Publications by authors named "Jie Hu"

960 Publications

Midterm Results and Predictors for the Postoperative Vascular Stenosis of Supravalvular Aortic Stenosis.

Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 1678 Dongfang Road, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

This study reviewed the midterm outcomes of supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) repair and determined the risk factors associated with postoperative aortic or pulmonary stenosis. We retrospectively reviewed 225 patients who underwent surgical correction of SVAS from 2010 to 2019. 178 (79.1%), 44 (19.6%) and 3 (1.3%) patients underwent McGoon, Doty, and Brom repair, respectively. The median age at surgery was 2.2 years (interquartile range, 1.2-4.4). The median follow-up time was 3.7 years (interquartile range, 1.9-5.7). Early and late mortality rates were 3.1% and 1.4%, respectively. The overall 5-year survival rate was 97.9%. Eleven patients received reintervention, including 6 (2.8%) reoperations and 5 (2.3%) balloon dilatations. Higher preoperative pressure gradient at the distal ascending aorta or aortic arch was a risk factor for reintervention (p = 0.04). Rates of mortality and complications were not related to the surgical technique. Eleven patients (5.2%) developed sinotubular junction (STJ) stenosis. Freedom from postoperative distal artery stenosis (DAS) of type II SVAS was significantly lower than that of type I (p < 0.01). Higher preoperative pressure gradient at the STJ (p < 0.01) and concomitant bilateral or peripheral pulmonary artery (PA) stenosis (p < 0.01) were risk factors for postoperative DAS. Postoperative PA stenosis occurred more frequently in patients who received bilateral pulmonary arterioplasty (p < 0.01). Postoperative prognosis of the aortic root after SVAS repair was satisfactory. DAS and PA stenosis were common. The results of bilateral pulmonary arterioplasty were unsatisfactory. The surgical timing and technique for PA stenosis should be carefully considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.semtcvs.2021.07.012DOI Listing
July 2021

Corydalis saxicola Bunting total alkaloids attenuate paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy through PKCε/p38 MAPK/TRPV1 signaling pathway.

Chin Med 2021 Jul 19;16(1):58. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of TCM Evaluation and Translational Research, Department of Pharmacology of Chinese Materia Medica, China Pharmaceutical University, 639 Longmian Road, Nanjing, 211198, China.

Background: Corydalis saxicola Bunting, affiliated with the Papaveraceae Juss., has been proven to work well in anti-inflammation, hemostasis, and analgesia. This study was designed to observe the effect and potential mechanism of Corydalis saxicola Bunting total alkaloids (CSBTA) on paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy (PIPN).

Materials And Methods: Rats were injected 2 mg/kg paclitaxel 4 times and administrated with 30 or 120 mg/kg CSBTA. Mechanical and thermal allodynia and hyperalgesia were tested. After 40 days, serum was collected to detect PGE2, TNF-α, and IL-1β by ELISA. The L4-L6 segment spinal cord, DRG, and plantar skin were harvested, and Western-blot or RT-qPCR analyzed protein and gene levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, p38 MAPK, PKCε, and TRPV1. The PIPN cell model was established with paclitaxel (300 nM, 5 d) in primary DRG neurons. We examined the effect of CSBTA (25 μg/ml or 50 μg/ml) by measuring the mRNA levels in PGE2, TNF-α and CGRP, and the protein expression on the PKCε/p38 MAPK/TRPV1 signaling pathway in the PIPN cell model.

Results: The results showed that CSBTA effectively ameliorated allodynia and hyperalgesia, and regulated cytokines' contents (PGE2, TNF-α, and IL-1β) and neuropeptides (CGRP and SP) in different tissues in vivo. In addition, CSBTA significantly decreased cytokine gene levels of DRG neurons (PGE2, TNF-α, and CGRP) and the protein expressions of PKCε/p38 MAPK/TRPV1 signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro.

Conclusion: Therefore, CSBTA has a perspective therapeutic effect on the treatment of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-021-00468-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8287815PMC
July 2021

Pediatric Asthma Situation in Chengdu, China, During the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Observational Study.

J Asthma Allergy 2021 9;14:829-838. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Chengdu Women's and Children's Central Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, People's Republic of China.

Background: To tackle the COVID-19 pandemic and mitigate viral transmission, mainland China has implemented various disease prevention measures and arrangements. We hypothesize that these measures may be pose challenges to the management of pediatric asthma. Here, we studied the situation of pediatric asthma in Chengdu during the COVID-19 pandemic and compared the pediatric asthma situation before so as to provide a reference for designing effective management plan for pediatric asthma patients in the future facing the outbreak of epidemic.

Methods: An observational study was done to compare the pediatric asthma situation in Chengdu from 2017 to 2019 to the situation under COVID-19 pandemic. Asthma incidence, severe asthma attack, air quality, temperature, and patient follow-up were examined.

Results: The number of monthly asthma cases decreased significantly in February 2020. The number of asthma cases in 2017-2019 positively correlated with levels of particulate matter PM (p = 0.006) and PM (p = 0.005), while it negatively correlated with temperature (p = 0.048). No correlation was identified in 2020. A higher rate of severe asthma attack cases (9.69%) was observed among asthma patients in 2020 (p = 0.014). Differences were identified between the monthly severe asthma attack during the period 2017-2020 (p<0.001). The rate of severe asthma attack cases peaked in June and September 2020. The percentage of patients who failed to undergo pulmonary function tests was 34.5% in 2020, remarkably higher than in the previous 3 years (p<0.001).

Conclusion: The situation and management of pediatric asthma during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic differed from those in previous years, with more emphasis placed on disease prevention practices and facilities. To design future pediatric asthma management practice, the environmental and psychological impact on asthma management should also be considered. Local areas should make good use of telemedicine to manage pediatric asthma effectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JAA.S315695DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8277453PMC
July 2021

Gastroprotective effects of derived carbon dots on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats.

Nanomedicine (Lond) 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, 100029, China.

