Publications by authors named "Jie Sun"

1,805 Publications

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Immunogenicity of Varicella Zoster Virus DNA Vaccines Encoding Glycoprotein E and Immediate Early Protein 63 in Mice.

Viruses 2022 Jun 2;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 2.

National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China.

Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by the reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) from the sensory ganglia due to aging or immunosuppression. Glycoprotein E (gE) is a widely used vaccine antigen for specific humoral and cellular immune responses. Immediate early protein 63 (IE63) is expressed during latency, suggesting that it is a potential antigen against HZ reactivation. In this study, HZ DNA vaccines encoding gE, IE63, IE63-2A-gE (where 2A is a self-cleaving sequence), or IE63-linker-gE were developed and investigated for immunogenicity in mice. The results showed that each HZ DNA vaccine induced VZV-specific antibody production. The neutralizing antibody titer elicited by IE63-2A-gE was comparable to that elicited by gE or live attenuated HZ vaccine (LAV). IE63-2A-gE-induced gE or IE63-specific INF-γ T cell frequencies in splenocytes were comparable to those of LAV. Furthermore, IE63-2A-gE, gE, or IE63 led to a significant increase in IFN-γ (IE63 stimulation) and IL-2 (gE stimulation) secretion compared to LAV, showing a Th1-biased immune response. Moreover, IE63-2A-gE and gE induced cytotoxic activity of CD8 T cells compared to that of LAV. This study elucidates that the IE63-2A-gE DNA vaccine can induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, which provides a candidate for the development of an HZ vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v14061214DOI Listing
June 2022

Characterization of Nano-Scale Parallel Lamellar Defects in RDX and HMX Single Crystals by Two-Dimension Small Angle X-ray Scattering.

Molecules 2022 Jun 16;27(12). Epub 2022 Jun 16.

China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, China.

Nano-scale crystal defects extremely affect the security and reliability of explosive charges of weapons. In this work, the nano-scale crystal defects of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) single crystals were characterized by two-dimension SAXS. Deducing from the changes of SAXS pattern with sample stage rotating, we firstly found the parallel lamellar nano-scale defects in both RDX and HMX single crystals. Further analysis shows that the average diameter and thickness of nano-scale lamellar defects for RDX single crystal are 66.4 nm and 19.3 nm, respectively. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicate that the lamellar nano-scale defects distribute along the (001) in RDX and the (011) in HMX, which are verified to be the crystal planes with the lowest binding energy by the theoretical calculation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27123871DOI Listing
June 2022

Investigation on the Evolution of Nano-Scale Defects of CL-20 Crystals under Thermal Treatment by Wide/Small-Angle X-ray Scattering.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Jun 15;15(12). Epub 2022 Jun 15.

China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, China.

Nano-scale crystal defects extremely affect the security and reliability of the explosive charges of weapons. In order to understand the evolution of nano-scale defects of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaaza-isowurtzitane (CL-20) explosive crystals under thermal treatments, the specific surface, volume fraction and size distribution of the nano-scale defects were studied by using Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS) and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) during the temperature range from 30 °C to 200 °C. The results showed that the number and size of the pores in CL-20 powder did not change significantly during the heating process before phase transformation (30-160 °C). At 170 °C, CL-20 began to convert from ε- to γ- phase, and the specific surface and volume fraction of the nano-scale defects increased significantly. Further investigation of the pore size distribution showed that the number of pores with a small size (radius 9-21 nm) changed particularly significantly, resulting from the cracking of the CL-20 crystal powder during phase transition. At 200 °C, the phase transition was completed and γ-CL-20 was created, and the small-sized pores gradually grew into medium-sized (radius 21-52 nm) pores over time when the temperature was fixed at 200 °C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15124258DOI Listing
June 2022

Effect of Corrosive Medium and Surface Defect-Energy on Corrosion Behavior of Rolled ZK61M Alloy.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Jun 9;15(12). Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science for Advanced Machining, Beijing Institute of Technology, No. 5 Zhongguancun South Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100081, China.

Magnesium alloys have been widely used as lightweight engineering structural materials, but their service performances are severely restricted by corrosion failure. In this paper, the influence of corrosive medium and surface defect energy on the corrosion behavior of rolled ZK61M alloy was investigated. The corrosion tests were conducted in different concentrations of sodium chloride solution for different durations, and the polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were reported. The surface morphology of rolled ZK61M alloy before and after corrosion tests were analyzed. The results showed that the corrosion tendency became stronger with the increase of the concentration of corrosive medium and the number of surface defects of ZK61M alloy. Moreover, the initial corrosion pattern was the pitting caused by micro galvanic corrosion at the surface defect, which gradually developed into uniform corrosion. Furthermore, the main damage occurred at the grain boundary, resulting in the destruction of grain bonding force and the removal of material along the rheological layer. The oxidation corrosion mechanism was mainly the anodic dissolution mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15124091DOI Listing
June 2022

The Mechanisms Underlying Salt Resistance Mediated by Exogenous Application of 24-Epibrassinolide in Peanut.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 7;23(12). Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Institute of Crop Germplasm Resources, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Ecology and Physiology, Jinan 250100, China.

