Publications by authors named "Jie Luo"

912 Publications

Inhibition of CB1 receptor alleviates electroconvulsive shock-induced memory impairment by regulating hippocampal synaptic plasticity in depressive rats.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Apr 3;300:113917. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Anesthesiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China.

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most effective treatments for depression, but it can cause cognitive deficit. Unfortunately, effective preventive measures are still lacking. The endocannabinoid system is thought to play a key role in regulation of cognitive process. Whether the endocannabinoid system is involved in the learning and memory impairment caused by ECS remain unclear. In this work, we first found that cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) were strongly expressed in hippocampus by electroconvulsive shock (ECS) in a rat depression model established by chronic mild stress (CMS). Pharmacological inhibition of CB1R using AM251 in vivo resulted in a pronounced relief in ECS-induced spatial learning and memory impairment as well as in a marked reversal of impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), and reduced synapse-related proteins expression. Furthermore, results of sucrose preference test (SPT) and open-field test (OFT) showed that AM251 had no significant impact on the therapeutic effects of ECS on pleasure and psychomotor activity. Taken together, we identified that CB1R is involved in the ECS-induced spatial learning and memory impairment and Inhibition of CB1R facilitates the recovery of memory impairment and hippocampal synaptic plasticity, without interfering with the therapeutic effects of ECS in depressed rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2021.113917DOI Listing
April 2021

Chronic chlorpyrifos exposure induces oxidative stress, apoptosis and immune dysfunction in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

Environ Pollut 2021 Mar 24;282:117010. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 611130, China. Electronic address:

This study was undertaken to (a) evaluate the destructive effects of chronic exposure to low-dose of chlorpyrifos (CPF) on antioxidant system and immune function in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and (b) to examine whether dietary supplementation of curcumin can mitigate the adverse effects induced by CPF contamination. The experiment consisted of three groups (with three replicates, 30 fish per replicate) which lasted for 60 days: A control group (without CPF exposure or CU application), CP group (exposed to 0.004 mg/L of CPF), and CU group (exposed to 0.004 mg/L of CPF and fed a diet containing 100 mg curcumin per kg feed). The results showed that CPF contamination leads to reduced weight gain, severe histopathological lesions, decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes and down-regulated expression of antioxidant-related genes. Moreover, CPF upregulated the expression of pro-inflammatory genes such as TNF-α, IL-8, IL-15, downregulated anti-inflammatory genes TGF-β1, IL-10, and promoted apoptosis through overexpression of Caspase-3, Caspase-8, caspase-9 and Bax. In addition, curcumin supplementation showed significant improvement in oxidative stress, apoptosis and immune dysfunction, but the improved effect gradually weakened during the exposure last. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis for accumulation of CPF in muscle supported the changes of general physiological structure, excessive apoptotic responses, abnormal antioxidant and immune system functions and posed potential human health risks to children based on target hazard quotient. These results suggested that chronic exposure to CPF can cause oxidative stress, apoptosis and immune dysfunction, and that curcumin have the potential to reduce pesticides residues in fish. This also highlights the importance of monitoring pesticides residues in aquatic products and aquaculture aquatic environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117010DOI Listing
March 2021

SPAG6-silencing enhances decitabine-induced apoptosis and demethylation of PTEN in SKM-1 cells and in a xenograft mouse model.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 Apr 10:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of malignant diseases that are characterized by disordered hematopoiesis with a high risk of transforming into leukemia. In the present study, SPAG6-knockdown and decitabine (DAC) treatment resulted in a decreased DNA methyltransferases and methyl-CpG-binding domain protein expression. In addition, DAC and LBH589 were shown to promote apoptosis in SKM-1 cells, and SPAG6-knockdown to enhance the pro-apoptotic effect of DAC. DAC could reduce PTEN methylation and increase PTEN expression in SKM-1 cells. SPAG6-knockdown and LBH589 treatment could increase DAC-mediated demethylation of PTEN promoter. Finally, a mouse model was constructed, and an enhanced efficacy of DAC following SPAG6-knockdown was confirmed . In conclusion, DAC-mediated apoptosis and PTEN promoter demethylation may be synergistically enhanced by SPAG6-silencing. Therefore, in the present study it was indicated that SPAG6 may be a potential target for demethylation therapy in MDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2021.1913148DOI Listing
April 2021

Influence of Planting Density on the Phytoremediation Efficiency of Festuca arundinacea in cd-Polluted Soil.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

College of Resources and Environment, Yangtze University, Wuhan, China.

