Publications by authors named "Jiaxing Wang"

145 Publications

Effect of single-incision laparoscopic distal gastrectomy guided by ERAS and the influence on immune function.

World J Surg Oncol 2021 Oct 20;19(1):307. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, No.20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou, 350005, Fujian, PR China.

Background: To evaluate the immune function of gastric cancer patients after single-incision laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (SIDG) or multiport laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (MLDG) guided by enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS).

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed on 120 patients who underwent laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer. The patients were divided into two groups according to operation method: group A (MLDG) and group B (SIDG), both guided by ERAS concept. The indicators reflecting immune function and inflammation, such as CD3, CD4, CD8 and NK cell count, CD4/CD8 cell ratios, IgA, IgM and IgG levels, C-reactive protein (CRP), total lymphocyte count (TLC) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were tested 3 days and 7 days after surgery.

Results: The skin incision length of patients in group B was significantly shorter than that in group A, but the operation time was significantly longer in group B than that in group A (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in preoperative CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, natural killer (NK) cells, CD4+/CD8+, IgA, IgM and IgG levels between two groups (P < 0.05). Three days after surgery, the immune function indices were decreased in both groups, but with no significant difference between two groups (P > 0.05). On the 7th day after surgery, the immune indexes of both groups recovered somewhat, approaching the preoperative level (P > 0.05). Inflammation indexes increased 3 days after surgery and decreased 7 days after surgery in both groups, among them the CRP level in group A was higher than that in group B (P < 0.05). The 3-year survival rate were 96.7% in group A and 91.7% in group B, respectively, with no statistically significant difference.

Conclusion: Compared with MLDG guided by ERAS, SIDG under the guidance of the ERAS concept has better cosmetic effect and similar effect on immune function of gastric cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12957-021-02422-zDOI Listing
October 2021

Epidemiology of Sports-Related Eye Injuries Among Athletes in Tianjin, China.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 16;8:690528. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

To investigate the incidence, characteristics, and risk factors of sports-related eye injuries among athletes in Tianjin, China. A cross-sectional study was carried out from March 2018 to October 2018. In this study, the athletes from Tianjin University of Sports, Tianjin Vocational College of Sports, and Tianjin provincial sports teams were selected for general investigation. In total, 1,673 athletes were invited and 1,413 participated in the study (response rate of 84.5%). In total, 1,413 athletes were enrolled; 151 had suffered from sports-related eye injuries, with an incidence of 10.7% (95% : 9.1-12.0%). Handball (38.5%) was the sport with the highest incidence of eye injuries, followed by water polo (36.4%) and diving (26.7%). Overall, 42.4% of the athletes were injured by ball and 22.5% of injuries came from teammates. The eye injuries usually occurred during training (64.2%) and competitions (14.6%). Adnexa wound (51.7%) was the most common type of injury. About 11.9% of the athletes with eye injuries had the impaired vision; 66.7% failed to see doctors on time. The athletes <18 years of age had a higher risk of eye injuries (odds ratio [] =1.60, 95% : 1.06-2.40). The athletes with lower family income (<1,000 RMB) were at risk population for sports-related eye injuries ( = 3.91, 95% : 2.24-6.82). Training >4 h a day increased the risk of eye injuries ( = 2.21, 95% : 1.42-3.43). The incidence of sports-related eye injuries among athletes was 10.7% in Tianjin, China. Handball, water polo, and diving were the most common activities of injury. Age, family income, and training time were the risk factors for sports-related eye injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.690528DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8481368PMC
September 2021

Extracellular vesicles derived from melatonin-preconditioned mesenchymal stem cells containing USP29 repair traumatic spinal cord injury by stabilizing NRF2.

J Pineal Res 2021 Sep 25:e12769. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating trauma that leads to irreversible motor and sensory dysfunction and is, so far, without effective treatment. Recently, however, nano-sized extracellular vesicles derived from preconditioned mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown great promise in treating various diseases, including SCI. In this study, we investigated whether extracellular vesicles (MEVs) derived from MSCs pretreated with melatonin (MT), which is well recognized to be useful in treating diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, non-small cell lung cancer, acute ischemia-reperfusion liver injury, chronic kidney disease, and SCI, are better able to promote functional recovery in mice after SCI than extracellular vesicles derived from MSCs without preconditioning (EVs). MEVs were found to facilitate motor behavioral recovery more than EVs and to increase microglia/macrophages polarization from M1-like to M2-like in mice. Experiments in BV2 microglia and RAW264.7 macrophages confirmed that MEVs facilitate M2-like polarization and also showed that they reduce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and regulate mitochondrial function. Proteomics analysis revealed that ubiquitin-specific protease 29 (USP29) was markedly increased in MEVs, and knockdown of USP29 in MEVs (shUSP29-MEVs) abolished MEVs-mediated benefits in vitro and in vivo. We then showed that USP29 interacts with, deubiquitinates and therefore stabilizes nuclear factor-like 2 (NRF2), thereby regulating microglia/macrophages polarization. In NRF2 knockout mice, MEVs failed to promote functional recovery and M2-like microglia/macrophages polarization. We also showed that MT reduced global N6-methyladenosine (m A) modification and levels of the m A "writer" methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3). The stability of USP29 mRNA in MSCs was enhanced by treatment with MT, but inhibited by overexpression of METTL3. This study describes a very promising extracellular vesicle-based approach for treating SCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpi.12769DOI Listing
September 2021

Small extracellular vesicles encapsulating CCL2 from activated astrocytes induce microglial activation and neuronal apoptosis after traumatic spinal cord injury.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Sep 12;18(1):196. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Orthopaedics, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe traumatic disease which causes high disability and mortality rates. The molecular pathological features after spinal cord injury mainly involve the inflammatory response, microglial and neuronal apoptosis, abnormal proliferation of astrocytes, and the formation of glial scars. However, the microenvironmental changes after spinal cord injury are complex, and the interactions between glial cells and nerve cells remain unclear. Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) may play a key role in cell communication by transporting RNA, proteins, and bioactive lipids between cells. Few studies have examined the intercellular communication of astrocytes through sEVs after SCI. The inflammatory signal released from astrocytes is known to initiate microglial activation, but its effects on neurons after SCI remain to be further clarified.