Peanut is one of the most important oil crops in the world, the growth and productivity of which are severely affected by salt stress. 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) plays an important role in stress resistances. However, the roles of exogenous EBL on the salt tolerance of peanut remain unclear. In this study, peanut seedlings treated with 150 mM NaCl and with or without EBL spray were performed to investigate the roles of EBL on salt resistance. Under 150 mM NaCl conditions, foliar application of 0.1 µM EBL increased the activity of catalase and thereby could eliminate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Similarly, EBL application promoted the accumulation of proline and soluble sugar, thus maintaining osmotic balance. Furthermore, foliar EBL spray enhanced the total chlorophyll content and high photosynthesis capacity. Transcriptome analysis showed that under NaCl stress, EBL treatment up-regulated expression levels of genes encoding peroxisomal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide carrier (), probable sucrose-phosphate synthase 2 () beta-fructofuranosidase () and Na/H antiporters ( and , while down-regulated proline dehydrogenase 2 (). These findings provide valuable resources for salt resistance study in peanut and lay the foundation for using BR to enhance salt tolerance during peanut production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23126376DOI Listing
June 2022

Tas2R activation relaxes airway smooth muscle by release of Gα targeting on AChR signaling.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 Jun 23;119(26):e2121513119. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210008, China.

Both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are severe respiratory diseases. Bitter receptor-mediated bronchodilation is a potential therapy for asthma, but the mechanism underlying the agonistic relaxation of airway smooth muscle (ASM) is not well defined. By exploring the ASM relaxation mechanism of bitter substances, we observed that pretreatment with the bitter substances nearly abolished the methacholine (MCh)-induced increase in the ASM cell (ASMC) calcium concentration, thereby suppressing the calcium-induced contraction release. The ASM relaxation was significantly inhibited by simultaneous deletion of three Gα proteins, suggesting an interaction between Tas2R and AChR signaling cascades in the relaxation process. Biochemically, the Gα released by Tas2R activation complexes with AChR and blocks the Gα cycling of AChR signal transduction. More importantly, a bitter substance, kudinoside A, not only attenuates airway constriction but also significantly inhibits pulmonary inflammation and tissue remodeling in COPD rats, indicating its modulation of additional Gα-associated pathological processes. Thus, our results suggest that Tas2R activation may be an ideal strategy for halting multiple pathological processes of COPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2121513119DOI Listing
June 2022

The beneficial effects of square dance on musculoskeletal system in early postmenopausal Chinese women: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Womens Health 2022 Jun 21;22(1):247. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Orthopaedics, The Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong City, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: This study was set to investigate the correlation between square dance and musculoskeletal system of early postmenopausal Chinese women.

Methods: Chinese postmenopausal women, who had been without menstruation for 1-10 years from the onset of menopause were recruited from community centers for this study. A standardized structured face-to-face interview was performed to collect demographic information, life styles, personal medical history, diet and menstrual status. Subjects who had been practicing regular square dance without participated in other sports activities for more than 2 years and over 4 h per week (usually more than 45 min per time and more than 5 times per week) were assigned to square dance group. Those postmenopausal women who had not participated in regular exercises (no more than 0.5 h per week) were recruited as the sedentary control group. Bone mineral density (BMD) of spine, total hip and femoral neck was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Lower limb muscle strength was measured for the non-dominant leg, body flexibility was measured by a simple trunk bend-and-reach test, and body balance was evaluated using a single-stance test for the non-dominant leg. Independent two-tailed Student's t-test was used for data analysis.

Results: 152 subjects from community centers were selected for this study and divided into square dance group (n = 74) and control group (n = 78). The square dance subjects had higher lumbar spine BMD (p = 0.01) and total hip BMD (p = 0.02) than control subjects, but there was no significant difference of femoral neck BMD (p = 0.48) between these two groups. Functional testing indicated that square dance subjects had higher lower limb muscle strength (p < 0.01) and longer single-stance time (p = 0.02) than the control subjects, but there was no significant difference in trunk bend-and-reach (p = 0.12) between these two groups.

Conclusion: Our results show that postmenopausal Chinese women can get beneficial effects, like higher BMD, stronger lower limb muscle and improved body balance ability on musculoskeletal system by participating in square dance regularly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-022-01832-9DOI Listing
June 2022

Increased Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Hippocampus in Rats With Sepsis-Associated Encephalopathy.

Front Neurosci 2022 2;16:894720. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Cardiovascular Surgery Center, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) has been identified as a frequent complication of sepsis, featured by an aberrant level of cognitive and affective functions. The present study is designed to explore the changes in functional connectivity (FC) of the hippocampus in rats with SAE utilizing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI).

Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the SAE and control groups. We acquired rs-fMRI data using a 7T MRI to evaluate hippocampal network functional differences between the two groups with a seed-based approach. Behavioral performance was assessed using the open field test and forced swimming test. Statistical analysis was undertaken to evaluate the correlation between the hippocampal FC and behavioral findings.

Results: Compared with the control group, the SAE group showed increased FC between the bilateral hippocampus and thalamus, septum, bed nuclei stria terminalis (BNST), left primary forelimb somatosensory cortex (S1FL), primary motor cortex (M1), and inferior colliculus. Increased FC between the left hippocampus and thalamus, septum, BNST, left S1FL, and inferior colliculus was observed. While with the right hippocampus, FC in thalamus, septum, left S1FL and inferior colliculus was enhanced. Additionally, positive correlations were found between the hippocampal FC and the immobility time in the forced swimming test.