Planting density can influence the biomass generation and element uptake capacity of various plants, which are two critical factors that determine the phytoremediation efficiency of plants. A series of 70 d experiments was performed to evaluate the influence of the planting density (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 g seeds·m, namely D10, D15, D20, D25, and D30, respectively) of Festuca arundinacea on the decontamination of Cd-polluted soils. The variations in the biomass yield, falling tissue (senescent and dead leaf tissues) proportion, and Cd extraction capacity of the species under different cultivation strategies were determined. The results showed that the biomass generation of the species per square meter increased as the planting density increased, reached a peak at D20, and then decreased significantly. In addition, planting density can change the proportions of different leaf types, and the highest amount of senescent and dead leaves which accumulated significantly more Cd compared with the emerging and mature leaf tissues was observed at D20. A suitable planting density can also drive the species to secrete more dissolved organic matter (DOM), especially hydrophilic fractionations in to the soil, activating more Cd. Therefore, the phytoremediation efficiency of the species was determined by the dry weight of the falling tissues, which contained more than 75% of the leaf Cd. A suitable planting density can enhance the Cd decontamination capacity of F. arundinacea, and the adjustment of the planting density is a practicable and economical method that can be performed in real fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-021-03173-zDOI Listing
April 2021

FISH landmarks reflecting meiotic recombination and structural alterations of chromosomes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Apr 6;21(1):167. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, 611130, Sichuan, China.

Background: DNA sequence composition affects meiotic recombination. However, the correlation between tandem repeat composition and meiotic recombination in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is unclear.

Results: Non-denaturing fluorescent in situ hybridization (ND-FISH) with oligonucleotide (oligo) probes derived from tandem repeats and single-copy FISH were used to investigate recombination in three kinds of the long arm of wheat 5A chromosome (5AL). 5AL arm carries the tandem repeats pTa-535, Oligo-18, and pTa-275, 5AL arm carries the tandem repeats pSc119.2, Oligo-18 and pTa-275, and 5AL arm carries the tandem repeats pSc119.2. In the progeny of 5AL × 5AL, double recombination occurred between pSc119.2 and pTa-535 clusters (119-535 interval), and between pTa-535 and Oligo-18/pTa-275 clusters (535-18 interval). The recombination rate in the 119-535 interval in the progeny of 5AL × 5AL was higher than that in the progeny of 5AL × 5AL. Recombination in the 119-535 interval produced 5AL segments with pTa-535 and pSc119.2 tandem repeats and 5AL segments without these repeats. The 5AL and 5AL segments were localized between the signal sites of the single-copy probes SC5A-479 and SC5A-527. The segment between SC5A-479 and SC5A-527 in the metaphase 5AL was significantly longer than that in the metaphase 5AL.

Conclusion: The structural variations caused by tandem repeats might be one of the factors affecting meiotic recombination in wheat. Meiotic recombination aggregated two kinds of tandemly repeated clusters into the same chromosome, making the metaphase chromosome more condensed. To conclude, our study provides a robust tool to measure meiotic recombination and select parents for wheat breeding programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-021-02947-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8025513PMC
April 2021

Deep-learning-enabled inverse engineering of multi-wavelength invisibility-to-superscattering switching with phase-change materials.

Opt Express 2021 Mar;29(7):10527-10537

Inverse design of nanoparticles for desired scattering spectra and dynamic switching between the two opposite scattering anomalies, i.e. superscattering and invisibility, is important in realizing cloaking, sensing and functional devices. However, traditionally the design process is quite complicated, which involves complex structures with many choices of synthetic constituents and dispersions. Here, we demonstrate that a well-trained deep-learning neural network can handle these issues efficiently, which can not only forwardly predict scattering spectra of multilayer nanoparticles with high precision, but also inversely design the required structural and material parameters efficiently. Moreover, we show that the neural network is capable of finding out multi-wavelength invisibility-to-superscattering switching points at the desired wavelengths in multilayer nanoparticles composed of metals and phase-change materials. Our work provides a useful solution of deep learning for inverse design of nanoparticles with dynamic scattering spectra by using phase-change materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.422119DOI Listing
March 2021

Cross-Species Comparison of Metabolomics to Decipher the Metabolic Diversity in Ten Fruits.

Metabolites 2021 Mar 12;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

School of Tropical Crops, Hainan University, Haikou 570288, China.

Fruits provide humans with multiple kinds of nutrients and protect humans against worldwide nutritional deficiency. Therefore, it is essential to understand the nutrient composition of various fruits in depth. In this study, we performed LC-MS-based non-targeted metabolomic analyses with ten kinds of fruit, including passion fruit, mango, starfruit, mangosteen, guava, mandarin orange, grape, apple, blueberry, and strawberry. In total, we detected over 2500 compounds and identified more than 300 nutrients. Although the ten fruits shared 909 common-detected compounds, each species accumulated a variety of species-specific metabolites. Additionally, metabolic profiling analyses revealed a constant variation in each metabolite's content across the ten fruits. Moreover, we constructed a neighbor-joining tree using metabolomic data, which resembles the single-copy protein-based phylogenetic tree. This indicates that metabolome data could reflect the genetic relationship between different species. In conclusion, our work enriches knowledge on the metabolomics of fruits, and provides metabolic evidence for the genetic relationships among these fruits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo11030164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000971PMC
March 2021

Novel Transcriptome Study and Detection of Metabolic Variations in UV-B-Treated Date Palm ( cv. Khalas).

