Publications by authors named "Jiayi Wang"

220 Publications

TRIB2 desensitizes ferroptosis via βTrCP-mediated TFRC ubiquitiantion in liver cancer cells.

Cell Death Discov 2021 Jul 27;7(1):196. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200072, China.

Tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2) is known to boost liver tumorigenesis via regulating Ubiquitin (Ub) proteasome system (UPS). At least two ways are involved, i.e., acts as an adaptor protein to modulate ubiquitination functions of certain ubiquitin E3 ligases (E3s) and reduces global Ub levels via increasing the proteolysis activity of proteasome. Recently, we have identified the role of TRIB2 to relieve oxidative damage via reducing the availability of Ub that is essential for the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4). Although GPX4 is a critical antioxidant factor to protect against ferroptosis, the exact evidence showing that TRIB2 desensitizes ferroptosis is lacking. Also, whether such function is via E3 remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that deletion of TRIB2 sensitized ferroptosis via lifting labile iron in liver cancer cells. By contrast, overexpression of TRIB2 led to the opposite outcome. We further demonstrated that transferrin receptor (TFRC) was required for TRIB2 to desensitize the cells to ferroptosis. Without TFRC, the labile iron pool could not be reduced by overexpressing TRIB2. We also found that beta-transducin repeat containing E3 ubiqutin protein ligase (βTrCP) was a genuine E3 for the ubiquitination of TFRC, and TRIB2 was unable to decline labile iron level once upon βTrCP was knocked out. In addition, we confirmed that the opposite effects on ferroptosis and ferroptosis-associated lipid reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation resulted from knockout and overexpression of TRIB2 were all indispensible of TFRC and βTrCP. Finally, we demonstrated that TRIB2 exclusively manipulated RSL3- and erastin-induced-ferroptosis independent of GPX4 and glutathione (GSH). In conclusion, we elucidated a novel role of TRIB2 to desensitize ferroptosis via E3 βTrCP, by which facilitates TFRC ubiquitiation and finally decreases labile iron in liver cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41420-021-00574-1DOI Listing
July 2021

Electrocatalytic water oxidation by a water-soluble copper complex with a pentadentate amine-pyridine ligand.

Dalton Trans 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, School of Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500, P. R. China.

A water-soluble copper complex with a diamine-tripyridine ligand was synthesized successfully and well characterized. It was found to be catalytically active for the water oxidation reaction under basic conditions. Based on the electrochemical test result, this copper complex displayed an apparent rate constant (kcat) of 0.81 s-1 for the oxygen evolution reaction in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution at pH 11.0. More importantly, the copper complex remained stable over 3 h of a bulk electrolysis experiment at 1.60 V with a Faradaic efficiency of 90.7% for O2 evolution, and the decrement of current density was only 1.9%. These results suggest that the pentadentate copper complex is an efficient and durable homogeneous Earth-abundant electrocatalyst for water oxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt01821cDOI Listing
July 2021

Tunable terahertz topological edge and corner states in designer surface plasmon crystals.

Opt Express 2021 Jun;29(13):19531-19539

In this work, we study topological edge and corner states in two-dimensional (2D) Su-Schrieffer-Heeger lattices from designer surface plasmon crystals (DSPCs), where the vertical confinement of the designer surface plasmons enables signal detection without the need of additional covers for the sample. In particular, the formation of higher-order topological insulator can be determined by the two-dimensional Zak phase, and the zero-dimensional subwavelength corner states are found in the designed DSPCs at the terahertz (THz) frequency band together with the edge states. Moreover, the corner state frequency can be tuned by modifying the defect strength, i.e., the location or diameter of the corner pillars. This work may provide a new approach for confining THz waves in DSPCs, which is promising for the development of THz topological photonic integrated devices with high compactness, robustness and tunability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.431151DOI Listing
June 2021

Giant Enhancement of Continuous Wave Second Harmonic Generation from Few-Layer GaSe Coupled to High- Quasi Bound States in the Continuum.

Nano Lett 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.

Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials such as GaSe recently have emerged as novel nonlinear optical materials with exceptional properties. Although exhibiting large nonlinear susceptibilities, the nonlinear responses of 2D materials are generally limited by the short interaction lengths with light, thus further enhancement via resonant photonic nanostructures is highly desired for building high-efficiency nonlinear devices. Here, we demonstrate a giant second-harmonic generation (SHG) enhancement by coupling 2D GaSe flakes to silicon metasurfaces supporting quasi-bound states in the continuum (quasi-BICs) under continuous-wave (CW) operation. Taking advantage of both high-quality factors and large mode areas of quasi-BICs, SHG from a GaSe flake is uniformly enhanced by nearly 4 orders of magnitude, which is promising for high-power coherent light sources. Our work provides an effective approach for enhancing nonlinear optical processes in 2D materials within the framework of silicon photonics, which also brings second-order nonlinearity associated with 2D materials to silicon photonic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c01975DOI Listing
July 2021

Construction of Dual-Site Atomically Dispersed Electrocatalysts with Ru-C Single Atoms and Ru-O Nanoclusters for Accelerated Alkali Hydrogen Evolution.

Small 2021 Jul 2:e2101163. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites and Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, P. R. China.

