Publications by authors named "Jiaqi Gao"

43 Publications

Neuroprotective effects of metformin on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by regulating PI3K/Akt pathway.

Brain Behav 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department ofMedicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, No. 76 Yanta West Road, Xi'an, shannxi 710061, P. R. China.

Metformin (Met) is a commonly used drug in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Currently, it has been found that Met can effectively reduce the incidence of stroke and exert anti-inflammatory effects. However, its role in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced nerve injury remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Met in I/R-induced neuron injury as well as the underlying mechanism. A middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was established in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, which were then treated with different doses of Met. Neurological deficits of rats were measured at different times post-surgery. TTC staining was done to observe the volume of cerebral infarction. HE staining was performed to observe pathological changes of brain tissues. Immunohistochemistry was performed to observe the expression of inflammatory factors in the cerebral tissues. qRT-PCR method was used to detect the relative expression of PI3K, Akt mRNA in cells after 24 h of drug action. Western blot method was used to detect the expression of PI3K, p-PI3K, Akt, and p-Akt in hippocampus. What is more, in vitro experiments were performed on BV2 microglia to verify the role of Met against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). As a result, Met dose-dependently attenuated neurological deficits and neuronal apoptosis. Besides, Met administration also significantly reduced BV2 cells apoptosis and inflammatory response. Mechanistically, Met inactivated PI3K/Akt pathway induced by I/R and OGD, while it upregulated PI3K. In conclusion, Met protected rats from cerebral I/R injury via reducing neuronal apoptosis and microglial inflammation through PI3K/Akt pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.2335DOI Listing
September 2021

Fifteen years of the proficiency testing program for HIV-1 viral load testing laboratories in China, 2005-2019.

J Clin Virol 2021 Sep 14;142:104911. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

National AIDS Reference Laboratory, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China. Electronic address:

Background: HIV-1 viral load (VL) testing is essential for monitoring the effects of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients. In order to identify factors that impact testing performance of HIV-1 VL testing laboratories, this study performed a retrospective analysis on data from the domestic HIV-1 VL proficiency testing (PT) program in China during 2005 to 2019.

Methods: Analysis was conducted on testing results of 155 PT panel specimens that were distributed to HIV-1 VL testing laboratories nationwide during 2005 to 2019. Follow-up on-site inspection records on unqualified laboratories were also analyzed.

Results: By 2019, 267 HIV-1 VL testing laboratories in China enrolled in the national PT assessment. Overall, HIV-1 VL testing performance has been consistently good after 2012, with less than 5% of participants reporting an unqualified score. Unsatisfactory equipment conditions and poor laboratory administration were the two main reasons causing unqualified scores in the PT assessment. Interestingly, we found that HIV-1 VL testing laboratories had better performance in the CDC system than in hospitals. In analysis on the variance of specimen testing results by different assays, we found that variation in results existed across different assay platforms, and HIV-1 VL testing assays based on real-time PCR technology showed comparatively smaller inter-laboratory variability.

Conclusions: To maintain high performance in HIV-1 VL testing laboratories, it is important to strengthen laboratory management and preserve equipment conditions. Due to the variation of testing results among different assay platforms, we suggest using the same assay platform for longitudinal monitoring of patient viral load.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2021.104911DOI Listing
September 2021

Comparative anatomical and transcriptomic analyses of the color variation of leaves in .

PeerJ 2021 22;9:e11586. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Color variation in plant tissues is a common phenomenon accompanied with a series of biological changes. In this study, a special-phenotype (GS) with color variation of leaf was firstly reported, and DNA barcode sequences showed GS samples could not be discriminated clearly with the normal sample (NS), which suggested that the variety was not the cause of the GS formation. To reveal the characteristics of GS compared to NS, the anatomical and transcriptome sequencing studies were carried out. In microscopic observation, the leaves of golden-vein-leaf sample (LGS) and normal-vein-leaf sample (LNS) showed significant differences including the area of the included phloem in midrib and the thickness parameters of palisade and spongy tissues; the stems of golden-vein-leaf sample (SGS) and normal-vein-leaf sample (SNS) were also different in many aspects such as the area of vessels and included phloem. In addition, the structure of chloroplast was more complete in the midrib of LNS than that of LGS, and some particles suspected as virus were found through transmission electron microscope as well. Genes upregulated in LGS in contrast with LNS were mainly enriched in photosynthesis. As for stems, most of the genes upregulated in SGS compared to SNS were involved in translation and metabolism processes. The pathways about photosynthesis and chlorophyll metabolism as well as some important transcription factors may explain the molecular mechanism of the unique phenotypes of leaves and the genes related to suberin biosynthesis may result in the difference of stems. In addition, the genes about defense response especially biotic stress associated with numerous pathogenesis-related (PR) genes upregulated in LGS compared to LNS indicated that the pathogen may be the internal factor. Taken together, our results reveal the macro- and micro-phenotype variations as well as gene expression profiles between GS and NS, which could provide valuable clues for elucidating the mechanism of the color variation of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8231315PMC
June 2021

Genomic Association vs. Serological Determination of ABO Blood Types in a Chinese Cohort, with Application in Mendelian Randomization.

Genes (Basel) 2021 06 24;12(7). Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of International Medical Center/Ward of General Practice, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Renmin South Road 16, Chengdu 610041, China.

