Publications by authors named "Jiaxing Huang"

198 Publications

[Effectiveness of arthroscopic 360° capsular release for frozen shoulder].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Sep;35(9):1141-1146

Department of Orthopedics, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, P.R.China.

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of arthroscopic 360° capsular release for frozen shoulder.

Methods: Between April 2018 and April 2019, 42 patients with frozen shoulders were treated with arthroscopic 360° capsular release. There were 13 males and 29 females, with an average age of 52.3 years (range, 45-56 years). There were 14 left shoulders and 28 right shoulders. The disease duration ranged from 5 to 18 months (mean, 11.1 months). The main clinical symptoms were limited active and passive movement of the shoulder joint with severe pain. All patients excluded impingement syndrome and shoulder osteoarthritis. Preoperative range of motion was as follows: forward flexion (93.2±15.4)°, external rotation at side (15.9±6.0)°, external rotation at 90° abduction (18.4±9.9)°, and internal rotation reaching the greater trochanter in 5 cases, buttocks in 20 cases, S level in 17 cases. The visual analogue scale (VAS) score was 6.7±1.7 and the American Society of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery (ASES) score was 41.6±9.3. The active range of motion of shoulder joint, VAS score, and ASES score were recorded during follow-up.

Results: All incisions healed by first intention, and no early complications occurred. Patients were followed up 12-24 months (mean, 15.6 months). After operation, forward flexion, external rotation at side, and external rotation at 90° abduction significantly improved when compared with preoperatively ( <0.05). The range of internal rotation restored to the level of T at 3 weeks, which was equivalent to that of the normal side at 12 months after operation ( =-0.943, =0.346). VAS scores decreased and ASES scores increased after operation, and the differences between pre- and post-operation were significant ( <0.05); and with time, the VAS scores and ASES scores improved further ( <0.05).

Conclusion: Arthroscopic 360° capsular release can significantly increase the range of motion of the shoulder joint, release pain, and improve function. It is an effective method for the treatment of frozen shoulders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1002-1892.202103080DOI Listing
September 2021

Construction of double-functionalized g-CN heterojunction structure via optimized charge transfer for the synergistically enhanced photocatalytic degradation of sulfonamides and HO production.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Aug 10;422:126868. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address:

Herein, supporting g-CN embedded with benzene-ring (BCN) on P-modified g-CN (PCN) successfully synthesized the homogeneous photocatalyst BCN/PCN (PBCN) via a simple thermal polymerization reaction. Under blue-light (LED) irradiation, the optimized PBCN (0.448 min) demonstrated excellent photocatalytic performance, attaining over 74 times the degradation rate for sulfisoxazole (SSZ) in contrast to non-functionalized g-CN (CN, 0.006 min). Theoretical calculations revealed that the substitution of heterocyclic rings in the g-CN triazine networks with benzene-rings enabled them to serve as electron donors, while promoting photoinduced spatial charge dissociation. Further, the carrier PCN tended to serve as electron acceptors to form electron-rich corner-phosphorous sites. Reactive species experiments demonstrate that the O˙ and h constituted the primary photocatalytic mechanism of SSZ degradation. The potential SSZ degradation routes were predicted based on the transformation products via mass spectrometry. Finally, the composite materials also exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity in the conversion of solar energy to chemical energy (HO). This study guides the rational modification of g-CN-based semiconductors to achieve green energy production and beneficial ecological applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126868DOI Listing
August 2021

Glycol-Thermal Continuous Flow Synthesis of Graphene Gel.

ACS Omega 2021 Jul 14;6(29):18663-18667. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States.

Hydrothermal treatment of graphene oxide (GO) aqueous dispersion has been extensively applied to create graphene (a.k.a., chemically modified graphene, or reduced GO) hydrogels, which were dried to yield high-density graphene monoliths and powders with promising potential for electrochemical energy storage applications. Here, we demonstrated a glycol-thermal route that allows the preparation of a graphene gel at around 150 °C, which is below the boiling point of ethylene glycol (EG) and thus eliminates the need for a sealed pressurized reaction vessel. As a result, flow synthesis can be achieved by flowing a GO dispersion in EG through a Teflon tube immersed in a preheated oil bath for continuous production of a graphene gel, which, upon drying, shrinks to yield a densified graphene solid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c02589DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8319937PMC
July 2021