To evaluate the gastroprotective effects of carbon dots (NRN-CDs) on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. NRN-CDs synthesized and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet, fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and zeta potential analyzer. Their gastroprotective effects toward ethanol-induced gastric ulcers were evaluated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. NRN-CDs showed an average diameter of 2.33 ± 0.42 nm and a lattice spacing of 0.29 nm. Pretreatment with NRN-CDs significantly decreased the ulcer index and attenuated the severity of gastric mucosal damage, indicating that NRN-CDs exerted potent gastric protective effect. Moreover, the gastroprotection effect was related to the regulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory factors. NRN-CDs could be developed as a potential drug for the treatment of gastric ulcers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/nnm-2020-0472DOI Listing
July 2021

Superposition-state N produced in the intermolecular charge transfer from low-energy Ar to N.

J Chem Phys 2021 Jun;154(23):234303

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials (iChEM), Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China.

Molecular electronic or vibrational states can be superimposed temporarily in an extremely short laser pulse, and the superposition-state transients formed therein receive much attention, owing to the extensive interest in molecular fundamentals and the potential applications in quantum information processing. Using the crossed-beam ion velocity map imaging technique, we disentangle two distinctly different pathways leading to the forward-scattered N yields in the large impact-parameter charge transfer from low-energy Ar to N. Besides the ground-state (XΣ ) N produced in the energy-resonant charge transfer, a few slower N ions are proposed to be in the superpositions of the XΣ -AΠ and AΠ-BΣ states on the basis of the accidental degeneracy or energetic closeness of the vibrational states around the XΣ -AΠ and AΠ-BΣ crossings in the non-Franck-Condon region. This finding potentially shows a brand-new way to prepare the superposition-state molecular ion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0055002DOI Listing
June 2021

Expression Status and Prognostic Value of mA RNA Methylation Regulators in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Life (Basel) 2021 Jun 26;11(7). Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230001, China.

N-methyladenosine (mA) RNA modification is the most abundant modification method in mRNA, and it plays an important role in the occurrence and development of many cancers. This paper mainly discusses the role of mA RNA methylation regulators in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) to identify novel prognostic biomarkers. The gene expression data of 19 mA methylation regulators in LUAD patients and its relevant clinical parameters were extracted from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. We selected three significantly differentially expressed mA regulators in LUAD to construct the risk signature, and evaluated its prognostic prediction efficiency using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis were used to identify the independent prognostic significance of the risk signature. The ROC curve indicated that the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.659, which means that the risk signature had a good prediction efficiency. The results of the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis showed that the risk score can be used as an independent prognostic factor for LUAD. In addition, we explored the differential signaling pathways and cellular processes related to mA methylation regulators in LUAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life11070619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8306618PMC
June 2021

MicroRNA-744-5p inhibits glioblastoma malignancy by suppressing replication factor C subunit 2.

Oncol Lett 2021 Aug 15;22(2):608. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, General Hospital of the Yangtze River Shipping, Jiangan, Wuhan, Hubei 430010, P.R. China.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant primary brain tumor, accounting for ~57% of all gliomas and 48% of all malignant primary central nervous system tumors in the United States. Abnormal expression of the replication factor C subunit 2 (RFC2) gene and microRNA (miR)-744-5p is associated with tumorigenic characteristics, including cellular proliferation, migration and invasiveness. However, the mechanism underlying the interaction between miR-744-5p and RFC2 in GBM remains unknown. Reverse transcription-quantitative (RT-q) PCR analysis of RFC2 and miR-744-5p was performed using GBM tumor tissues and cells, and the association between miR-744-5p and RFC2 was determined by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Cell Counting Kit 8, 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU), wound-healing and cellular adhesion assays, as well as the detection of caspase-3 activity and western blotting were used to detect cellular proliferation, migration and adhesion, caspase-3 activity, and Bax and Bcl-2 protein expression, respectively, in GBM cells. The results of the present study demonstrated that RFC2 expression was increased in GBM tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of RFC2 promoted cellular proliferation, migration, adhesion and an increase in Bcl-2 protein levels, and suppressed cellular caspase-3 activity and Bax protein expression, while silencing RFC2 resulted in the opposite effect. The effects of miR-744-5p inhibition were similar to those of RFC2 overexpression. Moreover, miR-744-5p was found to target RFC2 in GBM cells, and inhibiting the expression of RFC2 suppressed GBM tumorigenesis. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that miR-744-5p targets RFC2 and suppresses the progression of GBM by repressing cellular proliferation, migration and Bcl-2 protein expression, and effectively promoting caspase-3 activity and Bax protein expression. These findings suggest a new target for the clinical treatment and improved prognosis of patients with GBM in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2021.12869DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227640PMC
August 2021

Experimental Investigation of Factors Influencing Remaining Oil Distribution under Water Flooding in a 2-D Visualized Cross-Section Model.

Authors:
Jie Hu Aifen Li

ACS Omega 2021 Jun 9;6(24):15572-15579. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

School of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580, China.

About 70% of the remaining oil remains underground after water flooding, and there is a need to better understand the formation and distribution of this remaining macroscopic oil to enhance oil recovery. In this study, three types of visual plate models were devised with different packing sequences: homogeneous (J), high-permeability layer on top (F), and low-permeability layer on top (Z). Based on these models, several visual flooding experiments were conducted to study the water flooding physics and the remaining oil distribution pattern of an offshore thick heavy oil reservoir under the impact of formation heterogeneity, packing sequence, model length, and permeability contrast during water flooding. These displacements were monitored photographically, and the effluent production profiles were recorded. The results showed that layer permeability and gravitational segregation play an important role during the water flooding process in layered porous media. Experimental results based on the model with different lengths show that the breakthrough oil recovery decreases with the increase of well spacing. Finally, a correction was made to the gravity number by introducing a scaling factor that characterized the formation heterogeneity and packing sequence in thick formation, compared to a known gravity number; the modified gravity number showed a better correlation with breakthrough oil recovery of water and polymer flooding. The research results provide effective guidance for the remaining oil distribution and injection and production parameter optimization in actual reservoirs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c05534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223209PMC
June 2021

Sex differences in the associations between adiposity distribution and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight or obese individuals: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Public Health 2021 06 26;21(1):1232. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland, 4111, Australia.