Conclusion: Hippocampus-related brain networks have significant alterations in rats with SAE, and the elevated hippocampal resting-state FC was positively related to affective deficits. Changes in FC between the hippocampus and other brain regions could be a potential neuroimaging biomarker of cognitive or mental disorders triggered by SAE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2022.894720DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9201098PMC
June 2022

Intestinal dysbacteriosis-propelled T helper 17 cells activation mediate the perioperative neurocognitive disorder induced by anesthesia/surgery in aged rats.

Neurosci Lett 2022 Jun 15;783:136741. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Anesthesiology, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009, China. Electronic address:

Background: Perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PND) is a common postoperative disease in elderly patients, but its pathogenesis remains unclear.

Methods: Exploratory laparotomy was performed to establish PND model under sevoflurane anesthesia. 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing was used to detect the changes of intestinal flora. Antibiotics were used to relatively eliminate intestinal flora before anesthesia/surgery, and behavior tests, such as open field, Y maze, and fear conditioning tests were applied to detect the changes of memory ability. The number of Th17 cells and Foxp3 cells was detected by flow cytometry in the Peyer's patches (PP), mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), blood and brain. Western blot was used to detect the expression of IL17, IL17RA, IL6 and IL10 in the hippocampus. Immunofluorescence was used to detect the expression of IL17, IL17R and IBA1 (ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule1) in the hippocampus.

Results: Anesthesia/surgery caused intestinal flora imbalance and induced neurocognitive impairment, increased the number of Th17 cells in the PP, MLN, blood and brain, increased the level of IL17, IL17R and inflammatory factors production in the hippocampus. Antibiotics administration before anesthesia/surgery significantly decreased the number of Th17 cells and the level of IL17, IL17R and inflammatory factors production, and improved the memory function. In addition, we found that IL17R was co-labeled with IBA1 in a large amount in the hippocampus through immunofluorescence double-staining.

Conclusion: Our study suggested that intestinal dysbacteriosis-propelled T helper 17 cells activation and IL17 secretion might play an important role in the pathogenesis of PND induced by anesthesia/surgery in aged rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2022.136741DOI Listing
June 2022

Effect of High Order Phonon Scattering on the Thermal Conductivity and Its Response to Strain of a Penta-NiN Sheet.

J Phys Chem Lett 2022 Jun 17:5734-5741. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, BKL-MEMD, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

Motivated by the recent synthesis of penta-NiN, a new two-dimensional (2D) planar material entirely composed of pentagons [ 2021, 15, 13539], we study its thermal transport properties based on first-principles calculations and solving the Boltzmann transport equation within the self-consistent phonon theory and four-phonon scattering formalism. We find that the intrinsic lattice thermal conductivity of penta-NiN is 11.67 W/mK at room temperature, which is reduced by 89.32% as compared to the value obtained by only considering three-phonon scattering processes. More interestingly, different from the general response of thermal conductivity to external strain in most 2D materials, an oscillatory decrease of the thermal conductivity with increasing biaxial tensile strain is observed, which can be attributed to the renormalization of vibrational frequencies and the nonmonotonic variation of phonon scattering rates. This work provides an accurate intrinsic thermal conductivity of penta-NiN and elucidates the effects of the strain-tuned vibrational modes and phonon band gap on the four-phonon scattering processes, shedding light on a better understanding of the physical mechanisms of thermal transport properties in 2D pentagon-based materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.2c01531DOI Listing
June 2022

Nano-drug delivery system for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia.

Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Dec 25. Epub 2021 Dec 25.

1. Bone Marrow Transplantation Center, the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310003, China.

Administration of therapeutic drugs has been the core strategy for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), but it is generally limited by its low bioavailability, toxic side effects and intravenous administration. The nano-drug delivery system significantly improves the anti-AML activity through targeted optimization of the drug delivery system. Organic nanocarriers include polymers, liposomes, nanoemulsion, nanomicelle and proteins, which have the advantages of high loading capacity, biocompatibility and functionalization. Inorganic nanocarriers include gold nanoparticles, silicon nanoparticles, iron nanoparticles and other inorganic nanoparticles, which exhibit diverse physical and chemical properties, and have a wide range of biomedical applications including drug carriers. Both organic and inorganic nanocarriers exhibit the potential to alter the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs. This article reviews the recent progress of nanocarriers as drug delivery system in clinical applications of AML treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/zdxbyxb-2022-0084DOI Listing
December 2021

Vinyl azide as a synthon for DNA-compatible divergent transformations into N-heterocycles.

Org Biomol Chem 2022 Jun 15. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Natural Product Synthesis and Drug Research, Innovative Drug Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chongqing University, 401331 Chongqing, P. R. China.

Inspired by diversity-oriented synthesis, we have developed a series of DNA-compatible transformations utilizing on-DNA vinyl azide as a synthon to forge divergent N-heterocyclic scaffolds. Polysubstituted imidazoles and isoquinolines were efficiently obtained with moderate-to-excellent conversions. Besides, the "one-pot" strategy to prepare in-house on-DNA vinyl azides afforded synthons readily. Results from substrate scope exploration and enzymatic ligation further demonstrate the feasibility of these N-heterocycle syntheses in DNA-encoded chemical library construction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2ob00862aDOI Listing
June 2022

gene mutation spectrum in severe hemophilia A with inhibitors: A large cohort data analysis from a single center in China.

Res Pract Thromb Haemost 2022 May 8;6(4):e12723. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Hemophilia Comprehensive Care Center Hematology Center Beijing Key Laboratory of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology National Key Discipline of Pediatrics (Capital Medical University) Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children Ministry of Education Beijing Children's Hospital Capital Medical University National Center for Children's Health Beijing China.