Methods: Electron microscopy (TEM), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), and western blotting were applied to characterize sEVs. We examined microglial activation and neuronal apoptosis mediated by astrocyte activation in an experimental model of acute spinal cord injury and in cell culture in vitro.

Results: Our results indicated that astrocytes activated after spinal cord injury release CCL2, act on microglia and neuronal cells through the sEV pathway, and promote neuronal apoptosis and microglial activation after binding the CCR2. Subsequently, the activated microglia release IL-1β, which acts on neuronal cells, thereby further aggravating their apoptosis.

Conclusion: This study elucidates that astrocytes interact with microglia and neurons through the sEV pathway after SCI, enriching the mechanism of CCL2 in neuroinflammation and spinal neurodegeneration, and providing a new theoretical basis of CCL2 as a therapeutic target for SCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-021-02268-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8436564PMC
September 2021

Roles and Mechanisms of TGR5 in the Modulation of CD4 T Cell Functions in Myocardial Infarction.

J Cardiovasc Transl Res 2021 Aug 16. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Cardiology and Institute of Vascular Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, 100191, China.

Bile acid receptor TGR5 has been proved to play protective roles in the process of myocardial infarction (MI). Recently, we found spleen weight of Tgr5 mice was increased at 7-day post-MI but not in Tgr5 mice. Since the spleen is one of the main resources of immune and inflammatory cells post-MI, we conducted flow cytometry analysis of multiple immune cells in the heart post-MI. It showed the recruitment of CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells was continuously more in the heart of Tgr5 mice post-MI until 7 days after MI. Furthermore, CD4-specific TGR5 depletion mice exhibited aggravated ischemic injury. The mRNA expressions of the markers of Th1 and Treg were upregulated in the heart of Tgr5 mice at 7-day post-MI. These results suggested TGR5 modulates CD4 T cell functions and subsets distribution in the heart, and plays protective roles in myocardial infarction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12265-021-10164-2DOI Listing
August 2021

Efficient Dicer processing of virus-derived double-stranded RNAs and its modulation by RIG-I-like receptor LGP2.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Aug 3;17(8):e1009790. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

The interferon-regulated antiviral responses are essential for the induction of both innate and adaptive immunity in mammals. Production of virus-derived small-interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) to restrict virus infection by RNA interference (RNAi) is a recently identified mammalian immune response to several RNA viruses, which cause important human diseases such as influenza and Zika virus. However, little is known about Dicer processing of viral double-stranded RNA replicative intermediates (dsRNA-vRIs) in mammalian somatic cells. Here we show that infected somatic cells produced more influenza vsiRNAs than cellular microRNAs when both were produced by human Dicer expressed de novo, indicating that dsRNA-vRIs are not poor Dicer substrates as previously proposed according to in vitro Dicer processing of synthetic long dsRNA. We report the first evidence both for canonical vsiRNA production during wild-type Nodamura virus infection and direct vsiRNA sequestration by its RNAi suppressor protein B2 in two strains of suckling mice. Moreover, Sindbis virus (SINV) accumulation in vivo was decreased by prior production of SINV-targeting vsiRNAs triggered by infection and increased by heterologous expression of B2 in cis from SINV genome, indicating an antiviral function for the induced RNAi response. These findings reveal that unlike artificial long dsRNA, dsRNA-vRIs made during authentic infection of mature somatic cells are efficiently processed by Dicer into vsiRNAs to direct antiviral RNAi. Interestingly, Dicer processing of dsRNA-vRIs into vsiRNAs was inhibited by LGP2 (laboratory of genetics and physiology 2), which was encoded by an interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) shown recently to inhibit Dicer processing of artificial long dsRNA in cell culture. Our work thus further suggests negative modulation of antiviral RNAi by a known ISG from the interferon response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1009790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8362961PMC
August 2021

ECBC: Efficient Convolution via Blocked Columnizing.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Jul 19;PP. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Direct convolution methods are now drawing increasing attention as they eliminate the additional storage demand required by indirect convolution algorithms (i.e., the transformed matrix generated by the im2col convolution algorithm). Nevertheless, the direct methods require special input-output tensor formatting, leading to extra time and memory consumption to get the desired data layout. In this article, we show that indirect convolution, if implemented properly, is able to achieve high computation performance with the help of highly optimized subroutines in matrix multiplication while avoid incurring substantial memory overhead. The proposed algorithm is called efficient convolution via blocked columnizing (ECBC). Inspired by the im2col convolution algorithm and the block algorithm of general matrix-to-matrix multiplication, we propose to conduct the convolution computation blockwisely. As a result, the tensor-to-matrix transformation process (e.g., the im2col operation) can also be done in a blockwise manner so that it only requires a small block of memory as small as the data block. Extensive experiments on various platforms and networks validate the effectiveness of ECBC, as well as the superiority of our proposed method against a set of widely used industrial-level convolution algorithms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2021.3095276DOI Listing
July 2021

Lighting quantity indexes for lighting traditional Chinese paintings based on pigments protection and substrates protection in museums.