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 4;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement and National Center of Plant Gene Research (Wuhan), Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Date palm () is one of the most widespread fruit crop species and can tolerate drastic environmental conditions that may not be suitable for other fruit species. Excess UV-B stress is one of the greatest concerns for date palm trees and can cause genotoxic effects. Date palm responds to UV-B irradiation through increased DEG expression levels and elaborates upon regulatory metabolic mechanisms that assist the plants in adjusting to this exertion. Sixty-day-old Khalas date palm seedlings (first true-leaf stage) were treated with UV-B (wavelength, 253.7 nm; intensity, 75 μW cm for 72 h (16 h of UV light and 8 h of darkness). Transcriptome analysis revealed 10,249 and 12,426 genes whose expressions were upregulated and downregulated, respectively, compared to the genes in the control. Furthermore, the differentially expressed genes included transcription factor-encoding genes and chloroplast- and photosystem-related genes. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to detect metabolite variations. Fifty metabolites, including amino acids and flavonoids, showed changes in levels after UV-B excess. Amino acid metabolism was changed by UV-B irradiation, and some amino acids interacted with precursors of different pathways that were used to synthesize secondary metabolites, i.e., flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. The metabolite content response to UV-B irradiation according to hierarchical clustering analysis showed changes in amino acids and flavonoids compared with those of the control. Amino acids might increase the function of scavengers of reactive oxygen species by synthesizing flavonoids that increase in response to UV-B treatment. This study enriches the annotated date palm unigene sequences and enhances the understanding of the mechanisms underlying UV-B stress through genetic manipulation. Moreover, this study provides a sequence resource for genetic, genomic and metabolic studies of date palm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7961990PMC
March 2021

Drought Resistance in Qingke Involves a Reprogramming of the Phenylpropanoid Pathway and UDP-Glucosyltransferase Regulation of Abiotic Stress Tolerance Targeting Flavonoid Biosynthesis.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Apr 26;69(13):3992-4005. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

College of Tropical Crops, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China.

Tibetan hulless barley (qingke) is an important food crop in the Tibetan plateau. However, it often suffers from drought stress resulting in reduction of food production because of the extreme plateau environment. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the drought resistance of qingke, the transcriptomic and metabolomic responses of drought-sensitive (D) and drought-resistant (XL) accessions were characterized in experiments with a time course design. The phenylpropanoid pathway was reprogrammed by downregulating the lignin pathway and increasing the biosynthesis of flavonoids and anthocyanins, and this regulation improved plant tolerance for drought stress. Besides, flavonoid glycosides have induced accumulation of metabolites that participated in drought stress resistance. 711410 exhibited the activity of wide-spectrum glucosyltransferase and mediated flavonoid glycosylation to enhance drought stress resistance. Overall, the findings provide insights into the regulatory mechanism underlying drought stress tolerance associated with metabolic reprogramming. Furthermore, the flavonoid-enriched qingke is more tolerant to drought stress and can be used as a functional food to benefit human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c07810DOI Listing
April 2021

MiR-21-3p Promotes Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression SMAD7/YAP1 Regulation.

Front Oncol 2021 8;11:642030. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a major global health burden due to its high prevalence and mortality. Emerging evidence reveals that microRNA (miRNA) plays a vital role in cancer pathogenesis and is widely involved in the regulation of signaling pathways their targeting of downstream genes. MiR-21-3p, a liver-enriched miRNA, and SMAD7, the negative regulator of the TGF- signaling pathway, likely exert a vital influence on HCC progression.

Aims: Here, we explore the role of the miR-21-3p-SMAD7/YAP1 axis on HCC pathogenesis.

Methods: MiRNA microarray analysis was performed for miRNA screening. The dual-luciferase assay was adopted for target verification. Expression of miRNA and related genes were quantified qRT-PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining. Flow cytometry and the transwell migration assay were used to detail cell apoptosis, invasion and metastases. Rat models were established to explore the role of the miR-21-3p-SMAD7/YAP1 axis in hepatocarcinogenesis. Bioinformatics analysis was conducted for exploring genes of clinical significance.

Results: MiR-21-3p levels were found to be significantly elevated in hepatocellular carcinoma and indicate poor overall survival. High miR-21-3p levels were associated with advanced tumor stages ( = 0.029), in particular T staging ( = 0.026). Low SMAD7/high YAP1 levels were confirmed in both HCC and rat models with advanced liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Besides, SMAD7 was demonstrated to be the direct target of miR-21-3p. The effect of MiR-21-3p on tumor phenotypes and YAP1 upregulation could be partly reversed the restoration of SMAD7 expression in HCC cell lines. Overexpression of YAP1 after miR-21-3p upregulation promoted expression of nuclear transcription effector connective tissue growth factor. Co-survival analysis indicated that lower miR-21-3p/higher SMAD7 ( = 0.0494) and lower miR-21-3p/lower YAP1 ( = 0.0379) group patients had better overall survival rates. Gene Set Variation Analysis revealed that gene sets related to miR-21-3p and SMAD7 were significantly associated with the TGF-β signaling pathway in HCC.

Conclusion: MiR-21-3p promotes migration and invasion of HCC cells and upregulation of YAP1 expression direct inhibition of SMAD7, underscoring a major epigenetic mechanism in the pathogenesis of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.642030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982593PMC
March 2021

Mechanistic Investigations of Ruthenium Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Thioester Synthesis and Thioester Hydrogenation.

ACS Catal 2021 Mar 15;11(5):2795-2807. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Organic Chemistry, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel.