Introduction: Type of  gene mutation is the most important risk factor for inhibitor development in people with severe hemophilia A. However, there are few large cohort studies on the  mutation spectrum of people with severe hemophilia A with inhibitors.

Objective: This was the first large cohort study in children with severe hemophilia A with inhibitors from China that aimed to analyze the association between variant types and inhibitor status.

Methods: The single-center retrospective cohort study was conducted on children with severe hemophilia A with inhibitors admitted from January 2015 to December 2021. The clinical data were collected, and  genetic tests were performed.

Results: Among the 203 patients investigated, a mutation in was identified in 196 cases. Most patients had deleterious mutations (153; 75.4%), including 82 cases of intron 22 inversions (40.4%); 40 cases of nonsense mutations (19.7%), with 15 cases in the light chain and 25 cases in the heavy chain; and 31 cases of large deletions or insertions (15.3%), with 29 cases involving more than one exon and 2 cases involving one exon. The large deletions or insertions encompassing multiple exons and nonsense mutations residing in the light chain were associated with not only the progression to a high-titer inhibitor (< .05) but also higher peak inhibitor titer (< .05).

Conclusion: The  gene deleterious mutations, including intron 22 inversions, nonsense mutations, and large deletions or insertions, constitute the main mutation types in people with severe hemophilia A with inhibitors in China, with the latter mutation types (large deletions or insertions in multiple exons, and nonsense mutations in the light chain) signifying for a higher peak titer of inhibitor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rth2.12723DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9175357PMC
May 2022

Nickel Nanoflowers with Controllable Cation Vacancy for Enhanced Electrochemical Nitrogen Reduction.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Jun 10;14(24):28033-28043. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, P. R. China.

The key to the design of electrochemical nitrogen reduction (NRR) catalysts is that the reaction sites can not only activate the N≡N bond but also have high catalytic selectivity. Vacancy engineering is an effective way to modulate active sites, and cation vacancies are considered to have enormous potential in tuning catalytic selectivity. However, research on NRR activity is still at an early stage due to the difficulty in preparation and precise regulation. Here, we provided an adjusted method of cation vacancy through topotactic transformation, which combines solvothermal reduction with etching via lattice confinement effect to accomplish precursor reduction and vacancy construction while maintaining consistent material morphologies. Based on the topotactic transformation, NiAl-LDH precursor was reduced to Ni metal nanoflower, while Al is simultaneously etched by alkali, thus the precise tunability of the cation vacancy can be achieved by adjusting the Al content in the LDH. The Ni nanoflower achieved excellent stability and high ammonia yield by adjusting the vacancy concentration. In addition, the insight into the selectivity and intrinsic activity of cation vacancies on NRR process has been revealed. For the reaction selectivity, the cation vacancy is beneficial to activate N≡N but not conducive to the HER process. For the intrinsic NRR activity, the generation of cation vacancies can also significantly reduce the energy barrier of NRR process and accelerate the reaction kinetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c08071DOI Listing
June 2022

Effects of Frying Conditions on Volatile Composition and Odor Characteristics of Fried Pepper ( Maxim.) Oil.

Foods 2022 Jun 6;11(11). Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Flavor Chemistry, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048, China.

Fried pepper ( Maxim.) oil (FPO) is widely used in Chinese cuisine because of its unique aroma. To investigate the effects of different frying temperatures and different frying times on the volatile composition and odor characteristics of FPOs, descriptive sensory analysis (DSA), solvent-assisted flavor evaporation-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SAFE-GC-MS) and electronic nose (E-nose) were used to analyze the FPOs (FPO1-FPO4 represented the pepper oil fried at 110 °C, 120 °C, 130 °C, and 140 °C; FPO5-FPO7 represented the pepper oil fried for 10 min, 20 min and 30 min). The results showed that FPO3 and FPO6 had strong citrus-like and floral aromas and exhibited significant advantages in sensory attributes. A total of 46 volatile compounds were identified by SAFE-GC-MS; among them, FPO3 and FPO6 had a higher volatile compound content. -Caryophyllene was detected in only FPO3 and FPO6; linalool was higher in FPO3 and FPO6, which might cause them to exhibit stronger floral and citrus-like aromas. The presence of (2,4)-2,4-decanedienal would be one of the reasons for the strong fatty aroma exhibited in FPO4 and FPO7. FPO3 and FPO6 were associated with citrus-like and floral aromas by partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis, which agreed with the sensory evaluation results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods11111661DOI Listing
June 2022

A Study on the Persistent Trigeminal Artery and Its Classification Based on Magnetic Resonance Angiograph Images.

J Comput Assist Tomogr 2022 Jun 4. Epub 2022 Jun 4.

From the Medical Imaging Department, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China.

Background: The persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is the most common remnant of primitive circulation, communicating the developing carotid and vertebrobasilar junction.

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the implementation of magnetic resonance angiography for the detection of PTA and to reclassify the variations based on Weon typing. Moreover, the correlation of various Weon types with the posterior cerebral artery (PCA), Willis ring, basilar artery (BA) dysplasia, and the relationship between PTA and arteriosclerosis were analyzed.

Methods: From November 2017 to October 2019, a total of 48,184 patients underwent magnetic resonance angiography examination in our hospital, and 79 patients were diagnosed with PTA. Of these, 70 patients with complete radiological and clinical information were included in this study.