Melatonin mitigated circadian disruption and cardiovascular toxicity caused by 6-benzylaminopurine exposure in zebrafish.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Oct 28;223:112555. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China. Electronic address:

As a highly effective plant hormone, the overuse of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) may pose potential threats to organisms and the environment. Melatonin is widely known for its regulation of sleep rhythm, and it also shows a beneficial effect in a variety of adverse situations. In order to investigate the harm of 6-BA to vertebrates and whether melatonin can reverse the toxicity induced by 6-BA, we analyzed the circadian rhythm and cardiovascular system of zebrafish, and further clarified the role of the thyroid endocrine system. The exposure of well-developed embryos started at 2 hpf, then 6-BA and/or melatonin were carried out. The results indicated that 6-BA disturbed the rhythmic activities of the larvae, increased wakefulness, correspondingly reduced their rest, and induced disrupted clock gene expression. Video analysis and qRT-PCR data found that zebrafish under 6-BA exposure showed obvious cardiovascular morphological abnormalities and dysfunction, and the mRNA levels of cardiovascular-related genes (nkx2.5, gata4, myl7, vegfaa and vegfab) were significantly down-regulated. In addition, altered thyroid hormone content and hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis-related gene expression were also clearly observed. 1umol/L of melatonin had little effect on zebrafish, but its addition could significantly alleviate the circadian disturbance and cardiovascular toxicity caused by 6-BA, and simultaneously played a regulatory role in thyroid system. Our research revealed the adverse effects of 6-BA on zebrafish larvae and the protective role of melatonin in circadian rhythm, cardiovascular and thyroid systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112555DOI Listing
October 2021

The role of non-apoptotic cell death in the treatment and drug-resistance of digestive tumors.

Exp Cell Res 2021 Aug 23;405(2):112678. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 37, GuoXue Xiang Chengdu, Sichuan, China; West China Biomedical Big Data Center, Sichuan University, No. 37, GuoXue Xiang Chengdu, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

Tumor cell apoptosis evasion is one of the main reasons for easy metastasis occurrence, chemotherapy resistance, and the low five-year survival rate of digestive system tumors. Current research has shown that non-apoptotic cell death plays an important role in tumors of the digestive system. Therefore, increasing the proportion of non-apoptotic tumor cells is one of the effective methods of improving therapeutic efficacies for digestive system tumors. Non-apoptotic cell death modes mainly include autophagic cell death, pyroptosis, ferroptosis, in addition to other cell death modes. This review covers a systematic review relating to the research progress made into autophagic cell death, pyroptosis, ferroptosis, and other cell death modes in the treatment of digestive system tumors. It also highlights how treatment is a reasonable prospect based on clinical experience and provides reliable guidance for the further development of digestive system tumor treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2021.112678DOI Listing
August 2021

Bulk Nanostructured Metal from Multiply-Twinned Nanowires.

Nano Lett 2021 07 23;21(13):5627-5632. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, Illinois 60202, United States.

Using chemically synthesized silver nanowires with 5-fold twinning planes as a model system, a bottom-up process to generate a bulk nanostructured metal has been demonstrated. Although the nanowires would be shortened and deformed during densification, they are chosen as a model system because they are currently the most scalable and convenient way to obtain Ag particles with high twinning densities. Direct cold pressing of a silver nanowire filter cake did not generate a sufficiently cohesive sample, while hot pressing at 190 °C for 8 h resulted in extensive sintering, eliminating the nanowire morphology. Copper was then electroplated on the silver nanowires as a binder and filler to increase the densification upon hot pressing; despite nonuniform plating across the thickness of the filter cake, the thermal stability of the nanowires was increased, allowing hot pressing at 390 °C. Finally, a uniform copper coating on silver nanowires was achieved by electroless plating, leading to cohesive bulk metal after hot pressing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c01184DOI Listing
July 2021

Transcriptome Profiling Reveals a Novel Mechanism of Antiviral Immunity Upon Sacbrood Virus Infection in Honey Bee Larvae ().

