Publications by authors named "Jiayi Zhang"

136 Publications

T cell membrane cloaking tumor microenvironment-responsive nanoparticles with a smart "membrane escape mechanism" for enhanced immune-chemotherapy of melanoma.

Biomater Sci 2021 May;9(9):3453-3464

College Pharmacy, Jiamusi University, 258 Xuefu Street, Jiamusi, Heilongjiang 154007, China.

The application of combination immune-chemotherapy makes up for the limitation of monotherapy and achieves superior antitumor activity against cancer. However, combinational therapy is always restricted by poor tumor targeted drug delivery efficacy. Herein, novel T cell membrane cloaking tumor microenvironment-responsive nanoparticles (PBA modified T cell membrane cloaking hyaluronic acid (HA)-disulfide bond-vitamin E succinate/curcumin, shortened as RCM@T) were developed. T cell membrane cloaking not only serves as a protection shell for sufficient drug delivery but also acts as a programmed cell death-1(PD-1) "antibody" to selectively bind the PD-L1 of tumor cells. When RCM@T is intravenously administrated into the blood stream, it accumulates at tumor sites and responds to an acidic pH to achieve a "membrane escape effect" and expose the HA residues of RCM for tumor targeted drug delivery. RCM accumulates in the cytoplasm via CD44 receptor mediated endocytosis and intracellularly releases antitumor drug in the intracellular redox microenvironment for tumor chemotherapy. T cell membrane debris targets the PD-L1of tumor cells for tumor immunotherapy, which not only directly kills tumor cells, but also improves the CD8+ T cell level and facilitates effector cytokine release. Taken together, the as-constructed RCM@T creates a new way for the rational design of a drug delivery system via the combination of stimuli-responsive drug release, chemotherapeutical agent delivery and cell membrane based immune checkpoint blockade immunotherapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1bm00331cDOI Listing
May 2021

Noninvasive prediction of residual disease for advanced high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma by MRI-based radiomic-clinical nomogram.

Eur Radiol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, 215163, China.

Objectives: To develop a preoperative MRI-based radiomic-clinical nomogram for prediction of residual disease (RD) in patients with advanced high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC).

Methods: In total, 217 patients with advanced HGSOC were enrolled from January 2014 to June 2019 and randomly divided into a training set (n = 160) and a validation set (n = 57). Finally, 841 radiomic features were extracted from each tumor on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging (CE-T1WI) sequence, respectively. We used two fusion methods, the maximal volume of interest (MV) and the maximal feature value (MF), to fuse the radiomic features of bilateral tumors, so that patients with bilateral tumors have the same kind of radiomic features as patients with unilateral tumors. The radiomic signatures were constructed by using mRMR method and LASSO classifier. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to develop a radiomic-clinical nomogram incorporating radiomic signature and conventional clinico-radiological features. The performance of the nomogram was evaluated on the validation set.

Results: In total, 342 tumors from 217 patients were analyzed in this study. The MF-based radiomic signature showed significantly better prediction performance than the MV-based radiomic signature (AUC = 0.744 vs. 0.650, p = 0.047). By incorporating clinico-radiological features and MF-based radiomic signature, radiomic-clinical nomogram showed favorable prediction ability with an AUC of 0.803 in the validation set, which was significantly higher than that of clinico-radiological signature and MF-based radiomic signature (AUC = 0.623, 0.744, respectively).

Conclusions: The proposed MRI-based radiomic-clinical nomogram provides a promising way to noninvasively predict the RD status.

Key Points: • MRI-based radiomic-clinical nomogram is feasible to noninvasively predict residual disease in patients with advanced HGSOC. • The radiomic signature based on MF showed significantly better prediction performance than that based on MV. • The radiomic-clinical nomogram showed a favorable prediction ability with an AUC of 0.803.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-07902-0DOI Listing
April 2021

Identification and validation of a prognostic immune-related lncRNA signature in bladder cancer.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Mar;10(3):1229-1240

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Recently, researches have implied that immune-related lncRNAs (IR-lncRNAs) have a vital role in tumor occurrence and development. However, the study in bladder cancer (Bca) is still unclear. New biomarkers and reliable prognostic models for Bca are still limited. Here, we investigated the potential application value of immune-related lncRNAs in the prognostic evaluation of Bca patients.

Methods: We obtained clinical information and corresponding sequencing data from the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, and the cohort of Bca patients was divided into training and validation cohorts (ratio 7:3) randomly. An immune-related lncRNA co-expression network was constructed to identify immune-related lncRNAs. The candidate module intimately associated with overall survival (OS) was identified by using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). Univariate, multivariate Cox regression and LASSO analysis were performed to build the immune-related lncRNA signature. A prognostic model was further developed and its prognostic value was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier (KM) analysis. GSEA, KEGG analysis and GO annotation were used for functional annotation in this study.

Results: Totally, we identified 1,249 differentially expressed IR-lncRNAs were and six of which (AC005674.2, AC090948.1, TFAP2A-AS1, AL354919.2, AC011468.1 and AC018809.2) were finally selected in the gene signature. According to survival analysis, patients with high-risk scores were significantly related to poor survival outcomes. Furthermore, we established a novel gene signature demonstrated high prognostic value, and can be utilized as an independent risk factor (validation cohort: P<0.001, HR =3.832; training cohort: P<0.001, HR =2.843). Additionally, we built a nomogram on account of the clinicopathologic characteristics and gene signature to predict the survival probability of 1-, 3- and 5-year in Bca patients. The value of AUC curve of 1-, 3- and 5-year survival probability was 0.724, 0.777 and 0.77, severally. Furthermore, some enrichment pathways were identified by KEGG and GO analysis, and might be useful to display the potential mechanism for Bca.