We have recently reported the previously unknown synthesis of thioesters by coupling thiols and alcohols (or aldehydes) with liberation of H, as well as the reverse hydrogenation of thioesters, catalyzed by a well-defined ruthenium acridine-9H based pincer complex. These reactions are highly selective and are not deactivated by the strongly coordinating thiols. Herein, the mechanism of this reversible transformation is investigated in detail by a combined experimental and computational (DFT) approach. We elucidate the likely pathway of the reactions, and demonstrate experimentally how hydrogen gas pressure governs selectivity toward hydrogenation or dehydrogenation. With respect to the dehydrogenative process, we discuss a competing mechanism for ester formation, which despite being thermodynamically preferable, it is kinetically inhibited due to the relatively high acidity of thiol compared to alcohol and, accordingly, the substantial difference in the relative stabilities of a ruthenium thiolate intermediate as opposed to a ruthenium alkoxide intermediate. Accordingly, various additional reaction pathways were considered and are discussed herein, including the dehydrogenative coupling of alcohol to ester and the Tischenko reaction coupling aldehyde to ester. This study should inform future green, (de)hydrogenative catalysis with thiols and other transformations catalyzed by related ruthenium pincer complexes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acscatal.1c00418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7976608PMC
March 2021

Effects of decapitation and root cutting on phytoremediation efficiency of Celosia argentea.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jun 20;215:112162. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

College of Resources and Environment, Yangtze University, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Decapitation and root cutting can influence plant physiological features, such as height, dry weight, and transpiration rate, which partly determine the success of phytoremediation. In this study, the effects of three root cutting intensities (10%, 25%, and 33%), decapitation, and their combination on the phytoremediation efficiency of Celosia argentea were evaluated. Decapitation increased the biomass yield of C. argentea roots and leaves and significantly improved the species' Cd decontamination ability. Root cutting, especially 33% cutting treatment, decreased the root dry weight. The 10% and 25% root cutting treatments increased the leaf biomass yield by 58.6% and 41.4%, respectively, compared with the untreated control, even compensating for the loss of roots, but 33% root cutting decreased the leaf dry weight. Low and moderate root cutting intensity (10% and 25%) increased the leaf Cd content by 33.4% and 24.9%, respectively, and was associated with improved transpiration rate. The highest root and leaf dry weights were observed for the combination of decapitation and 10% root cutting, which increased the biomass yield of underground and aerial parts by 109.9% and 286.2%, respectively. In addition, decapitation offset the negative effects of 33% root cutting on plant growth, indicated by the higher dry weight relative to the control. Decapitated C. argentea accumulated 11.0, 7.5, and 0.7 times more Cd with the 10%, 25%, and 33% root cutting treatments, respectively, compared with the control. The combination of root cutting and decapitation was a practicable and economical method of enhancing the Cd decontamination capacity of C. argentea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112162DOI Listing
June 2021

Effect of the kappa angle on depth of focus after implantation of the TECNIS Symfony intraocular lens.

Int Ophthalmol 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 23 Bundesgasse, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China.

Purpose: To evaluate the clinical effect of TECNIS Symfony intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and identify the effect of kappa angle on the depth of focus (DOF) after implantation.

Methods: This prospective clinical study included consecutive patients who underwent cataract surgery and TECNIS Symfony IOL implantation at the Daqing Oilfield General Hospital from January 2019 to September 2019. Patients were divided into three groups according to the preoperative kappa angle (r): A (0 < r ≤ 0.2), B (0.2 < r ≤ 0.4), and C (r > 0.4). Uncorrected visual acuity was performed preoperatively and at 7 days, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively. Synthetical optometry, higher-order aberrations, and defocus examinations were performed at 3 months postoperatively. Single-factor analysis of variance and Spearman correlation coefficient were used for data analysis.

Results: The uncorrected visual acuity values of the three groups were significantly improved postoperatively, compared with preoperative values (p < 0.001). Three months postoperatively, the best-corrected visual acuity values of the three groups were 0.11 ± 0.02 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR), 0.09 ± 0.03 logMAR, and 0.11 ± 0.03 logMAR, respectively. Spherical equivalent (SE) values were 0.37 ± 0.08 D, 0.41 ± 0.06 D, and 0.42 ± 0.06 D, respectively. Best-corrected visual acuity and SE did not significantly differ among the three groups (F = 1.254, p = 0.135; F = 0.849, p = 0.228). There was no significant difference in SE between the three groups (F = 1.658, p = 0.312). Moreover, higher-order aberrations did not significantly differ among the three groups (p > 0.05). The kappa angle was negatively correlated with the postoperative DOF (r = -4.341, p = 0.026). Three months postoperatively, 54.55% of patients exhibited DOF ≥ 3 D, while 92.42% of patients exhibited DOF ≥ 2 D. The ranges of DOF in the three groups were 3.18 ± 0.27 D, 2.83 ± 0.80 D, and 2.57 ± 0.89 D, respectively; the difference among the three groups was statistically significant (F = 5.689, p = 0.037).

