Publications by authors named "Jiaoyang Cai"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Pulse therapy with vincristine and dexamethasone for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (CCCG-ALL-2015): an open-label, multicentre, randomised, phase 3, non-inferiority trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 09 27;22(9):1322-1332. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, National Health Committee Key Laboratory of Pediatric Hematology & Oncology, Shanghai, China.

Background: Vincristine plus dexamethasone pulses are generally used throughout maintenance treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. However, previous studies remain inconclusive about the benefit of this maintenance therapy and the absence of randomised, controlled trials in patients with low-risk or high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia provides uncertainty. We therefore aimed to determine if this therapy could be safely omitted beyond 1 year of treatment without leading to an inferior outcome in any risk subgroup of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Methods: This open-label, multicentre, randomised, phase 3, non-inferiority trial involved 20 major medical centres across China. We enrolled patients who were aged 0-18 years with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia that was subsequently in continuous remission for 1 year after initial treatment. Patients with secondary malignancy or primary immunodeficiency were excluded. Eligible patients were classified as having low-risk, intermediate-risk, or high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia based on minimal residual disease and immunophenotypic and genetic features of leukaemic cells. Randomisation and analyses were done separately for the low-risk and intermediate-to-high-risk cohorts. Randomisation was generated by the study biostatistician with a block size of six. Stratification factors included participating centre, sex, and age at diagnosis; the low-risk cohort was additionally stratified for ETV6-RUNX1 status, and the intermediate-to-high-risk cohort for cell lineage. Patients in each risk cohort were randomly assigned (1:1) to either receive (ie, the control group) or not receive (ie, the experimental group) seven pulses of intravenous vincristine (1·5 mg/m) plus oral dexamethasone (6 mg/m per day for 7 days) during the second year of treatment. The primary endpoint was difference in 5-year event-free survival between the experimental group and the control group for both the low-risk and intermediate-to-high-risk cohorts, with a non-inferiority margin of 0·05 (5%). The analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-IPR-14005706.

Findings: Between Jan 1, 2015, and Feb 20, 2020, 6141 paediatric patients with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia were registered to this study. Approximately 1 year after diagnosis and treatment, 5054 patients in continuous remission were randomly assigned, including 2923 (1442 in the control group and 1481 in the experimental group) with low-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 2131 (1071 control, 1060 experimental) with intermediate-to-high risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Median follow-up for patients who were alive at the time of analysis was 3·7 years (IQR 2·8-4·7). Among patients with low-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, no difference was observed in 5-year event-free survival between the control group and the experimental group (90·3% [95% CI 88·4-92·2] vs 90·2% [88·2-92·2]; p=0·90). The one-sided 95% upper confidence bound for the difference in 5-year event-free survival probability was 0·024, establishing non-inferiority. Among patients with intermediate-to-high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, no difference was observed in 5-year event-free survival between the control group and the experimental group (82·8% [95% CI 80·0-85·7] vs 80·8% [77·7-84·0]; p=0·90), but the one-sided 95% upper confidence bound for the difference in 5-year event-free survival probability was 0·055, giving a borderline inferior result for those in the experimental group. In the low-risk cohort, we found no differences in the rates of infections, symptomatic osteonecrosis, or other complications during the second year of maintenance treatment between patients in the control and experimental groups. Patients with intermediate-to-high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the control group were more likely to develop grade 3-4 pneumonia (26 [2·4%] of 1071 vs ten [0·9%] of 1060) and vincristine-related peripheral neuropathy (17 [1·6%] vs six [0·6%]) compared with the experimental group. Incidence of grade 5 fatal infection was similar between the control group and the experimental group in both the low-risk cohort (two [0·1%] of 1442 vs five [0·3%] of 1481) and intermediate-to-high risk cohort (six [0·6%] of 1071 vs five [0·5%] of 1060).

Interpretation: Vincristine plus dexamethasone pulses might be omitted beyond 1 year of treatment for children with low-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Additional studies are needed for intermediate-to-high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Funding: VIVA China Children's Cancer Foundation, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the China fourth round of Three-Year Public Health Action Plan (2015-2017), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences, US National Cancer Institute, St Baldrick's Foundation, and the American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities.

Translation: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00328-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8416799PMC
September 2021

An analysis of the diagnosis, clinical characteristics, treatment, and survival outcomes of 36 extracranial malignant rhabdoid tumor patients.