Front Microbiol 2021 2;12:615893. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Key Laboratory of Pollinating Insect Biology of the Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Apicultural Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

The honey bee is one of the most important pollinators in the agricultural system and is responsible for pollinating a third of all food we eat. Sacbrood virus (SBV) is a member of the virus family and affects honey bee larvae and causes particularly devastating disease in the Asian honey bees, . Chinese Sacbrood virus (CSBV) is a geographic strain of SBV identified in China and has resulted in mass death of honey bees in China in recent years. However, the molecular mechanism underlying SBV infection in the Asian honey bee has remained unelucidated. In this present study, we employed high throughput next-generation sequencing technology to study the host transcriptional responses to CSBV infection in larvae, and were able to identify genome-wide differentially expressed genes associated with the viral infection. Our study identified 2,534 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in host innate immunity including Toll and immune deficiency (IMD) pathways, RNA interference (RNAi) pathway, endocytosis, etc. Notably, the expression of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides (, , , and ) and core components of RNAi such as and were found to be significantly upregulated in CSBV infected larvae. Most importantly, the expression of Sirtuin target genes, a family of signaling proteins involved in metabolic regulation, apoptosis, and intracellular signaling was found to be changed, providing the first evidence of the involvement of Sirtuin signaling pathway in insects' immune response to a virus infection. The results obtained from this study provide novel insights into the molecular mechanism and immune responses involved in CSBV infection, which in turn will contribute to the development of diagnostics and treatment for the diseases in honey bees.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.615893DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208235PMC
June 2021

Astragalus polysaccharide attenuates LPS-related inflammatory osteolysis by suppressing osteoclastogenesis by reducing the MAPK signalling pathway.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Jul 2;25(14):6800-6814. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Bacterial products can stimulate inflammatory reaction and activate immune cells to enhance the production of inflammatory cytokines, and finally promote osteoclasts recruitment and activity, leading to bone destruction. Unfortunately, effective preventive and treatment measures for inflammatory osteolysis are limited and usually confuse the orthopedist. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), the main extractive of Astragali Radix, has been widely used for treating inflammatory diseases. In the current study, in vitro and in vivo experimental results demonstrated that APS notably inhibited osteoclast formation and differentiation dose-dependently. Moreover, we found that APS down-regulated RANKL-related osteoclastogenesis and levels of osteoclast marker genes, such as NFATC1, TRAP, c-FOS and cathepsin K. Further underlying mechanism investigation revealed that APS attenuated activity of MAPK signalling pathways (eg ERK, JNK and p38) and ROS production induced by RANKL. Additionally, APS was also found to suppress LPS-related inflammatory osteolysis by decreasing inflammatory factors' production in vivo. Overall, our findings demonstrate that APS effectively down-regulates inflammatory osteolysis due to osteoclast differentiation and has the potential to become an effective treatment of the disorders associated with osteoclast.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16683DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8278124PMC
July 2021

The typically developing pediatric foot - The data of the 1744 children in China.

Foot Ankle Surg 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chongqing Medical University First Affiliated Hospital, China. Electronic address:

Background: The medial longitudinal arch (MLA) improves with age in childhood. However, it still causes parents to worry that children have flat feet. Due to the lack of a standard to quantitatively assess the arch development in kids at certain age, the pediatricians judge the flat feet by experience, causing many cases to be overtreated. The aim of this study was to plot the distribution of MLA parameters in children.

Methods: Children without lower limb deformity and lower limb pain were recruited from 12 primary schools and kindergartens in Chongqing province-level city. Foot length (FL) and navicular height (NH) was measured manually, arch index (AI) and arch volume (AV) were measured with the Foot Plantar Scanner. Each parameter was measured in both weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing positions. Significant differences were also compared between the measurements of consecutive years.

Results: This study was the first to use a three-dimensional laser surface scanner to measure the MLA parameters of children aged 3-12 years in China. 1744 children (871 girls, 873 boys) participated in this study. FL, NH, AI and AV varied significantly with age in both the weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing positions. These parameters have significant differences between the weighted and non-weighted positions (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: The age distribution characteristics of these parameters indicated that the MLA improves with age. The establishment of a developmental scale for the children's MLA is necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fas.2021.04.005DOI Listing
April 2021

The Effects of Autophagy-Related Genes and lncRNAs in Therapy and Prognosis of Colorectal Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 11;11:582040. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Sichuan, China.