Conclusions: Our results indicated that the signature of six immune-related lncRNAs had an underlying value in the prognosis of Bca patients and might be helpful for the immunotherapy of Bca.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-20-1353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8039609PMC
March 2021

A CMOS Hall sensor modeling with readout circuitry and microcontroller processing for magnetic detection.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Mar;92(3):034707

James Watt School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ Glasgow, United Kingdom.

A Hall sensor array system for magnetic field detection and analysis is realized in X-FAB 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Magnetic field detection is attributed to the magnetization of metal coils to metal particles and the sensing characteristics of the Hall sensor array. The system puts forward a complete solution from Hall sensors, analog front-end circuit, analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to microcontroller unit. Using Ansoft Maxwell and COMSOL Multiphysics software for simulation verification, the minimum diameter of magnetic particles that can be detected in the system is 2 μm. The measured signal to noise and distortion ratio, spurious free dynamic range, and effective number of bits of the proposed ADC are 70.61 dB, 90.08 dB, and 11.44-bit, respectively. The microsystem based on STM32 combines hardware and software design, which can effectively adjust the motion parameters and realize the real-time display in the LCD screen of the magnetic field and voltage information. Compared to the prior system, the portability, cost, and efficiency have been considerably improved, which is aimed at the rapid measurement of heavy metal particles such as Fe, Co, and Ni in ambient air and blood.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0038295DOI Listing
March 2021

Combined Immunotherapy With Belatacept and BTLA Overexpression Attenuates Acute Rejection Following Kidney Transplantation.

Front Immunol 2021 24;12:618737. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Costimulatory blockade provides new therapeutic opportunities for ensuring the long-term survival of kidney grafts. The adoption of the novel immunosuppressant Belatacept has been limited, partly due to concerns regarding higher rates and grades of acute rejection in clinical trials. In this study, we hypothesized that a combined therapy, Belatacept combined with BTLA overexpression, may effectively attenuate acute rejection after kidney transplantation.

Materials And Methods: The rat kidney transplantation model was used to investigate graft rejection in single and combined therapy. Graft function was analyzed by detecting serum creatinine. Pathological staining was used to observe histological changes in grafts. The expression of T cells was observed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. , we constructed an antigen-stimulated immune response by mixed lymphocyte culture, treated with or without Belatacept and BTLA-overexpression adenovirus, to observe the proliferation of receptor cells and the expression of cytokines. In addition, western blot and qRT-PCR analyses were performed to evaluate the expression of CTLA-4 and BTLA at various time points during the immune response.

Results: In rat models, combined therapy reduced the serum creatinine levels and prolonged graft survival compared to single therapy and control groups. Mixed acute rejection was shown in the allogeneic group and inhibited by combination treatment. Belatacept reduced the production of DSA and the deposition of C4d in grafts. Belatacept combined with BTLA overexpression downregulated the secretion of IL-2 and IFN-γ, as well as increasing IL-4 and IL-10 expression. We also found that Belatacept combined with BTLA overexpression inhibited the proliferation of spleen lymphocytes. The duration of the elevated expression levels of CTLA-4 and BTLA differentially affected the immune response.

Conclusion: Belatacept combined with BTLA overexpression attenuated acute rejection after kidney transplantation and prolonged kidney graft survival, which suggests a new approach for the optimization of early immunosuppression after kidney transplantation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.618737DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7959759PMC
February 2021

Thermoelectric Power Generation and Water Stress in India: A Spatial and Temporal Analysis.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 04 16;55(8):4314-4323. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Independent scholar, Hong Kong 999077, China.

This study aims to reveal the status quo and future trend of thermoelectric water use and water stress in India. We compiled a bottom-up geo-database for all thermal power plants in India and identified the type of cooling technology used. We then estimated thermoelectric water withdrawal and water consumption in India from 2009 to 2018 and projected future trends in thermoelectric water use up to 2027 using the integrated power planning and dispatch model, SWITCH-India. Results show that thermoelectric power generation in India is not a major source of water stress in most basins until 2027. Freshwater withdrawal varied from 14 to 16 billion m3 during the study period, while freshwater consumption increased with growing thermal power generation. The catchment in the middle of the Ganga River basin has the largest freshwater withdrawal and consumption. The volume of water withdrawal accounts for less than 1% of blue water availability in most catchments. It is also likely that a larger proportion of power generation and water withdrawal will occur in catchments that are under lower water stress in the future. Policy interventions should target stressed catchment areas and improve the resilience of thermal power plants to outages due to water stress.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c08724DOI Listing
April 2021

m6A RNA methylation regulators play an important role in the prognosis of patients with testicular germ cell tumor.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Feb;10(2):662-679

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is found to be associated with promoting tumorigenesis in different types of cancers, however, the function of m6A-related genes in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) development remains to be illuminated. This study aimed to investigated the prognostic value of m6A RNA methylation regulators in TGCT.

Methods: We collected TGCT patients' information about clinicopathologic parameters and twenty-two m6A regulatory genes expression from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx). We analyzed the differentially expressed m6A RNA methylation regulators between tumor tissues and normal tissues, as well as the correlation of m6A RNA methylation regulators. By using Cox univariate analysis, last absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression algorithm and Cox multivariate proportional hazards regression analysis, a risk score was constructed based on a TCGA training cohort, and further verified in the TCGA testing cohort. Then, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between risk score and progression-free survival (PFS) in TGCT. Finally, the six-gene risk score was further verified by two gene expression profiles (GSE3218 and GSE10783) as an independent external validation cohort.

Results: Distinct expression patterns of m6A regulatory genes were identified between TGCT tissues and normal tissues in TCGA and GTEx datasets. To predict prognosis of TGCT patients, a risk score was calculated based on six selected m6A RNA methylation regulators (YTHDF1, RBM15, IGF2BP1, ZC3H13, METTL3, and FMR1). Additionally, we found significant differences between the high-risk and low-risk groups in serum marker study levels and histologic subtype. Univariate and multivariate analysis indicated that high risk score was associated with unfavorable PFS. Ultimately, the risk score was further verified by two gene expression profiles (GSE3218 and GSE10783).