Results: Among the 70 patients with complete data, 27 were classified as Weon type I (38.6%), 7 as type II (10%), 14 as type III (20%), 8 as type IV (11.4%), and 3 as type V (4.3%: type Va, 1 case; type Vb, 2 cases). The remaining 11 cases were PCA with mixed blood supply, so the new type VI was divided into 3 subtypes: type VIa, type VIb, and type VIc, and each subtype of type V was further refined into 4 subtypes. There were 32 cases of PTA with BA dysplasia, including 14 with type I (51.9%), 5 with type II (71.4%), 2 with type III (14.3%), 5 with type IV (62.5%), and 6 with type VI (54.5%). Cerebral infarction was found in 55 cases (78.6%) of PTA, among which 11 had a cerebral infarction in the posterior circulation blood supply area. There were 46 cases (65.7%) accompanied by intracranial arteriosclerosis, and in 6 cases, arteriosclerosis mainly occurred in the posterior circulation.

Conclusions: We redefined the classification of PTA based on Weon typing for a better understanding of clinical symptoms and surgical risks. Moreover, PTA was correlated with the fetal origin of PCA, BA dysplasia, and posterior circulation arteriosclerosis. These factors may increase the incidence of cerebral infarction in the posterior circulation blood supply area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RCT.0000000000001309DOI Listing
June 2022

The same genetic regulation strategy produces inconsistent effects in different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for 2-phenylethanol production.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2022 Jun 6;106(11):4041-4052. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310014, China.

A CRISPR/Cas9 system with gene editing efficiency of 100% in the industrial diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae CWY-132 strain for 2-phenylethanol (2-PE) production was constructed. The effect of deletion of acetyltransferase gene ATF1 in the Ehrlich pathway on 2-PE synthesis was studied for the first time in S. cerevisiae. Laboratory and industrial strains were compared for the deletion effect of ATF1 and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase genes ALD2 and ALD3 involved in competing branches of the Ehrlich pathway on the 2-PE titer. The results showed that in 2-PE low-yielding haploid strain PK-2C, the ATF1∆ mutant produced 2-PE of 0.45 g/L, an increase of 114%, whereas in CWY-132, the 2-PE yield of ATF1∆ decreased significantly from 3.50 to 0.83 g/L. In PK-2C, the 2-PE yield of ALD2∆ increased from 0.21 to 1.20 g/L, whereas in CWY-132, it decreased from 3.50 to 3.02 and 2.93 g/L in ALD2∆ and ALD3∆ mutants, respectively, and to 1.65 g/L in ALD2∆ALD3∆. These results indicate that the same genetic manipulation strategy used for strains with different 2-PE yield backgrounds produces significantly different or even opposite effects. Moreover, we found that a supply of NADH or GSH increased the 2-PE production in S. cerevisiae. The correlation between the synthesis of 2-PE and ethanol was also revealed, and the tolerance of cells to 2-PE and ethanol was suggested to be a key limiting factor for further increase of 2-PE production in high-yielding strains. KEY POINTS: • Deletion of genes competing for 2-PE synthesis produces different effects in S. cerevisiae strains. • The ATF1∆, ALD2∆, or ALD3∆ increased 2-PE production in laboratory strains but not industrial strains. • The supply of NADH or GSH increased the titer of 2-PE in S. cerevisiae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-022-11993-0DOI Listing
June 2022

Enhancer methylation dynamics drive core transcriptional regulatory circuitry in pan-cancer.

Oncogene 2022 Jun 2;41(26):3474-3484. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

College of Bioinformatics Science and Technology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150081, China.

Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that enhancer methylation has strong and dynamic regulatory effects on gene expression. Some transcription factors (TFs) can auto- and cross-regulate in a feed-forward manner, and cooperate with their enhancers to form core transcriptional regulatory circuitries (CRCs). However, the elaborated regulatory mechanism between enhancer methylation and CRC remains the tip of the iceberg. Here, we revealed that DNA methylation could drive the tissue-specific enhancer basal transcription and target gene expression in human cancers. By integrating methylome, transcriptome, and 3D genomic data, we identified enhancer methylation triplets (enhancer methylation-enhancer transcription-target gene expression) and dissected potential regulatory patterns within them. Moreover, we observed that cancer-specific core TFs regulated by enhancers were able to shape their enhancer methylation forming the enhancer methylation-driven CRCs (emCRCs). Further parsing of clinical implications showed rewired emCRCs could serve as druggable targets and prognostic risk markers. In summary, the integrative analysis of enhancer methylation regulome would facilitate portraying the cancer epigenomics landscape and developing the epigenetic anti-cancer approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-022-02359-xDOI Listing
June 2022

Is atrial fibrillation a preoperative risk factor in elderly patients without heart failure after hip fracture surgery?

Authors:
Daoyun Lei Jie Sun

Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) 2022 04;68(4):444

Zhongda Hospital Southeast University, Department of Anesthesiology - Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1806-9282.20220086DOI Listing
April 2022

Förster Resonance Energy Transfer-Based Single-Cell Imaging Reveals Piezo1-Induced Ca Flux Mediates Membrane Ruffling and Cell Survival.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2022 13;10:865056. Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of Integrated Biological Science, Pusan National University, Pusan, South Korea.