Cellular autophagy plays an important role in the occurrence and development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Whether autophagy-related genes and lncRNAs can be used as ideal markers in CRC is still controversial. The purpose of this study is to identify novel treatment and prognosis markers of CRC. We downloaded transcription and clinical data of CRC from the GEO (GSE40967, GSE12954, GSE17536) and TCGA database, screened for differentially autophagy-related genes (DEAGs) and lncRNAs, constructed prognostic model, and analyzed its relationship with immune infiltration. TCGA and GEO datasets (GSE12954 and GSE17536) were used to validate the effect of the model. Oncomine database and Human Protein Atlas verified the expression of DEAGs. We obtained a total of 151 DEAGs in three verification sets collaboratively. Then we constructed a risk prognostic model through Lasso regression to obtain 15 prognostic DEAGs from the training set and verified the risk prognostic model in three verification sets. The low-risk group survived longer than the high-risk group. Age, gender, pathological stage, and TNM stage were related to the prognostic risk of CRC. On the other hand, BRAF status, RFS event, and tumor location are considered as most significant risk factors of CRC in the training set. Furthermore, we found that the immune score of the low-risk group was higher. The content of CD8 + T cells, active NK cells, macrophages M0, macrophages M1, and active dendritic cells was noted more in the high-risk group. The content of plasma cells, resting memory CD4 + T cells, resting NK cells, resting mast cells, and neutrophil cells was higher in the low-risk group. After all, the Oncomine database and immunohistochemistry verified that the expression level of most key autophagy-related genes was consistent with the results that we found. In addition, we obtained six lncRNAs co-expressed with DEAGs from the training set and found that the survival time was longer in the low-risk group. This finding was verified in the verification set and showed same trend to the results mentioned above. In the final analysis, these results indicate that autophagy-related genes and lncRNAs can be used as prognostic and therapeutic markers for CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.582040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7991845PMC
March 2021

Pollen Source Affects Development and Behavioral Preferences in Honey Bees.

Insects 2021 Feb 2;12(2). Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Key Laboratory for Insect-Pollinator Biology of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Apicultural Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100093, China.

With the availability of various plants in bloom simultaneously, honey bees prefer to collect some pollen types over others. To better understand pollen's role as a reward for workers, we compared the digestibility and nutritional value of two pollen diets, namely, pear ( Rehd.) and apricot ( L.). We investigated the visits, pollen consumption, and pollen extraction efficiency of caged workers. Newly emerged workers were reared, and the effects of two pollen diets on their physiological status (the development of hypopharyngeal glands and ovaries) were compared. The choice-test experiments indicated a significant preference of workers for apricot pollen diets over pear pollen diets (number of bees landing, 29.5 ± 8.11 and 9.25 ± 5.10, < 0.001 and pollen consumption, 0.052 ± 0.026 g/day and 0.033 ± 0.013 g/day, < 0.05). Both pollen diets had comparable extraction efficiencies (67.63% for pear pollen and 67.73% for apricot pollen). Caged workers fed different pollen diets also exhibited similar ovarian development ( > 0.05). However, workers fed apricot pollen had significantly larger hypopharyngeal glands than those fed pear pollen ( < 0.001). Our results indicated that the benefits conferred to honey bees by different pollen diets may influence their foraging preference.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects12020130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7913020PMC
February 2021

IRP30 promotes worker egg-laying in bumblebee, Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

Gene 2021 Apr 21;776:145446. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650000, China. Electronic address:

Bumblebees are important pollinators that have evolved between solitary and advanced eusocial insects. Compared with advanced honeybees, workers of social bumblebee species are prone to laying eggs during the competition phase, which leads to the end of the colony. Therefore, worker reproductive behavior has become a popular research topic for exploring various biological phenomena. Here, we demonstrate a novel reproduction-related function of an immune response protein-encoding gene (Immune Responsive Protein 30, IRP30) in Bombus terrestris by employing RNA interference (RNAi) and a transgenic Drosophila melanogaster system. The results show that worker egg-laying was significantly affected by IRP30 expression levels (P < 0.01). Compared with those in the dsGFP-treated groups, the first egg-laying time was delayed by 3.7 d and the egg number was decreased by 41% in the dsIRP30-treated group. In addition, the average size of the largest oocyte and the relative mRNA expression levels of Vg (vitellogenin) were significantly reduced in the dsIRP30-treated group (P < 0.05). Cellular localization by immunofluorescence demonstrated that IRP30 has important functions in the germ cells of workers' ovarioles. Overexpression of IRP30 was confirmed to increase the reproductive capability of the transgenic D. melanogaster. In conclusion, IRP30 regulates worker egg-laying by affecting the expression of Vg, the size of the ovary and the formation of the oocyte. These findings provide essential information for understanding the mechanisms underlying worker reproductive regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2021.145446DOI Listing
April 2021

A-to-I RNA editing in honeybees shows signals of adaptation and convergent evolution.

iScience 2021 Jan 5;24(1):101983. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

State Key Laboratory of Protein and Plant Gene Research, Center for Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China.