Conclusions: Based on six selected m6A RNA methylation regulators, we developed a m6A methylation related risk score that can independently predict the prognosis of TGCT patients, and verify the prediction efficiency in TCGA and GEO datasets. Patients in high-risk group were associated with serum tumor marker study levels beyond the normal limits, non-seminoma, and unfavorable survival time. However, further prospective experiments should be carried out to verify our results.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-20-963DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947426PMC
February 2021

Tracking Eye Movements During Sleep in Mice.

Front Neurosci 2021 25;15:616760. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Institutes of Brain Science, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, MOE Frontiers Center for Brain Science, Department of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Eye movement is not only for adjusting the visual field and maintaining the stability of visual information on the retina, but also provides an external manifestation of the cognitive status of the brain. Recent studies showed similarity in eye movement patterns between wakefulness and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, indicating that the brain status of REM sleep likely resembles that of awake status. REM sleep in humans could be divided into phasic REM and tonic REM sleep according to the difference in eye movement frequencies. Mice are the most commonly used animal model for studying neuronal and molecular mechanisms underlying sleep. However, there was a lack of details for eye movement patterns during REM sleep, hence it remains unknown whether REM sleep can be further divided into different stages in mice. Here we developed a device combining electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram (EMG) as well as eye movements recording in mice to study the eye movement patterns during sleep. We implanted a magnet beneath the conjunctiva of eye and tracked eye movements using a magnetic sensor. The magnetic signals showed strong correlation with video-oculography in head-fixed mice, indicating that the magnetic signals reflect the direction and magnitude of eye movement. We also found that the magnet implanted beneath the conjunctiva exhibited good biocompatibility. Finally, we examined eye movement in sleep-wake cycle, and discriminated tonic REM and phasic REM according to the frequency of eye movements, finding that compared to tonic REM, phasic REM exhibited higher oscillation power at 0.50 Hz, and lower oscillation power at 1.50-7.25 Hz and 9.50-12.00 Hz. Our device allowed to simultaneously record EEG, EMG, and eye movements during sleep and wakefulness, providing a convenient and high temporal-spatial resolution tool for studying eye movements in sleep and other researches in mice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.616760DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947631PMC
February 2021

Specific Detection of Prostate Cancer Cells in Urine by RNA In Situ Hybridization.

J Urol 2021 Feb 22:101097JU0000000000001691. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

The Brady Urological Institute, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Purpose: Noninvasive tests that can accurately detect prostate cancer are urgently needed for prostate cancer diagnosis, surveillance and prognosis. Exfoliated prostate cells captured in urine represent a promising resource for noninvasive detection of prostate cancer. We investigated performance of a novel cell-based urine test for detection of clinically significant prostate cancer.

Materials And Methods: We previously developed a multiplex RNA in situ hybridization assay targeting NKX3-1, PRAC1 and PCA3 that enables identification and quantification of malignant and benign prostate cells released into urine. We investigated application of the assay for prostate cancer detection in a cohort of 98 patients suspected of harboring prostate cancer. Urine was collected following digital rectal examination, and the sediment was isolated and evaluated by RNA in situ hybridization. Samples were scored based on cellular expression of RNA in situ hybridization targets. Cells of prostate origin were defined by positivity for NKX3-1 and/or PRAC1, and prostate cancer cells by positivity for PCA3.

Results: Prostate cells (NKX3-1/PRAC1+ cells) were detected in 69 samples, among which 20 were positive for PCA3 (ie positive for prostate cancer cells). Comparison of RNA in situ hybridization results with biopsy outcome and clinical variables revealed that positivity for cancer by RNA in situ hybridization significantly correlated with intermediate/high risk cancer (p=0.003), PSA density (p=0.022), significant disease (p <0.0001) and Gleason score (p=0.003). The test was 95% specific and 51% sensitive for detection of clinically significant prostate cancer.

Conclusions: Identification of exfoliated prostate cancer cells in urine by RNA in situ hybridization provides a novel tool for highly specific and noninvasive detection of prostate cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JU.0000000000001691DOI Listing
February 2021

A combination of hydrogen bonding and chemical covalent crosslinking to fabricate a novel swim-bladder-derived dry heart valve material yields advantageous mechanical and biological properties.

Biomed Mater 2021 Feb 13;16(1):015014. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, People's Republic of China.

The current biological valve products used in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are mainly made of glutaraldehyde (GLUT)-crosslinked porcine and bovine pericardia, which need to be transported and stored in GLUT solution. This leads to prolonged preparation time and the presence of GLUT residue. Therefore, there has been interest in developing TAVR valves using a pre-crimped valve (also known as a dry valve). Herein, a natural, inexpensive, and widely available swim bladder was selected as the source of a biological valve functioning as a dry valve and was obtained via acellular processes and crosslinking fixation. With the help of multiple hydrogen bonds between polyphenols (represented by procyanidin and curcumin) and tissue, as well as the chemical crosslinking of 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) with tissue, we found that this novel combined crosslinking method was able to successfully crosslink with an acellular swim bladder. The stabilities, mechanical properties, resistance to pre-folding/pre-compressing, flattening capability in water, hemocompatibility, cytocompatibility, and anti-calcification capability were systematically measured via a series of experiments. We demonstrated that this dry valve resulting from a combination of EDC/polyphenols exhibited superior properties compared with those of a control pericardial-based valve.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-605X/abb616DOI Listing
February 2021

Genetic labeling of extracellular vesicles for studying biogenesis and uptake in living mammalian cells.