Rationally integrating multi-active sites into one ideal catalyst is an effective approach to accelerate multistep reactions by synergic catalysis. Herein, a universal and facile room temperature impregnation strategy is developed to construct Ru atomically dispersed catalyst (Ru ADC) with Ru-C single atoms and Ru oxide nanoclusters (≈1.5 nm), which can also be extended to prepare Ir, Rh, Pt, Au, and Mo atomically dispersed catalysts (ADCs). It is found that the obtained Ru ADC largely boosts alkali hydrogen evolution by concerted catalysis between single atoms and sub-nanoclusters, which only needs an overpotential of 18 mV at 10 mA cm . Further mechanistic studies reveal that Ru-C single atoms and Ru oxide nanoclusters with Ru-O configuration in one catalyst can synergically boost water molecule capture, water dissociation, and hydrogen release. This study opens up a simple method to synthesize dual-site metal ADCs for synergic catalysis of typical multistep reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202101163DOI Listing
July 2021

Childhood Trauma and Psychological Distress: A Serial Mediation Model among Chinese Adolescents.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jun 24;18(13). Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Education, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056, China.

The consequence of childhood trauma may last for a long time. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of childhood trauma on general distress among Chinese adolescents and explore the potential mediating roles of social support and family functioning in the childhood trauma-general distress linkage. A total of 2139 valid questionnaires were collected from two high schools in southeast China. Participants were asked to complete the questionnaires measuring childhood trauma, social support, family functioning, and general distress. Pathway analysis was conducted by using SPSS AMOS 24.0 and PROCESS Macro for SPSS 3.5. Results showed that childhood trauma was positively associated with general distress among Chinese adolescents. Social support and family functioning independently and serially mediated the linkage of childhood trauma and general distress. These findings confirmed and complemented the ecological system theory of human development and the multisystem developmental framework for resilience. Furthermore, these findings indicated that the mental and emotional problems of adolescents who had childhood trauma were not merely issues of adolescents themselves, but concerns of the whole system and environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18136808DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8297141PMC
June 2021

Three-Dimensionally Ordered Macro/Mesoporous NbO/NbN Heterostructure as Sulfur Host for High-Performance Lithium/Sulfur Batteries.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Jun 10;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 10.

National Center for International Research on Green Optoelectronics, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, China.

The severe shuttle effect of soluble polysulfides hinders the development of lithium-sulfur batteries. Herein, we develop a three-dimensionally ordered macro/mesoporous (3DOM) NbO/NbN heterostructure, which combines the strong adsorption of NbO and remarkable catalysis effect of NbN by the promotion "adsorption-transformation" mechanism in sulfur reaction. Furthermore, the high electrocatalytic activity of NbN facilitates ion/mass transfer during the charge/discharge process. As a result, cells with the S-NbO/NbN electrode delivered outstanding cycling stability and higher discharge capacity than its counterparts. Our work demonstrates a new routine for the multifunctional sulfur host design, which offers great potential for commercial high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11061531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8229476PMC
June 2021

Assessment of causality between modifiable factors and heart failure: A Mendelian randomization analysis.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2021 Jun;30(2):340-347

Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China. Email:

Background And Objectives: Observational studies have associated lifestyle, dietary, adiposity, biochemical and clinical measures with heart failure. Whether the associations are causal remains unclear. We aimed to determine the causal associations between modifiable risk factors and incidence or mortality of heart failure.

Methods And Study Design: Using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) as genetic instruments, we conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to estimate the causal effects of 27 modifiable risk factors on incident heart failure (2526 cases; 20926 participants) and mortality of heart failure (1798 deaths; 2828 patients).

Results: None of 27 modifiable risk factors were significantly associated with incidence or mortality of heart failure after the Bonferroni correction (p<0.0019). However, there was suggestive evidence for genetically predicted educational attainment (odds ratio [OR] per educational year increase: 0.57, 95% CI 0.33-0.99, p=0.049), circulating mono-unsaturated fatty acid concentrations (OR per 1-SD increase [ORSD] : 1.50, 1.10-2.04, p=0.011), C-reactive protein (CRP) (1.53, 1.04-2.25, p=0.031), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (0.84, 0.72-0.99, p=0.036), triglycerides (1.24, 1.00-1.52, p=0.045), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (1.06, 1.01-1.11, p=0.017) with incident heart failure.

Conclusions: Our findings provide supporting evidence for prioritizing certain modifiable risk factors such as education, lipids, and blood pressure for primary prevention of heart failure, suggesting important clues for further mechanism research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6133/apjcn.202106_30(2).0019DOI Listing
June 2021

Copper-Catalyzed Three-Component Reactions of α-Ketoaldehyde, 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compound, and Organic Boronic Acid in Water: A Route to 1,4-Diketones.

J Org Chem 2021 Jul 28;86(14):9914-9923. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, People's Republic of China.

A novel three-component reaction of α-ketoaldehydes, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, and organic boronic acids catalyzed by CuO in water has been developed to give a wide range of products containing 1,3/1,4-diketones. The method has some advantages such as the use of readily available starting materials, wide substrate scopes, excellent yields, gram-scale synthesis, and mild reaction conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.1c01100DOI Listing
July 2021

Nitrogen fertilizer application rate impacts eating and cooking quality of rice after storage.

PLoS One 2021 18;16(6):e0253189. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Institute of Plant Nutrition and Environmental Resources, Liaoning Academay of Agricultural Sciences, Shenyang, People's Republic of China.