Opt Express 2021 Jul;29(14):22667-22678

In museum lighting, traditional Chinese paintings are the artworks with the highest light sensitivity. They are vulnerable to the color damage to pigments and the mechanical damage to substrates after the irradiation from light sources. As the basis of effective preventive protection, the research on the two lighting quantity indexes of illuminance and annual exposure (illuminance × time) is currently missing. In this study, the halogen lamp was used as the experimental light source to conduct a 1440 h irradiation experiment on the samples of paper and silk substrates under 4 illuminance levels, respectively, and the test of infrared spectrum was carried out on the samples every 240 h. The oxidation index of paper and crystallinity degree of silk were calculated then. Three-dimensional visual curved surface plots of mechanical damage to samples with the change of illuminance and time were established and then fitted into damage evaluation equations, which revealed and described mathematically the mechanical damage law of samples. Through the equations, the recommended values of illuminance and annual exposure for samples could be calculated. Combining the previous researches on pigments, the lighting quantity indexes of traditional Chinese paintings with different combinations of substrates and pigments were proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.429923DOI Listing
July 2021

Prevalence of primary open angle glaucoma in the last 20 years: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

Sci Rep 2021 07 2;11(1):13762. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410011, Hunan, China.

Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world and is influenced by various sociodemographic factors. This meta-analysis aims to determine the worldwide prevalence of POAG in the adult general population for the last 20 years, and explore variation in prevalence by age, gender and geographical location. An electronic literature search was performed using the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases. Population-based cross-sectional or cohort studies published in the last 20 years (2000-2020) that reported prevalence of POAG were recruited. Relevant studies meeting defined eligibility criteria were selected and reviewed systematically by meta-analysis. The prevalence of POAG was analyzed according to various risk factors. A random effect model was used for the meta-analysis. Fifty publications with a total of 198,259 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. The worldwide overall prevalence of POAG was 2.4% (95% CI 2.0 ~ 2.8%). The prevalence increases with age. Men are found to be more susceptible to POAG than women (RR 1.28, p < 0.01). Africa is found to have the highest prevalence of POAG (4.0%) among all continents. The current estimated global population of POAG is 68.56 million (95% CI 59.99 ~ 79.98). POAG is a worldwide vision threatening disease with high prevalence for the last 20 years. The population-based prevalence of POAG varies widely across individual studies, due to variations in risk factors of age, gender, and population geographic location.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92971-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8253788PMC
July 2021

Systemic Treatment with Nicotinamide Riboside Is Protective in Two Mouse Models of Retinal Ganglion Cell Damage.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Jun 16;13(6). Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Atlanta VA Center for Visual and Neurocognitive Rehabilitation, Decatur, GA 30033, USA.

Glaucoma etiology often includes retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). However, even when IOP is managed well, disease can progress. It is thus important to develop therapeutic approaches that directly protect RGCs in an IOP-independent manner. Compromised nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) metabolism occurs in neurodegenerative diseases, including models of glaucoma. Here we report testing the protective effects of prophylactically systemically administered nicotinamide riboside (NR), a NAD precursor, in a mouse model of acute RGC damage (optic nerve crush (ONC)), and in a chronic model of RGC degeneration (ocular hypertension induced by intracameral injection of microbeads). For both models, treatment enhanced RGC survival, assessed by counting cells in retinal flatmounts immunostained for Brn3a+. In the ONC model, treatment preserved RGC function, as assessed by pattern electroretinogram, and suppressed retinal inflammation, as assessed by immunofluorescence staining of retinal fixed sections for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). This is the first study to demonstrate that systemic treatment with NR is protective in acute and chronic models of RGC damage. The protection is significant and, considering that NR is highly bioavailable in and well-tolerated by humans, may support the proposition of prospective human subject studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13060893DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8235058PMC
June 2021

The Sperm Structure and Spermatogenesis of (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

Biology (Basel) 2021 Jun 25;10(7). Epub 2021 Jun 25.

College of Forestry, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

The male reproductive system, sperm structure, and spermatogenesis of (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), which is one of the most destructive pests of var. (Bunge), were investigated using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The male reproductive system of is composed of testes, seminal vesicles, tubular accessory glands, multilobulated accessory glands, vasa deferentia, and a common ejaculatory duct. In spermatogenesis, two phenomena are apparent: The nuclear chromatin condenses into two different patterns, and an oval preacrosomal vesicle is present at the flank of the Golgi apparatus. The sperm are short, measuring 76.7 ± 1.8 μm in length, and are 508.1 ± 12.9 nm in width. The sperm are composed of a three-layer acrosomal complex, a cylindrical nucleus, two mitochondrial derivatives, a 9 + 9 + 2 axoneme, and two accessory bodies with a large "puff"-like expansion. Mature sperm are individually stored in seminal vesicles. During spermiogenesis, the similarities in the nuclear chromatin condensation characteristics of Curculioninae and Scolytinae are indicative of their close phylogenetic relationship. It appears that the preacrosomal vesicle being flanked by the Golgi apparatus is a characteristic of spermatogenesis in Curculionidae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology10070583DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8301190PMC
June 2021

Prevalence and Predictive Factors of Asymptomatic Spondylotic Cervical Spinal Stenosis in Patients with Symptomatic Lumbar Spinal Stenosis.