Methods Enzymol 2020 26;645:1-14. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Bioengineering, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Molecular imaging methods are powerful tools for gaining insight into the cellular organization of living cells. To understand the biogenesis and uptake of extracellular vesicles (EVs) as well as to engineer cell-derived vesicles for targeted drug delivery and therapy, genetic labeling with fluorescent proteins has increasingly been used to determine the structures, locations, and dynamics of EVs in vitro and in vivo. Here, we report a genetic method for the stable labeling of EVs to study their biogenesis and uptake in living human cells. Fusing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) with either the endogenous CD63 (CD63-GFP) or a vesicular stomatitis virus envelope glycoprotein, VSVG (VSVG-GFP), we successfully obtained distinct fluorescence signals in the cytoplasm, revealing the biogenesis of EVs in post-transfected cells. We describe experimental procedures in detail for EV isolation, imaging, and cellular uptake using both confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. We also provide a perspective on how genetic labeling methods can be used to study EV biology, characterization of engineered EVs, and development of EV-based nano-medicine.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.mie.2020.02.001DOI Listing
February 2020

Short-Term Visual Experience Leads to Potentiation of Spontaneous Activity in Mouse Superior Colliculus.

Neurosci Bull 2021 Mar 4;37(3):353-368. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Institutes of Brain Science, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology and Ministry of Education Frontiers Center for Brain Science, Department of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, China.

Spontaneous activity in the brain maintains an internal structured pattern that reflects the external environment, which is essential for processing information and developing perception and cognition. An essential prerequisite of spontaneous activity for perception is the ability to reverberate external information, such as by potentiation. Yet its role in the processing of potentiation in mouse superior colliculus (SC) neurons is less studied. Here, we used electrophysiological recording, optogenetics, and drug infusion methods to investigate the mechanism of potentiation in SC neurons. We found that visual experience potentiated SC neurons several minutes later in different developmental stages, and the similarity between spontaneous and visually-evoked activity increased with age. Before eye-opening, activation of retinal ganglion cells that expressed ChR2 also induced the potentiation of spontaneous activity in the mouse SC. Potentiation was dependent on stimulus number and showed feature selectivity for direction and orientation. Optogenetic activation of parvalbumin neurons in the SC attenuated the potentiation induced by visual experience. Furthermore, potentiation in SC neurons was blocked by inhibiting the glutamate transporter GLT1. These results indicated that the potentiation induced by a visual stimulus might play a key role in shaping the internal representation of the environment, and serves as a carrier for short-term memory consolidation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12264-020-00622-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7954964PMC
March 2021

Intranasal administration of white tea alleviates the olfactory function deficit induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress.

Pharm Biol 2020 Dec;58(1):1221-1228

School of Life Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.

Context: White tea [ (L) O.Ktze. (Theaceae)] is popular in Asia, but its benefits on olfactory injury are unknown.

Objective: The present study explores the effects of white tea on the olfactory injury caused by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS).

Materials And Methods: C57BL/6J mice (WT) were exposed to CUMS. CUMS mice (CU) were intranasally treated with white tea extract [low tea (LT), 20 mg/kg; high tea (HT), 40 mg/kg] and fluoxetine (CF, 20 mg/kg) for 7 days. Several behavioural tests were conducted to assess depression and olfactory function. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) and semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR were performed separately to observe the changes of related structures and genes transcription level.

Results: The depressive behaviours of the LT and HT mice were reversed. The latency time of the buried food pellet test decreased from 280 s (CU) to 130 s (HT), while the olfactory sensitivity and olfactory avoidance test showed that the olfactory behaviours disorder of LT and HT mice were alleviated. The white tea increased the A values of the cortisol treated cells from 0.15 to 1.4. Reduced mitochondrial and synaptic damage in the olfactory bulb (OB), enhanced expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and olfactory marker protein (OMP) were observed in the LT and HT mice.

Conclusions And Discussion: White tea has the potential in curing the olfactory deficiency related to chronic stress. It lays the foundation for the development of new and reliable drug to improve olfactory.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2020.1855213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7875552PMC
December 2020

Predicting the survival rate of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after thermal ablation by nomograms.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Sep;8(18):1159

Department of Ultrasound, Tianjin Institute of Hepatobiliary Disease, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Artificial Cell, Artificial Cell Engineering Technology Research Center of Public Health Ministry, Tianjin, China.

Background: To accurately predict the survival rate of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) undergoing thermal ablation using nomograms taking early recurrence into account as a risk factor.

Methods: A total of 591 patients receiving percutaneous thermal ablation were included in this study. The overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rate was analyzed. Two prognostic nomograms with or without taking early recurrence into account as a risk factor were constructed using the independent predictors assessed by the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. The performance of the nomograms, in terms of discrimination and calibration, was evaluated.

Results: The cumulative RFS and OS rates at 1-, 3- and 5-year are 82.2%, 52.5%and 38.4%, 96.6%, 83.6% and 65.5%, respectively. Multivariate analysis without considering the early recurrence shows that tumor number, α-fetoprotein (AFP) level, liver function, and GGT level are associated with OS. The early recurrence, tumor number, AFP level, and liver function are considered associated with the OS when considering early recurrence. Two different nomograms were developed from the above two results. Internal validation with 1,000 bootstrapped sample sets of the two nomograms shows the concordance indexes of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.624-0.748) for the baseline nomogram and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.754-0.857) for the early recurrence-based nomogram, with the latter significantly better in discriminating performance (Z statistics =92.19, P<0.0001).

Conclusions: The survival rate of patients with HCC undergoing radical thermal ablation can be reliably predicted by the nomogram presented in this study, which was developed by taking early recurrence into account.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-6116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7576088PMC
September 2020

The synergism of B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) attenuated acute T-cell mediated rejection and prolonged renal graft survival.

Transl Androl Urol 2020 Oct;9(5):1990-1999

Department of Urology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Acute T-cell mediated rejection (TCMR) continues to be a major problem in the area of kidney transplantation. The B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) were recently found costimulatory molecules. The research aims to explore the inhibitory synergism of BTLA and CTLA-4 in TCMR.