Social insects exhibit extensive phenotypic diversities among the genetically similar individuals, suggesting a role for the epigenetic regulations beyond the genome level. The ADAR-mediated adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing, an evolutionarily conserved mechanism, facilitates adaptive evolution by expanding proteomic diversities. Here, we characterize the A-to-I RNA editome of honeybees (), identifying 407 high-confidence A-to-I editing sites. Editing is most abundant in the heads and shows signatures for positive selection. Editing behavior differs between foragers and nurses, suggesting a role for editing in caste differentiation. Although only five sites are conserved between bees and flies, an unexpectedly large number of genes exhibit editing in both species, albeit at different locations, including the nonsynonymous auto-editing of . This convergent evolution, where the same target genes independently acquire recoding events in distant diverged clades, together with the signals of adaptation observed in honeybees alone, further supports the notion of recoding being adaptive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101983DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7797907PMC
January 2021

The complete mitochondrial genome of the Xinyuan honey bee, (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apidae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Jan 10;5(1):486-487. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Key Laboratory of Pollinating Insect Biology of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Apicultural Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

We analyzed the complete mitochondrial genome of the recently discovered Xinyuan honey bee, using single molecule real-time sequencing. The mitochondrial genome of is a circular molecule of 16,886 bp, comprising 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and a control region rich in A + T. Phylogenetic analysis using 13 protein-coding genes supports a close relationship to another M-lineage honey bee, .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2019.1705927DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7748717PMC
January 2020

High quantum yield photoluminescent N-doped carbon dots for switch sensing and imaging.

Talanta 2021 Jan 17;222:121663. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Graduate Department of Forestry, John H. Daniels Faculty of Architecture, Landscape, and Design, University of Toronto, 33 Willcocks Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3B3, Canada; Centre for Biocomposite and Biomaterials Processing, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King's College Road, Toronto, ON, M5S 3G8, Canada. Electronic address:

Stable blue fluorescent nitrogen doped carbon dots (N-CDs) with a very high quantum yield up to 81% has been reported for the first time. Novel N-CDs were synthesized through an efficient and rapid one-step hydrothermal synthesis process from diethylenetriamine as nitrogen source and a novel carbon source trans-aconitic acid. The nanosized particles of N-CDs were in the range of 2-8 nm and uniformly distributed in molecular level. The N-CDs showed high selectivity toward Fe with low detection limit of 10.42 nmol L (with corresponding linear range of 2-50 μmol L) enabling them for ion detection application and also exhibited high fluorescence stability in extreme pH conditions. Novel N-CDs also presented a green emission shift under acidic condition (pH~2) which makes them a potential sensing probe for security papers, food packaging and bio-medical detection sensors. A security paper sensor device has been fabricated and its operation function has been validated by making real time detection of color. The novel and facile to manufacture carbon dots has potential applications ranging from biological nano-sensors for security document to color-switch sensing and bio-imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2020.121663DOI Listing
January 2021

On-Mask Chemical Modulation of Respiratory Droplets.

Matter 2020 Nov 29;3(5):1791-1810. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA.

Transmission of infectious respiratory diseases starts from pathogen-laden respiratory droplets released during coughing, sneezing, or speaking. Here we report an on-mask chemical modulation strategy, whereby droplets escaping a masking layer are chemically contaminated with antipathogen molecules (e.g., mineral acids or copper salts) preloaded on polyaniline-coated fabrics. A colorimetric method based on the color change of polyaniline and a fluorometric method utilizing fluorescence quenching microscopy are developed for visualizing the degree of modification of the escaped droplets by H and Cu, respectively. It is found that even fabrics with low fiber-packing densities (e.g., 19%) can readily modify 49% of the escaped droplets by number, which accounts for about 82% by volume. The chemical modulation strategy could offer additional public health benefits to the use of face covering to make the sources less infectious, helping to strengthen the response to the current pandemic or future outbreaks of infectious respiratory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matt.2020.10.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7598905PMC
November 2020

Genus-Wide Characterization of Bumblebee Genomes Provides Insights into Their Evolution and Variation in Ecological and Behavioral Traits.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 01;38(2):486-501