World Neurosurg 2021 07 24;151:e1051-e1058. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Orthopaedics, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Objective: We performed a retrospective cohort study to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for asymptomatic spondylotic cervical spinal stenosis (ASCSS) in the setting of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS).

Methods: A total of 114 patients with a diagnosis of LSS without cervical myelopathy and radiculopathy were grouped into ASCSS and non-ASCSS groups. The medical data and radiological parameters, including age, sex, body mass index, Charlson comorbidity index, symptom duration, redundant nerve roots, dural sac cross-sectional area (DCSA), facet joint angle, lumbar lordosis angle (LLA), pelvic incidence (PI), Torg-Pavlov ratio, and lumbosacral transitional vertebrae, were analyzed. The lumbar stenosis index and cervical stenosis index of the 114 patients were also analyzed.

Results: ASCSS occurred in 70 of the 114 patients with LSS (61.4%). The two groups showed significant differences in symptom duration, redundant nerve roots, LLA, DCSA, and PI. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, an LLA >35.85° (P < 0.001) and a DCSA <84.50 mm (P = 0.003) were independently associated with ASCSS. The multi-index receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the area under the curve for predicted probability was 0.805 (P < 0.001). Linear regression analysis revealed that cervical stenosis index significantly and positively correlated with the lumbar stenosis index (r = 0.430; P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that an LLA >35.85° and a DCSA <84.50 mm are risk factors for the development of ASCSS. For LSS patients with an enlarged LLA and reduced DSCA, a whole spinal magnetic resonance imaging examination should be performed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2021.05.054DOI Listing
July 2021

Risk Factors for Refracture following Primary Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures.

Pain Physician 2021 05;24(3):E335-E340

Department of Orthopedics, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Background: In the aging population, osteoporosis and related complications have become a global public health problem. Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures are among the most common type of osteoporotic fractures and patients are at risk of secondary vertebral compression fracture.

Objectives: To identify risk factors for secondary vertebral compression fracture following primary osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.

Study Design: Retrospective study.

Setting: Department of Orthopedic, an affiliated hospital of a medical university.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study evaluated the risk factors for secondary vertebral compression fracture in 317 consecutive patients with systematic osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures who received percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty or conservative treatment. Patients were divided into secondary vertebral compression fracture (n = 43) and non- secondary vertebral compression fracture (n = 274) groups. We retrospectively analyzed clinical characteristics and radiographic parameters, including gender, age, body mass index, number of primary fractures, primary treatment (percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty or conservative treatment), nonspinal fracture history before primary fracture, primary fracture at the thoracolumbar junction, steroid use, bisphosphonate therapy, and Hounsfield units value of L1.

Results: Comparison between the groups showed significant differences in age (P = 0.001), nonspinal fracture history (P < 0.001), and Hounsfield units value of L1 (P < 0.001). The receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated that the optimal thresholds for age and Hounsfield units value of L1 were 75 (sensitivity: 55.8%; specificity: 67.5%) and 50 (sensitivity: 88.3%; specificity: 67.4%), respectively. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, nonspinal fracture history (OR = 6.639, 95% CI = 1.809 - 24.371, P = 0.004) and Hounsfield units value of L1 < 50 (OR = 15.260, 95% CI = 6.957 - 33.473, P < 0.001) were independent risk factors for secondary vertebral compression fracture.

Limitations: The main limitation is the retrospective nature of this study.

Conclusion: Patients with low Hounsfield units value of L1 or non-spinal fracture history are an important population to target for secondary fracture prevention.
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May 2021

Low-Intensity Focused Ultrasound-Augmented Multifunctional Nanoparticles for Integrating Ultrasound Imaging and Synergistic Therapy of Metastatic Breast Cancer.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2021 Apr 29;16(1):73. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Ultrasound, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, China.

The metastasis of breast cancer is believed to have a negative effect on its prognosis. Benefiting from the remarkable deep-penetrating and noninvasive characteristics, sonodynamic therapy (SDT) demonstrates a whole series of potential leading to cancer treatment. To relieve the limitation of monotherapy, a multifunctional nanoplatform has been explored to realize the synergistic treatment efficiency. Herein, we establish a novel multifunctional nano-system which encapsulates chlorin e6 (Ce6, for SDT), perfluoropentane (PFP, for ultrasound imaging), and docetaxel (DTX, for chemotherapy) in a well-designed PLGA core-shell structure. The synergistic Ce6/PFP/DTX/PLGA nanoparticles (CPDP NPs) featured with excellent biocompatibility and stability primarily enable its further application. Upon low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) irradiation, the enhanced ultrasound imaging could be revealed both in vitro and in vivo. More importantly, combined with LIFU, the nanoparticles exhibit intriguing antitumor capability through Ce6-induced cytotoxic reactive oxygen species as well as DTX releasing to generate a concerted therapeutic efficiency. Furthermore, this treating strategy actives a strong anti-metastasis capability by which lung metastatic nodules have been significantly reduced. The results indicate that the SDT-oriented nanoplatform combined with chemotherapy could be provided as a promising approach in elevating effective synergistic therapy and suppressing lung metastasis of breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11671-021-03532-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8085141PMC
April 2021

Discovery of a Highly Selective and Potent TRPC3 Inhibitor with High Metabolic Stability and Low Toxicity.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2021 Apr 5;12(4):572-578. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, the University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, United States.