Methods: We investigated the suppressive role of overexpressed BTLA and CTLA-4 . The rat kidney transplantation model was established to explore the effect of combined overexpressed BTLA and CTLA-4 in recipients of kidney transplantation. The grafts and peripheral blood were harvested for renal function, histology, immunohistochemical and flow cytometry analysis.

Results: Combination therapy decreased the secretion of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and proliferation of T cells compared to the single therapy and the control group. Decrease of interstitium monocyte infiltration and especially intimal arteritis in the graft was observed with the combination therapy, with remarkable reduction of numbers and proliferation response of T cells in peripheral blood and grafts. Combined overexpressed BTLA and CTLA-4 attenuated the acute TCMR after kidney transplantation and improved the graft function and prolonged the graft survival. The inhibiting role against TCMR in the combination therapy group was more effective than single therapy.

Conclusions: The synergism of BTLA and CTLA-4 attenuated acute TCMR after kidney transplantation by suppressing T cell activation and proliferation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-20-728DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7658142PMC
October 2020

Stem Cell as Vehicles of Antibody in Treatment of Lymphoma: a Novel and Potential Targeted Therapy.

Stem Cell Rev Rep 2020 Nov 17. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Blood Transfusion, Guangzhou First People's Hospital, School of Medicine, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Lymphoma is a heterogeneous malignancy and its incidence is increasing in the past decades all over the world. Although more than half of lymphoma patients achieve complete or partial remission from the standard first-line ABVD or R-CHOP based therapy, patients who fail to respond to these regimens will give rise to relapsed or refractory (R/R) lymphoma and may lead to a worse prognosis. Developing novel agents is important for R/R lymphoma. Based on the homing ability and being genetically modified easily, stem cells are usually used as vehicles in cell-based anti-tumor therapy, which can not only retain their own biological characteristics, but also make anti-tumor agents secrete constantly in tumor environment, to eventually kill the tumor cells more effectively. In this review, we will briefly introduce the properties of antibody therapy carried by stem cells, especially the hopes and hurdles of stem cell-mediated antibody secretion in the treatment of lymphoma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12015-020-10080-zDOI Listing
November 2020

Improving the soft X-ray reflectivity of Cr/Ti multilayers by co-deposition of BC.

J Synchrotron Radiat 2020 Nov 9;27(Pt 6):1614-1617. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Sorbonne Université, Faculté des Sciences et Ingénierie, UMR CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique - Matière et Rayonnemment, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05, France.

The `water window', covering 2.4-4.4 nm, is an important wavelength range particularly essential to biology research. Cr/Ti multilayers are one of the promising reflecting elements in this region because the near-normal-incidence reflectivity is theoretically as high as 64% at 2.73 nm. However, due to multilayer imperfections, the reported reflectivity is lower than 3% for near-normal incidence. Here, B and C were intentionally incorporated into ultra-thin Cr/Ti soft X-ray multilayers by co-deposition of BC at the interfaces. The effect on the multilayer structure and composition has been investigated using X-ray reflectometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and cross-section electron microscopy. It is shown that B and C are mainly bonded to Ti sites, forming a nonstoichiometric TiBC composition, which hinders the interface diffusion, supresses the crystallization of the Cr/Ti multilayer and dramatically improves the interface quality of Cr/TiBC multilayers. As a result, the near-normal-incidence reflectivity of soft X-rays increases from 4.48% to 15.75% at a wavelength of 2.73 nm.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1600577520011741DOI Listing
November 2020

Ornithine and breast cancer: a matched case-control study.

Sci Rep 2020 09 23;10(1):15502. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinzhou Medical University, 5-2 Renmin Street, Jinzhou, 121001, Liaoning, China.

In vivo and vitro evidence indicates that ornithine and its related metabolic products play a role in tumor development. Whether ornithine is associated with breast cancer in humans is still unclear. We examined the association between circulating ornithine levels and breast cancer in females. This 1:1 age-matched case-control study identified 735 female breast cancer cases and 735 female controls without breast cancer. All cases had a pathological test to ascertain a breast cancer diagnosis. The controls were ascertained using pathologic testing, clinical examinations, and/or other tests. Fasting blood samples were used to measure ornithine levels. The average age for cases and controls were 49.6 years (standard deviation [SD] 8.7 years) and 48.9 years (SD 8.7 years), respectively. Each SD increase in ornithine levels was associated with a 12% reduction of breast cancer risk (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.79-0.97). The association between ornithine and breast cancer did not differ by pathological stages of diagnosis or tumor grades (all P for trend > 0.1). We observed no effect measure modification by molecular subtypes (P for interaction = 0.889). In conclusion, higher ornithine levels were associated with lower breast cancer risk in females.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72699-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7511971PMC
September 2020

Genetic polymorphism of both 29 Y-STRs and 213 Y-SNPs in Han populations from Shandong Province, China.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2020 Nov 20;47:101738. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Baotou Medical College, School of Basic Medicine, Baotou 014060, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. Electronic address:

Genetic markers on the Y chromosome, including short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs), are used widely in forensic genetics. Both Y-STR-based haplotypes and Y-SNP-based haplogroups provide information on a population's genetic structure, which is useful for the identification of individuals. However, there are few studies on these two types of genetic markers in the various Chinese populations. In this study, 284 Han individuals from four prefecture-level cities in Shandong Province (Binzhou, Dezhou, Heze, and Weihai) were genotyped by 29 Y-STRs (from our previous study) and 213 Y-SNPs (self-designed for the Haplogroup O2 Y-SNP panel). Haplogroup O was the most predominant among the four cities. The highest haplogroup diversity (0.9745) was observed in the Heze population, with a discrimination capacity (DC) value of 0.5625. The haplotype diversity and DC values of the Binzhou and Heze populations were 1.0000. Furthermore, genetic differences were observed between the coastal and inland cities; the results of their statistical analysis are presented herein.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.legalmed.2020.101738DOI Listing
November 2020

A systematic review and meta-analysis of children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

J Med Virol 2021 02 28;93(2):1057-1069. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Children's Hospital (Children's Hospital of Tianjin University), Tianjin, PR China.