Institute of Apicultural Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Bumblebees are a diverse group of globally important pollinators in natural ecosystems and for agricultural food production. With both eusocial and solitary life-cycle phases, and some social parasite species, they are especially interesting models to understand social evolution, behavior, and ecology. Reports of many species in decline point to pathogen transmission, habitat loss, pesticide usage, and global climate change, as interconnected causes. These threats to bumblebee diversity make our reliance on a handful of well-studied species for agricultural pollination particularly precarious. To broadly sample bumblebee genomic and phenotypic diversity, we de novo sequenced and assembled the genomes of 17 species, representing all 15 subgenera, producing the first genus-wide quantification of genetic and genomic variation potentially underlying key ecological and behavioral traits. The species phylogeny resolves subgenera relationships, whereas incomplete lineage sorting likely drives high levels of gene tree discordance. Five chromosome-level assemblies show a stable 18-chromosome karyotype, with major rearrangements creating 25 chromosomes in social parasites. Differential transposable element activity drives changes in genome sizes, with putative domestications of repetitive sequences influencing gene coding and regulatory potential. Dynamically evolving gene families and signatures of positive selection point to genus-wide variation in processes linked to foraging, diet and metabolism, immunity and detoxification, as well as adaptations for life at high altitudes. Our study reveals how bumblebee genes and genomes have evolved across the Bombus phylogeny and identifies variations potentially linked to key ecological and behavioral traits of these important pollinators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msaa240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7826183PMC
January 2021

Global allele polymorphism indicates a high rate of allele genesis at a locus under balancing selection.

Heredity (Edinb) 2021 Jan 27;126(1):163-177. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Behaviour, Ecology and Evolution Laboratory, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.

When selection favours rare alleles over common ones (balancing selection in the form of negative frequency-dependent selection), a locus may maintain a large number of alleles, each at similar frequency. To better understand how allelic richness is generated and maintained at such loci, we assessed 201 sequences of the complementary sex determiner (csd) of the Asian honeybee (Apis cerana), sampled from across its range. Honeybees are haplodiploid; hemizygotes at csd develop as males and heterozygotes as females, while homozygosity is lethal. Thus, csd is under strong negative frequency-dependent selection because rare alleles are less likely to end up in the lethal homozygous form. We find that in A. cerana, as in other Apis, just a few amino acid differences between csd alleles in the hypervariable region are sufficient to trigger female development. We then show that while allelic lineages are spread across geographical regions, allelic differentiation is high between populations, with most csd alleles (86.3%) detected in only one sample location. Furthermore, nucleotide diversity in the hypervariable region indicates an excess of recently arisen alleles, possibly associated with population expansion across Asia since the last glacial maximum. Only the newly invasive populations of the Austral-Pacific share most of their csd alleles. In all, the geographic patterns of csd diversity in A. cerana indicate that high mutation rates and balancing selection act together to produce high rates of allele genesis and turnover at the honeybee sex locus, which in turn leads to its exceptionally high local and global polymorphism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41437-020-00358-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7853069PMC
January 2021

Cost-Effectiveness of Tucatinib in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer From the US and Chinese Perspectives.

Front Oncol 2020 4;10:1336. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

The clinical evaluation of HER2CLIMB trial showed a 21. 9-month median overall survival with the triplet regimens of tucatinib, capecitabine, and trastuzumab (TXT) for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -overexpressing metastatic breast cancer. From the payer's perspective of the United States and China, a cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted to evaluate the costs and benefits of adding tucatinib in this study. We constructed a Markov model for the economic evaluation of adding tucatinib to trastuzumab plus capecitabine in patients with HER-2 positive metastatic breast cancer in the United States and China. The model was conducted with a 10-year time horizon, and the health status was divided into three states: progression-free survival, progressing disease, and death. The health utility scores were consistent with published literature with similar patient status. The transition probabilities were derived from the survival data of the HER2CLIMB study. The unit prices of medicines were obtained from the West China Hospital, Red Book, and published literature. Outcomes were measured in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, which robustness was evaluated by deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Compared with the two-drug regimen of trastuzumab plus capecitabine (TX), the addition of tucatinib increased 0.21 QALY, with an increasing cost of $146,995.05 and $19,022.97 in the United States and China, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for the TXT versus TX was $699,976.43 in the U.S. and $90,585.57 in China, both of which are higher than their respective threshold of willingness to play. Deterministic sensitivity analysis shows that the price of tucatinib is the parameter that has the most significant impact on ICERs, but it does not change the results of the model. Probability sensitivity analysis shows that the probability of cost-effective for TXT is 0 in the base case. In the United States and China, tucatinib combined with trastuzumab and capecitabine is not cost-effective for patients with HER-2 positive metastatic breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.01336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7417356PMC
August 2020

Cu-Catalysed synthesis of benzo[f]indole-2,4,9(3H)-triones by the reaction of 2-amino-1,4-napthoquinones with α-bromocarboxylates.