Background: We aimed to assess the associations between adiposity distribution and cardiometabolic risk factors among overweight and obese adults in China, and to demonstrate the sex differences in these associations.

Methods: A total of 1221 participants (455 males and 766 females) were included in this study. Percentage of body fat (PBF) of the whole body and regional areas, including arm, thigh, trunk, android, and gynoid, were measured by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method. Central adiposity was measured by waist circumference. Clustered cardiometabolic risk was defined as the presence of two or more of the six cardiometabolic risk factors, namely, high triglyceride, low high density lipoprotein, elevated glucose, elevated blood pressure, elevated high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and low adiponectin. Linear regression models and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between whole body or regional PBF and cardiometabolic risk factors.

Results: In females, except arm adiposity, other regional fat (thigh, trunk, android, gynoid) and whole-body PBF are significantly associated with clustered cardiometabolic risk, adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, and whole-body PBF. One-SD increase in Z scores of the thigh and gynoid PBF were significantly associated with 80 and 78% lower odds of clustered cardiometabolic risk (OR: 0.20, 95%CI: 0.12-0.35 and OR: 0.22, 95%CI: 0.12-0.41). Trunk, android and whole-body PBF were significantly associated with higher odds of clustered risk with OR of 1.90 (95%CI:1.02-3.55), 2.91 (95%CI: 1.75-4.85), and 2.01 (95%CI: 1.47-2.76), respectively. While in males, one-SD increase in the thigh and gynoid PBF are associated with 94% (OR: 0.06, 95%CI: 0.02-0.23) and 83% lower odds (OR: 0.17, 95%CI: 0.05-0.57) of clustered cardiometabolic risk, respectively. Android and whole-body PBF were associated with higher odds of clustered cardiometabolic risk (OR: 3.39, 95%CI: 1.42-8.09 and OR: 2.45, 95%CI: 1.53-3.92), but the association for trunk PBF was not statistically significant (OR: 1.16, 95%CI: 0.42-3.19).

Conclusions: Adiposity distribution plays an important role in the clustered cardiometabolic risk in participants with overweight and obese and sex differences were observed in these associations. In general, central obesity (measured by android PBF) could be the best anthropometric measurement for screening people at risk for CVD risk factors for both men and women. Upper body fat tends to be more detrimental to cardiometabolic health in women than in men, whereas lower body fat is relatively more protective in men than in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11316-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8234731PMC
June 2021

Angiomyolipoma of the left adrenal gland: a case report and literature review.

Gland Surg 2021 May;10(5):1826-1831

Department of Radiology, Medical Imaging Center of Guizhou Province, The Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, China.

Angiomyolipoma (AML) is apparent a part of mesenchymal tumor arising from perivascular epithelioid cell origin. AML is formed of blood vessels, spindle and epithelioid cells, and mature adipocytes. Adrenal AML is very rare. Indeed, only 21 cases of adrenal AML have been reported in the English-language literature. In these cases, patients were usually asymptomatic, and AML was often examined passingly during a health checkup or a common abdominal ultrasound (US) or a computed tomography (CT) examination for a other unrelated disease. This is a case report of adrenal AML in a 40-year-old male who presented with no clinical manifestations. Some 3 months ago, a first abdominal routine CT scan revealed a left adrenal mass. Three months later, a routine US showed a hypoechoic area of 21 mm × 15 mm in the left adrenal gland. A retroperitoneoscopic resection of the left adrenal gland tumor was then performed. A postoperative histopathology report confirmed a benign AML composed of blood vessels, smooth muscle, and mature adipose tissue. The patient was discharged without event. Due to the paucity of the literature on this subject, more clinical and imaging information about this disease is necessary for diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment. In this paper, we present a complete case report, including the clinical presentation, imaging, treatment, and conduct a review of the relevant literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/gs-21-244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184383PMC
May 2021

Impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on immune checkpoint inhibitor efficacy in advanced lung cancer and the potential prognostic factors.

Transl Lung Cancer Res 2021 May;10(5):2148-2162

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: The coexistence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in lung cancer patients often correlates with a poor clinical outcome regardless of tumor stage, mainly due to older age, poor lung function, and complex comorbid disease. Emerging data suggest that the pathogenesis of both diseases involves aberrant immune functioning. We conducted this retrospective study to describe the impact of COPD on the clinical outcomes of lung cancer patients treated with immunotherapy and investigate the potential prognostic factors.

Methods: In total, 156 patients with advanced-stage lung cancer who received at least one administration of an anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/anti-programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) at any treatment line at Zhongshan Hospital Fudan University between May 2018 and December 2019 were enrolled in our study. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed according to the presence of COPD. We also evaluated the prognostic value of circulating cytokine levels for clinical outcome.

Results: We found that the presence of COPD (both spirometry-based COPD and physician-defined COPD) was significantly associated with longer PFS (316 186 days, P=0.018). Moderate and severe COPD tended to have a better impact on the survival of these patients. In the present study, we reported that patients with mixed ventilatory defects tended to have a better OS (P=0.043) and PFS (P=0.18) when treated with ICIs compared to the normal lung function group. We also found that low baseline plasma interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) levels were associated with longer PFS in patients with advanced-stage lung cancer who received ICI treatment. Furthermore, patients who had increased IL-2R levels had significantly poorer OS [hazard ratio (HR) =3.63; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.98-13.44; P=0.040] and PFS (HR =3.241; 95% CI, 1.032-10.18; P=0.035) when treated with ICIs. Nomograms were established based on the independent prognostic factors derived from our final multivariate models.

Conclusions: COPD was associated with better survival in advanced-stage lung cancer patients treated with ICIs. Plasma IL-8 and IL-2R levels were potential prognostic factors for clinical outcome. The nomograms represent a possibly useful tool for predicting the clinical outcomes of immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tlcr-21-214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8182718PMC
May 2021

Simultaneous Determination of Celecoxib, Dezocine and Dexmedetomidine in Beagle Plasma Using UPLC-MS/MS Method and the Application in Pharmacokinetics.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 15;15:2529-2541. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Anesthesiology, Luoyang Central Hospital, Luoyang, Henan Province, 471003, People's Republic of China.