The overactivation of transient receptor potential canonical 3 (TRPC3) is associated with neurodegenerative diseases and hypertension. Pyrazole 3 (Pyr3) is reported as the most selective TRPC3 inhibitor, but it has two inherent structural limitations: (1) the labile ester moiety leads to its rapid hydrolysis to the inactive Pyr8 , and (2) the alkylating trichloroacrylic amide moiety is known to be toxic. To circumvent these limitations, we designed a series of conformationally restricted Pyr3 analogues and reported that compound maintains high potency and selectivity for human TRPC3 over its closely related TRP channels. It has significantly improved metabolic stability compared with Pyr3 and has a good safety profile. Preliminary evaluation of demonstrated its ability to rescue Aβ-induced neuron damage with similar potency to that of Pyr3 . Collectively, these results suggest that represents a promising scaffold to potentially ameliorate the symptoms associated with TRPC3-mediated neurological and cardiovascular disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.0c00571DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040052PMC
April 2021

Commonalities of optic nerve injury and glaucoma-induced neurodegeneration: Insights from transcriptome-wide studies.

Exp Eye Res 2021 06 15;207:108571. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Emory Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University, 1365B Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA. Electronic address:

Glaucoma is a collection of diseases that lead to an irreversible vision loss due to damage of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Although the underlying events leading to RGC death are not fully understood, recent research efforts are beginning to define the genetic changes that play a critical role in the initiation and progression of glaucomatous injury and RGC death. Several genetic and experimental animal models have been developed to mimic glaucomatous neurodegeneration. These models differ in many respects but all result in the loss of RGCs. Assessing transcriptional changes across different models could provide a more complete perspective on the molecular drivers of RGC degeneration. For the past several decades, changes in the retinal transcriptome during neurodegeneration process were defined using microarray methods, RNA sequencing and now single cell RNA sequencing. It is understood that these methods have strengths and weaknesses due to technical differences and variations in the analytical tools used. In this review, we focus on the use of transcriptome-wide expression profiling of the changes occurring as RGCs are lost across different glaucoma models. Commonalities of optic nerve crush and glaucoma-induced neurodegeneration are identified and discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2021.108571DOI Listing
June 2021

Effects of ectomycorrhizal fungi (Suillus variegatus) on the growth, hydraulic function, and non-structural carbohydrates of Pinus tabulaeformis under drought stress.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Apr 10;21(1):171. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

College of Forestry, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, People's Republic of China.

Background: A better understanding of non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) dynamics in trees under drought stress is critical to elucidate the mechanisms underlying forest decline and tree mortality from extended periods of drought. This study aimed to assess the contribution of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus (Suillus variegatus) to hydraulic function and NSC in roots, stems, and leaves of Pinus tabulaeformis subjected to different water deficit intensity. We performed a continuous controlled drought pot experiment from July 10 to September 10, 2019 using P. tabulaeformis seedlings under 80, 40, and 20% of the field moisture capacity that represented the absence of non-drought, moderate drought, and severe drought stress, respectively.

Results: Results indicated that S. variegatus decreased the mortality rate and increased height, root biomass, and leaf biomass of P. tabulaeformis seedlings under moderate and severe drought stress. Meanwhile, the photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rates of P. tabulaeformis were significantly increased after S. variegatus inoculation. Moreover, the inoculation of S. variegatus also significantly increased the NSC concentrations of all seedling tissues, enhanced the soluble sugars content, and increased the ratios of soluble sugars to starch on all tissues under severe drought. Overall, the inoculation of S. variegatus has great potential for improving the hydraulic function, increasing the NSC storage, and improving the growth of P. tabulaeformis under severe drought.

Conclusions: Therefore, the S. variegatus can be used as a potential application strain for ecological restoration on arid regions of the Loess Plateau, especially in the P. tabulaeformis woodlands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-021-02945-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8035767PMC
April 2021

Establishment of a nomogram for predicting the surgical difficulty of anterior cervical spine surgery.

BMC Surg 2021 Mar 29;21(1):170. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Background: For a long time, surgical difficulty is mainly evaluated based on subjective perception rather than objective indexes. Moreover, the lack of systematic research regarding the evaluation of surgical difficulty potentially has a negative effect in this field. This study was aimed to evaluate the risk factors for the surgical difficulty of anterior cervical spine surgery (ACSS).

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study totaling 291 consecutive patients underwent ACSS from 2012.3 to 2017.8. The surgical difficulty of ACSS was defined by operation time longer than 120 min or intraoperative blood loss equal to or greater than 200 ml. Evaluation of risk factors was performed by analyzing the patient's medical records and radiological parameters such as age, sex, BMI, number of operation levels, high signal intensity of spinal cord on T2-weighted images, ossified posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), sagittal and coronal cervical circumference, cervical length, spinal canal occupational ratio, coagulation function index and platelet count.

Results: Significant differences were reported between low-difficulty and high-difficulty ACSS groups in terms of age (p = 0.017), sex (p = 0.006), number of operation levels (p < 0.001), high signal intensity (p < 0.001), OPLL (p < 0.001) and spinal canal occupational ratio (p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that number of operation levels (OR = 5.224, 95%CI = 2.125-12.843, p < 0.001), high signal intensity of spinal cord (OR = 4.994, 95%CI = 1.636-15.245, p = 0.005), OPLL (OR = 6.358, 95%CI = 1.932-20.931, p = 0.002) and the spinal canal occupational ratio > 0.45 (OR = 3.988, 95%CI = 1.343-11.840, p = 0.013) were independently associated with surgical difficulty in ACSS. A nomogram was established and ROC curve gave a 0.906 C-index. There was a good calibration curve for difficulty estimation.