Transl Pediatr 2021 Jun;10(6):1598-1609

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Shanghai Childrens' Medical Center Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Extracranial malignant Rhabdoid tumors (eMRTs) are rare but aggressive lesions in young children. This work aimed to review and analyze the diagnosis, clinical characteristics, treatment, and survival of eMRTs so as to summarize experience for future therapy.

Methods: A total of 36 eMRT cases were treated between January 2008 and August 2019 according to Shanghai Children's Medical Center (SCMC) multimodal protocol of mixed surgery, radiation and chemotherapy involving vincristine, carboplatin, doxorubicin, etoposide, cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide. We collected information including: age at diagnosis, tumor location, disease stage, therapy, outcomes, etc. Overall survival (OS) and event free survival (EFS) were calculated and risk factors for survival were analyzed.

Results: The patients had a median age of 1.80 years at diagnosis (range, 1.4 m-13.42 years), and were followed up for 9.17 months in median (range, 4 d-11.14 y). A total of 16 patients achieved complete remission (CR), and 7 survived without reoccurrence till December 2019. The 3-year EFS was 17.4% (95% CI: 11.0-23.8%) with a 3-year OS of 23.4% (95% CI: 15.8-31.0%). Recurrence was found only in children younger than the median age (1.80 y). Localized staging (Log Rank P=0.039 for OS and P=0.021) and older age (Log Rank P=0.016 for OS and P=0.002 for EFS) were associated with improved outcome. Younger age (Cox regression, OS, OR =2.610, 95% CI: 1.147-5.937, P=0.022; EFS, OR =3.401, 95% CI: 1.495-7.752, P=0.004) were independent risk factors for death and recurrence.

Conclusions: Those eMRTs treated according to SCMC protocol turned out to have poor outcomes. Higher staging at diagnosis and reoccurrence in younger patients remain major threats to the prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tp-20-459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8261579PMC
June 2021

Clinical characteristics of tumor lysis syndrome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Sci Rep 2021 05 6;11(1):9656. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a common and fatal complication of childhood hematologic malignancies, especially acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The clinical features, therapeutic regimens, and outcomes of TLS have not been comprehensively analyzed in Chinese children with ALL. A total of 5537 children with ALL were recruited from the Chinese Children's Cancer Group, including 79 diagnosed with TLS. The clinical characteristics, treatment regimens, and survival of TLS patients were analyzed. Age distribution of children with TLS was remarkably different from those without TLS. White blood cells (WBC) count ≥ 50 × 10/L was associated with a higher risk of TLS [odds ratio (OR) = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.6-4.5]. The incidence of T-ALL in TLS children was significantly higher than that in non-TLS controls (OR = 4.7, 95% CI = 2.6-8.8). Hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia were more common in TLS children with hyperleukocytosis (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.0-6.9 and OR = 5.4, 95% CI = 2.0-14.2, respectively). Significant differences in levels of potassium (P = 0.004), calcium (P < 0.001), phosphorus (P < 0.001) and uric acid (P < 0.001) were observed between groups of TLS patients with and without increased creatinine. Laboratory analysis showed that older age was associated with a higher level of creatinine. Calcium level was notably lower in males. WBC count, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatinine levels were significantly higher in T-ALL subgroup, whereas procalcitonin level was higher in B-ALL children. Older age, infant, a higher level of WBC and T-ALL were risk factors TLS occurrence. Hyperleukocytosis has an impact on the severity of TLS, while renal injury may be an important feature in the process of TLS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88912-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8102476PMC
May 2021

Prognostic factors for CNS control in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated without cranial irradiation.

Blood 2021 Jul;138(4):331-343

Departments of Oncology, Global Pediatric Medicine, Biostatistics and Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN.