Conclusion: Most patients achieved full-range vision after TECNIS Symfony IOL implantation, but the DOF narrowed for those with an excessively large kappa angle, which indicates a need for careful selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10792-021-01809-xDOI Listing
March 2021

Transforming zero-index media into geometry-invariant coherent perfect absorbers via embedded conductive films.

Opt Express 2021 Feb;29(4):5247-5258

In this work, we demonstrate an approach to realize geometry-invariant multi-channel coherent perfect absorbers by embedding ultrathin conductive films in zero-index media. Coherent perfect absorption can be achieved for waves incidents from an arbitrary number of input channels as long as the total width of the channels equals to a critical value that is only determined by the length and material parameters of the conductive films instead of their shapes and positions. The absorption attributes to induced currents in the conductive films by the electric fields of incidence, and the shape- and position-independent characteristics originate from the uniformly distributed electric fields inside the zero-index media. By using dielectric photonic crystals and photonic-doped zero-index media, we numerically demonstrate such an interesting transformation from zero-index media to coherent perfect absorbers. Furthermore, ultrathin coherent perfect absorbers based on zero-index media are also demonstrated in waveguides. Our work reveals a unique mechanism to change the material responses between zero-index media and coherent perfect absorbers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.416632DOI Listing
February 2021

Cadmium subcellular distribution and chemical form in Festuca arundinacea in different intercropping systems during phytoremediation.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 10;276:130137. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

College of Resources and Environment, Yangtze University, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Intercropping with Cicer arietinum L has been suggested to improve the Cd decontamination capacity of Festuca arundinacea. However, the mechanisms stimulating this effect have not been revealed. The current study was designed to evaluate the changes in the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd in different leaf types of F. arundinacea intercropped with C. arietinum L under different schemes. The results indicated that more than half of the Cd was bound in the cell wall in plant organs under all planting schemes, showing that cell wall deposition is an important detoxication pathway for the metal. Relative to the monoculture scheme, coordinate and malposed intercropping schemes increased the Cd concentration deposited in the cytoplasm of below-ground tissues from 37.6% to 45.2% and 45.1%, respectively. Additionally, the proportion of inorganic and water-soluble Cd in the below-ground parts of F. arundinacea increased from 73.6% in the monoculture scheme to 80.6% and 84.7%, in the coordinate and malposed intercropping schemes, respectively. The results exhibited that intercropping schemes can activate the metal in below-ground tissues and move it to aerial parts. The present study revealed the promoting mechanism of intercropping schemes on the phytoremediation efficiency of F. arundinacea for Cd at a subcellular level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130137DOI Listing
March 2021

Comprehensive genomic profiling of combined small cell lung cancer.

Transl Lung Cancer Res 2021 Feb;10(2):636-650

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Combined small cell lung cancer (CSCLC) is an uncommon and heterogeneous subtype of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). However, there is limited data concerning the different molecular changes and clinical features in CSCLC compared to pure SCLC.

Methods: The clinical and pathological characteristics of pure SCLC and CSCLC patients were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry and microdissection were performed to isolate the CSCLC components. Further molecular analysis was carried out by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in 12 CSCLC and 30 pure SCLC.

Results: There were no significant differences in clinical features between CSCLC and pure SCLC. Overall survival (OS) of CSCLC patients was worse than pure SCLC (P=0.005). NGS results indicated that and were the most frequently mutated genes in both CSCLC (83.33% and 66.67%) and pure SCLC (80.00% and 63.33%) groups. However, less than 10% common mutations were found in both CSCLC and pure SCLC. When analyzing the data of SCLC and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) components of CSCLC, more than 50% common mutations, and identical genes with mutations were detected. Moreover, there were also common biological processes and signaling pathways identified in CSCLC and pure SCLC, in addition to SCLC and NSCLC components.

Conclusions: There were no significant differences in terms of clinical features between CSCLC and pure SCLC. However, the prognosis for CSCLC was worse than pure SCLC. NGS analysis suggested that CSCLC components might derive from the same pluripotent single clone with common initial molecular alterations and subsequent acquisitions of other genetic mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tlcr-20-1099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947408PMC
February 2021

Mitoferrin 2 deficiency prevents mitochondrial iron overload-induced endothelial injury and alleviates atherosclerosis.

Exp Cell Res 2021 May 9;402(1):112552. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Cardiology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Endothelial dysfunction is an early step in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Iron overload can lead to excessive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) production, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction and vascular endothelial cell (EC) damage. Mitoferrin 2 (Mfrn2) is an iron transporter in the inner mitochondrial membrane. This study aimed to assess whether Mfrn2 and mitochondrial iron overload were involved in atherosclerosis progression and to explore the potential mechanism. We observed significant upregulation of Mfrn2 in the arteries of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) mice and in TNF-α-induced mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs). Mfrn2 gene silencing inhibited mitochondrial iron overload, stabilized mitochondrial membrane potential and improved mitochondrial function in TNF-α-induced MAECs. Vascular EC-specific knockdown of Mfrn2 in ApoE mice markedly decreased atherosclerotic lesion formation and the levels of ICAM-1 in aortas and reduced monocyte infiltration into the vascular wall. Furthermore, TNF-α increased the binding of 14-3-3 epsilon (ε) and Mfrn2, preventing Mfrn2 degradation and leading to mitochondrial iron overload in ECs, while 14-3-3ε overexpression increased Mfrn2 stability by inhibiting its ubiquitination. Together, our results reveal that Mfrn2 deficiency attenuates endothelial dysfunction by decreasing iron levels within the mitochondria and mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings may provide new insights into preventive and therapeutic strategies against vascular endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerotic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2021.112552DOI Listing
May 2021