Conclusion: This study indicated that the operational level, OPLL, high signal intensity of spinal cord, and spinal canal occupational ratio were independently associated with surgical difficulty and a predictive nomogram can be established using the identified risk factors. Optimal performance was achieved for predicting surgical difficulty of ACSS based on preoperative factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12893-020-01022-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8008533PMC
March 2021

Magneto-Based Synergetic Therapy for Implant-Associated Infections via Biofilm Disruption and Innate Immunity Regulation.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Mar 31;8(6):2004010. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure Shanghai Institute of Ceramics Chinese Academy of Sciences Shanghai 200050 China.

Implant-associated infections (IAIs) are a common cause of orthopedic surgery failure due to microbial biofilm-induced antibiotic-resistance and innate immune inactivation. Thus, the destruction of microbial biofilm plays a key role in reducing IAIs. Herein, first, a magneto-based synergetic therapy (MST) is proposed and demonstrated against IAIs based on biofilm destruction. Under an alternating magnetic field (AMF), [email protected] nanoparticles (MNPs), with a rather strong magnetic hyperthermal capacity, can generate sufficient thermal effect to cause dense biofilm dispersal. Loosened biofilms provide channels through which nitrosothiol-coated MNPs (MNP-SNOs) can penetrate. Subsequently, thermosensitive nitrosothiols rapidly release nitric oxide (NO) inside biofilms, thus efficiently killing sessile bacteria under the magnetothermal effect of MNPs. More importantly, MNP-SNOs can trigger macrophage-related immunity to prevent the relapse of IAIs by exposing the infected foci to a consistent innate immunomodulatory effect. The notable anti-infection effect of this nanoplatform is also confirmed in a rat IAI model. This work presents the promising potential of combining magnetothermal therapy with immunotherapy, for the effective and durable control and elimination of IAIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202004010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7967068PMC
March 2021

Exosomal miR-155 from M1-polarized macrophages promotes EndoMT and impairs mitochondrial function via activating NF-κB signaling pathway in vascular endothelial cells after traumatic spinal cord injury.

Redox Biol 2021 05 5;41:101932. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Pathologically, blood-spinal-cord-barrier (BSCB) disruption after spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to infiltration of numerous peripheral macrophages into injured areas and accumulation around newborn vessels. Among the leaked macrophages, M1-polarized macrophages are dominant and play a crucial role throughout the whole SCI process. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of M1-polarized bone marrow-derived macrophages (M1-BMDMs) on vascular endothelial cells and their underlying mechanism. Microvascular endothelial cell line bEnd.3 cells were treated with conditioned medium or exosomes derived from M1-BMDMs, followed by evaluations of endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) and mitochondrial function. After administration, we found conditioned medium or exosomes from M1-BMDMs significantly promoted EndoMT of vascular endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo, which aggravated BSCB disruption after SCI. In addition, significant dysfunction of mitochondria and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also detected. Furthermore, bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that miR-155 is upregulated in both M1-polarized macrophages and microglia. Experimentally, exosomal transfer of miR-155 participated in M1-BMDMs-induced EndoMT and mitochondrial ROS generation in bEnd.3 cells, and subsequently activated the NF-κB signaling pathway by targeting downstream suppressor of cytokine signaling 6 (SOCS6), and suppressing SOCS6-mediated p65 ubiquitination and degradation. Finally, a series of rescue assay further verified that exosomal miR155/SOCS6/p65 axis regulated the EndoMT process and mitochondrial function in vascular endothelial cells. In summary, our work revealed a potential mechanism describing the communications between macrophages and vascular endothelial cells after SCI which could benefit for future research and aid in the development of potential therapies for SCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2021.101932DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7967037PMC
May 2021

Deubiquitinase USP18 regulates reactive astrogliosis by stabilizing SOX9.

Glia 2021 Jul 11;69(7):1782-1798. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Orthopaedics, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Reactive astrogliosis is a pathological feature of spinal cord injury (SCI). The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a crucial role in maintaining protein homeostasis and has been widely studied in neuroscience. Little, however, is known about the underlying function of deubiquitinating enzymes in reactive astrogliosis following SCI. Here, we found that ubiquitin-specific protease 18 (USP18) was significantly upregulated in astrocytes following scratch injury, and in the injured spinal cord in mice. Knockdown of USP18 in vitro and conditional knockout of USP18 in astrocytes (USP18 CKO) in vivo significantly attenuated reactive astrogliosis. In mice, this led to widespread inflammation and poor functional recovery following SCI. In contrast, overexpression of USP18 in mice injected with adeno-associated virus (AAV)-USP18 had beneficial effects following SCI. We showed that USP18 binds, deubiquitinates, and thus, stabilizes SRY-box transcription factor 9 (SOX9), thereby regulating reactive astrogliosis. We also showed that the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway induces expression of USP18 through Gli2-mediated transcriptional activation after SCI. Administration of the Hh pathway activator SAG significantly increased reactive astrogliosis, reduced lesion area and promoted functional recovery in mice following SCI. Our results demonstrate that USP18 positively regulates reactive astrogliosis by stabilizing SOX9 and identify USP18 as a promising target for the treatment of SCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23992DOI Listing
July 2021

and Are Putative Modulators of Corneoscleral Stiffness.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 5;9:596154. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States.