ABO blood system is an inborn trait determined by the gene. The genetic-phenotypic mechanism underneath the four mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive types of O, A, B and AB could theoretically be elucidated. However, genetic polymorphisms in the human populations render the link elusive, and importantly, past studies using genetically determined rather than biochemically determined ABO types were not and could not be evaluated for the inference errors. Upon both blood-typing and genotyping a cohort of 1008 people of the Han Chinese population, we conducted a genome-wide association study in parallel with both binomial and multinomial log-linear models. Significant genetic variants are all mapped to the gene, and are quantitatively evaluated for binary and multi-class classification performances. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms of , and would together be sufficient to establish a multinomial predictive model that achieves high accuracy (0.98) and F1 scores (micro 0.99 and macro 0.97). Using the set of identified ABO-associated genetic variants as instrumental variables, we demonstrate the application in causal analysis by Mendelian randomization (MR) studies on blood pressures (one-sample MR) and severe COVID-19 with respiratory failure (two-sample MR).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12070959DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8306414PMC
June 2021

A Simple and Reliable Single Tube Septuple PCR Assay for Simultaneous Identification of Seven Meat Species.

Foods 2021 May 13;10(5). Epub 2021 May 13.

State Key Laboratory for Managing Biotic and Chemical Threats to the Quality and Safety of Agro-Products, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China.

Multiplex PCR methods have been frequently used for authentication of meat product adulteration. Through screening of new species-specific primers designed based on the mitochondrial DNA sequences, a septuple PCR method is ultimately developed and optimized to simultaneously detect seven species including turkey (110 bp), goose (194 bp), pig (254 bp), sheep (329 bp), beef (473 bp), chicken (612 bp) and duck (718 bp) in one reaction. The proposed method has been validated to be specific, sensitive, robust and inexpensive. Taken together, the developed septuple PCR assay is reliable and efficient, not only to authenticate animal species in commercial meat products, but also easily feasible in a general laboratory without special infrastructures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10051083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153340PMC
May 2021

Creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio as a marker of skeletal muscle mass for predicting postoperative complications in patients undergoing gastric cancer surgery.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May 12;10(5):5017-5026. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of General Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Gastric cancer patients usually suffer from skeletal muscle depletion. The serum creatinine/cystatin C ratio (CCR) is a new, simple tool that could serve as a biomarker of skeletal muscle mass. This study explored the ability of the preoperative CCR to predict postoperative complications in patients with gastric cancer.

Methods: A total of 309 patients with gastric cancer who were undergoing surgery were enrolled in this study. Univariate analyses were conducted to determine the potential risk factors for postoperative complications, and multivariate analyses were used to determine the independent influencing factors of postoperative complications. A receiver operating characteristic curve was conducted to identify the optimal cutoff value of the CCR. Patients were divided into two groups according to the critical value to investigate the relationship between the CCR and postoperative complications.

Results: Postoperative complications occurred in 87 patients. Multivariate analysis suggested that age, red blood cell level, lymphocyte count, cystatin C, CCR, and N factor were independent risk or protective factors for postoperative complications (P<0.001). The optimal cutoff value of the preoperative CCR was 7.117. Compared with the high preoperative CCR group, patients with a low preoperative CCR were more likely to have both mild complications (P<0.001) and major complications (P<0.001).

Conclusions: The preoperative CCR can effectively predict postoperative complications in gastric cancer patients after surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-2366DOI Listing
May 2021

Self-Doping Surface Oxygen Vacancy-Induced Lattice Strains for Enhancing Visible Light-Driven Photocatalytic H Evolution over Black TiO.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 14;13(16):18758-18771. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials (Taiyuan University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024, P.R. China.

The synergistic effect of surface oxygen vacancy with induced lattice strains on visible light-driven photocatalytic H evolution over black TiO was investigated. Experimental measurements and theoretical calculations on the lattice parameters of black TiO show that surface oxygen vacancies induce internal lattice strain during two-step aluminothermic reduction, which regulates the band structure and optimizes the photoinduced charge behavior of black TiO. The hydrogen evolution rate of black TiO with strain modification shows a 12-fold increase to 1.882 mmol/g· h (equal to 4.705 μmol/cm·h) under visible light illumination. The metastable state caused by the surface oxygen vacancies leads to the formation of a high-energy surface, which enhances visible light absorption and improves the photoinduced charge separation efficiency. Furthermore, the internal lattice strain provides the driving force and channel for the directional movement of photoinduced electrons from the bulk to the high-energy surface for photocatalytic H evolution. This strategy provides a new method for designing a high-performance photocatalyst for H production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c01101DOI Listing
April 2021

Differentiation and management of hepatobiliary mucinous cystic neoplasms: a single centre experience for 8 years.

BMC Surg 2021 Mar 20;21(1):146. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of General Surgery, School of Medicine, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University, 3 East Qingchun Road, Hangzhou, 310016, Zhejiang, China.

Background: Hepatobiliary mucinous cystic neoplasms (H-MCNs) are relatively rare cystic neoplasms in the liver. The differential diagnosis of H-MCNs remains big challenging, and the management and prognosis between the hepatic simple cyst (HSC) and H-MCNs are quite different. This study aimed to present our experience in the management of H-MCNs and provide a preoperative H-MCNs risk prediction nomogram to differentiating H-MCNs from liver cystic lesions.

Methods: 29 patients diagnosed with H-MCNs and 75 patients diagnosed with HSC between June 2011 and June 2019 at Zhejiang University School of medicine, Sir Run-Run Shaw Hospital were reviewed in this study. We analyzed the demographic and clinicopathological variables.

Results: US, CT, and MRI could accurately diagnose only 3.4%, 46.1%, and 57.1% of H-MCNs, respectively. After univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis, the variables significantly associated with H-MCNs were enhancement after contrast (p = 0.009), tumour located in the left lobe (p = 0.02) and biliary ductal dilation (p = 0.027). An H-MCNs risk predictive nomogram was constructed, which showed excellent discrimination (areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.940) and consistent calibration between the predicted probability and actual probability.