The impact of alfaxalone, propofol and ketamine on canine peripheral blood lymphocyte cytotoxicity in vitro.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Feb 28;136:182-184. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Department of Clinical Sciences & Advanced Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States of America. Electronic address:

Anesthetics may worsen the outcome of patients undergoing oncologic surgery via immune suppression. This study examines the impact of propofol, ketamine, and alfaxalone on canine peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) cytotoxic function in vitro. PBLs isolated from healthy canine blood were cultured in the presence or absence of alfaxalone, propofol, ketamine, their carrier solutions or dexamethasone as a positive control for 20 h. There was a decrease in cytotoxicity in PBLs exposed to dexamethasone and propofol carrier compared to the control as assessed by means of a chromium-based cytotoxicity assay. The PBLs exposed to propofol carrier also showed lower cytotoxicity compared to propofol. No other significant differences were observed. Therefore, the documented effects of these anesthetics in vivo may be caused by an indirect mechanism. The lipid emulsion's significant decrease in PBL cytotoxicity may have implications for critically ill patients on total parenteral nutrition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2021.02.019DOI Listing
February 2021

Comparative transcriptome profiles of large and small bodied large-scale loaches cultivated in paddy fields.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 2;11(1):4936. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, China.

Fish culture in paddy fields is a traditional aquaculture mode, which has a long history in East Asia. Large-scale loach (Paramisgurnus dabryanus) fast growth is suitable for paddy fields aquaculture in China. The objective of this study was to identify differential expression genes (DEGs) in the brain, liver and muscle tissues between large (LG, top 5% of maximum total length) and small (SG, top 5% of minimum total length) groups using RNA-seq. In total, 150 fish were collected each week and 450 fish were collected at twelfth week from three paddy fields for all the experimental. Histological observation found that the muscle fibre diameter of LG loaches was greater than that of SG loaches. Transcriptome results revealed that the high expression genes (HEGs) in LG loaches (fold change ≥ 2, p < 0.05) were mainly concentrated in metabolic pathways, such as "Thyroid hormone signalling pathway", "Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)", "Carbon metabolism", "Fatty acid metabolism", and "Cholesterol metabolism", and the HEGs in SG loaches were enriched in the pathways related to environmental information processing such as "Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)", "ECM- receptor interaction" and "Rap1 signalling pathway"; cellular processes such as "Tight junction", "Focal adhesion", "Phagosome" and "Adherens junction". Furthermore, IGFs gene family may play an important role in loach growth for their different expression pattern between the two groups. These findings can enhance our understanding about the molecular mechanism of different growth and development levels of loaches in paddy fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84519-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7925675PMC
March 2021

Domestication of Crop Metabolomes: Desired and Unintended Consequences.

Trends Plant Sci 2021 Feb 27. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Max-Planck-Institut für Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie, 14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany; Center of Plant Systems Biology and Biotechnology, Plovdiv 4000, Bulgaria. Electronic address:

The majority of the crops and vegetables of today were domesticated from their wild progenitors within the past 12 000 years. Considerable research effort has been expended on characterizing the genes undergoing positive and negative selection during the processes of crop domestication and improvement. Many studies have also documented how the contents of a handful of metabolites have been altered during human selection, but we are only beginning to unravel the true extent of the metabolic consequences of breeding. We highlight how crop metabolomes have been wittingly or unwittingly shaped by the processes of domestication, and highlight how we can identify new targets for metabolite engineering for the purpose of de novo domestication of crop wild relatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2021.02.005DOI Listing
February 2021

Label-free proteomics uncovers SMC1A expression is Down-regulated in AUB-E.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2021 Mar 2;19(1):35. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang, China.

Background: While heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a prevalent symptom among women with abnormal uterine bleeding caused by endometrial disorder (AUB-E) seeking gynecologic care, the primary endometrial disorder remains poorly understood.

Methods: Five human endometrial samples from women with AUB-E and the age-matched healthy women were selected, respectively. Proteins from the samples were analyzed by a linear ion trap (LTQ)-Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer based label-free proteomic approach. The purpose protein was validated by western blot and immunohistochemistry staining.

Results: A total of 2353 protein groups were quantified under highly stringent criteria with a false discovery rate of < 1% for protein groups, and 291 differentially expressed proteins were significantly changed between the two groups. The results showed that the down-regulation of structural maintenance of chromosomes protein 1A (SMC1A) in AUB-E patients. Next, this change in the glandular epithelial cells was validated by immunohistochemistry.

Conclusion: The results indicated a novel mechanism for the cause of AUB-E, as down-expression SMC1A potentially regulated the cell cycle progression in endometrial glandular epithelium further led to bleeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12958-021-00713-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7923474PMC
March 2021

A novel approach for modulating the spatial distribution of fat globules in acid milk gel and its effect on the perception of fat-related attributes.