Org Biomol Chem 2020 Sep 24;18(34):6724-6731. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Applied Chemistry, China Agricultural University, 2 Yuanmingyuan West Road, Beijing 100193, China.

A copper-catalysed cascade ester amidation/radical cyclization of 2-amino-1,4-naphthoquinones with α-bromocarboxylates to afford benzo[f]indole-2,4,9(3H)-triones is described, and the reaction has a broad substrate scope and the desired products are obtained in mostly moderate to good yields. Mechanism-probing experiments indicate that the otherwise challenging radical coupling reaction of α-bromocarboxylates with 2-amino-1,4-naphthoquinones is facilitated by a 5-endo radical cyclization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0ob00291gDOI Listing
September 2020

Synthesis of a carbon dots modified g-CN/SnO Z-scheme photocatalyst with superior photocatalytic activity for PPCPs degradation under visible light irradiation.

J Hazard Mater 2021 01 21;401:123257. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, China. Electronic address:

As an emerging carbon nanomaterial, carbon dots (CDs) have superior prospects for applications in the area of photocatalysis due to their unique optical and electronic properties. In this study, a novel CDs modified g-CN/SnO photocatalyst (CDs/g-CN/ SnO) was successfully synthesized by the thermal polymerization. Under visible light irradiation, the resulting CDs/g-CN/SnO photocatalyst exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of indomethacin (IDM). It was demonstrated that a 0.5 % loading content of CDs led to the highest IDM degradation rate, which was 5.62 times higher than that of pristine g-CN. This improved photocatalytic activity might have been attributed to the unique up-conversion photoluminescence (PL) properties and efficient charge separation capacities of the CDs. Moreover, the combination of g-CN with SnO improved the separation of photoinduced carriers and augmented the specific surface area. Reactive species (RSs) scavenging experiments and electron spin resonance (ESR) revealed that superoxide radical anions (O) and photogenerated holes (h) played critical roles during the photocatalytic process. The results of the detection of HO and ESR confirmed that CDs/g-CN/ SnO was a Z-scheme heterojunction photocatalyst. Further, HRAM LC-MS/MS was employed to identify the byproducts of IDM, and the major IDM degradation pathways of the CDs/g-CN/SnO photocatalyst were proposed. This study provides new ideas for the design of novel CDs modified photocatalysts for environmental remediation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123257DOI Listing
January 2021

DACT2 regulates structural and electrical atrial remodeling in atrial fibrillation.

J Thorac Dis 2020 May;12(5):2039-2048

Department of Cardiac Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China.

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia. DACT2 is a novel and important mediator of signaling pathways. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance and functions of DACT2 expression in AF.

Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the DACT2 expression pattern in valvular disease patients. DACT2 was overexpressed in HL-1 cells and primary atrial fibroblasts. The expression levels of the potassium channel, the L-type calcium current channel, sodium ion channel proteins and collagen proteins were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The proteins involved in the Wnt and TGF-β signaling pathways were detected after DACT2 overexpression by western blotting.

Results: DACT2 expression was significantly associated with AF (P=0.016). The fibrosis ratio in the strong DACT2 expression group was significantly lower than that in the weak DACT2 expression group (weak: 0.198±0.091, strong: 0.129±0.064, P=0.048), and a negative correlation between DACT2 expression levels and fibrosis severity was observed (Spearman rho =-0.476, P=0.010). DACT2 significantly increased the expression levels of KCNE5 and decreased the levels of KCNH2 and SCN5A. Overexpression of DACT2 significantly inhibited the expression of collagen I and collagen III in primary rat atrial fibroblasts. DACT2 could facilitate β-catenin accumulation by reducing its phosphorylation at Thr41/Ser45 in HL-1 cells and inhibit the TGF-β signaling pathway in primary atrial fibroblasts.

Conclusions: DACT2 played a role in AF by regulating both structural and electrical atrial remodeling and by affecting β-catenin accumulation and TGF-β signaling, and it could serve as a protective factor against AF in valvular heart disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-19-4206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330378PMC
May 2020
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