depressed group was higher than that in the healthy group, and the BDNF level (=0.001) was lower. The serum levels of monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA) (=0.070), epinephrine (E) (=0.001), and noradrenaline (NE) (=0.000) were lower than those in the healthy group. In the sucrose preference test, the sucrose preference time for the exposure group of rats was lower than that of the control group (<0.001). In the forced swim test, a longer resting time was measured for the exposure group of rats as compared to the control group (<0.05). The level of NP (<0.001) in the brain tissue of the NP exposure group was higher than that in the control group, and the serum level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (=0.004) was lower. Histopathological examination of the brain biopsies illustrated that the neuronal cells and nuclei in the hippocampus of the exposed group exhibited slight shrinkage.

Conclusion: Chronic exposure to NP at environmental doses will result in the accumulation of NP in the brain and blood, and induction of depression, which might be associated with the alterations in the expression levels of BDNF and monoamine neurotransmitters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8139269PMC
May 2021