The biomechanical properties of the cornea and sclera are important in the onset and progression of multiple ocular pathologies and vary substantially between individuals, yet the source of this variation remains unknown. Here we identify genes putatively regulating corneoscleral biomechanical tissue properties by conducting high-fidelity ocular compliance measurements across the BXD recombinant inbred mouse set and performing quantitative trait analysis. We find seven cis-eQTLs and non-synonymous SNPs associating with ocular compliance, and show by RT-qPCR and immunolabeling that only two of the candidate genes, and , showed significant expression in corneal and scleral tissues. Both have mechanistic potential to influence the development and/or regulation of tissue material properties. This work motivates further study of and for their role(s) in ocular pathology involving the corneoscleral envelope as well as the development of novel mouse models of ocular pathophysiology, such as myopia and glaucoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2021.596154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7902041PMC
February 2021

One-Step Fabrication Method of GaN Films for Internal Quantum Efficiency Enhancement and Their Ultrafast Mechanism Investigation.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Feb 8;13(6):7688-7697. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Laser Assisted Nano Engineering Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0511, United States.

The third-generation semiconductors are the cornerstone of the power semiconductor leap forward and have attracted much attention because of their excellent properties and wide applications. Meanwhile, femtosecond laser processing as a convenient method further improves the performance of the related devices and expands the application prospect. In this work, an approximate 3 times improvement of the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and a 5.5 times enhancement of the photoluminescence (PL) intensity were achieved in the GaN film prepared using a one-step femtosecond laser fabrication method. Three types of final micro/nanostructures were found with different femtosecond laser fluences, which could be attributed to the decomposition, melting, bubble nucleation, and phase explosion of GaN. The mechanisms of the microbump structure formation and enhancement of IQE were studied experimentally by the time-resolved reflection pump-probe technique, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. Simulations for the laser-GaN interaction have also been performed to ascertain the micro/nanostructure formation principle. These results promote the potential applications of femtosecond lasers on GaN and other wide band gap semiconductors, such as UV-light-emitting diodes (LEDs), photodetectors, and random lasers for use in sensing and full-field imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c19726DOI Listing
February 2021

Prevalence of Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma in the Last 20 Years: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 18;7:624179. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Ophthalmology of Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

This meta-analysis aims to investigate the worldwide prevalence of primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) and its risk factors in the last 20 years. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 37 population-based studies and 144,354 subjects. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched for cross-sectional or cohort studies published in the last 20 years (2000-2020) that reported the prevalence of PACG. The prevalence of PACG was analyzed according to various risk factors. A random-effects model was used for the meta-analysis. The global pooled prevalence of PACG was 0.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.5-0.8%] for the last 20 years. The prevalence of PACG increases with age. Men are found less likely to have PACG than women (risk ratio = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.53-0.93, < 0.01). Asia is found to have the highest prevalence of PACG (0.7%, 95% CI = 0.6-1.0%). The current estimated population with PACG is 17.14 million (95% CI = 14.28-22.85) for people older than 40 years old worldwide, with 12.30 million (95% CI = 10.54-17.57) in Asia. It is estimated that by 2050, the global population with PACG will be 26.26 million, with 18.47 million in Asia. PACG affects more than 17 million people worldwide, especially leading a huge burden to Asia. The prevalence of PACG varies widely across different ages, sex, and population geographic variation. Asian, female sex, and age are risk factors of PACG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.624179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847989PMC
January 2021

Progression of Myopia in School-Aged Children After COVID-19 Home Confinement.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2021 03;139(3):293-300

Department of Strabismus and Pediatric Ophthalmology, Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Importance: Time spent in outdoor activities has decreased owing to home confinement for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Concerns have been raised about whether home confinement may have worsened the burden of myopia owing to substantially decreased time spent outdoors and increased screen time at home.

Objective: To investigate the refractive changes and prevalence of myopia in school-aged children during the COVID-19 home confinement.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A prospective cross-sectional study using school-based photoscreenings in 123 535 children aged 6 to 13 years from 10 elementary schools in Feicheng, China, was conducted. The study was performed during 6 consecutive years (2015-2020). Data were analyzed in July 2020.

Exposures: Noncycloplegic photorefraction was examined using a photoscreener device.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The spherical equivalent refraction was recorded for each child and the prevalence of myopia for each age group during each year was calculated. The mean spherical equivalent refraction and prevalence of myopia were compared between 2020 (after home confinement) and the previous 5 years for each age group.

Results: Of the 123 535 children included in the study, 64 335 (52.1%) were boys. A total of 194 904 test results (389 808 eyes) were included in the analysis. A substantial myopic shift (approximately -0.3 diopters [D]) was found in the 2020 school-based photoscreenings compared with previous years (2015-2019) for younger children aged 6 (-0.32 D), 7 (-0.28 D), and 8 (-0.29 D) years. The prevalence of myopia in the 2020 photoscreenings was higher than the highest prevalence of myopia within 2015-2019 for children aged 6 (21.5% vs 5.7%), 7 (26.2% vs 16.2%), and 8 (37.2% vs 27.7%) years. The differences in spherical equivalent refraction and the prevalence of myopia between 2020 and previous years were minimal in children aged 9 to 13 years.

Conclusions And Relevance: Home confinement during the COVID-19 pandemic appeared to be associated with a significant myopic shift for children aged 6 to 8 years according to 2020 school-based photoscreenings. However, numerous limitations warrant caution in the interpretation of these associations, including use of noncycloplegic refractions and lack of orthokeratology history or ocular biometry data. Younger children's refractive status may be more sensitive to environmental changes than older ages, given the younger children are in a critical period for the development of myopia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2020.6239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7809617PMC
March 2021

Hypoxic pretreatment of small extracellular vesicles mediates cartilage repair in osteoarthritis by delivering miR-216a-5p.