A mechanosensitive ion channel, Piezo1 induces non-selective cation flux in response to various mechanical stresses. However, the biological interpretation and underlying mechanisms of cells resulting from Piezo1 activation remain elusive. This study elucidates Piezo1-mediated Ca influx driven by channel activation and cellular behavior using novel Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-based biosensors and single-cell imaging analysis. Results reveal that extracellular Ca influx Piezo1 requires intact caveolin, cholesterol, and cytoskeletal support. Increased cytoplasmic Ca levels enhance PKA, ERK, Rac1, and ROCK activity, which have the potential to promote cancer cell survival and migration. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Piezo1-mediated Ca influx upregulates membrane ruffling, a characteristic feature of cancer cell metastasis, using spatiotemporal image correlation spectroscopy. Thus, our findings provide new insights into the function of Piezo1, suggesting that Piezo1 plays a significant role in the behavior of cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2022.865056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9136143PMC
May 2022

Regulation of Δ6Fads2 Gene Involved in LC-PUFA Biosynthesis Subjected to Fatty Acid in Large Yellow Croaker () and Rainbow Trout ().

Biomolecules 2022 Apr 30;12(5). Epub 2022 Apr 30.

The Key Laboratory of Aquaculture Nutrition and Feed (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs), The Key Laboratory of Mariculture (Ministry of Education), Ocean University of China, 5 Yushan Road, Qingdao 266003, China.

Δ6 fatty acyl desaturase (Δ6Fads2) is regarded as the first rate-limiting desaturase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from 18-carbon fatty acid in vertebrates, but the underlying regulatory mechanism of has not been comprehensively understood. This study aimed to investigate the regulation role of subjected to fatty acid in large yellow croaker and rainbow trout. In vivo, large yellow croaker and rainbow trout were fed a fish oil (FO) diet, a soybean oil (SO) diet or a linseed oil (LO) diet for 10 weeks. The results show that LO and SO can significantly increase expression ( < 0.05). In vitro experiments were conducted in HEK293T cells or primary hepatocytes to determine the transcriptional regulation of The results show that CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) can up-regulate expression. GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3) can up-regulate expression in rainbow trout but showed opposite effect in large yellow croaker. Furthermore, C/EBPα protein levels were significantly increased by LO and SO ( < 0.05), expression was increased in rainbow trout by LO but decreased in large yellow croaker by LO and SO. In conclusion, we revealed that FO replaced by LO and SO increased expression through a C/EBPα and GATA3 dependent mechanism in large yellow croaker and rainbow trout. This study might provide critical insights into the regulatory mechanisms of expression and LC-PUFA biosynthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom12050659DOI Listing
April 2022

A Shigella sp. variant is causally linked to intractable functional constipation.

J Clin Invest 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Model Animal Research Center, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Functional constipation (FC) with intractable nature is the most severe form of constipation, but its etiology has long been unknown. In light of the intractable nature, we hypothesized that such intractable FC (IFC) sufferers were caused by intractable infection of a pathogenic bacterium. Here, we isolated a bacterium of Shigella sp. PIB from IFC patients that significantly inhibited the peristaltic contraction of colon by production of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). PIB could colonize mice at least for six months. Oral administration of PIB was sufficient to induce constipation, which was reversed by PIB-specific phages. The mutated PIB with reduced DPA was incapable of inhibiting colonic function and inducing constipation, suggesting that DPA produced by PIB was the key mediator for the genesis of constipation. The PIB were detected in stools of 56% (38/68) of the IFC patients, but not in non-IFC or healthy populations (0/180). DPA levels in stools were elevated in 44.12% (30/68) of the IFC patients, but none of the healthy volunteers (0/97). Our results suggest Shigella sp. PIB may be the critical causative pathogen for IFC, and detections of fecal PIB bacteria plus DPA may be reliable methods for IFC diagnosis and classification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI150097DOI Listing
May 2022

HR-MRI findings of intracranial artery stenosis and distribution of atherosclerotic plaques caused by different etiologies.

Neurol Sci 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Medical Imaging, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, No.215 West Heping Road, Shijiazhuang, 100050, Hebei, China.

Objective: To investigate the etiology of intracranial artery stenosis and the distribution characteristics of intracranial artery atherosclerotic stenosis using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI).

Methods: A total of 262 patients with intracranial artery stenosis that underwent HR-MRI from November 2019 to December 2020 were retrospectively enrolled. The etiology of intracranial anterior and posterior circulation artery stenosis was analyzed, and the relationship between the location of plaques and the distribution characteristics of plaques and the occurrence of ischemic stroke was summarized.

Results: A total of 276 plaques were identified with HR-MRI. There were 101 cases (36.59%) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), 14 cases (5.07%) in the posterior cerebral artery (PCA), 90 cases (32.62%) in vertebral artery (VA), and 71 cases (25.72%) in the basilar artery (BA). The infarct rate of ventral and superior wall MCA plaques was higher than that of dorsal and inferior wall (63.33% vs 31.25% P = 0.021) (100.00% vs 50% P = 0.022). MCA with plaques throughout the course had the greatest degree of stenosis (P < 0.001). Sphenoid segment (M1) of MCA was most susceptible (85 cases, 84.16%), MCA plaques were most common in the proximal M1 segment (35 cases, 34.65%), and most BA plaques were found in the distal segment (28 cases, 39.44%). PCA plaques were most frequently involved in traffic anterior segment (P1) (7 cases, 50.00%).