Background: An efficient, fast and sensitive ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of celecoxib (CEL), dezocine (DEZ) and dexmedetomidine (DEX) in beagle plasma were established.

Methods: The beagle dogs plasmawas precipitated by acetonitrile. The column was Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column and the mobile phase was acetonitrile-formic acid with gradient mode, and the flow rate was set at 0.4 mL/min. Under the positive ion mode, CEL, DEZ, DEX and Midazolam (internal standard, IS) were monitored by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) as the following mass transition pairs: m/z 381.10→282.10 for CEL, m/z 246.20→147.00 for DEZ, m/z 201.10→94.90 for DEX, and m/z 326.10→291.10 for IS.

Results: This UPLC-MS/MS method had good linearity for CEL, DEZ and DEX. The RSDs of inter-day and intra-day precision were the values of 0.31-7.66% and 0.11-9.63%, respectively; the RE values were from -6.05% to 10.98%. The extraction recovery was more than 79%, and the matrix effect was around 100%. The RSDs of stability were less than 8.96%. All of them met the acceptance standard of biological analysis method recommended by FDA.

Conclusion: This UPLC-MS/MS method is an effective tool for the simultaneous determination of CEL, DEX and DEX, and has been successfully applied to the study of pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S314562DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8214532PMC
June 2021

Influence of Surgical Methods on Hemodynamics in Supravalvular Aortic Stenosis: A Computational Hemodynamic Analysis.

Pediatr Cardiol 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1678 Dongfang Road, Shanghai, China.

We compared differences in the hemodynamic parameters of multiple surgical techniques for supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). A three-dimensional model was reconstructed based on a patient's CT scan. Virtual McGoon, Doty, and Brom repairs were completed using computer-aided design (CAD). Hemodynamic parameters were calculated through computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The velocity profile and wall shear stress (WSS) showed the blood flow pattern. Energy loss (EL) and energy efficiency (EE) were calculated to estimate the cardiac workload. The perioperative blood flow ratio (BFR) of brachiocephalic vessels and coronary arteries was calculated. The preoperative flow velocity was abnormally high (> 5.0 m/s). High WSS was detected at the sinotubular junction (STJ), and its preoperative distribution in the aorta was uneven. High-speed flow disappeared after each of the three operations. The WSS distribution at the aortic root was consistent with the postoperative STJ structure of each operation. EL in the systolic phase decreased postoperatively (Original: 634 mW, McGoon: 218 mW, Doty: 278 mW, Brom: 255 mW). No significant difference in brachiocephalic BFR was detected among the different techniques. A slightly increased coronary BFR (Original: 7.56%, McGoon: 7.99%, Doty: 8.55%, Brom: 8.89%) was detected. McGoon, Doty, and Brom repair each effectively restored stable blood flow and greatly improved EE. The best WSS distribution and coronary blood supply were achieved after Brom repair due to its ability to reconstruct the symmetrical aortic root structure. CFD combined with a virtual operation is a promising method in surgical planning and optimization for SVAS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00246-021-02657-3DOI Listing
June 2021

Potent human single domain antibodies specific for a novel prefusion epitope of RSV F glycoprotein.

J Virol 2021 Jun 23:JVI0048521. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Center for Biosafety Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430071, China.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) poses great health threats to humans. However, there are no licensed vaccines or therapeutic drugs to date. Only one humanized monoclonal antibody, palivizumab, is available on the market, but it is used prophylactically and is limited to infants under high risk. With advances in antibody engineering, it has been found that single domain antibody (sdAb) can be therapeutically administered by inhalation, which would be more efficient for respiratory diseases. Here, we identified two human sdAbs, m17 and m35, by phage display technology. They specifically bind to RSV F in the prefusion state with subnanomolar affinity and potently neutralize both RSV subtypes A and B with IC values ranging from pM to nM. Interestingly, these sdAbs recognize a novel epitope termed VI that is unique to the prefusion state. This epitope is located at the C-terminus of the F1 subunit, close to the viral membrane, and might be sterically restricted. We further find that m17 and m35 neutralize RSV by preventing the prefusion F conformational arrangement, thus inhibiting membrane fusion. These two sdAbs have the potential to be further developed as therapeutic candidates, and may also provide novel insight for developing other antiviral reagents against RSV. Because RSV can cause serious respiratory disease in immunodeficient groups, including infants and seniors, the development of vaccines and therapeutic drugs, like neutralizing antibodies, is urgently needed. Compared to the conventional full-length antibody, single domain antibody (sdAb) has been demonstrated to be efficient for respiratory diseases when administered by inhalation, thereby potentially introducing a kind of novel therapeutic agent in the market. Here, we discovered two potent neutralizing human sdAbs against RSV that recognized a novel prefusion epitope termed VI and prevented conformational arrangement during the fusion process. Our work provides not only therapeutic candidates but also novel target for new drug and vaccine development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00485-21DOI Listing
June 2021

Whether sutures reduce the graft laceration caused by interference screw in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction? A biomechanical study in vitro.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Jun 22;22(1):571. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Orthopaedics, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou University, No. 82 Cuiyingmen, Chengguan District, 730030, Lanzhou City, Gansu Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: Interference screw is commonly used for graft fixation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, previous studies had reported that the insertion of interference screws significantly caused graft laceration. The purposes of this study were to (1) quantitatively evaluate the graft laceration from one single insertion of PEEK interference screws; and (2) determine whether different types of sutures reduced the graft laceration after one single insertion of interference screws in ACL reconstruction.

Methods: The in-vitro ACL reconstruction model was created using porcine tibias and bovine extensor digitorum tendons of bovine hind limbs. The ends of grafts were sutured using three different sutures, including the bioabsorbable, Ethibond and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) sutures. Poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) interference screws were used for tibial fixation. This study was divided into five groups (n = 10 in each group): the non-fixed group, the non-sutured group, the absorbable suture group, the Ethibond suture group and the UHMWPE suture group. Biomechanical tests were performed using the mode of pull-to-failure loading tests at 10 mm/min. Tensile stiffness (newtons per millimeter), energy absorbed to failure (in joules) and ultimate load (newtons) were recorded for analysis.