To identify the prognostic factors that are useful to improve central nervous system (CNS) control in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), we analyzed the outcome of 7640 consecutive patients treated on Chinese Children's Cancer Group ALL-2015 protocol between 2015 and 2019. This protocol featured prephase dexamethasone treatment before conventional remission induction and subsequent risk-directed therapy, including 16 to 22 triple intrathecal treatments, without prophylactic cranial irradiation. The 5-year event-free survival was 80.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 78.9-81.7), and overall survival 91.1% (95% CI, 90.1-92.1). The cumulative risk of isolated CNS relapse was 1.9% (95% CI, 1.5-2.3), and any CNS relapse 2.7% (95% CI, 2.2-3.2). The isolated CNS relapse rate was significantly lower in patients with B-cell ALL (B-ALL) than in those with T-cell ALL (T-ALL) (1.6%; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0 vs 4.6%; 95% CI, 2.9-6.3; P < .001). Independent risk factors for isolated CNS relapse included male sex (hazard ratio [HR], 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-3.0; P = .03), the presence of BCR-ABL1 fusion (HR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.0-7.3; P < .001) in B-ALL, and presenting leukocyte count ≥50×109/L (HR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.5-12.2; P = .007) in T-ALL. Significantly lower isolated CNS relapse was associated with the use of total intravenous anesthesia during intrathecal therapy (HR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.04-0.7; P = .02) and flow cytometry examination of diagnostic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (HR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.06-0.6; P = .006) among patients with B-ALL. Prephase dexamethasone treatment, delayed intrathecal therapy, use of total intravenous anesthesia during intrathecal therapy, and flow cytometry examination of diagnostic CSF may improve CNS control in childhood ALL. This trial was registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR-IPR-14005706).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020010438DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8323972PMC
July 2021

Adequate asparaginase is important to prevent central nervous system and testicular relapse of pediatric Philadelphia chromosome-negative B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Int J Cancer 2021 07 26;149(1):158-168. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Key Laboratory of Pediatric Hematology & Oncology of China Ministry of Health, and National Children's Medical Center, Shanghai, China.

Asparaginase (Asp) is one of the most important drugs for treating acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, off-protocol Asp administration (OPAA) or hypersensitivity may disturb its pharmacokinetic profile. In this retrospective study, we sought to determine whether OPAA and hypersensitivity to Escherichia coli asparaginase (E coli Asp) impaired extramedullary relapse prevention in a pediatric ALL cohort treated according to SCMC-ALL-2005 protocol from 2005 to 2014 at the Shanghai Children's Medical Center (SCMC). In total, 676 patients were enrolled in this study, including 369 with OPAA and 60 exhibiting hypersensitivity to E coli Asp. At the end of the most recent follow-up, 58 patients had extramedullary relapse. The 5-year cumulative extramedullary relapse incidence in patients with OPAA was 11.01%, whereas that in patients without OPAA was 5.28% (P = .0036). Moreover, the 5-year cumulative extramedullary relapse incidence in patients that exhibited hypersensitivity to E coli Asp was 16.48%, whereas that in patients without hypersensitivity was 7.59% (P = .0195). Concerning the relapse site, OPAA not only increased central nervous system (CNS) relapse but testicular relapse as well. Based on Fine and Gray multivariate analysis, OPAA and hypersensitivity to Asp were independent risk factors for extramedullary relapse. In conclusion, to prevent extramedullary relapse of ALL, adequate duration to administrate Asp was more important than the total dosage, and more attention should be paid to Asp inadequate due to hypersensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33529DOI Listing
July 2021

Identifying Priorities for Harmonizing Guidelines for the Long-Term Surveillance of Childhood Cancer Survivors in the Chinese Children Cancer Group (CCCG).

JCO Glob Oncol 2021 02;7:261-276

Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Purpose: Survivors of childhood cancer often experience treatment-related chronic health conditions. Given its vast population, China shares a large proportion of the global childhood cancer burden. Yet, screening and treatment of late effects in survivors of childhood cancer remain underaddressed in most regions of China. This study aimed to identify high-priority late effects for harmonizing screening guidelines within the Chinese Children's Cancer Group (CCCG), as well as barriers and enablers of the implementation of surveillance recommendations in local practice.

Methods: To establish clinical consensus, 12 expert panelists who represent major institutions within the CCCG completed a Delphi survey and participated in a focus group discussion. The survey solicited ratings of the prevalence, severity, and priority for screening of 45 late effects. Major themes identified from the focus group were analyzed using thematic analysis.

Results: The Delphi survey identified eight high-priority late effects for harmonization within CCCG: osteonecrosis, osteoporosis, left ventricular dysfunction, secondary brain tumors, treatment-related myeloid leukemia, gonadal dysfunction, growth hormone deficiency, and neurocognitive deficits. The common barriers to implementing survivorship programs include lack of support and resources for clinicians to provide follow-up care. Patients were also concerned about privacy issues and lacked awareness of late effects. Many institutions also lacked rehabilitation expertise and referral pathways.