Conclusion: HR-MRI could provide accurate imaging reference for clinical evaluation of intracranial arterial stenosis and formulation of treatment plans. The intracranial arterial plates mostly appeared in the middle cerebral artery and vertebral artery. Middle cerebral arteries with atherosclerotic plaques are more likely to narrow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-022-06132-6DOI Listing
May 2022

Trajectories of brain entropy across lifetime estimated by resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Hum Brain Mapp 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

College of Information and Computer, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, China.

The human brain is a complex system of interconnected brain regions that form functional networks with differing roles in cognition and behavior. However, the trajectories of these functional networks across development are unclear and designing a metric to track the complex trajectory of these characteristics throughout the lifespan is challenging. Here, permutation entropy (PE) was used to examine age-related variations in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in healthy subjects aged 6-85 from global, network, and nodal perspectives. The global PE followed an inverted U-shaped trajectory that peaked at approximately age 40. The trajectory of the motor and somatosensory functional network was more consistent with a linear model and increased with age; other functional networks showed inverted U-shaped trajectories that peaked between 25 and 52 years of age. All nodes showed inverted U-shaped trajectories. Using cluster analysis, the peak ages of nodes were grouped into three clusters (at 24, 38, and 51 years). Overall, we characterized four aging trajectories: networks with a linear increase, early peak age, intermediate peak age, and older peak age. These findings suggest possible complexity in trajectories at critical age points regarding changes in related functional brain networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25959DOI Listing
May 2022

Genetic testing enables a precision medicine approach for nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis in pediatrics: a single-center cohort.

Mol Genet Genomics 2022 May 25. Epub 2022 May 25.

Department of Nephrology, Wuhan Children's Hospital (Wuhan Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital), Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430000, China.

Objective: Hereditary factors are the main cause of pediatric nephrolithiasis (NL)/nephrocalcinosis (NC). We summarized the genotype-phenotype correlation of hereditary NL/NC in our center, to evaluate the role of genetic testing in early diagnosis.

Methods: The clinical data of 32 NL/NC cases, which were suspected to have an inherited basis, were retrospectively analyzed from May 2017 to August 2020. The trio-whole exome sequencing was used as the main approach for genetic testing, variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing, and pathogenicity analysis according to protein function was predicted with custom-developed software.

Results: Causative monogenic mutations were detected in 24 of 32 NL/NC patients, and copy number variation was detected in one patient. A summary of manifestations in patients with inherited diseases revealed a significant degree of growth retardation, increased urinary excretion of the low-molecular weight protein, hypercalciuria, electrolyte imbalances, and young age of onset to be common in heredity disease. In addition, some patients had abnormal renal function (3 ppm 25). The most frequent pathology identified was distal renal tubular acidosis (with inclusion of SLC4A1, ATP6V1B1, and ATP6VOA4 genes), followed by Dent disease (CLCN5 and OCRL1 genes), primary hyperoxaluria (PH) (AGXT and HOGA1 genes) and Kabuki syndrome (KMT2D gene), which was more likely to present as NC or recurrent stone and having a higher correlation with a specific biochemical phenotype and extrarenal phenotype.

Conclusion: The etiology of NL/NC is heterogeneous. This study explored in depth the relationship between phenotype and genotype in 32 patients, and confirmed that genetic testing and clinical phenotype evaluation enable the precision medicine approach to treating patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00438-022-01897-zDOI Listing
May 2022

iUMRG: multi-layered network-guided propagation modeling for the inference of susceptibility genes and potential drugs against uveal melanoma.

NPJ Syst Biol Appl 2022 05 24;8(1):18. Epub 2022 May 24.

School of Biomedical Engineering, School of Ophthalmology & Optometry and Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325027, P. R. China.

Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor. The use of precision medicine for UM to enable personalized diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment require the development of computer-aided strategies and predictive tools that can identify novel high-confidence susceptibility genes (HSGs) and potential therapeutic drugs. In the present study, a computational framework via propagation modeling on integrated multi-layered molecular networks (abbreviated as iUMRG) was proposed for the systematic inference of HSGs in UM. Under the leave-one-out cross-validation experiments, the iUMRG achieved superior predictive performance and yielded a higher area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value (0.8825) for experimentally verified SGs. In addition, using the experimentally verified SGs as seeds, genome-wide screening was performed to detect candidate HSGs using the iUMRG. Multi-perspective validation analysis indicated that most of the top 50 candidate HSGs were indeed markedly associated with UM carcinogenesis, progression, and outcome. Finally, drug repositioning experiments performed on the HSGs revealed 17 potential targets and 10 potential drugs, of which six have been approved for UM treatment. In conclusion, the proposed iUMRG is an effective supplementary tool in UM precision medicine, which may assist the development of new medical therapies and discover new SGs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41540-022-00227-8DOI Listing
May 2022

Carpelipines C and D, Two Anti-Inflammatory Germacranolides from the Flowers of Carpesium lipskyi Winkl. (Asteraceae).

Chem Biodivers 2022 May 24:e202200415. Epub 2022 May 24.

Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine Resources and Ethnic Medicine, Jiangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanchang, 330004, P. R. China.