Acta Biomater 2021 03 18;122:325-342. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Orthopaedics, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a regressive joint disease that mainly affects the cartilage and surrounding tissues. Mounting studies have confirmed that the paracrine effect is related to the potential mechanism of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation and that small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) play an imperative role in this paracrine signaling. In fact, hypoxia can significantly improve the effectiveness of MSC transplantation in various disease models. However, it remains unknown whether MSCs in the state of a hypoxic environment can enhance OA cartilage repair and whether this enhancement is mediated by sEV signaling. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether sEVs from MSCs in the state of hypoxia (Hypo-sEVs) have a superior effect on OA cartilage repair relative to sEVs from MSCs in the normoxia (Nor-sEVs) state. By using an OA model and performing in vitro studies, we verified that Hypo-sEV treatment facilitated the proliferation, migration, and apoptosis suppression of chondrocytes to a greater extent than Nor-sEV treatment. Furthermore, we verified the functional role of sEV miR-216a-5p in the OA cartilage repair process. We also identified JAK2 as the target gene of sEV miR-216a-5p through a series of experiments. Our findings indicated that HIF-1α induces hypoxic BMSCs to release sEVs, which promote the proliferation, migration, and apoptosis inhibition of chondrocytes through the miR-216a-5p/JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Therefore, hypoxic pretreatment is a prospective and effective method to maximize the therapeutic effect of MSC-derived sEVs on OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2020.12.034DOI Listing
March 2021

Down-regulation of EOMES drives T-cell exhaustion via abolishing EOMES-mediated repression of inhibitory receptors of T cells in liver cancer.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 01 16;25(1):161-169. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Key Laboratory for Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion, Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital and Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

T-cell exhaustion is one of the hallmarks in cancer, but the mechanisms underlying T-cell dysregulation remains unclear. Here, we reported that down-regulation of transcription factor EOMES contributed to increased levels of inhibitory receptors in T cell among the tumour tissues and resulted in the poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). By analysing the correlation between EOMES in tumour-infiltrating T cells and the clinical features, we demonstrated that the EOMES was related to the advanced stage and poor prognosis of HCC. Further mechanistic studies revealed that the EOMES mainly expressed in the CD8 T cells and were down-regulated in tumour samples. Moreover, we demonstrated that the EOMES directly bound at the transcriptional regulatory regions of the key inhibitory factors including PD-1, CTAL-4 and CD39, and lower levels of EOMES contributed to overexpression of these factors in T cells. Together, our studies provide new insight into the transcriptional deregulation of the inhibitory receptors on T cells during the tumorigenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.15898DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7810931PMC
January 2021

Engagement Enhancement Based on Human-in-the-Loop Optimization for Neural Rehabilitation.

Front Neurorobot 2020 12;14:596019. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

School of Artificial Intelligence, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Enhancing patients' engagement is of great benefit for neural rehabilitation. However, physiological and neurological differences among individuals can cause divergent responses to the same task, and the responses can further change considerably during training; both of these factors make engagement enhancement a challenge. This challenge can be overcome by training task optimization based on subjects' responses. To this end, an engagement enhancement method based on human-in-the-loop optimization is proposed in this paper. Firstly, an interactive speed-tracking riding game is designed as the training task in which four reference speed curves (RSCs) are designed to construct the reference trajectory in each generation. Each RSC is modeled using a piecewise function, which is determined by the starting velocity, transient time, and end velocity. Based on the parameterized model, the difficulty of the training task, which is a key factor affecting the engagement, can be optimized. Then, the objective function is designed with consideration to the tracking accuracy and the surface electromyogram (sEMG)-based muscle activation, and the physical and physiological responses of the subjects can consequently be evaluated simultaneously. Moreover, a covariance matrix adaption evolution strategy, which is relatively tolerant of both measurement noises and human adaptation, is used to generate the optimal parameters of the RSCs periodically. By optimization of the RSCs persistently, the objective function can be maximized, and the subjects' engagement can be enhanced. Finally, the performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by the validation and comparison experiments. The results show that both subjects' sEMG-based motor engagement and electroencephalography based neural engagement can be improved significantly and maintained at a high level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbot.2020.596019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7693715PMC
November 2020

Few-Shot Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis with Metric-Based Meta Learning.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Nov 11;20(22). Epub 2020 Nov 11.

School of Information Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China.

Fault diagnosis methods based on deep learning and big data have achieved good results on rotating machinery. However, the conventional deep learning method of bearing fault diagnosis is mostly based on laboratory artificial simulation data, and there is an error with actual fault data, which will reduce the generalization performance of the deep learning method. In addition, labeled data are very precious in real industrial environment. Due to expensive equipment and personnel safety issues, it is difficult to obtain a large amount of high-quality fault labeling data. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a metric-based meta-learning method named Reinforce Relation Network (RRN) for diagnosing bearing faults with few-shot samples. In the proposed method, a 1D convolution neural network is used to extract fault features, and a metric learner is used to predict the similarity between samples under different transfer conditions. Label smoothing and the Adabound algorithm are utilized to further improve the performance of network classification. The performance of the proposed method is verified on a dataset which contains artificial damage and natural damage data. The comparison studies with other methods demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method in the few-shot scenario.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20226437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7696873PMC
November 2020
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