Conclusion: By identifying obstacles related to the professional setting, patient behavior, and organization of care, our study identified resources and a framework for establishing collaborative strategies to facilitate follow-up care of childhood cancer survivors in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/GO.20.00534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8081494PMC
February 2021

The efficacy and safety of a homoharringtonine-based protocol for children with acute myeloid leukemia: A retrospective study in China.

Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2021 Mar 5;38(2):97-107. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Key Lab of Pediatric Hematology & Oncology of China Ministry of Health, Shanghai, China.

The standard chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is usually composed of anthracyclines and cytarabine. We previously reported that homoharringtonine (HHT) was incorporated into regimens for pediatric AML with acceptable efficacy and tolerable toxicity. We treated newly diagnosed AML patients aged 0-18 years on the AML-SCMC-2009 protocol. A total of 102 de novo newly diagnosed AML patients aged 0-18 years were enrolled. All patients were treated with ten courses of chemotherapy including double induction, high dose cytarabine consolidation, and maintenance. The cumulative dose of HHT was 165 mg/m and the daunorubicin dose was 120 mg/m. Complete remission (CR), overall survival (OS) rate, event free survival (EFS) rate, adverse effect response and prognosis factors were retrospectively evaluated to investigate the long-term outcome and safety of this protocol. Eighty-two patients (80.4%) achieved complete remission with the first induction. The 5-year overall survival and event-free survival rates were 65.0% (, 4.9%) and 53.3% (, 5.2%), respectively. A first induction failure, age older than 2 years, and BCR-ABL translocation were associated with a significantly worse outcome ( < 0.05). No significant drug-related cardiac toxicity was observed. AML-SCMC-2009 protocol which use HHT as backbone drug is efficacious and tolerated. HHT could partially replace anthracycline to be an effective option for childhood AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08880018.2020.1820649DOI Listing
March 2021

Septicemia after chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in China: A multicenter study CCCG-ALL-2015.

Cancer Med 2020 03 28;9(6):2113-2121. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Department of Paediatrics, Hong Kong Children's Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Background: Septicemia is an important cause of treatment-related mortality and treatment failure in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in developing countries. A multicenter CCCG-ALL-2015 study was conducted in China and factors associated with septicemia and mortality were studied.

Methods: Patients participated in CCCG-ALL-2015 study from January 2015 to December 2017 were included. Patients with documented septicemia were identified from the Data Center and additional data were collected.

Results: A total of 4080 patients were recruited in the study and 527 patients with septicemia were identified (12.9%, 95% CI 11.9%-13.9%). The intermediate risk (IR)/high risk (HR) group had significantly higher incidence of septicemia as compared with low risk (LR) group, 17.1% vs 9.1% (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.71-2.49, P < .001). Induction phase was the period with majority of septicemia episodes happened, 66.8% in LR and 56.1% in IR/HR groups. Gram-positive bacteria accounted for 54.1%, gram-negative bacteria 44.5%, and fungus 1.4% of positive cultures. Multidrug-resistant organisms were detected in 20.5% of all organisms. The mortality rate after septicemia was 3.4% (95% CI 1.9%-4.9%). Multiple logistic regression identified female gender, comorbid complications, and fungal infection as risk factors associated with mortality. Gram-negative septicemia was associated with higher mortality, 4.9% vs 1.4% (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.09-0.88, P = .02). There was marked variation in the incidence of septicemia among the 18 centers, from 4.8% to 29.1%.

Conclusion: Overall the incidence and pattern of septicemia in this multicenter study in China was similar to the reports of western countries. The septicemia-related mortality rate was low. There was marked variation in the incidence of septicemia among the centers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.2889DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7064088PMC
March 2020

Effect of Dasatinib vs Imatinib in the Treatment of Pediatric Philadelphia Chromosome-Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2020 03;6(3):358-366

State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology and Division of Pediatric Blood Diseases Center, Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Tianjin, China.