To provide a comprehensive and systematic analysis of demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, and imaging features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pediatric patients. A meta-analysis was carried out to identify studies on COVID-19 from 25 December 2019 to 30 April 2020. A total of 48 studies with 5829 pediatric patients were included. Children of all ages were at risk for COVID-19. The main illness classification ranged as: 20% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14%-26%; I  = 91.4%) asymptomatic, 33% (95% CI: 23%-43%; I  = 95.6%) mild and 51% (95% CI: 42%-61%; I  = 93.4%) moderate. The typical clinical manifestations were fever 51% (95% CI: 45%-57%; I  = 78.9%) and cough 41% (95% CI: 35%-47%, I  = 81.0%). The common laboratory findings were normal white blood cell 69% (95% CI: 64%-75%; I  = 58.5%), lymphopenia 16% (95% CI: 11%-21%; I  = 76.9%) and elevated creatine-kinase MB 37% (95% CI: 25%-48%; I  = 59.0%). The frequent imaging features were normal images 41% (95% CI: 30%-52%; I  = 93.4%) and ground-glass opacity 36% (95% CI: 25%-47%; I  = 92.9%). Among children under 1 year old, critical cases account for 14% (95% CI: 13%-34%; I  = 37.3%) that should be of concern. In addition, vomiting occurred in 33% (95% CI: 18%-67%; I  = 0.0%) cases that may also need attention. Pediatric patients with COVID-19 may experience milder illness with atypical clinical manifestations and rare lymphopenia. High incidence of critical illness and vomiting symptoms reward attention in children under 1 year old.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26398DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7436402PMC
February 2021

MR image-based radiomics to differentiate type Ι and type ΙΙ epithelial ovarian cancers.

Eur Radiol 2021 Jan 2;31(1):403-410. Epub 2020 Aug 2.

Department of Radiology, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, 1508 Longhang Road, Jinshan District, Shanghai, 201508, China.

Objectives: Epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC) can be divided into type I and type II according to etiology and prognosis. Accurate subtype differentiation can substantially impact patient management. In this study, we aimed to construct an MR image-based radiomics model to differentiate between type I and type II EOC.

Methods: In this multicenter retrospective study, a total of 294 EOC patients from January 2010 to February 2019 were enrolled. Quantitative MR imaging features were extracted from the following axial sequences: T2WI FS, DWI, ADC, and CE-T1WI. A combined model was constructed based on the combination of these four MR sequences. The diagnostic performance was evaluated by ROC-AUC. In addition, an occlusion test was carried out to identify the most critical region for EOC differentiation.

Results: The combined radiomics model exhibited superior diagnostic capability over all four single-parametric radiomics models, both in internal and external validation cohorts (AUC of 0.806 and 0.847, respectively). The occlusion test revealed that the most critical region for differential diagnosis was the border zone between the solid and cystic components, or the less compact areas of solid component on direct visual inspection.

Conclusions: MR image-based radiomics modeling can differentiate between type I and type II EOC and identify the most critical region for differential diagnosis.

Key Points: • Combined radiomics models exhibited superior diagnostic capability over all four single-parametric radiomics models, both in internal and external validation cohorts (AUC of 0.834 and 0.847, respectively). • The occlusion test revealed that the most crucial region for differentiating type Ι and type ΙΙ EOC was the border zone between the solid and cystic components, or the less compact areas of solid component on direct visual inspection on T2WI FS. • The light-combined model (constructed by T2WI FS, DWI, and ADC sequences) can be used for patients who are not suitable for contrast agent use.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07091-2DOI Listing
January 2021

Object extraction via deep learning-based marker-free tracking framework of surgical instruments for laparoscope-holder robots.

Authors:
Jiayi Zhang Xin Gao

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2020 Aug 24;15(8):1335-1345. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 88 Keling Road, Suzhou New District, Suzhou, 215163, Jiangsu, China.

Purpose: The surgical instrument tracking framework, especially the marker-free surgical instrument tracking framework, is the key to visual servoing which is applied to achieve active control for laparoscope-holder robots. This paper presented a marker-free surgical instrument tracking framework based on object extraction via deep learning (DL).

Methods: The surgical instrument joint was defined as the tracking point. Using DL, a segmentation model was trained to extract the end-effector and shaft portions of the surgical instrument in real time. The extracted object was transformed into a distance image by Euclidean Distance Transformation. Next, the points with the maximal pixel value in the two portions were defined as their central points, respectively, and the intersection point of the line connecting the two central points and the plane connecting the two portions was determined as the tracking point. Finally, the object could be fast extracted using the masking method, and the tracking point was fast located frame-by-frame in a laparoscopic video to achieve tracking of surgical instrument. The proposed object extraction via a DL-based marker-free tracking framework was compared with a marker-free tracking-by-detection framework via DL.

Results: Using seven in vivo laparoscopic videos for experiments, the mean tracking success rate was 100%. The mean tracking accuracy was (3.9 ± 2.4, 4.0 ± 2.5) pixels measured in u and v coordinates of a frame, and the mean tracking speed was 15 fps. Compared to the reported mean tracking accuracy of a marker-free tracking-by-detection framework via DL, the mean tracking accuracy of our proposed tracking framework was improved by 37% and 23%, respectively.

Conclusion: Accurate and fast tracking of marker-free surgical instruments could be achieved in in vivo laparoscopic videos by using our proposed object extraction via DL-based marker-free tracking framework. This work provided important guiding significance for the application of laparoscope-holder robots in laparoscopic surgeries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11548-020-02214-yDOI Listing
August 2020

Resveratrol regulates the recovery of rat sciatic nerve crush injury by promoting the autophagy of Schwann cells.