The effect of nitrogen fertilizer application on the quality of rice post-storage is not well understood. The eating and cooking quality (ECQ) of rice treated with 0 (CK, control), 160 (IN, insufficient nitrogen), 260 (AN, adequate nitrogen), and 420 (EN, excessive nitrogen) kg N/ha was analyzed over 12 months of storage. Results showed that the rate of nitrogen fertilizer application had no significant impact on the changes in taste value during storage. However, EN application significantly increased the hardness (p < 0.05), reduced the gumminess (p < 0.05), and delayed the decline in the viscosity of rice paste by two months after one-year storage, compared with other treatments. In conclusion, although EN application resulted in an inferior texture of rice, it delayed the quality change by two months during storage. It was demonstrated that a rational nitrogen application rate (0-260 kg N/ha) for rice cultivation is particularly important to obtain high ECQ; however, EN may be beneficial for the stability of the ECQ during storage.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0253189PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213157PMC
June 2021

Combination of ozone and ultrasonic-assisted aerosolization sanitizer as a sanitizing process to disinfect fresh-cut lettuce.

Ultrason Sonochem 2021 Aug 6;76:105622. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Shijiashike Co., Ltd., Liaoyang 111000, China.

Reduction of sanitizer dosage and development of non-immersion disinfection methods have become major focuses of research. Here, we examined the disinfection efficacy of combining gaseous ozone (4 and 8 ppm) with aerosolized oxidizing sanitizer [sodium hypochlorite (SH, 100 and 200 ppm)] and aerosolized organic acid [acetic acid (AA, 1% and 2%) and lactic acid (LA, 1% and 2%)]. Notably, 1% AA and 4 ppm gaseous ozone were ineffective for disinfecting Salmonella Typhimurium, and treatment with 1% AA + 8 ppm ozone caused browning of lettuce leaves and stimulated increases in aerobic mesophilic count (AMC), aerobic psychrotrophic count (APC), S. Typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Treatment with 2% LA + 8 ppm ozone resulted in the lowest S. Typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, AMC, APC, and molds and yeasts during storage (0-7 days at 4 °C). Quality analysis indicates that LA + 8 ppm ozone and SH + 8 ppm ozone did not negatively affect L*, a*, b*, polyphenolic content, weight loss, and sensory properties; however, the levels of two individual phenolic compounds (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and vanillin), responsible for phenylpropanoid synthesis, were significantly increased after treatment with 2% LA + 8 ppm ozone. These findings provided insights into the use of LA combined with gaseous ozone for application in disinfecting fresh produce.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2021.105622DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8202344PMC
August 2021

LncRNA CTD-2528L19.6 prevents the progression of IPF by alleviating fibroblast activation.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Jun 10;12(6):600. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Pharmacology (State-Province Key Laboratories of Biomedicine-Pharmaceutics of China, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Research, Ministry of Education), College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as critical factors for regulating multiple biological processes during organ fibrosis. However, the mechanism of lncRNAs in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains incompletely understood. In the present study, two sets of lncRNAs were defined: IPF pathogenic lncRNAs and IPF progression lncRNAs. IPF pathogenic and progression lncRNAs-mRNAs co-expression networks were constructed to identify essential lncRNAs. Network analysis revealed a key lncRNA CTD-2528L19.6, which was up-regulated in early-stage IPF compared to normal lung tissue, and subsequently down-regulated during advanced-stage IPF. CTD-2528L19.6 was indicated to regulate fibroblast activation in IPF progression by mediating the expression of fibrosis related genes LRRC8C, DDIT4, THBS1, S100A8 and TLR7 et al. Further studies showed that silencing of CTD-2528L19.6 increases the expression of Fn1 and Collagen I both at mRNA and protein levels, promoted the transition of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and accelerated the migration and proliferation of MRC-5 cells. In contrast, CTD-2528L19.6 overexpression alleviated fibroblast activation in MRC-5 cells induced by TGF-β1. LncRNA CTD-2528L19.6 inhibited fibroblast activation through regulating the expression of LRRC8C in vitro assays. Our results suggest that CTD-2528L19.6 may prevent the progression of IPF from early-stage and alleviate fibroblast activation during the advanced-stage of IPF. Thus, exploring the regulatory effect of lncRNA CTD-2528L19.6 may provide new sights for the prevention and treatment of IPF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03884-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192779PMC
June 2021

Ginkgolide J protects human synovial cells SW982 via suppression of p38‑dependent production of pro‑inflammatory mediators.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Aug 3;24(2). Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

Fibroblast‑like synoviocytes (FLS) in the synovial lining play a key role in the pathological process of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which produce pro‑inflammatory mediators to perpetuate inflammation and proteases to contribute to cartilage destruction. Ginkgolide J (GJ) is a subclass of ginkgolides (GGs) that exhibits anti‑inflammatory activity. In the present study, the protective effect of GJ on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑treated human synovial cells SW982 and its related mechanisms were investigated using various methods, including ELISA, Griess assay, western blotting, immunofluorescence analysis and p38 kinase activity assay. The results revealed that GJ pretreatment significantly attenuated LPS‑induced excess production of pro‑inflammatory mediators in SW982 cells via suppression of tumor necrosis factor‑α/interleukin (IL)‑1β/IL‑18/NF‑κB/NLR family pyrin domain containing 3, prostaglandin E2/cyclooxygenase‑2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide signaling. Mechanistic studies revealed that p38 activation contributed to the LPS‑induced inflammatory response, and GJ pretreatment dose‑dependently attenuated p38 activation, indicating that the suppressive effect of GJ was achieved by targeting p38 signaling. These findings may contribute to the prevention and treatment of RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8188640PMC
August 2021

Cognitive Neural Mechanism of Social Anxiety Disorder: A Meta-Analysis Based on fMRI Studies.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 22;18(11). Epub 2021 May 22.

Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Human Development and Mental Health of Hubei Province, School of Psychology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430056, China.

Objective: The present meta-analysis aimed to explore the cognitive and neural mechanism of social anxiety disorder (SAD) from a whole-brain view, and compare the differences in brain activations under different task paradigms.

Methods: We searched Web of Science Core Collection and other databases with the keywords related to social anxiety, social phobia, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for comparing persons with SAD to healthy controls and used the activation likelihood estimation method. Thirty-seven papers met the inclusion criteria, including 15 with emotional faces as stimuli, 8 presenting specific situations as stimuli, and 14 using other types of tasks as stimuli. Among these papers, 654 participants were in the SAD group and 594 participants were in the control group with 335 activation increase points and 115 activation decrease points.

Results: Whole-brain analysis showed that compared with healthy controls, persons with SAD showed significantly lower activation of the left anterior cingulate gyrus (MNI coordinate: x = -6, y = 22, z = 38; 0.001). Sub-group analysis based on task indicated that when performing tasks with emotional faces as stimuli, persons with SAD showed significantly lower activation of the left cerebellar slope and fusiform gyrus (MNI coordinate: x = -26, y = -68, z = -12; 0.001), and significantly higher activation of the right supramarginal gyrus and angular gyrus, than healthy controls (MNI coordinate: x = 58, y = -52, z = 30; 0.001).

Conclusion: Individuals with social anxiety disorder show abnormal activation in the cingulate gyrus, which is responsible for the process of attention control, and task type can influence the activation pattern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115556DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196988PMC
May 2021

Fluorescent hollow [email protected] nanoparticles-based lateral flow assay for simultaneous detection of C-reactive protein and troponin T.

Mikrochim Acta 2021 May 28;188(6):209. Epub 2021 May 28.

Laboratory of Controllable Preparation and Application of Nanomaterials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China.

Highly fluorescent hollow [email protected] nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized efficiently via the hydrothermal method. By changing the hydrothermal time of [email protected] NP, the peaks of fluorescence spectra measured at fluorescent excitation of 330 nm were at 540 nm, 590 nm, and 640 nm, respectively. Hollow ZrO NPs have a uniform core-shell structure with the size of 178 ± 10 nm and shell of 19 ± 4 nm. The as-prepared [email protected] NPs were used to develop lateral flow assay (LFA) for the sensitive and qualitative detection of C-reactive protein (CRP). The visual limit of detection of the LFA for the CRP antigen was 1 μg/L within 20 min, which is 1000-fold lower than that of colloidal gold-based LFA. In addition, a multiplex lateral flow assay (mLFA) was developed using the as-prepared green and [email protected] NPs for the simultaneous, specific, sensitive, and qualitative detection of CRP and troponin T (cTnT). The visual limits of detection of CRP and cTnT in mLFA were 10 μg/L and 0.1 mg/L, respectively. The excellent performance of [email protected] NPs should facilitate their application in point-of-care technology for the detection of other biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-021-04865-3DOI Listing
May 2021

Effect of crop straw biochars on the remediation of Cd-contaminated farmland soil by hyperaccumulator Bidens pilosa L.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Aug 25;219:112332. Epub 2021 May 25.

College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai 200444, China.

Cadmium (Cd) due to its strong toxicity and high mobility, which poses a considerable threat to soil environment and human health, has aroused widespread concern. Biochar has been used for remediating Cd-contaminated soil recently, however this method has the risk of fixed-Cd re-release. Phytoremediation can make up for its shortcoming. In this study, a pot experiment was carried out, where Bidens pilosa L. (B.pilosa) was as the tested plant and biochars (maize straw biochar and wheat straw biochar with two particle sizes) were as amendments. The mechanism of how biochars promoted B.pilosa Cd accumulation in Cd-contaminated farmland soil was explored. Results showed that the application of 5% wheat straw fine biochar (WF), wheat straw coarse biochar (WC), maize straw fine biochar (MF) and maize straw coarse biochar (MC) increased the total Cd accumulation of B.pilosa to 251.57%, 217.41%, 321.64% and 349.66%, respectively. Biochars amendment significantly promoted B.pilosa growth and increased Cd accumulation by improving soil physical properties, nutrient levels (available nitrogen, available phosphorus (AP), available potassium (AK) and organic matter (OM)) and microbial activity, and changing the nutrients distribution in B.pilosa organs although tissues although DTPA-Cd reduced to some extent. The effect of MF on AP increase was better than MC, while the effect of WF on AK increase was better than WC. Fine-particle was superior to coarse-particle in increasing B.pilosa biomass of aboveground, OM and microbial activity in soil. The changes of N, P and K concentrations in B.pilsosa roots, stems and leaves were closely related to the changes of AN, AP and AK in soil after biochars application. The results indicated that the combination of straw biochars and hyperaccumulators had the synergistic effect. This study can provide data support and meaningful reference values for remediating actual Cd-contaminated soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112332DOI Listing
August 2021

Primary intracranial germ cell tumour originating from right brachium Pontis with hypertrophic Olivary degeneration: a case report.