Importance: A randomized clinical trial is needed to determine whether the second-generation Abl-tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib is more effective than the first-generation inhibitor imatinib mesylate for childhood Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

Objective: To determine whether dasatinib given at a daily dosage of 80 mg/m2 is more effective than imatinib mesylate at a daily dosage of 300 mg/m2 to improve event-free survival of children with Philadelphia chromosome-positive ALL in the context of intensive chemotherapy without prophylactic cranial irradiation.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This open-label, phase 3 randomized clinical trial was conducted at 20 hospitals in China. Enrollment occurred from January 1, 2015, through September 18, 2018, and randomization was stopped on October 4, 2018, when the early stopping criterion of the trial was met. Patients aged 0 to 18 years were recruited. Of the 225 patients with the diagnosis, 35 declined participation and 1 died before treatment, leaving 189 patients available for analysis. Data were analyzed from January 1 through August 4, 2019.

Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive daily dasatinib (n = 92) or imatinib (n = 97) continuously for the entire duration of ALL therapy from the time of diagnosis made during remission induction to the end of continuation therapy.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was event-free survival, analyzed based on intention to treat. The secondary outcomes were relapse, death due to toxic effects, and overall survival.

Results: Among the 189 participants (136 male [72.0%]; median age, 7.8 [interquartile range (IQR), 5.2-11.3] years) and a median follow-up of 26.4 (IQR, 16.3-34.1) months, the 4-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 71.0% (95% CI, 56.2%-89.6%) and 88.4% (95% CI, 81.3%-96.1%), respectively, in the dasatinib group and 48.9% (95% CI, 32.0%-74.5%; P = .005, log-rank test) and 69.2% (95% CI, 55.6%-86.2%; P = .04, log-rank test), respectively, in the imatinib group. The 4-year cumulative risk of any relapse was 19.8% (95% CI, 4.2%-35.4%) in the dasatinib group and 34.4% (95% CI, 15.6%-53.2%) in the imatinib group (P = .01, Gray test), whereas the 4-year cumulative risk of an isolated central nervous system relapse was 2.7% (95% CI, 0.0%-8.1%) in the dasatinib group and 8.4% (95% CI, 1.2%-15.6%) in the imatinib group (P = .06, Gray test). There were no significant differences in the frequency of severe toxic effects between the 2 treatment groups.

Conclusions And Relevance: Intensive chemotherapy including dasatinib at a dosage of 80 mg/m2 per day yielded superior results in the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive ALL compared with imatinib mesylate at a dosage of 300 mg/m2 per day and provided excellent control of central nervous system leukemia without the use of prophylactic cranial irradiation.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-IPR-14005706.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.5868DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6990720PMC
March 2020

Therapy-induced mutations drive the genomic landscape of relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Blood 2020 01;135(1):41-55

Key Laboratory of Pediatric Hematology & Oncology Ministry of Health, Department of Hematology & Oncology, Shanghai Children's Medical Center-National Children's Medical Center, and.

To study the mechanisms of relapse in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), we performed whole-genome sequencing of 103 diagnosis-relapse-germline trios and ultra-deep sequencing of 208 serial samples in 16 patients. Relapse-specific somatic alterations were enriched in 12 genes (NR3C1, NR3C2, TP53, NT5C2, FPGS, CREBBP, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, WHSC1, PRPS1, and PRPS2) involved in drug response. Their prevalence was 17% in very early relapse (<9 months from diagnosis), 65% in early relapse (9-36 months), and 32% in late relapse (>36 months) groups. Convergent evolution, in which multiple subclones harbor mutations in the same drug resistance gene, was observed in 6 relapses and confirmed by single-cell sequencing in 1 case. Mathematical modeling and mutational signature analysis indicated that early relapse resistance acquisition was frequently a 2-step process in which a persistent clone survived initial therapy and later acquired bona fide resistance mutations during therapy. In contrast, very early relapses arose from preexisting resistant clone(s). Two novel relapse-specific mutational signatures, one of which was caused by thiopurine treatment based on in vitro drug exposure experiments, were identified in early and late relapses but were absent from 2540 pan-cancer diagnosis samples and 129 non-ALL relapses. The novel signatures were detected in 27% of relapsed ALLs and were responsible for 46% of acquired resistance mutations in NT5C2, PRPS1, NR3C1, and TP53. These results suggest that chemotherapy-induced drug resistance mutations facilitate a subset of pediatric ALL relapses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019002220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6940198PMC
January 2020

Treatment abandonment in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in China: a retrospective cohort study of the Chinese Children's Cancer Group.