Results: All prepared tendons and bone specimens showed similar characteristics (length, weight, and pre-tension of the tendons, tibial bone mineral density) among all groups (P > 0.05). The biomechanical tests demonstrated that PEEK interference screws significantly caused the graft laceration (P < 0.05). However, all sutures (the bioabsorbable, Ethibond and UHMWPE sutures) did not reduce the graft laceration in ACL reconstruction (P > 0.05).

Conclusions: Our biomechanical study suggested that the ultimate failure load of grafts was reduced of approximately 25 % after one single insertion of a PEEK interference screw in ACL reconstruction. Suturing the ends of the grafts using different sutures (absorbable, Ethibond and UHMWPE sutures) did not decrease the graft laceration caused by interference screws.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04457-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8218482PMC
June 2021

Characterizing Brain Tumor Regions Using Texture Analysis in Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Front Neurosci 2021 3;15:634926. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

School of Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Purpose: To extract texture features from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of patients with brain tumors and use them to train a classification model for supporting an early diagnosis.

Methods: Two groups of regions (control and tumor) were selected from MRI scans of 40 patients with meningioma or glioma. These regions were analyzed to obtain texture features. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS (version 20.0), including the Shapiro-Wilk test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test, which were used to test significant differences in each feature between the tumor and healthy regions. T-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) was used to visualize the data distribution so as to avoid tumor selection bias. The Gini impurity index in random forests (RFs) was used to select the top five out of all features. Based on the five features, three classification models were built respectively with three machine learning classifiers: RF, support vector machine (SVM), and back propagation (BP) neural network.

Results: Sixteen of the 25 features were significantly different between the tumor and healthy areas. Through the Gini impurity index in RFs, standard deviation, first-order moment, variance, third-order absolute moment, and third-order central moment were selected to build the classification model. The classification model trained using the SVM classifier achieved the best performance, with sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of 94.04%, 92.3%, and 0.932, respectively.

Conclusion: Texture analysis with an SVM classifier can help differentiate between brain tumor and healthy areas with high speed and accuracy, which would facilitate its clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.634926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8209330PMC
June 2021

Host and gut microbial tryptophan metabolism and type 2 diabetes: an integrative analysis of host genetics, diet, gut microbiome and circulating metabolites in cohort studies.

Gut 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Objective: Tryptophan can be catabolised to various metabolites through host kynurenine and microbial indole pathways. We aimed to examine relationships of host and microbial tryptophan metabolites with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D), host genetics, diet and gut microbiota.

Method: We analysed associations between circulating levels of 11 tryptophan metabolites and incident T2D in 9180 participants of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds from five cohorts. We examined host genome-wide variants, dietary intake and gut microbiome associated with these metabolites.

Results: Tryptophan, four kynurenine-pathway metabolites (kynurenine, kynurenate, xanthurenate and quinolinate) and indolelactate were positively associated with T2D risk, while indolepropionate was inversely associated with T2D risk. We identified multiple host genetic variants, dietary factors, gut bacteria and their potential interplay associated with these T2D-relaetd metabolites. Intakes of fibre-rich foods, but not protein/tryptophan-rich foods, were the dietary factors most strongly associated with tryptophan metabolites. The fibre-indolepropionate association was partially explained by indolepropionate-associated gut bacteria, mostly fibre-using . We identified a novel association between a host functional variant (determining lactase persistence) and serum indolepropionate, which might be related to a host gene-diet interaction on gut , a probiotic bacterium significantly associated with indolepropionate independent of other fibre-related bacteria. Higher milk intake was associated with higher levels of gut and serum indolepropionate only among genetically lactase non-persistent individuals.

Conclusion: Higher milk intake among lactase non-persistent individuals, and higher fibre intake were associated with a favourable profile of circulating tryptophan metabolites for T2D, potentially through the host-microbial cross-talk shifting tryptophan metabolism toward gut microbial indolepropionate production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2021-324053DOI Listing
June 2021

Estimating the hazard rate difference from case-cohort studies.

Eur J Epidemiol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98105, USA.

The case-cohort design, among many two-phase sampling designs, substantially reduces the cost of an epidemiological study by selecting more informative participants within the full cohort for expensive variable measurements. Despite their benefits, additive hazards models, which estimate hazard differences, have rarely been used for the analysis of case-cohort studies due to the lack of software and application examples. In this paper, we describe a newly developed estimation method that fits the additive hazards models to general two-phase sampling studies along with the R package addhazard that implements it. It allows for missing covariates among cases, cohort stratification, robust variances, and the incorporation of auxiliary information from the full cohort to enhance inference precision. We demonstrate the use of this tool to estimate the association of the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) with biomarkers high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A (Lp-PLA) by analyzing the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, which adopted a two-phase sampling design for studying these two biomarkers. We show that the use of auxiliary variables from the full cohort based on calibration techniques improves the precision of the hazard difference being estimated. We observe a synergistic effect of the two biomarkers among participants with lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-C): the CHD hazard rate attributable to the combined action of high hs-CRP and high Lp-PLA exceeded the sum of the CHD hazard rate attributable to each one independently by 11.58 (95% CI 2.16-21.01) cases per 1000 person-years. With higher LDL-C, we observe the CHD hazard rate attributable to the combined action of high hs-CRP and medium Lp-PLA was less than the sum of their individual effects by 13.42 (95% CI 2.44-24.40) cases per 1000 person-years. This demonstration serves the dual purposes of illustrating analysis techniques and providing insights about the utility of hs-CRP and Lp-PLA for identifying the high-risk population of CHD that the traditional risk factors such as the LDL-C may miss. Epidemiologists are encouraged to use this new tool to analyze other case-cohort studies and incorporate auxiliary variables embedded in the full cohort in their analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-021-00739-3DOI Listing
June 2021

Vitrectomy With Silicone Oil Tamponade and Without Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling for the Treatment of Myopic Foveoschisis With High Risk of Macular Hole Development.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 28;8:648540. Epub 2021 May 28.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Therapy of Retinal and Choroid Diseases, Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China.