BMC Neurol 2021 May 25;21(1):210. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 119, South 4th Ring West Road, Fengtai District, Beijing, China.

Background: Primary right brachium pontis germinoma with hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) is extremely rare. A preoperative diagnosis is challenging due to the absence of characterized clinical and neuroimaging features, and biopsy should be considered.

Case Presentation: A 20-year-old male patient presented with a case of primary intracranial germinoma originating from right brachium pontis with HOD manifesting as ocular myoclonus, nystagmus in both eyes, ataxic gait and incoordination of the limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an irregular patchy lesion with hyperintensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) and T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) without enhancement by gadolinium (Gd). Furthermore, a focal hyperintense nodule on T2WI in the left inferior olive nucleus (ION) of the medulla oblongata was considered hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) based on the patient's symptoms and neuroimaging findings. Due to suspected demyelinating disease and low-grade glioma (LGG), a biopsy was planned. The pathological diagnosis was germinoma. Subsequently, he received chemoradiation therapy, resulting in the improvement of neurological deficits and the disappearance of the lesion on MRI.

Conclusion: A case of "Primary right brachium pontis germinoma with HOD" is reported for the first time. A preoperative diagnosis is challenging due to the fact of absence of clinical signs and symptoms and neuroimaging characteristics. However, patients can have favourable prognoses with appropriate evaluation and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-021-02238-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8146987PMC
May 2021

Characteristics of growth disturbances in patients with intracranial germinomas of different origins.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 119, South 4th Ring West Road, Fengtai District, Beijing, 100070, China.

Purpose: To explore the characteristics of growth disturbance in patients with intracranial germinoma with different origins.

Methods: Clinical data of 151 patients with single-origin germinomas were studied retrospectively. Z-score of height (ZSOH) at both diagnosis and the last follow-up was calculated using the WHO AnthroPlus software. Linear regression was used to analyse the correlation between the absolute change in ZSOH (|ZSOH - ZSOH |) and clinical factors.

Results: The mean ZSOH decreased significantly in every origin subgroup at the last follow-up. In patients with sellar germinoma (n = 62), the mean ZSOH values at both diagnosis and the last follow-up were significantly lower than those in patients with pineal (n = 30) (p < 0.001) or basal ganglia germinomas (n = 59) (p < 0.001), respectively. In patients with basal ganglia germinoma, the mean absolute change in ZSOH decreased significantly compared to that in the patients with sellar (p = 0.006) or pineal germinomas (p = 0.04). Linear analysis revealed that sex (male vs female; p = 0.003) and age at diagnosis (≤10 years vs >10 years; p = 0.026) had negative correlations, while radiation dose at the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) (≤40 Gy vs >40 Gy; p = 0.085) had a marginally positive correlation, with absolute change in ZSOH.

Conclusions: Patients with germinoma experienced growth retardation after treatments. The growth disturbance was consistent and more severe in patients with germinoma of sellar origin, while the greatest aggravation was observed in patients with germinoma of basal ganglia origin. Decreasing radiation dose to the HPA may minimize the negative impact of radiotherapy on growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-021-05189-6DOI Listing
May 2021

The long non-coding RNA PFI protects against pulmonary fibrosis by interacting with splicing regulator SRSF1.

Cell Death Differ 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Pharmacology (State-Province Key Laboratories of Biomedicine-Pharmaceutics of China, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Research, Ministry of Education), College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, P. R. China.

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a type of interstitial pneumonia with complex etiology and high mortality, characterized by progressive scarring of the alveolar interstitium and myofibroblastic lesions. Recently, there has been growing appreciation of the importance of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in organ fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of lncRNAs in lung fibrosis. We used a qRT-PCR assay to identify dysregulated lncRNAs in the lungs of mice with experimental, bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and a series of molecular assays to assess the role of the novel lncRNA NONMMUT060091, designated as pulmonary fibrosis inhibitor (PFI), which was significantly downregulated in lung fibrosis. Functionally, knockdown of endogenous PFI by smart silencer promoted proliferation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition in primary mouse lung fibroblasts (MLFs). In contrast, overexpression of PFI partially abrogated TGF-β1-induced fibrogenesis both in MLFs and in the human fetal lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells. Similarly, PFI overexpression attenuated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis compared with wild type (WT) mice. Mechanistically, using chromatin isolation by RNA purification-mass spectrometry (ChIRP-MS) and an RNA pull-down assay, PFI was found to directly bind Serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1), and to repress its expression and pro-fibrotic activity. Furthermore, silencing of SRSF1 inhibited TGF-β1-induced proliferation, differentiation, and ECM deposition in MRC-5 cells by limiting the formation of the EDA+Fn1 splicing isoform; whereas forced expression of SRSF1 by intratracheal injection of adeno-associated virus 5 (AAV5) ablated the anti-fibrotic effect of PFI in BLM-treated mice. Overall, these data reveal that PFI mitigated pulmonary fibrosis through negative regulation of the expression and activity of SRSF1 to decrease the formation of the EDA+Fn1 splicing isoform, and suggest that PFI and SRSF1 may serve as potential targets for the treatment of lung fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-021-00792-1DOI Listing
May 2021

Intelligent vibration signal denoising method based on non-local fully convolutional neural network for rolling bearings.

ISA Trans 2021 Apr 25. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Glasgow College, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 611731, China.

Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been widely applied to machinery health management in recent years, whereas research on data-driven denoising methods is relatively limited. Therefore, this paper proposes a robust denoising method based on a non-local fully convolutional neural network (NL-FCNN). In this neural network, the Leaky-ReLU activation function is employed to maintain the information contained in the negative value of the signal. The wide kernel principle is also adopted to enlarge the receptive field. Lastly, the non-local means (NLM) is utilized to construct non-local block (NLB), which could efficiently enhance the long-range dependencies learning ability of the network. This block could enormously improve the denoising performance of the network. Moreover, the proposed method exhibits better performance compared with the three conventional denoising methods under multiple noise levels on the Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) motor bearing dataset. Ultimately, we also demonstrate its application to rolling bearing fault diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2021.04.022DOI Listing
April 2021

The Multiple Roles of Ascorbate in the Abiotic Stress Response of Plants: Antioxidant, Cofactor, and Regulator.

Front Plant Sci 2021 12;12:598173. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Ascorbate (ASC) plays a critical role in plant stress response. The antioxidant role of ASC has been well-studied, but there are still several confusing questions about the function of ASC in plant abiotic stress response. ASC can scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and should be helpful for plant stress tolerance. But in some cases, increasing ASC content impairs plant abiotic stress tolerance, whereas, inhibiting ASC synthesis or regeneration enhances plant stress tolerance. This confusing phenomenon indicates that ASC may have multiple roles in plant abiotic stress response not just as an antioxidant, though many studies more or less ignored other roles of ASC in plant. In fact, ACS also can act as the cofactor of some enzymes, which are involved in the synthesis, metabolism, and modification of a variety of substances, which has important effects on plant stress response. In addition, ASC can monitor and effectively regulate cell redox status. Therefore, we believe that ASC has atleast triple roles in plant abiotic stress response: as the antioxidant to scavenge accumulated ROS, as the cofactor to involve in plant metabolism, or as the regulator to coordinate the actions of various signal pathways under abiotic stress. The role of ASC in plant abiotic stress response is important and complex. The detail role of ASC in plant abiotic stress response should be analyzed according to specific physiological process in specific organ. In this review, we discuss the versatile roles of ASC in the response of plants to abiotic stresses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.598173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072462PMC
April 2021

Endogenous glutamate determines ferroptosis sensitivity via ADCY10-dependent YAP suppression in lung adenocarcinoma.

Theranostics 2021 24;11(12):5650-5674. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200030, China.

Ferroptosis, a newly identified form of regulated cell death, can be induced following the inhibition of cystine-glutamate antiporter system X because of the impaired uptake of cystine. However, the outcome following the accumulation of endogenous glutamate in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) has not yet been determined. Yes-associated protein (YAP) is sustained by the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP)-dependent O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation), and glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase (GFPT1), the rate-limiting enzyme of the HBP, can be phosphorylated and inhibited by adenylyl cyclase (ADCY)-mediated activation of protein kinase A (PKA). However, whether accumulated endogenous glutamate determines ferroptosis sensitivity by influencing the ADCY/PKA/HBP/YAP axis in LUAD cells is not understood. Cell viability, cell death and the generation of lipid reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured to evaluate the responses to the induction of ferroptosis following the inhibition of system X . Tandem mass tags (TMTs) were employed to explore potential factors critical for the ferroptosis sensitivity of LUAD cells. Immunoblotting (IB) and quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) were used to analyze protein and mRNA expression. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays were performed to identify protein-protein interactions and posttranslational modifications. Metabolite levels were measured using the appropriate kits. Transcriptional regulation was evaluated using a luciferase reporter assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Drug administration and limiting dilution cell transplantation were performed with cell-derived xenograft (CDX) and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models. The associations among clinical outcome, drug efficacy and ADCY10 expression were determined based on data from patients who underwent curative surgery and evaluated with patient-derived primary LUAD cells and tissues. The accumulation of endogenous glutamate following system X inhibition has been shown to determine ferroptosis sensitivity by suppressing YAP in LUAD cells. YAP O-GlcNAcylation and expression cannot be sustained in LUAD cells upon impairment of GFPT1. Thus, Hippo pathway-like phosphorylation and ubiquitination of YAP are enhanced. ADCY10 acts as a key downstream target and diversifies the effects of glutamate on the PKA-dependent suppression of GFPT1. We also discovered that the protumorigenic and proferroptotic effects of ADCY10 are mediated separately. Advanced-stage LUADs with high ADCY10 expression are sensitive to ferroptosis. Moreover, LUAD cells with acquired therapy resistance are also prone to higher ADCY10 expression and are more likely to respond to ferroptosis. Finally, a varying degree of secondary labile iron increase is caused by the failure to sustain YAP-stimulated transcriptional compensation for ferritin at later stages further explains why ferroptosis sensitivity varies among LUAD cells. Endogenous glutamate is critical for ferroptosis sensitivity following the inhibition of system X in LUAD cells, and ferroptosis-based treatment is a good choice for LUAD patients with later-stage and/or therapy-resistant tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.55482DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8058707PMC
July 2021

CREB stimulates GPX4 transcription to inhibit ferroptosis in lung adenocarcinoma.

Oncol Rep 2021 06 13;45(6). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Shanghai Institute of Thoracic Oncology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, P.R. China.