Arch Dis Child 2019 06 31;104(6):522-529. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Key Lab of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology of China Ministry of Health, and National Children's Medical Center, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: Before 2003, most children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) abandoned treatment, with only approximately 30% treated in China. With the development of national insurance for underprivileged patients, we assessed the current frequency and causes of treatment abandonment among patients with ALL who were enrolled in the Chinese Children's Cancer Group ALL protocol between 2015 and 2016.

Methods: Demographic, clinical and laboratory data on patients who abandoned treatment, as well as economic and sociocultural data of their families were collected and analysed. General health-related statistics were retrieved from publicly accessible databanks maintained by the Chinese government.

Results: At a median follow-up of 119 weeks, 83 (3.1%, 95% CI 2.5% to 3.8%) of the 2641 patients abandoned treatment. Factors independently associated with abandonment included standard/high-risk ALL (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.43 to 4.77), presence of minimal residual disease at the end of remission induction (OR 3.57, 95% CI 1.90 to 6.74) and low-income economic region (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.89 to 7.05). According to the family members, economic constraints (50.6%, p=0.0001) were the main reason for treatment abandonment, followed by the belief of incurability, severe side effects and concern over late complications.

Conclusions: The rate of ALL treatment abandonment has been greatly reduced in China. Standard/high-risk ALL, residence in a low-income region and economic difficulties were associated with treatment abandonment.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: ChiCTR-IPR-14005706, pre-results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2018-316181DOI Listing
June 2019

Long-term results of the risk-stratified treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in China.

Hematol Oncol 2018 Oct 22;36(4):679-688. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Key Lab of Pediatric Hematology & Oncology of China Ministry of Health, Shanghai, China.

Long-term follow-up data for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are scarce in China because of lacking population-based and hospitalized registry system. This retrospective study, conducted at Shanghai's Children's Medical Center in China (SCMC), aimed to investigate the long-term results of childhood ALL and to identify prognostic factors. The Pediatric Oncology Network Database, designed by St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, USA, were used to collect data for the enrolled patients starting in 2005. From 2005 to 2014, 1085 evaluable patients with ALL aged 1 to 18 years old were enrolled and treated using SCMC-ALL-2005 risk-stratified protocol. Complete remission was achieved in 95.6% of patients. At 5 and 10 years, the event-free survival rate was 68.3 ± 1.4% and 64.6 ± 1.6%, and the overall survival rate was 80.0 ± 1.2% and 76.3 ± 1.6%, respectively. The 5-year event-free survival rates were 81.8 ± 2.0%, 67.0 ± 1.9%, and 14.3 ± 4.0% for patients in low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk groups, respectively. The cumulative risk of relapse was 24.5% at 10 years. Induction failure conferred worse prognosis. Patients younger than 1 year of age at diagnosis, intermediate-risk/high-risk group, male gender, and positive minimal residual disease (MRD) results at day 55, both in the univariate and multivariate analysis, were associated with significantly worse prognosis (P < .05). Patients with positive MRD at both day 35 and day 55 were related to a significantly poor outcome (P < .0001), but not for patients with negitive MRD at day 35. The overall outcomes for ALL patients treated with protocol SCMC-ALL-2005 in SCMC are lower than in developed countries. Factors including age, gender, risk group and MRD results at day 55 were associated with treatment outcomes in childhood ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2541DOI Listing
October 2018

A novel fusion gene PLEKHA6-NTRK3 in langerhans cell histiocytosis.

Int J Cancer 2019 01 26;144(1):117-124. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Key Laboratory of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Ministry of Health, Department of Hematology & Oncology, Pediatric Translational Medicine Institute, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200127, China.

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is the most common histiocytosis with constitutive activation of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK (MAPKinase) cell signaling pathway. We analyzed 89 cases of BRAF and MAP2K1 mutations by Sanger sequencing, of which 18 cases showed that these two gene mutations are negative. Whole genome sequencing of suitable specimens in these negative cases revealed a translocation from the 3 intron of PLEKHA6 to the 13 intron of NTRK3 in one case. We identified that this translocation could cause a novel fusion mutation, PLEKHA6-NTRK3. Overexpression of the PLEKHA6-NTRK3 mutant in NIH 3T3 cells enhanced MAPKinase pathway activation, promote cell growth. Our result suggested that a new mutation need be included in LCH molecular screening panel to better define its prevalence in LCH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.31636DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6587734PMC
January 2019

Multivariate analysis of risk factors for patients with stage 4 neuroblastoma who were older than 18 months at diagnosis: a report from a single institute in Shanghai, China.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2017 Jul 11;143(7):1327-1335. Epub 2017 Mar 11.