Food Res Int 2021 Feb 15;140:109990. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

College of Food Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410114, China. Electronic address:

Modulating the inhomogeneous distribution of fat globules within an emulsion gel is now being considered an effective method to increase the perception of fat-related sensory attributes. However, the methods for preparing the inhomogeneous gel were relatively complicated in previous studies. In the present study, milks enriched with different sizes of fat globule were obtained and then used to prepare glucono-δ-lactone-induced milk gels. The gels with different spatial distributions of fat globules were obtained through natural creaming. To ensure the high fat content layer exist on the gel surface, the two gels made from the same milk were superimposed from the bottom to form a new gel. In situ confocal microscopy showed that under the same overall fat content, the superimposed gel containing larger fat globules (L-L gel) exhibited the greatest inhomogeneity in microstructure with the highest average surface fat area fraction (10.9%), and the largest difference in fat content between the surface and the inside layers (9.1%). To illustrate the effect of inhomogeneous distribution of fat globules in gels on the perception of fat-related attributes, quantitative descriptive sensory analysis as well as the lubrication properties measurement under simulated oral processing conditions were carried out. The results showed the superimposed gels exhibited higher creaminess ratings and lower friction coefficients at 20 mm/s than those of the original gels. Overall, the study modulated the spatial distribution of fat globules in acid milk gels through natural creaming and superimposition and illustrated its positive effect on the perception of fat-related sensory attributes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109990DOI Listing
February 2021

Advances in Subcutaneous Delivery Systems of Biomacromolecular Agents for Diabetes Treatment.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 17;16:1261-1280. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Pharmacy, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, 110001, Liaoning, People's Republic of China.

Diabetes mellitus is a major threat to human health. Both its incidence and prevalence have been rising steadily over the past few decades. Biomacromolecular agents such as insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists are commonly used hypoglycemic drugs that play important roles in the treatment of diabetes. However, their traditional frequent administration may cause numerous side effects, such as pain, infection or local tissue necrosis. To address these issues, many novel subcutaneous delivery systems have been developed in recent years. In this review, we survey recent developments in subcutaneous delivery systems of biomacromolecular hypoglycemic drugs, including sustained-release delivery systems and stimuli-responsive delivery systems, and summarize the advantages and limitations of these systems. Future opportunities and challenges are discussed as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S283416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7898203PMC
March 2021

Water enables mild oxidation of methane to methanol on gold single-atom catalysts.

Nat Commun 2021 Feb 22;12(1):1218. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, CAS Key Laboratory of Strongly-Coupled Quantum Matter Physics, Key Laboratory of Surface and Interface Chemistry and Energy Catalysis of Anhui Higher Education Institutes, Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, P. R. China.

As a 100% atom-economy process, direct oxidation of methane into methanol remains as a grand challenge due to the dilemma between activation of methane and over-oxidation of methanol. Here, we report that water enabled mild oxidation of methane into methanol with >99% selectivity over Au single atoms on black phosphorus (Au/BP) nanosheets under light irradiation. The mass activity of Au/BP nanosheets reached 113.5 μmol g in water pressured with 33 bar of mixed gas (CH:O = 10:1) at 90 °C under light irradiation (1.2 W), while the activation energy was 43.4 kJ mol. Mechanistic studies revealed that water assisted the activation of O to generate reactive hydroxyl groups and •OH radicals under light irradiation. Hydroxyl groups reacted with methane at Au single atoms to form water and CH* species, followed by oxidation of CH* via •OH radicals into methanol. Considering the recycling of water during the whole process, we can also regard water as a catalyst.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21482-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900127PMC
February 2021

Optimizing pDNA Lipo-polyplexes: A Balancing Act between Stability and Cargo Release.

Biomacromolecules 2021 Mar 22;22(3):1282-1296. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Center for Nanoscience, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, Butenandtstrasse 5-13, Munich 81377, Germany.

When optimizing nanocarriers, structural motifs that are beneficial for the respective type of cargo need to be identified. Here, succinoyl tetraethylene pentamine (Stp)-based lipo-oligoaminoamides (OAAs) were optimized for the delivery of plasmid DNA (pDNA). Structural variations comprised saturated fatty acids with chain lengths between C2 and C18 and terminal cysteines as units promoting nanoparticle stabilization, histidines for endosomal buffering, and disulfide building blocks for redox-sensitive release. Biophysical and tumor cell culture screening established clear-cut relationships between lipo-OAAs and characteristics of the formed pDNA complexes. Based on the optimized alternating Stp-histidine backbones, lipo-OAAs containing fatty acids with chain lengths around C6 to C10 displayed maximum gene transfer with around 500-fold higher gene expression than that of C18 lipo-OAA analogues. Promising lipo-OAAs, however, showed only moderate efficiency. testing in 90% full serum, revealing considerable inhibition of lytic and gene-transfer activity, was found as a new screening model predictive for intravenous applications .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.0c01779DOI Listing
March 2021

Oncogenic ZEB2/miR-637/HMGA1 signaling axis targeting vimentin promotes the malignant phenotype of glioma.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2021 Mar 5;23:769-782. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510375, People's Republic of China.

