Publications by authors named "Jianzhong Zhu"

112 Publications

Transcriptomic profiling reveals different innate immune responses in primary alveolar macrophages infected by two highly homologous porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses with distinct virulence.

Microb Pathog 2021 Sep 21;158:105102. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009, PR China; Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009, PR China; Comparative Medicine Research Institute, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009, PR China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, 225009, PR China. Electronic address:

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolates show high genetic and pathogenic diversity. The mechanisms underlying different virulence of PRRSV isolates are still not fully clarified. Two highly homologous PRRSV isolates (XJ17-5 and JSTZ1712-12) with distinct virulence were identified in our previous study. To evaluate the association between host responses and different virulence, here we investigated the transcriptomic profiles of porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) infected with these two isolates. RNA-Seq results showed that there are 1932 differential expression genes (DEGs) between two PRRSV infected groups containing 1067 upregulation and 865 downregulation genes. Compared with the avirulent JSTZ1712-12 infected group, GO analysis identified significant enrichment gene sets not only associated with virus infection but also innate immune response in the virulent XJ17-5 infected group. In addition, KEGG analysis indicated significantly enriched genes associated with NOD-like and RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathways in XJ17-5 vs JSTZ1712-12 group. Furthermore, XJ17-5 isolate induced significantly higher levels of innate immune response associated genes (IL-1β, CXCL2, S100A8, OAS2, MX1, IFITM3, ISG15 and IFI6) than JSTZ1712-12 isolate, which were further confirmed by real-time PCR. Given that these two isolates share similar replication efficiency in vivo and in vitro, our results indicated that distinct virulence of PRRSV isolates is associated with different host innate immune responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.105102DOI Listing
September 2021

Crossed cerebellar diaschisis after acute ischemic stroke detected by intravoxel incoherent motion magnetic resonance imaging.

Neurol Sci 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Medical Imaging, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, Taian, 271000, Shandong, China.

Purpose: To study the value of 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging with intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) in the diagnosis of the crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) after the unilateral supratentorial acute ischemic stroke.

Methods: Seventy-four patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM), arterial spin labeling (ASL), and conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning were enrolled. Intravoxel incoherent motion-derived perfusion-related parameters including fast diffusion coefficient (D*), slow diffusion coefficient (D), vascular volume fraction (f), and arterial spin-labeling-derived cerebral blood flow (CBF) of bilateral cerebellum were measured.

Results: In the CCD-positive group, D*, D, and CBF values of the contralateral cerebellum decreased compared with those of the ipsilesional cerebellum (P < 0.05), whereas f significantly increased (P < 0.05). A positive correlation was detected between the slow diffusion coefficient-based asymmetry index (AI-D) and the cerebral blood flow-based asymmetry index (AI-CBF) (r = 0.515, P < 0.01), whereas the vascular volume fraction-based asymmetry index (AI-f) had a negative correlation with the cerebral blood flow-based asymmetry index (AI-CBF) (r =  - 0.485, P < 0.01). Furthermore, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve value of AI-D and AI-f was 0.81 and 0.76, respectively.

Conclusions: The IVIM is feasible for the detection of CCD. This technique might provide opportunities to further investigate the pathophysiology of CCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-021-05425-6DOI Listing
July 2021

Porcine RIG-I and MDA5 Signaling CARD Domains Exert Similar Antiviral Function Against Different Viruses.

Front Microbiol 2021 11;12:677634. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Comparative Medicine Research Institute, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.

The RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) RIG-I and MDA5 play critical roles in sensing and fighting viral infections. Although RIG-I and MDA5 have similar molecular structures, these two receptors have distinct features during activation. Further, the signaling domains of the N terminal CARD domains (CARDs) in RIG-I and MDA5 share poor similarity. Therefore, we wonder whether the CARDs of RIG-I and MDA5 play similar roles in signaling and antiviral function. Here we expressed porcine RIG-I and MDA5 CARDs in 293T cells and porcine alveolar macrophages and found that MDA5 CARDs exhibit higher expression and stronger signaling activity than RIG-I CARDs. Nevertheless, both RIG-I and MDA5 CARDs exert comparable antiviral function against several viruses. Transcriptome analysis showed that MDA5 CARDs are more effective in regulating downstream genes. However, in the presence of virus, both RIG-I and MDA5 CARDs exhibit similar effects on downstream gene transcriptions, reflecting their antiviral function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.677634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8226225PMC
June 2021

Analysis of Porcine RIG-I Like Receptors Revealed the Positive Regulation of RIG-I and MDA5 by LGP2.