Key Laboratory of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Ministry of Health, Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Dongfang Road 1678, Shanghai, 200127, China.

This retrospective study evaluated the long-term outcomes and prognostic indicators of patients with stage 4 neuroblastoma who were older than 18 months at diagnosis. The medical records of 118 such children who were treated at Shanghai Children's Medical Center, China, from June 1998-December 2013 were reviewed. Event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by log-rank tests. Of the 118 patients, 14 improving patients did not complete treatment because of parental decisions, and 1 patient died during surgery. Of the 103 patients who completed the comprehensive protocols, 60 (58.3%) achieved very good partial remission (VGPR), 26 (25.2%) achieved partial remission (PR) after four courses of chemotherapy, and 17 (16.5%) progressed during treatment. The response to induction (including VGPR + PR) was 83.5%. After a median follow-up of 105 months (range 36-160 months), the 5- and 10-year OS were 21 and 18%, and the EFS was 19 and 13%, respectively. EFS was significantly better for patients with normal levels of urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) at diagnosis, who had complete resection of the primary tumor, who were minimal residual disease- (MRD-) negative in their bone marrow after four courses of chemotherapy, and who achieved VGPR at the end of treatment (P < 0.05). The prognosis remains poor for patients with stage 4 neuroblastoma who are older than 18 months at diagnosis. Elevated VMA level, incomplete tumor resection, persistent MRD in bone marrow, and poor curative effect are associated with worse prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-017-2379-5DOI Listing
July 2017

Congenital renal tumor: metanephric adenoma, nephrogenic rest, or malignancy?

Pediatr Dev Pathol 2015 May-Jun;18(3):245-50. Epub 2015 Mar 3.

We report a renal tumor detected by prenatal ultrasound and resected at 2 months of age. This 9-cm, solid mass was composed of tubular and papillary structures lined by small, uniform epithelial cells. There was local invasion into renal parenchyma and a tumor deposit in a hilar lymph node. The tumor was immunopositive for WT1, pankeratin, and CD10; focally positive for CK7; and negative for EMA and TFE3. Based on morphology and immunophenotype, the favored diagnosis was metanephric adenoma over Wilms tumor, renal cell carcinoma, and nephrogenic rest. However, metanephric adenoma only occasionally occurs in children and has never been reported prenatally. Alternatively, this tumor might be a congenital Wilms tumor that differentiated completely. Although the nature of the tumor remains unconfirmed, resection appears to have been curative; the patient remains disease-free 18 months following surgery alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2350/15-01-1595-CR.1DOI Listing
July 2015

Childhood renal tumor: a report from a Chinese Children's Cancer Group.

Biomed Res Int 2014 24;2014:894341. Epub 2014 Jul 24.

Key Laboratory of Pediatric Hematology & Oncology Ministry of Health, Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai, China.

Here we investigated the establishment of multicenter cooperative treatment groups in China, as well as radiotherapy compliance and effectiveness among children with renal tumors. Medical records were reviewed for 316 children with renal tumors diagnosed by a multicenter cooperative group from 14 hospitals in China from 1998 to 2012. Median patient age was 29.5 months (range, 2-173 months old), and male-to-female ratio was 1.4 : 1. After a median follow-up of 22 months (range, 1-177 months), five-year event-free survival rates were 72% overall; 76.1% for favorable histology (251 cases); 59% for unfavorable histology (27 cases); and 91%, 75%, 71%, 53%, and 48.5%, respectively for Stages I, II, III, IV, and V. Following standardized criteria, radiation therapy was indicated for 153 patients, among whom five-year event-free survival was 72.8% for the 95 who received radiation and 24% for the 58 patients who did not. Our results are reasonable but can be further improved and show the feasibility of a multicenter cooperative group model for childhood renal tumor treatment in China. Radiation therapy is important for stage III and IV patients but remains difficult to implement in some parts of China. Government management departments and medical professionals must pay attention to this situation. This clinical trial is registered with ChiCTR-PRCH-14004372.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/894341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4131417PMC
September 2015
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