To explore the efficiency and safety of the surgical procedure of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with silicone oil (SO) tamponade and without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for myopic foveoschisis (MF) eyes with high risk of macular hole formation. Three eyes (three patients) with MF and foveal detachment were enrolled into the study. Comprehensive preoperative ophthalmological assessments, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were performed on the eyes. Central foveal thickness (CFT) and thickness of continuous neurosensory retina at foveola were measured. All patients underwent PPV followed by SO tamponade and without ILM peeling. SO was removed when MF and retinal detachment were resolved. Patients were followed up postoperative at month 1, 3, 6, and 12. All the three eyes achieved complete resolution of MF and foveal reattachment with an average SO tamponade period of 11.67 ± 0.58 months. The average CFT at 6 months was 91 ± 27.5 μm, hence reduced significantly from baseline at 365.3 ± 137.85 μm ( = 0.037). There was no postoperative macular hole formation despite the average preoperative sensory retina thickness of 58 ± 20.07 μm. Mean BCVA was improved from logMAR 1.43 ± 0.75 to logMAR 0.8 ± 0.75 on the last follow-up. Manageable SO-related complications were reported, including SO emulsification, ocular hypertension, and cataract. Vitrectomy with SO tamponade and without ILM peeling as an optional surgical protocol to treat MF is effective and safe, especially for MF eyes vulnerable to macular hole formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.648540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8193352PMC
May 2021

Associations Between Single-Child Status and Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents in China.

Front Pediatr 2021 20;9:661164. Epub 2021 May 20.

Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

To evaluate the associations between single-child status and metabolic syndrome (MS) and to identify the highest risk group of MS among single children. Differences in participants' characteristics by sex were examined by Student's -test for continuous variables and Pearson's chi-squared test for categorical variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the odds ratios () and 95% confidence intervals () for MS and its components according to the single-child status. Radar maps were used to compare the composition of different components in MS. In total, 11,784 (5,880 boys) children and adolescents were included in this study, with a mean age of (11.3 ± 3.1) years. MS was observed in 7.1% of participants, with a higher prevalence in boys (8.2%) than girls (5.9%) ( < 0.05). The prevalence of MS, elevated blood pressure and abdominal obesity in single children were higher than that in children with siblings, particularly in boys ( < 0.001). Elevated risk of abdominal obesity was observed in single children [boys (1.56, 95% CI: 1.31, 1.85), girls (1.40, 95% CI: 1.19, 1.63)], however, increased ORs of elevated blood pressure and metabolic syndrome were observed in single-child boys only (1.19, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.40 and 1.76, 95% CI: 1.34, 2.31, respectively). Results showed that a statistically significant association between single child status and MS was mainly observed in urban boys (2.04, 95% CI: 1.33, 3.12) and rural boys (1.50, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.15), but not in girls. Among all the combinations of MS, two combinations were significantly associated with the single-child status, including the combination of elevated blood pressure, abdominal and low HDL-C (1.45, 1.04, 2.04) and the combination of elevated blood pressure, abdominal obesity, low HDL-C and hypertriglyceridemia (2.04, 1.40, 3.06) ( < 0.05). The present study found that single children and adolescents had a higher risk of MS, elevated blood pressure and abdominal obesity. The associations were stronger in urban boys. Further attention should be directed to the prevention and control strategies targeting the high-risk population of MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2021.661164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8173115PMC
May 2021

The CC and CXC chemokine receptors in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) and their response to Aeromonas salmonicida infection.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Oct 1;123:104155. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

School of Marine Science and Engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, 266109, China. Electronic address:

Chemokines are crucial regulators of cell mobilization for development, homeostasis, and immunity. Chemokines signal through binding to chemokine receptors, a superfamily of seven-transmembrane domain G-coupled receptors. In the present study, eleven CC chemokine receptors (CCRs) and seven CXC chemokine receptors (CXCRs) were identified from turbot genome. Phylogenetic and syntenic analyses were performed to annotate these genes, indicating the closest relationship between the turbot chemokine receptors and their counterparts of Japanese flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus). Evolutionary analyses revealed that the tandem duplications of CCR8 and CXCR3, the whole genome duplications of CCR6, CCR9, CCR12, and CXCR4, and the teleost-specific CCR12 led to the expansion of turbot chemokine receptors. In addition, turbot chemokine receptors were ubiquitously expressed in nine examined healthy tissues, with high expression levels observed in spleen, gill, and head kidney. Moreover, most turbot chemokine receptors were significantly differentially expressed in spleen and gill after Aeromonas salmonicida infection, and exhibited general down-regulations at early time points and then gradually up-regulated. Finally, protein-protein interaction network (PPI) analyses indicated that chemokine receptors interacted with a few immune-related genes such as interleukins, Grk genes, CD genes, etc. These results should be valuable for comparative immunological studies and provide insights for further functional characterization of chemokine receptors in turbots.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2021.104155DOI Listing
October 2021

Corrigendum to "Carboxymethyl chitosan microspheres loaded hyaluronic acid/gelatin hydrogels for controlled drug delivery and the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease" [Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 167 (2021) 1598-1612].

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Aug 31;184:1064. Epub 2021 May 31.

School of Pharmaceutical Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 6430074, China; National Demonstration Center for Experimental Ethnopharmacology Education, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.05.083DOI Listing
August 2021

Herbal/Plant Remedies and Supplements Used by Hispanics/Latinxs for Diabetes: Source of Functional Foods?

Sci Diabetes Self Manag Care 2021 Feb;47(1):94-104

From School of Nursing, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the use of herbal/plant remedies and supplements for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) among Hispanics/Latinxs in North Carolina and identify demographic and diabetes-related factors associated with use of these therapies.

Methods: Baseline data from a family-based diabetes intervention tailored for Hispanics/Latinxs were analyzed using descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and logistic regression. A convenience sample of 186 adults with T2DM and adult family members with and without T2DM was recruited from community-based settings and data obtained from face-to-face interviews conducted in Spanish.