Ferroptosis is a new form of regulated cell death and closely related to cancer. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of ferroptosis in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) remains unclear. IB, IHC and ELISA were performed to analyze protein expression. RT‑qPCR was used to analyze mRNA expression. Cell viability, 3D cell growth, MDA, the generation of lipid ROS and the Fe2+ concentration were measured to evaluate the responses to the induction of ferroptosis. Measurement of luciferase activity and ChIP were used to analyze the promoter activity regulated by the transcriptional regulator. Co‑IP assays were performed to identify protein‑protein interactions. In the present study, it was revealed that cAMP response element‑binding protein (CREB) was highly expressed in LUAD, and knockdown of CREB inhibited cell viability and growth by promoting apoptosis‑ and ferroptosis‑like cell death, concurrently. It was observed that CREB suppressed lipid peroxidation by binding the promoter region of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), and this binding could be enhanced by E1A binding protein P300 (EP300). The bZIP domain in CREB and the CBP/p300‑HAT domain in EP300 were essential for CREB‑EP300 binding in LUAD cells. Finally, it was revealed that CREB, GPX4, EP300 and 4‑HNE were closely related to tumor size and stage, and tumors with a higher degree of malignancy were more likely to have a low degree of lipid peroxidation. Therefore, targeting this CREB/EP300/GPX4 axis may provide new strategies for treating LUAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2021.8039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8042667PMC
June 2021

Efficient degradation of polyacrylate containing wastewater by combined anaerobic-aerobic fluidized bed bioreactors.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jul 5;332:125108. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, State Environmental Protection Engineering Center for Pollution Treatment and Control in Textile Industry, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China. Electronic address:

Polyacrylate containing wastewater (PCW) is the typical sewage discharged by the textile industry. It has extremely poor biodegradability, and chemical methods were used conventionally as the only way for treating PCW. This study is demonstrating a novel biological method. In batch experiment monod kinetics was applied to the experimental data, which indicated that anaerobic treatment used for PCW is feasible. The pilot-scale experiment combined a Spiral Symmetry Stream Anaerobic Bioreactor (SSSAB) and an air-lift external circulation vortex enhancement nitrogen removal fluidized bed bioreactor (AFB). The COD and NH-N removal reached up to 95.2% and 96.6%, respectively, which were higher than the value obtained by other chemical methods. High-throughput sequencing analysis indicated that the relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes increased, which contribute to the degradation of PCW. Therefore, PCW can be degraded efficiently by using a SSSAB-AFB technique and thus provides an alternative to the chemical methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125108DOI Listing
July 2021

WTAP promotes myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury by increasing endoplasmic reticulum stress via regulating mA modification of ATF4 mRNA.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 03 26;13(8):11135-11149. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Cardiology, Seventh People's Hospital of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200137, China.

Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of death. Wilms' tumor 1-associating protein (WTAP), one of the components of the mA methyltransferase complex, has been shown to affect gene expression via regulating mRNA modification. Although WTAP has been implicated in various diseases, its role in MI is unclear. In this study, we found that hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) time-dependently increased WTAP expression, which in turn promoted endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis, in human cardiomyocytes (AC16). H/R effects on ER stress and apoptosis were all blocked by silencing of WTAP, promoted by WTAP overexpression, and ameliorated by administration of ER stress inhibitor, 4-PBA. We then investigated the underlying molecular mechanism and found that WTAP affected mA methylation of ATF4 mRNA to regulate its expression, and that the inhibitory effects of WTAP on ER stress and apoptosis were ATF4 dependent. Finally, WTAP's effects on myocardial I/R injury were confirmed . WTAP promoted myocardial I/R injury through promoting ER stress and cell apoptosis by regulating mA modification of ATF4 mRNA. These findings highlight the importance of WTAP in I/R injury and provide new insights into therapeutic strategies for MI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202770DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8109143PMC
March 2021

Targeting SLC3A2 subunit of system X is essential for mA reader YTHDC2 to be an endogenous ferroptosis inducer in lung adenocarcinoma.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 05 27;168:25-43. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Shanghai Institute of Thoracic Oncology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200030, China; Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital of Tongji University, Shanghai, 200072, China. Electronic address:

The mA reader YT521-B homology containing 2 (YTHDC2) has been identified to inhibit lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) tumorigenesis by suppressing solute carrier 7A11 (SLC7A11)-dependent antioxidant function. SLC7A11 is a major functional subunit of system X. Inhibition of system X can induce ferroptosis. However, whether suppressing SLC7A11 is sufficient for YTHDC2 to be an endogenous ferroptosis inducer in LUAD is unknown. Here, we found that induction of YTHDC2 to a high level can induce ferroptosis in LUAD cells but not in lung and bronchus epithelial cells. In addition to SLC7A11, solute carrier 3A2 (SLC3A2), another subunit of system X was equally important for YTHDC2-induced ferroptosis. YTHDC2 mA-dependently destabilized Homeo box A13 (HOXA13) mRNA because a potential mA recognition site was identified within its 3' untranslated region (3'UTR). Interestingly, HOXA13 acted as a transcription factor to stimulate SLC3A2 expression. Thereby, YTHDC2 suppressed SLC3A2 via inhibiting HOXA13 in an mA-indirect manner. Mouse experiments further confirmed the associations among YTHDC2, SLC3A2 and HOXA13, and demonstrated that SLC3A2 and SLC7A11 were both important for YTHDC2-impaired tumor growth and -induced lipid peroxidation in vivo. Moreover, higher expression of SLC7A11, SLC3A2 and HOXA13 indicate poorer clinical outcome in YTHDC2-suppressed LUAD patients. In conclusion, YTHDC2 is believed to be a powerful endogenous ferroptosis inducer and targeting SLC3A2 subunit of system X is essential for this process. Increasing YTHDC2 is an alternative ferroptosis-based therapy to treat LUAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2021.03.023DOI Listing
May 2021