Conclusion: Among patients with H-MCNs, the location of the tumour, enhancement in CT scan, and biliary duct dilation are significantly independent risk factors. The appropriate treatment of H-MCNs is radical resection. Using our Nomogram could facilitate screening and identification of patients with liver cystic lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12893-021-01110-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7981987PMC
March 2021

A genome-wide association and polygenic risk score study on abnormal electrocardiogram in a Chinese population.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 25;11(1):4669. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Renmin South Road 16, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Electrocardiography is a common and widely-performed medical examination based on the measurement and evaluation of electrocardiogram (ECG) to assess the up-to-date cardiac rhythms and thus suggest the health conditions of cardiovascular system and on a larger level the individual's wellness. Abnormal ECG assessment from the detection of abnormal heart rhythms may have clinical implications including blood clots in formation, ongoing heart attack, coronary artery blockage, etc. Past genetic-phenotypic research focused primarily on the physical parameters of ECG but not the medical evaluation. To unbiasedly uncover the underlying links of genetic variants with normal vs. abnormal ECG assessment, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) is carried out in a 1006-participant cohort of Chinese population effectively genotyped for 243487 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Both age and sex are influential factors, and six novel SNPs are identified for potential association with abnormal ECG. With the selected SNPs, a polygenic risk score (PRS) differentiates the case-control subgroups, and correlates well with increased risk of abnormal ECG. The findings are reproduced in an independent validation cohort. The derived PRS may function as a potential biomarker for prospectively screening the high-risk subgroup of heart issues in the Chinese population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84135-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7907205PMC
February 2021

Preoperative Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score predicts short-term outcomes of patients with gastric cancer after laparoscopy-assisted radical gastrectomy.

World J Surg Oncol 2021 Jan 23;19(1):25. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of General Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 3 East Qingchun Road, Hangzhou, 310016, China.

Background: An emerging prediction tool, the Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score, has shown good assessment ability of postoperative outcomes in cancer patients. This study evaluated the role of the preoperative CONUT score regarding the short-term outcomes of gastric cancer (GC) after laparoscopic gastrectomy.

Methods: Three hundred and nine GC patients undergoing laparoscopic gastrectomy from January 2016 to June 2019 were analysed, retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups according to the CONUT optimal cut-off value. Clinical characteristics and postoperative complications in the two groups were analysed and evaluated. Risk factors for complications were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses.

Results: A total of 309 patients underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy; 91 (29.4%) patients experienced postoperative complications. The preoperative CONUT score showed a good predictive ability for postoperative complications (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.718, Youden index = 0.343) compared with other indices, with an optimal cut-off value of 2.5. Patients with high CONUT score had a significantly higher incidence of overall complications (P < 0.001). Age, haemoglobin, C-reactive protein, red blood cell levels, CONUT scores, surgical procedure type, T1, T4, N0 and N3 pathological TNM classification, and pathological stages of I and III were associated with postoperative complications (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the preoperative CONUT score was identified as an independent risk predictor of postoperative complications (P = 0.012; OR = 2.433; 95% CI, 1.218-4.862) after multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: The preoperative CONUT score is a practical nutritional assessment for predicting short-term outcomes in GC patients after laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12957-021-02132-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7827975PMC
January 2021

Identification of suitable reference genes for studies of Syringa pinnatifolia Hemsl.

FEBS Open Bio 2021 04 26;11(4):1041-1053. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Syringa pinnatifolia Hemsl. (Oleaceae) is a species of shrub with a limited distribution in China. Several chemical compounds with pharmacological effects have been isolated from S. pinnatifolia, including new lignans and sesquiterpenes. Studies of gene expression in this species require the identification of suitable reference genes that are stably expressed under different conditions and in different tissues. To identify candidate reference genes, here we used the geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper algorithms to analyze the stability of 12 candidate genes. The geometric mean of the rankings generated with these algorithms was used to obtain a comprehensive ranking. TBP and PP2A were found to be appropriate reference genes for calli treated with different external stimuli, and TIP41 and TBP were found to be appropriate reference genes in differentiated tissues. When calli and differentiated tissues were considered together, TBP and TIP41 were found to be the most reliable reference genes. The selected genes were validated by analysis of HMGR expression in calli and differentiated tissues. This study is the first to screen candidate reference genes in the genus Syringa and could help guide future molecular studies in this genus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2211-5463.13097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8016119PMC
April 2021

Time series analysis of cumulative incidences of typhoid and paratyphoid fevers in China using both Grey and SARIMA models.

PLoS One 2020 28;15(10):e0241217. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, P. R. China.

Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers are common enteric diseases causing disability and death in China. Incidence data of typhoid and paratyphoid between 2004 and 2016 in China were analyzed descriptively to explore the epidemiological features such as age-specific and geographical distribution. Cumulative incidence of both fevers displayed significant decrease nationally, displaying a drop of 73.9% for typhoid and 86.6% for paratyphoid in 2016 compared to 2004. Cumulative incidence fell in all age subgroups and the 0-4 years-old children were the most susceptible ones in recent years. A cluster of three southwestern provinces (Yunnan, Guizhou, and Guangxi) were the top high-incidence regions. Grey model GM (1,1) and seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model were employed to extract the long-term trends of the diseases. Annual cumulative incidence for typhoid and paratyphoid were formulated by GM (1,1) as [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] respectively. SARIMA (0,1,7) × (1,0,1)12 was selected among a collection of constructed models for high R2 and low errors. The predictive models for both fevers forecasted cumulative incidence to continue the slightly downward trend and maintain the cyclical seasonality in near future years. Such data-driven insights are informative and actionable for the prevention and control of typhoid and paratyphoid fevers as serious infectious diseases.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0241217PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7592733PMC
December 2020

Schisandra Fruit Vinegar Lowers Lipid Profile in High-Fat Diet Rats.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 3;2020:7083415. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Beihua University, Jilin 132013, China.