Results: Most participants were female (73%) with an average age of 45 years old. Among this predominantly immigrant sample (96%), 78% of participants reported being from Mexico. Sixty percent had T2DM, and average A1C was 8.7% for persons with T2DM. Nearly a third reported using 51 different remedies for diabetes management. Most ingested them concurrently with prescribed medications; however, 11.3% reported altering the dose of medications when using herbal/plant remedies or supplements. Most common items were prickly pear cactus, pineapple, celery, aloe vera, parsley, and spinach. Using herbs/plants was positively correlated with age, A1C, and years with T2DM. The odds of using herbs/plants increased 28% for every 1% increase in A1C (adjusted odds ratio = 1.28, = .003).

Conclusions: Asking about herbal/plant remedy and supplement use is important. Although there is limited efficacy and safety studies for some items, multiple reported remedies are functional foods with biologically active ingredients to promote health. Patient education is needed on safe and unsafe items and use with prescribed medications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0145721720983221DOI Listing
February 2021

Perceptions of African American Adults With Type 2 Diabetes on Family Support: Type, Quality, and Recommendations.

Sci Diabetes Self Manag Care 2021 Jun 2:26350106211018994. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

The Ohio State University, College of Medicine, Columbus, OH.

Purpose: The overall purpose of the study was to explore perceptions of family support in diabetes self-management among African American adults with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: A qualitative study using focus group methodology and individual interviews was conducted. Thirty-seven African American adults with type 2 diabetes were recruited in the Midwest, United States. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

Results: Themes emerged from the perspectives of the social interdependence theory. Positive family support included emotional support, instrumental support, and specific information or advice on diabetes management strategies. Positivity, family communication, and healthy eating/meal planning were perceived as helpful family behaviors. Negative support was perceived as intentional or unintentional behaviors. Family members' help in decision-making included goal setting with family member(s) and help in making decisions on diet and exercise. Recommendations included exercise and nutritional programs, support groups, family involvement, and materials and resources. Motivations for attending diabetes programs included involving family members, sharing success stories, seeing positive results, encouraging and caring, and providing incentives.

Conclusions: Intervention programs for African Americans should specifically target challenges in family support, healthy eating, and physical activity at an interpersonal level. Health care providers should assess family roles and family support to facilitate diabetes self-management for African Americans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/26350106211018994DOI Listing
June 2021

Prestimulus dynamics blend with the stimulus in neural variability quenching.

Neuroimage 2021 May 28;238:118160. Epub 2021 May 28.

University of Ottawa Institute of Mental Health Research, Ottawa, Canada; Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.

Neural responses to the same stimulus show significant variability over trials, with this variability typically reduced (quenched) after a stimulus is presented. This trial-to-trial variability (TTV) has been much studied, however how this neural variability quenching is influenced by the ongoing dynamics of the prestimulus period is unknown. Utilizing a human intracranial stereo-electroencephalography (sEEG) data set, we investigate how prestimulus dynamics, as operationalized by standard deviation (SD), shapes poststimulus activity through trial-to-trial variability (TTV). We first observed greater poststimulus variability quenching in those real trials exhibiting high prestimulus variability as observed in all frequency bands. Next, we found that the relative effect of the stimulus was higher in the later (300-600ms) than the earlier (0-300ms) poststimulus period. Lastly, we replicate our findings in a separate EEG dataset and extend them by finding that trials with high prestimulus variability in the theta and alpha bands had faster reaction times. Together, our results demonstrate that stimulus-related activity, including its variability, is a blend of two factors: 1) the effects of the external stimulus itself, and 2) the effects of the ongoing dynamics spilling over from the prestimulus period - the state at stimulus onset - with the second dwarfing the influence of the first.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118160DOI Listing
May 2021

Assessing the Accuracy of the SCAN Functional for Water through a Many-Body Analysis of the Adiabatic Connection Formula.

J Chem Theory Comput 2021 Jun 26;17(6):3739-3749. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, United States.

We present a systematic analysis of the accuracy of a series of SCANα functionals for water, with varying fractions (α) of exact exchange, which are constructed through the adiabatic connection formula. Our results indicate that all SCANα functionals exhibit substantial errors in the representation of the water 2-body energies. Importantly, the inclusion of exact exchange is found to have opposite effects on the ability of the SCANα functionals to describe the interaction energies of water clusters with 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional hydrogen-bonding arrangements. These errors are found to directly affect the ability of the SCANα functionals to describe the structure of liquid water at ambient conditions, which is investigated using explicit many-body models (MB-SCANα) derived from the corresponding SCANα data. In particular, it is found that all MB-SCANα models predict a more compact first hydration shell, which results in a denser liquid with a more ice-like structure. These apparent opposite trends can be explained by the inability of the SCANα functionals to provide a balanced description of the water 2B and 3B energies at the fundamental level. The analyses presented in this study provide new insights that can guide future developments of improved exchange-correlation functionals for aqueous systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jctc.1c00141DOI Listing
June 2021

Circulating angiopoietin-like proteins in metabolic-associated fatty liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Lipids Health Dis 2021 May 25;20(1):55. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, No. 54, Youdian Road, Hangzhou, 310006, Zhejiang Province, China.

Background: Angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTLs) are closely related to insulin resistance and lipid metabolism, and may be a key in metabolic syndrome. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (newly named metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD)) is based on metabolic dysfunction. There may be some correlation between ANGPTLs and MAFLD, but the specific correlation is unclear. This study aims to explore the predictive role of ANGPTLs in MAFLD and its progression.

Methods: Seven databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CNKI, WANFANG, CBM and Clinicaltrials.gov ) were searched with free terms and MeSH terms. The random-effects model was used to pool the data, and Standardized Mean Difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were taken as the overall outcome. No language restrictions existed in the article selection. RevMan 5.3, Stata 16 and MetaXL software were applied to analyse the data and the GRADE system was utilized to assess the certainty of evidence.