Decoupling expression and editing preferences of ADAR1 p150 and p110 isoforms.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(12)

Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065;

Human adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) catalyzes adenosine-to-inosine deamination reactions on double-stranded RNA molecules to regulate cellular responses to endogenous and exogenous RNA. Defective ADAR1 editing leads to disorders such as Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, an autoinflammatory disease that manifests in the brain and skin, and dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria, a skin pigmentation disorder. Two ADAR1 protein isoforms, p150 (150 kDa) and p110 (110 kDa), are expressed and can edit RNA, but the contribution of each isoform to the editing landscape remains unclear, largely because of the challenges in expressing p150 without p110. In this study, we demonstrate that p110 is coexpressed with p150 from the canonical p150-encoding mRNA due to leaky ribosome scanning downstream of the p150 start codon. The presence of a strong Kozak consensus context surrounding the p110 start codon suggests the p150 mRNA is optimized to leak p110 alongside expression of p150. To reduce leaky scanning and translation initiation at the p110 start codon, we introduced synonymous mutations in the coding region between the p150 and p110 start codons. Cells expressing p150 constructs with these mutations produced significantly reduced levels of p110. Editing analysis of total RNA from ADAR1 knockout cells reconstituted separately with modified p150 and p110 revealed that more than half of the A-to-I edit sites are selectively edited by p150, and the other half are edited by either p150 or p110. This method of isoform-selective editing analysis, making use of the modified p150, has the potential to be adapted for other cellular contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2021757118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000508PMC
March 2021

Relapse pattern and quality of life in patients with localized basal ganglia germinoma receiving focal radiotherapy, whole-brain radiotherapy, or craniospinal irradiation.

Radiother Oncol 2021 05 19;158:90-96. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, China; Beijing Neurosurgery Institute, Capital Medical University, China.

Background And Purpose: The optimal target volume in localized basal ganglia (BG) germinoma is still undetermined. Thus, based on the relapse pattern and health-related quality of life (HRQOL), we evaluated three target volumes.

Material And Methods: The clinical data of 161 patients with localized BG germinoma were included in this retrospective study. Relapse status and relapse sites after treatment were explored. HRQOL was evaluated using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQL 4.0) (≤15 years) and Short Form-36 (SF-36) (>15 years) questionnaires based on the patients' age at last follow-up.

Results: After a median follow-up duration of 83 months (range, 20-214 months), 19 patients experienced relapse, including 15, 4, and 0 patients in the focal radiotherapy (FR) (n = 35), whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) plus boost (n = 109), and craniospinal irradiation (CSI) plus boost (n = 17) groups, respectively. The 5-year disease-free survival rates were 74.3%, 97.2%, and 100%, respectively (p < 0.001). Among the 15 patients who relapsed after FR, 14 had positive radiological findings, including seven (50.0%) with lesions in the periventricular area and seven (50.0%) with frontal lobe lesions. Relapse in both these areas were significantly reduced by WBRT or CSI. HRQOL data were available for 69 patients, who generally scored low. Among 38 patients evaluated by SF-36, those receiving CSI had significantly lower mental component scores than those receiving WBRT (p = 0.027) or FR (p = 0.011).

Conclusions: Considering both disease control and HRQOL, WBRT is the optimal target volume in our series. The relapse pattern identified in patients receiving FR is informative for further treatment volume optimization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2021.02.009DOI Listing
May 2021

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 for physicians: Molecular characteristics and host immunity (Review).

Mol Med Rep 2021 04 12;23(4). Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Center of Infectious Diseases, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, P.R. China.

Recently, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2)‑causing CoV disease 2019 (COVID‑19) emerged in China and has become a global pandemic. SARS‑CoV‑2 is a novel CoV originating from β‑CoVs. Major distinctions in the gene sequences between SARS‑CoV and SARS‑CoV‑2 include the spike gene, open reading frame (ORF) 3b and ORF 8. SARS‑CoV‑2 infection is initiated when the virus interacts with angiotensin‑converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors on host cells. Through this mechanism, the virus infects the alveolar, esophageal epithelial, ileum, colon and other cells on which ACE2 is highly expressed, causing damage to target organs. To date, host innate immunity may be the only identified direct factor associated with viral replication. However, increased ACE2 expression may upregulate the viral load indirectly by increasing the baseline level of infectious virus particles. The peak viral load of SARS‑CoV‑2 is estimated to occur ~10 days following fever onset, causing patients in the acute stage to be the primary infection source. However, patients in the recovery stage or with occult infections can also be contagious. The host immune response in patients with COVID‑19 remains to be elucidated. By studying other SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, it is hypothesized that patients with COVID‑19 may lack sufficient antiviral T‑cell responses, which consequently present with innate immune response disorders. This may to a certain degree explain why this type of CoV triggers severe inflammatory responses and immune damage and its associated complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.11901DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7893688PMC
April 2021
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