Hyperlipidemia and its associated obesity, hepatic steatosis, and NAFLD are worldwide problems. However, there is no ideal pharmacological treatment for these. Therefore, the complementary therapies that are both natural and safe have been focused. Healthy foods, such as fruit vinegar, may be one of the best choices. In this study, we made a special medicinal fruit vinegar, Schisandra fruit vinegar (SV), and examined its lipid-lowering effects and the underlying mechanisms in a high-fat diet rat model. The results showed that SV significantly reduced the body weight, liver weight, liver index, the serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), free fatty acid (FFA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and malondialdehyde (MDA), increased the content of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), upregulated the expressions of peroxisome proliferative activated receptor (PPAR-), peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACOX1), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) proteins, increased the contents of key component of antioxidant defense NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and its downstream heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein, and downregulated the expression of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1). These results suggest that SV has weight loss and lipid-lowering effects in HFD rats, which may be related to its upregulation of the expressions of -oxidation -elated PPAR-, CPT1, and ACOX1 and the regulation of the expressions of antioxidant pathway-related KEAP1-NRF2-HO-1. Therefore, all these data provide an experimental basis for the development of SV as a functional beverage which is safe, effective, convenient, and inexpensive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/7083415DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7487111PMC
September 2020

[Re-evaluation of indications for prenatal diagnosis of advanced pregnant women under the new screening regime].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2020 Oct;37(10):1057-1060

Center for Prenatal Diagnosis, International Peace Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030, China.

Objective: To assess the value of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for women with advanced gestational age but normal measurement for nuchal translucency (NT).

Methods: A total of 9371 singleton pregnancies with negative NT screening at early pregnancy were reviewed. Among these, 8627 cases were selected to be screened again by NIPT, and their indications and results were analyzed. The results were compared with those of with other high risk factors and young gestational age.

Results: The incidence of fetal aneuploidies increased in women with advanced gestational age and ultrasound soft markers, in particular among those who were negative for NT screening but over the age of 37. The detection rate of pathological or likely pathological copy number variations was 1.88% among women who directly underwent invasive prenatal diagnosis because of the advanced age, but there was no correlation with the increase of age. 0.68% of the women where with negative NT screening and NIPT still need to undergo invasive prenatal diagnosis.

Conclusion: After NT screening in early pregnancy, NIPT can replace invasive prenatal diagnosis for those below the age of 37, though there is still a possibility of missed detection of pathogenic copy number variation. It is necessary to strengthen ultrasonic monitoring in later period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn511374-20190925-00497DOI Listing
October 2020

Pilot Study of a Virtual Reality Educational Intervention for Radiotherapy Patients Prior to Initiating Treatment.

J Cancer Educ 2020 Aug 22. Epub 2020 Aug 22.

Department of Medical Engineering, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Virtual reality (VR) presents opportunities for innovative patient educational methods. This study used a combination of subjective questionnaires and objective physiological measures to investigate the impact of a VR radiotherapy (RT) educational system on patients' understanding and anxiety prior to commencing RT. Sixty patients were randomized to control (n = 30) and intervention (n = 30) groups prior to initiating RT. The control group received the standard nursing care process. The intervention group additionally participated in a detailed introduction to RT positioning, procedures, treatments, and other RT-related information via VR education. All patients completed a data collection from pre- and postintervention, which included questions on RT comprehension, anxiety-related scales, and objective physiological data reflecting the patient's psychological state, such as blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration. Both groups had high anxiety levels before the intervention, and there was no significant difference between the questionnaire and physiological data of the two groups. Following the intervention, anxiety scores (state-trait anxiety scale and visual analog scale) of the intervention group decreased significantly compared with those of the control group, and there was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (p < 0.05) and increase in cognitive score (p < 0.05). This study reports the positive impact of a virtual reality radiotherapy (VRRT) patient educational system on increasing patient RT comprehension and reducing anxiety. Further work is needed to improve the acceptability of the system to patients and to explore further the impact of VR education on patients' psychological and physical needs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13187-020-01848-5DOI Listing
August 2020

Reliability map of individual differences reflected in inter-subject correlation in naturalistic imaging.

Neuroimage 2020 12 18;223:117277. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Laboratory of Psychological Heath and Imaging, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Institute of Psychological and Behavioral Science, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Understanding individual differences in brain function is an essential aim of neuroscience. Naturalistic imaging links neural activity to real-life contexts and reflects individual differences in brain response. These unique features make it a promising tool for individualized psychiatry. An essential prerequisite for the extensive use of this paradigm is the reliable representation of inter-individual relationships. We used a test-retest approach to examine whether the naturalistic paradigm reliably represents inter-individual differences, which brain regions have the superior capability, and whether the ability alters with the contents of the stimuli. We quantified the reliability of the inter-subject relationships in repeated scans of two movie clips: a natural sight view and an emotion-evoking story. Besides statistical inference, we included resting-state scans, behavioral tests, and questionnaires as references for the comparison. The results showed that over one-third area of the brain could reliably characterize the inter-individual relationship, and the superior temporal lobe demonstrated comparable reliability representation with the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory. Furthermore, the temporal lobe regions could retain this capability across emotional movies with different contents. This study provides a base for pushing the naturalistic imaging paradigm towards clinical applications and proposes reliable target brain regions for future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117277DOI Listing
December 2020

Analysis of the diversity of intestinal microbiome and its potential value as a biomarker in patients with schizophrenia: A cohort study.