Results: After reviewing 823 related articles, 13 studies (854 cases and 610 controls) met the inclusion criteria, and contributed to this meta-analysis. The results showed that circulating ANGPTL8 level was significantly elevated in the MAFLD group than in the healthy control group (SMD = 0.97 pg/mL, 95%CI: 0.77, 1.18). Conversely, there was no significant difference in the ANGPTL4 (SMD = 0.11 ng/mL, 95%CI: - 0.32, 0.54) and ANGPTL3 (SMD = - 0.95 ng/mL, 95%CI: - 4.38, 2.48) between the two groups. Subgroup analysis showed that: 1) the MAFLD group had significantly higher ANGPTL8 levels than the healthy control group in Asian and other races; 2) the ANGPTL8 levels in Body Mass Index (BMI) > 25 kg/m patients with MAFLD were higher than those in the healthy control group; 3) the higher ANGPTL8 levels were observed in moderate to severe MAFLD group than the healthy control group. Meta-regression demonstrated that BMI might effectively explain the high heterogeneity. No significant publication bias existed (P > 0.05). The certainty of evidence was assessed as very low by the GRADE system.

Conclusions: The ANGPTLs may be related to MAFLD. The increased ANGPTL8 level may be positively correlated with different situations of MAFLD, which may act as a potential indicator to monitor the development trends.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12944-021-01481-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8152125PMC
May 2021

Evaluating the genesis and dominant processes of groundwater salinization by using hydrochemistry and multiple isotopes in a mining city.

Environ Pollut 2021 Aug 18;283:117381. Epub 2021 May 18.

School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Anhui University, Anhui Province Engineering Laboratory for Mine Ecological Remediation, Hefei, 230601, Anhui, China.

The increasing salinization of groundwater renders it challenging to maintain the water quality. Moreover, knowledge regarding the characteristics and mechanism of groundwater salinization in mining areas remains limited. This study represents the first attempt of combining the hydrochemical, isotope (δD, δO, δCl, and Sr/Sr) and multivariate statistical analysis methods to explore the origin, control, and influence of fluoride enrichment in mining cities. The TDS content of groundwater ranged from 275.9 mg/L to 2452.0 mg/L, and 54% of the groundwater samples were classified as class IV water according to China's groundwater quality standards (GB/T 14848-2017), indicating a decline in the water quality of the study area. The results of the groundwater ion ratio and isotope discrimination analysis showed that dissolution and evaporation involving water-rock interactions and halite were the main driving processes for groundwater salinization in the study area. In addition to the hydrogeological and climatic conditions, mine drainage inputs exacerbated the increasing salinity of the groundwater in local areas. The mineral dissolution, cation exchange, and evaporation promoted the F enrichment, while excessive evaporation and salinity inhibited the F enrichment. Gangue accumulation and infiltration likely led to considerable F enrichment in individual groundwater regions. Extensive changes in the groundwater salinity indicated differences in the geochemical processes that controlled the groundwater salinization. Given the particularity of the study area, the enrichment of salinization and fluoride triggered by mining activities cannot be ignored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117381DOI Listing
August 2021

Self-Related Stimuli Decoding With Auditory and Visual Modalities Using Stereo-Electroencephalography.

Front Neurosci 2021 4;15:653965. Epub 2021 May 4.

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Name recognition plays important role in self-related cognitive processes and also contributes to a variety of clinical applications, such as autism spectrum disorder diagnosis and consciousness disorder analysis. However, most previous name-related studies usually adopted noninvasive EEG or fMRI recordings, which were limited by low spatial resolution and temporal resolution, respectively, and thus millisecond-level response latencies in precise brain regions could not be measured using these noninvasive recordings. By invasive stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) recordings that have high resolution in both the spatial and temporal domain, the current study distinguished the neural response to one's own name or a stranger's name, and explored common active brain regions in both auditory and visual modalities. The neural activities were classified using spatiotemporal features of high-gamma, beta, and alpha band. Results showed that different names could be decoded using multi-region SEEG signals, and the best classification performance was achieved at high gamma (60-145 Hz) band. In this case, auditory and visual modality-based name classification accuracies were 84.5 ± 8.3 and 79.9 ± 4.6%, respectively. Additionally, some single regions such as the supramarginal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, and insula could also achieve remarkable accuracies for both modalities, supporting their roles in the processing of self-related information. The average latency of the difference between the two responses in these precise regions was 354 ± 63 and 285 ± 59 ms in the auditory and visual modality, respectively. This study suggested that name recognition was attributed to a distributed brain network, and the subsets with decoding capabilities might be potential implanted regions for awareness detection and cognition evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.653965DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8129191PMC
May 2021

Modulation of lactate-lysosome axis in dendritic cells by clotrimazole potentiates antitumor immunity.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 May;9(5)

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China

Background: Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in antitumor immunity, but the therapeutic efficacy of DC-mediated cancer vaccine remains low, partly due to unsustainable DC function in tumor antigen presentation. Thus, identifying drugs that could enhance DC-based antitumor immunity and uncovering the underlying mechanism may provide new therapeutic options for cancer immunotherapy.

Methods: In vitro antigen presentation assay was used for DC-modulating drug screening. The function of DC and T cells was measured by flow cytometry, ELISA, or qPCR. B16, MC38, CT26 tumor models and C57BL/6, Balb/c, nude, and mice were used to analyze the in vivo therapy efficacy and impact on tumor immune microenvironment by clotrimazole treatment.

Results: By screening a group of small molecule inhibitors and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs, we identified that clotrimazole, an antifungal drug, could promote DC-mediated antigen presentation and enhance T cell response. Mechanistically, clotrimazole acted on hexokinase 2 to regulate lactate metabolic production and enhanced the lysosome pathway and expression in DCs subsequently induced DC maturation and T cell activation. Importantly, in vivo clotrimazole administration induced intratumor immune infiltration and inhibited tumor growth depending on both DCs and CD8+ T cells and potentiated the antitumor efficacy of anti-PD1 antibody.

Conclusions: Our findings showed that clotrimazole could trigger DC activation via the lactate-lysosome axis to promote antigen cross-presentation and could be used as a potential combination therapy approach to improving the therapeutic efficacy of anti-PD1 immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-002155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8141455PMC
May 2021