Glioma is the most common primary tumor of the central nervous system. We previously confirmed that zinc finger E-box binding homeobox (ZEB) 2 promotes the malignant progression of glioma, while microRNA-637 (miR-637) is associated with favorable prognosis in glioma. This study aimed to investigate the potential interaction between ZEB2 and miR-637 and its downstream signaling pathway in glioma. The results revealed that ZEB2 could directly bind to the E-box elements in the miR-637 promoter and promote cell proliferation, migration, and invasion via miR-637 downregulation. Subsequent screening confirmed that HMGA1 was a direct target of miR-637, while miR-637 could drive the malignant phenotype of glioma by suppressing HMGA1 both and . Furthermore, interaction between cytoplasmic HMGA1 and vimentin was observed, and vimentin inhibition could abolish increased migration and invasion induced by HMGA1 overexpression. Both HMGA1 and vimentin were associated with an unfavorable prognosis in glioma. Additionally, upregulated HMGA1 and vimentin were found in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) wild-type and 1p/19q non-codeletion diffusely infiltrating glioma. In conclusion, we identified an oncogenic ZEB2/miR-637/HMGA1 signaling axis targeting vimentin that promotes both migration and invasion in glioma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2020.12.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7868719PMC
March 2021

Synthesis of a novel amphoteric copolymer and its application as a dispersant for coal water slurry preparation.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Jan 13;8(1):201480. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Chemical Additives for Industry, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi'an 710021, People's Republic of China.

In this work, a novel amphoteric copolymer named Poly(sodium p-styrenesulfonate--acrylic acid--diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (P(SS--AA--DMDAAC)) was synthesized via free radical polymerization. Afterwards, P(SS--AA--DMDAAC) was explored for use as a dispersant in coal water slurry (CWS) preparation. The structure of P(SS--AA--DMDAAC) was verified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. The synthetic conditions were optimized as the feed ratio of AA to SS was 1 : 1 (for Yulin coal) or 1.5 : 1 (for Yili coal), and DMDAAC dosage was 4.0 wt% (for Yulin coal) and 6.0 wt% (for Yili coal) toward total monomers. The performances of P(SS--AA--DMDAAC) as a dispersant for CWS were evaluated by various technologies, such as apparent viscosity, zeta potential, static stability and contact angle measurements. The results revealed that the optimized dosage of P(SS--AA--DMDAAC) in CWS preparation was 0.3 and 0.4 wt% for Yulin coal and Yili coal respectively. In this optimum condition, CWS prepared using P(SS--AA--DMDAAC) as dispersant showed a typical shear thinning behaviour and excellent stability, which are desired in industries. The rheological models also confirmed the pseudo-plastic characteristics of CWS. Finally, compared with the widely used anionic dispersant naphthalene sulphonate formaldehyde condensate (NSF) and poly(sodium p-styrenesulfonate) (PSS), P(SS--AA--DMDAAC) developed in this work exhibited better slurry making performance. The introduction of cationic functional groups promoted the adsorption of the dispersant, which further enhanced the electrostatic repulsion and steric hindrance among coal particles. Accordingly, the viscosity of CWS decreased and static stability enhanced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.201480DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890484PMC
January 2021

Alleviation of Anxiety/Depressive-Like Behaviors and Improvement of Cognitive Functions by WLPL04 in Chronically Stressed Mice.

Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2021 30;2021:6613903. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

School of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Preventive Medicine, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006, China.

Background: Intestinal microorganisms play an important role in regulating the neurodevelopment and the brain functions of the host through the gut-brain axis. , one of the most representative intestinal probiotics, produces important effects on human physiological functions. Our previous studies reveal that the WLPL04 has a series of beneficial actions, such as antiadhesion of pathogens, protection from the harmful effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate, and anti-inflammatory stress on Caco2 cells. However, its effects on brain functions remain unknown. The present study aims to evaluate the potential effect of WLPL04 on anxiety/depressive-like behaviors in chronically restrained mice.

Methods: Newly weaned mice were exposed to chronic restraint stress for four weeks and raised daily with or without . WLPL04 water supplement. Animals were behaviorally assessed for anxiety/depression and cognitive functions. The 16S rRNA sequencing was performed to analyze the intestinal microbiota structure. The levels of the medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC) brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) and serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were examined using Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: The chronic stress-induced anxiety/depressive-like behaviors and cognitive deficits were significantly alleviated by the . WLPL04 treatment. The 16S rRNA sequencing analysis showed that the chronic stress reduced the diversity and the richness of intestinal microbiota, which were rescued by the . WLPL04 treatment. The levels of BDNF and TrkB in the mPFC and the concentration of 5-HT in the serum remained unchanged in chronically restrained mice treated with the WLPL04.

Conclusions: The WLPL04 can rescue anxiety/depressive-like behaviors and cognitive dysfunctions, reverse the abnormal change in intestinal microbiota, and alleviate the reduced levels of 5-HT, BDNF, and TrkB induced by chronic stress in mice, providing an experimental basis for the therapeutic application of on anxiety/depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6613903DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7868149PMC
January 2021