Psychiatry Res 2020 09 27;291:113260. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishan Road, Hefei, Anhui 230032, China; Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Major Autoimmune Disease, Hefei, Anhui, China. Electronic address:

Exploring the gut microbiota characteristics of patients with acute and remission schizophrenia (SCZ) and evaluating the potential of the gut microbiome as a non-invasive biomarker for SCZ. A total of 87 fecal samples were collected, including a total of 58 samples from 29 SCZ patients over two different periods (remission and onset period) and 29 samples from the control group for 16S rRNA Miseq.The changes of intestinal microbiota in SCZ patients from remission to onset were analyzed, and a random forest model was constructed to recognize biomarkers. The optimal three genus-level diagnosis biomarkers were identified through an AUC validation on a random forest model, furthermore, an AUC of 0.76 (95% CI (0.63, 0.89)) was achieved between 29 aSCZ and 29 HCs. Compared with the control group, the first 11 OUT-level' biomarkers were identified in rSCZ group. As a status marker of the disease, the AUC of 0.7 (95% CI (0.56, 0.84)) was achieved between 29 rSCZ and 29 HCs. There were differences between SCZ patients and HCs, acute and remission patients as well, suggesting that the potential of the gut microbiota as a non-invasive diagnostic tool. Moreover, the features of the gut microbiome of SCZ provide clues for disease prognosis assessment and targeted intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113260DOI Listing
September 2020

Diurnal temperature range and childhood asthma in Hefei, China: Does temperature modify the association?

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jul 25;724:138206. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032, China.; Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Major Autoimmune Diseases, Hefei, Anhui 230032, China. Electronic address:

Background: The present study aimed to understand the effect of diurnal temperature range (DTR) on childhood asthma in Hefei, China, and to explore the effect of temperature on the DTR-asthma association.

Materials And Methods: Daily data on hospital admissions for childhood asthma, air pollutants, and weather variables in Hefei, China, from 1st January 2014 to 31st December 2015, were collected. A generalized additive model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model was used to quantify the effects of DTR on the total, age- and gender-specific hospital admissions for childhood asthma. A non-parametric bivariate response surface model, and a generalized additive model combined with a stratified parametric model were used to explore the interaction between DTR and temperature.

Results: We observed that high DTR was associated with an increase in hospital admissions for childhood asthma. When DTR increased from 6.7 °C to 16.8 °C (99% percentile), hospital admissions for childhood asthma increased by 13% (relative risk: 1.13, 95% confidence interval: 1.07, 1.12). The analysis stratified, by mean temperature level, suggested that when DTR increased by 1 °C at low temperatures, asthma hospitalizations in total children, girls, boys and school-age children increased by 5.0% (95% CI: 2.6%, 7.5%), 3.7% (95% CI: 0.4%, 5.7%), 2.9% (95% CI: 0.8%, 4.4%) and 5.0% (95% CI: 2.6%, 7.5%), respectively.

Conclusions: This study suggests that the impact of high DTR should be considered among public health advice for children with existing asthma. Those days with high DTR and low mean temperature need extra attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138206DOI Listing
July 2020

Regulatory Effect of Anwulignan on the Immune Function Through Its Antioxidation and Anti-Apoptosis in D-Galactose-Induced Aging Mice.

Clin Interv Aging 2020 29;15:97-110. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Beihua University, Jilin, Jilin 132013, People's Republic of China.

Background: Aging is a spontaneous and inevitable phenomenon of biology, which can lead to the gradual deterioration of tissues and organs. One of the age-related deterioration processes is immunosenescence, which leads to changes in the function of immune systems, including immune cells and associated cytokines. A proper modulation of immune responses can improve the age-related immunosenescence process and then reach healthy aging. , a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used as both a medicine and a nutritional supplement for thousands of years. Anwulignan, a monomer compound of lignans, has been reported to possess an immunomodulatory effect. Therefore, this study was designed to further explore whether Anwulignan could also modulate the immune functions in aging model mice and the underlying mechanism.

Methods: D-galactose (D-gal) is often used as an inducer of immunosenescence in animals. In this study, a mice model was created by subcutaneous D-gal (220 mg kg) for successive 42 days. Then, the blood and spleen tissue samples were taken for the analysis and observation of cytokine levels, immunoglobulin levels, leukocyte numbers, and the phagocytic activity of macrophages, as well as the histological changes, the proliferation ability of lymphocytes, and the biochemical parameters in the spleen tissue.

Results: Anwulignan significantly increased the serum levels of IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ, lgG, lgM, and lgA, decreased the content of TNF-α and IL-6 in the aging mice, and increased the blood leukocyte number, the phagocytic activity, the lymphocyte proliferation, and the spleen index in vitro. Anwulignan also significantly increased the activities of SOD and GSH-Px, decreased the contents of MDA and 8-OHdG in the spleen tissue, up-regulated the expressions of Nrf2, HO-1, and Bcl2, down-regulated the expressions of Keap1, Caspase-3, and Bax in the spleen cells, and reduced the apoptosis of spleen lymphocytes.

Conclusion: Anwulignan can restore the immune function that is declined in D-gal-induced aging mice partly related to its antioxidant capacity by activating the Nrf2/ARE pathway and downstream enzymes, as well as its anti-apoptotic effect by regulating Caspase-3 and the ratio of Bcl2 to Bax in the spleen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S237601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6996228PMC
August 2020

Individualized psychiatric imaging based on inter-subject neural synchronization in movie watching.