Two new germacranolides, carpelipine C (1) and carpelipine D (2), together with four known ones (3-6), were isolated from Carpesium lipskyi Winkl. flowers, a folk Tibetan herbal medicine with antipyretic-analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. The chemical structures of new structure were illuminated by diversified spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic analyses. Compounds 1 and 3 dramatically suppressed the synthesis of NO and decreased pre-inflammatory protein expression of iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, it was revealed that NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway were involved in the anti-inflammatory process of 1 and 3, and their effects on reducing oxidative stress by activating Nrf2/HO-1 pathway were also measured. This article indicated that the traditional use of C. lipskyi to treat inflammatory diseases has a certain rationality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202200415DOI Listing
May 2022

RRLC-QTOF/MS-Based Metabolomics Reveal the Mechanism of Chemical Variations and Transformations of Astragali Radix as a Result of the Roasting Process.

Front Chem 2022 5;10:903168. Epub 2022 May 5.

Jiangsu Province Engineering Research Center of Classical Prescription, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Astragali Radix (AR), which is extensively used as a healthy food supplement and medicinal herb, contains two forms of products corresponding to raw Astragalus Radix (RAR) and processed Astragali Radix (PAR), which was obtained by roasting. In this study, a non-targeted rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q/TOF-MS) based metabolomics approach was developed to investigate the chemical changes of AR due to roasting. A total of 63 compounds were identified or tentatively identified. Among them, 23 isoflavonoids (composed of 12 isoflavones, eight pterocarpans, and three isoflavans) and six cycloastragenols were characterized as differential metabolites. Heatmap visualization and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-PDA-ELSD) quantitative analysis revealed that malonyl isoflavonoids or cycloastragenols were at higher levels in RAR. These might be converted to corresponding acetyl isoflavonoids and cycloastragenols and related isoflavonoid glycosides during roasting. To prove this prediction, chemical conversion experiments on malonyl isoflavonoids and cycloastragenols were performed to confirm and clarify the chemical transformation mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2022.903168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9117700PMC
May 2022

In vivo methods for evaluating human midpalatal suture maturation and ossification: An updated review.

Int Orthod 2022 Jun 17;20(2):100634. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Stomatology, Beijing Children's Hospital Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to perform an updated review of the in vivo methods to evaluate human midpalatal suture maturation and ossification, since this evaluation process remains an unsolved and critical problem in orthodontic treatment.

Materials And Methods: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched up to November 30, 2021. Literature selection was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA, 2020 Edition) statement and was based on predetermined inclusion criteria. The overall and methodological characteristics of the selected studies were collected. The risk of bias was evaluated mainly through inter- and intra-evaluator agreement outcomes reported in each study. As there was a high heterogeneity among methodological studies, meta-analysis of the included studies was not applicable, and results were analysed descriptively.

Results: Nine articles met the inclusion criteria. Maxillary occlusal radiograph and computed tomography (CT), especially cone beam CT (CBCT), were reported. The occlusal radiograph is not adequate for evaluating the status of midpalatal suture maturation, and has been replaced by CBCT. Qualitative and quantitative CBCT evaluation methods provide limited evidence; however, opinions differ regarding the efficacy of these methods.

Conclusions: For midpalatal suture maturation and ossification status evaluation, evidence for the current methods is still limited. Further methodological studies should use image information comprehensively and provide verification evidence on larger samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ortho.2022.100634DOI Listing
June 2022

Antimicrobial potential and osteoblastic cell growth on electrochemically modified titanium surfaces with nanotubes and selenium or silver incorporation.

Sci Rep 2022 May 18;12(1):8298. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Titanium nanotube surfaces containing silver, zinc, and copper have shown antimicrobial effects without decreasing osteoblastic cell growth. In this in-vitro study we present first results on the biological evaluation of surface modifications by incorporating selenium and silver compounds into titanium-dioxide (TiO) nanotubes by electrochemical deposition. TiO-nanotubes (TNT) and Phosphate-doped TNT (pTNT) were grown on the surface of Ti6Al4V discs by anodization. Hydroxyapatite (HA), selenium (Se) and silver (Ag) compounds were incorporated by electrochemical deposition. Colony forming units of Staphylococcus epidermidis (DSM 3269) were significantly decreased in SepTNT (0.97 ± 0.18 × 10 CFU/mL), SepTNT-HA (1.2 ± 0.39 × 10 CFU/mL), AgpTNT (1.36 ± 0.42 × 10 CFU/mL) and AgSepTNT (0.999 ± 0.12 × 10 CFU/mL) compared to the non-modified control (2.2 ± 0.21 × 10 CFU/mL). Bacterial adhesion was calculated by measuring the covered area after fluorescence staining. Adhesion was lower in SepTNT (37.93 ± 12%; P = 0.004), pTNT (47.3 ± 6.3%, P = 0.04), AgpTNT (24.9 ± 1.8%; P < 0.001) and AgSepTNT (14.9 ± 4.9%; P < 0.001) compared to the non-modified control (73.7 ± 11%). Biofilm formation and the growth of osteoblastic cells (MG-63) was observed by using Crystal Violet staining. Biofilm formation was reduced in SepTNT (22 ± 3%, P = 0.02) and AgSepTNT discs (23 ± 11%, P = 0.02) compared to the non-modified control (54 ± 8%). In comparison with the non-modified control the modified SepTNT-HA and pTNT surfaces showed a significant higher covered area with osteoblastic MG-63-cells. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images confirmed findings regarding bacterial and osteoblastic cell growth. These findings show a potential synergistic effect by combining selenium and silver with titanium nanotubes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-11804-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9117198PMC
May 2022
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