Life Sci 2020 Sep 10;256:117959. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Hand and Foot Surgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021, China. Electronic address:

Resveratrol has the ability to promote functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury (SNCI), though the mechanism through which this occurs in not fully understood. Resveratrol can promote autophagy, a key process in Wallerian degeneration; thus, we hypothesized that resveratrol could promote recovery from SNCI by promoting Schwann cell autophagy and acceleration of Wallerian degeneration. Motor function recovery was assessed by calculating Sciatic Function Indexes (SFIs) at days 7, 14, 21, 28 post SNCI. Autophagy and myelin clearance were assessed by microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B (LC3B) and myelin protein zero (MPZ) immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis on the fourth day after SNCI. The autophagy of Schwann cells following resveratrol administration was quantified by immunofluorescence in RSC96 cells. Immunofluorescence and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were also used in Resveratrol treated sciatic nerve four days post-SNCI to find LC3B positive areas and typical double membrane structures represent for autophagy. The SNCI+resveratrol (crush+Res) groups recovered faster than the SNCI+vehicles (crush+V) group. On day four, almost all of the myelin had regenerated in the crush+Res rats, while the crush+V group's myelin remained intact and the expression levels of LC3-II/I was the highest. On day 28 post-injury, both the control and crush+Res groups' myelin neurofibers reached peak numbers as did the thickness of the myelin sheath. Both in vitro and in vivo immunofluorescence showed that LC3B was colocalized with Schwann cells. This is the first study to observe that resveratrol can promote recovery from SCNI by accelerating the myelin clearance process by promoting autophagy of Schwann cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117959DOI Listing
September 2020

Integrative analysis of ceRNA network and DNA methylation associated with gene expression in malignant pheochromocytomas: a study based on The Cancer Genome Atlas.

Transl Androl Urol 2020 Apr;9(2):344-354

Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China.

Background: Competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) have revealed a new mechanism of interaction between RNAs. Epigenetic regulation in the gene expression dynamics has become increasingly important in malignant pheochromocytomas (PCCs). We performed an integrative analysis of ceRNA networks and DNA methylation to identify key biomarkers and contribute to the understanding of the molecular biological mechanisms of malignant PCCs.

Methods: Differentially expressed genes in malignant PCCs and controls were identified from The Cancer Genome Atlas database by using the Limma package in R (v3.4.4). An abnormal lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA ceRNA network was constructed for malignant PCCs, and function enrichment analysis was performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery. For DNA methylation datasets, the methylation analysis package was used in identifying differential methylation genes, and potential prognostic genes were identified by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.

Results: A total of 447 lncRNAs, 26 miRNAs, and 1,607 mRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in malignant PCCs as compared with those in normal samples. We then constructed an abnormal lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA ceRNA network for malignant PCCs. The network consisted of 12 lncRNAs, 6 miRNAs, and 220 mRNAs. Functional enrichment analysis showed that differentially expressed mRNAs were particularly enriched in the biological process, cellular component, and molecular function. Furthermore, four differentially expressed mRNAs from ceRNAs were identified through the cross-analysis of gene expression and DNA methylation profiles. LncRNA C9orf147 and 6 out of 220 mRNAs were indicated as prognostic biomarkers for patients with malignant PCCs (P<0.05).

Conclusions: Our research increases the understanding of the pathogenesis of malignant PCCs and offers potential genes as underlying therapeutic targets or prognostic biomarkers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau.2020.01.29DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7214974PMC
April 2020

The construction and analysis of competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a study based on The Cancer Genome Atlas.

Transl Androl Urol 2020 Apr;9(2):303-311

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China.

Background: The pathogenesis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), one of the most common malignant neoplasms, remains unknown. Studies on competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) have uncovered new interactions between RNAs, which suggest their roles in cancer pathogenesis. However, the role of ceRNA networks in mRCC has not yet been studied. Thus, this study aims to explore the role of ceRNA networks in mRCC development and identify potential prognostic indicators.

Methods: We analyzed RNA sequencing data of mRCC patients, which had been obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Next, differentially expressed long-noncoding RNAs (DElncRNAs), differentially expressed micro RNAs (DEmiRNAs), and differentially expressed messenger RNAs (DEmRNAs) in mRCC and clear cell RCC (ccRCC) samples were identified using the edgeR package that is available in R software. Moreover, based on the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID), enrichment analyses for biological processes and pathways functional were performed. As such, we built a ceRNA network and performed a survival analysis using the survival package in R.

Results: A total of 369 DElncRNAs, 12 DEmiRNAs, and 728 DEmRNAs were identified for further analysis. Of these, 11 lncRNAs, 20 mRNAs, and 2 miRNAs were included in the ceRNA network. Moreover, 7 of the 11 lncRNAs and 3 of the 20 mRNAs were associated with the overall survival of mRCC patients (P<0.05).

Conclusions: Collectively, our findings allow a deepened understanding of the molecular mechanism of the ceRNA network and its role in mRCC development, which can guide both mRCC therapy and related future research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau.2020.02.17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7215020PMC
April 2020

Children with coronavirus disease 2019: A review of demographic, clinical, laboratory, and imaging features in pediatric patients.

J Med Virol 2020 09 2;92(9):1501-1510. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

School of Systems Biology, National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, George Mason University, Manassas, Virginia.

There is a current outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with a global spread. With the rapid increase in the number of infections, an increase is observed in the number of children with COVID-19. Most research findings are regarding adult cases, which are not always transferrable to children. Evidence-based studies are still expected to formulate clinical decisions for pediatric patients. In this review, we included 2597 pediatric patients that reported recently and evaluated the demographic, clinical, laboratory, and imaging features of children with COVID-19. We found that even lymphopenia was the most common lab finding in adults; it infrequently occurred in children (9.8%). Moreover, elevated creatine kinase MB isoenzyme was much more commonly observed in children (27.0%) than that in adults, suggesting that heart injury would be more likely to occur in pediatric patients. Our analysis may contribute to determine the spectrum of disease in children and to develop strategies to control the disease transmission.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7276885PMC
September 2020

Interface Study on the Effect of Carbon and Boron Carbide Diffusion Barriers in Sc/Si Multilayer System.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Jun 18;12(22):25400-25408. Epub 2020 May 18.

Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800, China.

Sc/Si multilayers are one of the promising material combinations commonly used in the spectral range of 35-50 nm. However, diffusion and silicidation at the interfaces of Sc/Si multilayers limit widespread applications of this material combination. To improve the properties of Sc/Si multilayers, the scheme of barrier layers is utilized. In this work, a series of Sc/Si multilayers with boron carbide and carbon barrier layers were designed and fabricated to compare the properties including interface quality and thermal stability. The effect on the multilayer structure and quality before and after annealing were investigated by using grazing-incidence X-ray reflection, X-ray diffraction, rocking-curve X-ray diffuse scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and selected area electron diffraction. The results indicate that severe interdiffusion and crystallization occur in the multilayer with a carbon barrier after annealing. However, a boron carbide barrier layer improves thermal stability up to 550 °C since the interfaces remain abrupt and clear after annealing. The multilayer quality is confirmed to be improved significantly.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c03563DOI Listing
June 2020

Growth and elongation of axons through mechanical tension mediated by fluorescent-magnetic bifunctional FeO·Rhodamine 6G@PDA superparticles.

J Nanobiotechnology 2020 Apr 25;18(1):64. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Hand Surgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 130021, Jilin, People's Republic of China.

Background: The primary strategy to repair peripheral nerve injuries is to bridge the lesions by promoting axon regeneration. Thus, the ability to direct and manipulate neuronal cell axon regeneration has been one of the top priorities in the field of neuroscience. A recent innovative approach for remotely guiding neuronal regeneration is to incorporate magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) into cells and transfer the resulting MNP-loaded cells into a magnetically sensitive environment to respond to an external magnetic field. To realize this intention, the synthesis and preparation of ideal MNPs is an important challenge to overcome.

Results: In this study, we designed and prepared novel fluorescent-magnetic bifunctional FeO·Rhodamine 6G@polydopamine superparticles (FMSPs) as neural regeneration therapeutics. With the help of their excellent biocompatibility and ability to interact with neural cells, our in-house fabricated FMSPs can be endocytosed into cells, transported along the axons, and then aggregated in the growth cones. As a result, the mechanical forces generated by FMSPs can promote the growth and elongation of axons and stimulate gene expression associated with neuron growth under external magnetic fields.

Conclusions: Our work demonstrates that FMSPs can be used as a novel stimulator to promote noninvasive neural regeneration through cell magnetic actuation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-020-00621-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183675PMC
April 2020

Targeting cancer stem cell pathways for cancer therapy.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2020 02 7;5(1). Epub 2020 Feb 7.

State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Southwest University, 400716, Chongqing, China.

Since cancer stem cells (CSCs) were first identified in leukemia in 1994, they have been considered promising therapeutic targets for cancer therapy. These cells have self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential and contribute to multiple tumor malignancies, such as recurrence, metastasis, heterogeneity, multidrug resistance, and radiation resistance. The biological activities of CSCs are regulated by several pluripotent transcription factors, such as OCT4, Sox2, Nanog, KLF4, and MYC. In addition, many intracellular signaling pathways, such as Wnt, NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB), Notch, Hedgehog, JAK-STAT (Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription), PI3K/AKT/mTOR (phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin), TGF (transforming growth factor)/SMAD, and PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor), as well as extracellular factors, such as vascular niches, hypoxia, tumor-associated macrophages, cancer-associated fibroblasts, cancer-associated mesenchymal stem cells, extracellular matrix, and exosomes, have been shown to be very important regulators of CSCs. Molecules, vaccines, antibodies, and CAR-T (chimeric antigen receptor T cell) cells have been developed to specifically target CSCs, and some of these factors are already undergoing clinical trials. This review summarizes the characterization and identification of CSCs, depicts major factors and pathways that regulate CSC development, and discusses potential targeted therapy for CSCs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-0110-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7005297PMC
February 2020

Component-Resolved Diagnostic Study of Egg Allergy in Northern Chinese Children.

Biomed Res Int 2020 11;2020:3831087. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Department of Medical Laboratory, Tianjin Children's Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Background: Egg component-specific IgE can be useful to evaluate and diagnose egg allergy, but their prevalence and clinical significance remain unclear in the local population. Previous studies have led to contradictory results regarding the value of specific IgG and specific IgG4 in sensitization.

Objective: We aimed to determine the level of specific IgE, IgG, and IgG4 antibodies to the major egg allergens in egg-allergic children.

Methods: Children from 6 months to 10 years of age were recruited. Egg allergy was confirmed by either a strong clinical history or an increased egg white-sIgE level. Other allergies were diagnosed by reactivity to other allergens but without egg-related symptoms and history. The serum sIgE, sIgG, and sIgG4 levels to major egg allergenic components (Gal d 1, Gal d 2, Gal d 3, Gal d 4, and Gal d 5), sIgE level to egg white, and tIgE level were determined by light-initiated chemiluminescent assay (LICA), ELISA, or ImmunoCAP.

Results: Egg-allergic children had significantly higher levels of sIgE, sIgG, and sIgG4 to egg components than nonallergic children. Gal d 2 was the predominant allergen, and Gal d 2 sIgE level correlated with the egg white-sIgE level. Ratios of sIgE/sIgG4 to egg components were highest before 1 year of age and dropped gradually in the first decade of life.

Conclusion: Patterns of sIgE to egg components could distinguish different forms of egg allergy. Ratios of sIgE/sIgG4 could be useful in predicting tolerance in egg-sensitive subjects, but this needs further evaluation and investigation using more accurate models.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/3831087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7086423PMC
December 2020