Neuroimage 2020 08 27;216:116227. Epub 2019 Sep 27.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Institute of Psychological and Behavioral Science, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Brain Science and Technology Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

The individual heterogeneity is a challenge to the prosperous promises of cutting-edge neuroimaging techniques for better diagnosis and early detection of psychiatric disorders. Individuals with similar clinical manifestations may result from very different pathophysiology. Conventional approaches based on comparing group-averages provide insufficient information to support the individualized diagnosis. Here we present an individualized imaging methodology that combines naturalistic imaging and the normative model. This paradigm adopts video clips with rich cognitive, social, and emotional contents to evoke synchronized brain dynamics of healthy participants and builds a spatiotemporal response norm. By comparing individual brain responses with the response norm, we could recognize patients using machine learning techniques. We applied this methodology to recognize first-episode drug-naïve schizophrenia patients in a dataset containing 72 patients and 54 healthy controls. Some segments of the video evoked more synchronized brain activity in the healthy controls than in the schizophrenia patients. We built a spatiotemporal response norm by averaging the brain responses of the healthy controls in a training set, and trained a classifier to recognize patients based on the differences between individual brain responses and the norm. The performance of the classifier was then evaluated using an independent test set. The mean accuracies from a 5-fold cross-validation were 0.71-0.78 depending on the parameters such as the number of features and the width of the sliding windows. These findings reflected the potential of this methodology towards a clinical tool for individualized diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.116227DOI Listing
August 2020

Segregated precuneus network and default mode network in naturalistic imaging.

Brain Struct Funct 2019 Dec 12;224(9):3133-3144. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Key Laboratory of Behavioral Sciences, Research Center for Lifespan Development of Mind and Brain, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

A resting-state network centered at the precuneus has been recently proposed as a precuneus network (PCUN) or "parietal memory network". Due to its spatial adjacency and overlapping with the default mode network (DMN), it is still not consensus to consider PCUN and DMN separately. Whether considering PCUN and DMN as different networks is a critical question that influences our understanding of brain functions and impairments. Previous resting-state studies using multiple methodologies have demonstrated a robust separation of the two networks. However, since there is no gold standard in justifying the functional difference between the networks in resting-state, we still lack of biological evidence to directly support the separation of the two networks. This study compared the responses and functional couplings of PCUN and DMN when participants were watching a movie and examined how the continuity of the movie context modulated the response of the networks. We identified PCUN and DMN in resting-state fMRI of 48 healthy subjects. The networks' response to a context-rich video and its context-shuffled version was characterized using the variance of temporal fluctuations and functional connectivity metrics. The results showed that (1) scrambling the contextual information altered the fluctuation level of DMN and PCUN in reversed ways; (2) compared to DMN, the FC within PCUN showed significantly higher sensitivity to the contextual continuity; (3) PCUN exhibited a significantly stronger functional network connectivity with the primary visual regions than DMN. These findings provide evidence for the distinct functional roles of PCUN and DMN in processing context-rich information and call for separately considering the functions and impairments of these networks in resting-state studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-019-01953-2DOI Listing
December 2019

Hepatocarcinoma Discrimination by Ratiometric Lipid Profiles Using Tip-Contact Sampling/Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

Anal Chem 2019 08 31;91(16):10376-10380. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry , Zhejiang University , Hangzhou , 310058 , P. R. China.

Precise diagnosis at the molecular level is essential for the improvement of surgery and treatment. High-throughput and spatial-resolved mass spectrometric (MS) methods for in situ detection of metabolites on tissue samples can reveal the dysregulation of metabolism in abnormal tissue and help identification of tumor. We here report a nondestructive MS method named as tip-contact sampling/ionization (TCSI)-MS technology which can quickly acquire lipidomic information from liver tissue and thereby realize tumor identification. Using this technology, fatty acids and lipids at the liver tissue surface can be rapidly imprinted onto a silicon nanowire tip attached with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and sensitively detected by on-chip MS. With proper data pretreatment and statistical analysis, the clinical primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues can be discriminated from the nontumor parts. In addition, we found that a panel of adjacent dual peaks' ratio can be used to build a prediction model in artificial neural networks (ANN), resulting in high accuracy (91.7-98.3%) for tumor discrimination. Ratiometric TCSI-MS imaging using a selected dual peaks' ratio can greatly enhance the spatial resolution of tumor margin. The feature ratiometric data of lipid molecules may guide the study of metabolism pathways involved in hepatocarcinoma and ultimately become new metabolic biomarkers in clinical diagnosis. The present work demonstrated that the TCSI-MS technology may pave a novel way for surgery guidance and precision diagnosis in tissue biopsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.9b02623DOI Listing
August 2019

[Risk Analysis of Radiotherapy Implementation Process Based on Failure Mode and Effect Analysis].

Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi 2019 May;43(3):230-234

Biomedical Engineering Lab, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022.

Objective: Providing a risk assessment method for the implementation of radiotherapy to identify possible risks in the implementation of the treatment process, and proposing measures to reduce or prevent these risks.

Methods: A multidisciplinary expert evaluation team was developed and the radiotherapy treatment process flow was drawn. Through the expert team, the failure mode analysis is carried out in each step of the flow chart. The results were summarized and the (risk priority ordinal) score was obtained, and the quantitative evaluation results of the whole process risk were obtained.

Results: One hundred and six failure modes were obtained, risk assessment of (20%) high risk failure model are 22 and severity (≥ 8) high risk failure model are 27. The reasons for the failures were man-made errors or hardware and software failures.

Conclusions: Failure mode and effect analysis can be used to evaluate the risk assessment of radiotherapy, and it provides a new solution for risk control in radiotherapy field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1671-7104.2019.03.020DOI Listing
May 2019

Subjective and Objective Quantification of the Effect of Distraction on Physician's Workload and Performance During Simulated Laparoscopic Surgery.

Med Sci Monit 2019 Apr 28;25:3127-3132. Epub 2019 Apr 28.

Department of Medical Engineering, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Distracting interference cognitive tasks place undeniable pressure on the minds of people who need high precision and attention during the tasks, such as those tasks performed during surgery; these tasks might affect current surgical procedures. We measured the effect of additional cognitive tasks on the mental load of the physician by measuring the mean change in pupil size, blink rate, and subjective assessment during surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS We recruited 24 participants with different levels of laparoscopic surgery to perform a complete appendectomy using a standardized virtual reality laparoscopic surgery simulator. The participants then performed the cognitive task (arithmetic problem), after that they performed an appendectomy surgery task while completing the cognitive task on the simulator. All participants wore trackers to monitor pupil size and blink rate during surgery and the cognitive task. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Task Load Index (TLX) score also recorded performance parameters during the surgical mission. RESULTS The double-task pupil size and the blink rate were significantly increased compared to the single-task observation, and the associated increase in psychological load might have been affected by surgical performance, and the performance parameters were also statistically significant. However, for the aforementioned parameters, experienced surgeons had some differences compared with inexperienced surgeons, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS Distracted cognitive task stimulation in the operating room can increase the surgeon's psychological burden while also affecting their operational skills, thereby threatening patient safety; reduced cognitive costs might be obtained by improving or managing cognitive deficits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.914635DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6503751PMC
April 2019

A Usability Study of 3 Radiotherapy Systems: A Comparative Evaluation Based on Expert Evaluation and User Experience.

Med Sci Monit 2019 Jan 20;25:578-589. Epub 2019 Jan 20.

Department of Medical Engineering, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND The complex user interface design of radiotherapy treatment delivery systems can lead to use error and patient harm. In this study, we present the results of a comparison of 3 radiotherapy treatment delivery systems now used in China. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted a comprehensive usability study of 3 radiotherapy treatment delivery systems. Expert evaluation was performed through heuristic evaluation with 3 human-factors experts and 1 experienced radiation therapist for each system. User experience was assessed through perceived system usability and workload, using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index and the Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire. RESULTS For the expert evaluation, 47 usability problems were identified for Varian Trilogy, 75 for Elekta Precise, and 37 for Shinva XHA600E. Most problems were classified as major and minor usability problems, and were found in the process of patient setup and setup verification. For the user experience, radiation therapists presented a lower workload for Varian Trilogy compared to Elekta Precise (P<0.01) and Shinva XHA600E (P<0.01), and a lower workload for Elekta Precise compared to Shinva XHA600E (P=0.020). Radiation therapists perceived a higher system usability for Varian Trilogy compared to Shinva XHA600E (P<0.01), and a higher system usability for Elekta Precise compared to Shinva XHA600E (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS This research provides valuable data on how 3 radiotherapy treatment delivery systems compare. The results of this study may be useful for hospital equipment procurement decisions, and designing next-generation products to improve patient safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.913160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6348750PMC
January 2019

Caregiver Depression and Early Child Development: A Mixed-Methods Study From Rural China.

Front Psychol 2018 10;9:2500. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Rural Education Action Program (REAP), Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States.

Half of rural toddlers aged 0-3 years in China's Qinling Mountainous region are cognitively delayed. While recent studies have linked poor child development measures to the absence of positive parenting behaviors, much less is known about the role that caregiver depression might play in shaping child development. In this paper, a mixed methods analysis is used to explore the prevalence of depression; measure the association between caregiver depression and children's developmental delays, correlates of depression, and the potential reasons for caregiver depression among women in rural China. The analysis brings together results from a large-scale survey of 1,787 caregivers across 118 villages in one northwestern province, as well as information from in-depth interviews with 55 female caregivers from these same study sites. Participants were asked to respond to the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) as well as a scale to measure children's social-emotional development, the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional (ASQ-SE). We also administered a test of early childhood development, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III), to all of the study household's infants and toddlers. The results show that the prevalence of depression may be as high as 23.5 percent among all female caregivers (defined as scoring in the mild or higher category of the DASS-21). Grandmothers have higher prevalence of depression than mother caregivers ( < 0.01). Caregiver depression also is significantly associated with a 0.53 SD worsening of children's social-emotional development ( < 0.01) and a 0.12 SD decrease in children's language development ( < 0.05). Our qualitative findings reveal six predominant reasons for caregiver depression: lack of social support from family and friends; the burden of caregiving; lack of control and agency within the household; within-family conflict; poverty; the perception of material wealth as a measure of self-worth. Our findings show a serious lack of understanding of mental health issues among rural women, and suggest that rural communities could benefit greatly from an educational program concerning mental health and its influence on child development. Our findings confirm the need for a comprehensive approach toward rural health, with particular attention paid to mental health awareness and support to elderly caregivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02500DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6295552PMC
December 2018

Quantitative Evaluations of the Effects of Noise on Mental Workloads Based on Pupil Dilation during Laparoscopic Surgery.

Am Surg 2018 Dec;84(12):1951-1956

Noise can exert undeniable pressure on human minds, especially during tasks that require high precision and attention, such as those performed during surgery. To investigate whether auditory stimuli increases mental loads during laparoscopic surgery, we examined the effects of operating room (OR) noises and music by measuring mean changes in pupil sizes and subjectively assessing performances during surgery. We recruited 24 subjects with varying laparoscopic surgery experience levels to perform complete appendectomy using a laparoscopic simulator. Wearable eye trackers were worn by all subjects to monitor pupil sizes during surgery, and surgical tasks were performed under conditions of silence, background OR noise, and music. National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index scores and performance parameters were also recorded during surgical tasks. Noise distractions were associated with significant increases in pupil sizes compared with those observed in silence, and the related increases in mental loads may have affected surgical performance. However, more experienced operators had smaller changes in pupil sizes because of auditory disturbances than moderately experienced surgeons. Noise stimulation in the OR increases surgeon's mental workload and performance. Auditory regulation of the OR may be better standardized using data from studies of the effects of acoustic stimulation in the OR, and mental stresses during surgery could be considered in a more humane manner. Further investigations are necessary to determine the cognitive consequences of various auditory stimuli.
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December 2018

Comprehensive Evaluation of User Interface for Ventilators Based on Respiratory Therapists' Performance, Workload, and User Experience.

Med Sci Monit 2018 Dec 15;24:9090-9101. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Medical Engineering, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Poor ergonomic design of ventilators can result in human errors. In this study, we evaluated the ergonomics of ventilators through respiratory therapists' performance, workload, and user experience. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixteen respiratory therapists were recruited to this usability study of 3 ventilators. Participants had to perform 7 tasks on each ventilator. Respiratory therapists' performance was measured by task errors of all tasks for each participant. Workload was measured by objective measurement (blink rate and duration) and by subjective measurement (NASA-TLX). User experience was assessed by the USE Questionnaire. RESULTS For task errors, significant differences were found among ventilators (p<0.05) and the Evital 4 received higher task errors when compared to the Servo I (p<0.05). For blink rate, significant differences were found in tasks of starting the ventilator, ventilator monitoring values recognition, ventilator setting parameters modification, alarm parameter recognition, and resetting among ventilators (p<0.05). Furthermore, blink duration was also found to be significant differently in tasks of starting the ventilator, mode and setting parameters recognition, ventilator monitoring values recognition, ventilator mode modification, and alarm parameter recognition and resetting, as well as in the average of all tasks (p<0.05). For perceived workload, the Evital 4 received higher NASA-TLX scores among ventilators. For user experience, the Servo I received the highest scores on the USE Questionnaire among the ventilators. CONCLUSIONS The study provides a comprehensive evaluation method of user interface based on respiratory therapists' performance, workload, and user experience. In addition, this study suggests that the ergonomic design of the Evital 4 is poor. Finally, we found that eye motion (blink rate and duration) may be useful to assess the ergonomics of a user interface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.911853DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6319161PMC
December 2018

Protective effect of Anwulignan against D-galactose-induced hepatic injury through activating p38 MAPK-Nrf2-HO-1 pathway in mice.

Clin Interv Aging 2018 2;13:1859-1869. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Beihua University, Jilin City, People's Republic of China,

Background: Liver aging is a significant risk factor for chronic liver diseases. Oxidative stress has been considered as a conjoint pathological mechanism for the initiation and progression of liver aging. It has been reported that d-galactose (d-gal)-induced hepatic injury is an experimental model well established closely similar to morphological and functional features of liver aging. Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd. et Wils (S. sphenanthera, Schisandraceae), as a famous tradi-tional Chinese medicine, has been used for thousands of years in China to treat various disorders, including liver dysfunctions. This study was aimed to understand whether Anwulignan, one of the monomeric compounds in the lignans from S. sphenanthera, could improve the hepatic injury induced by d-gal in mice and to examine the possible mechanisms.

Methods: ICR mice were used to produce hepatic injury by 220 mg kg-1 d-gal subcutaneously once daily for 42 days. The effects of oral Anwulignan on liver index; serial AST and ALT levels; histological changes; SOD, GSH-Px, MDA, and 8-OHdG in the liver and peripheral blood; expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), Nrf2, and HO-1 in the liver; and HepG2 cell viability, and decrease caspase-3 contents in liver were examined.

Results: Anwulignan could significantly increase the liver index, lower aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in the peripheral blood, elevate superoxide dis-mutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and decrease malonaldehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) contents in the peripheral blood and liver. Furthermore, Anwulignan could upregulate the expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), Nrf2, and HO-1 in the liver, increase the HepG2 cell viability, and decrease caspase-3 contents in liver.

Conclusion: Anwulignan has protective effects against the hepatic injury induced by d-gal, which may be related to its antioxidant capacity through activating p38 MAPK-Nrf2-HO-1 pathway, increases the injured cell viability, and decreases the caspase-3 contents in liver.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S173838DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6174312PMC
December 2018

Ergonomic Assessment of the Mental Workload Confronted by Surgeons during Laparoscopic Surgery.

Am Surg 2018 Sep;84(9):1538-1543

Although the mental workload confronted by laparoscopic surgeons is rather high, there is presently no reliable, established method for evaluating this workload. In the present study, four evaluation indices of eye movement metrics were applied to evaluate surgeons' mental workload. Correlations between these indices and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) scores were also explored. Sixteen participants were recruited to complete four laparoscopic procedures. Eye movement was recorded during the tasks, and NASA-TLX scales were also introduced for subjective evaluation. The data were analyzed using R 3.3.2. Significant differences in the mental workload of each task were observed. Statistically significant correlations between mean pupil diameter change and NASA-TLX scores were also observed. The correlation coefficients were 0.763, 0.675, 0.405, and 0.547, and the values correspondingly were 0.001, 0.004, 0.12, and 0.028, respectively. The results clarify that the mental workload of laparoscopic surgeons is dependent on the specific demands of the operation. Appropriate objective physiological indices can be used to identify the mental workload state of the surgeon.
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September 2018
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