Front Immunol 2021 18;12:609543. Epub 2021 May 18.

Comparative Medicine Research Institute, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.

The RLRs play critical roles in sensing and fighting viral infections especially RNA virus infections. Despite the extensive studies on RLRs in humans and mice, there is a lack of systemic investigation of livestock animal RLRs. In this study, we characterized the porcine RLR members RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2. Compared with their human counterparts, porcine RIG-I and MDA5 exhibited similar signaling activity to distinct dsRNA and viruses, similar and cooperative recognitions. Porcine LGP2, without signaling activity, was found to positively regulate porcine RIG-I and MDA5 in transfected porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), gene knockout PAMs and PK-15 cells. Mechanistically, LGP2 interacts with RIG-I and MDA5 upon cell activation, and promotes the binding of dsRNA ligand by MDA5 as well as RIG-I. Accordingly, porcine LGP2 exerted broad antiviral functions. Intriguingly, we found that porcine LGP2 mutants with defects in ATPase and/or dsRNA binding present constitutive activity which are likely through RIG-I and MDA5. Our work provided significant insights into porcine innate immunity, species specificity and immune biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.609543DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8169967PMC
June 2021

Animal board invited review: Risks of zoonotic disease emergence at the interface of wildlife and livestock systems.

Animal 2021 Jun 3;15(6):100241. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Comparative Medicine Research Institute, Yangzhou University, 225009 Yangzhou, China; Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety, 225009 Yangzhou, China.

The ongoing coronavirus disease 19s pandemic has yet again demonstrated the importance of the human-animal interface in the emergence of zoonotic diseases, and in particular the role of wildlife and livestock species as potential hosts and virus reservoirs. As most diseases emerge out of the human-animal interface, a better understanding of the specific drivers and mechanisms involved is crucial to prepare for future disease outbreaks. Interactions between wildlife and livestock systems contribute to the emergence of zoonotic diseases, especially in the face of globalization, habitat fragmentation and destruction and climate change. As several groups of viruses and bacteria are more likely to emerge, we focus on pathogenic viruses of the Bunyavirales, Coronaviridae, Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, and Paramyxoviridae, as well as bacterial species including Mycobacterium sp., Brucella sp., Bacillus anthracis and Coxiella burnetii. Noteworthy, it was difficult to predict the drivers of disease emergence in the past, even for well-known pathogens. Thus, an improved surveillance in hotspot areas and the availability of fast, effective, and adaptable control measures would definitely contribute to preparedness. We here propose strategies to mitigate the risk of emergence and/or re-emergence of prioritized pathogens to prevent future epidemics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.animal.2021.100241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172357PMC
June 2021

Identification of imidazoquinoline derivative (IQD) interacting sites of porcine TLR8 and the underlying species specificity.

Mol Immunol 2021 08 31;136:45-54. Epub 2021 May 31.

Comparative Medicine Research Institute, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, China; College Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, China; Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety, Yangzhou, 225009, China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, 225009, China. Electronic address:

Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8), as an important innate immune receptor, can recognize specific ligands, activate intracellular signaling and produce an inflammatory response to kill and eliminate pathogenic microorganisms. Recent studies have resolved the crystal structure of human TLR8 (hTLR8) and two types of ligand binding sites were identified. Among the conserved binding site 1 of hTLR8, the residues interacting with imidazoquinoline derivatives (IQDs) were determined. We previously showed that porcine TLR8 (pTLR8) exhibited species specificity for recognition of the hTLR7 agonist imiquimod (R837). Given the species specificity, the pTLR8 residues interacting with IQDs may be different from hTLR8 counterparts. The present study was aimed to identify the pTLR8 residues interacting with small molecular IQDs. Via molecular docking, the pTLR8 residues interacting with R837 and R848 were predicted. The corresponding mutants were tested for pTLR8 signaling in response to IQDs R837, R848 and CL075, and the results showed that five of nine predicted residues (Y336, K341, K342, F395 and G562) are critical for pTLR8 signaling and these residues are partially different from those reported in hTLR8. Further, we found that the pTLR8 GQKNG motif corresponding to hTLR8 RQSYA exhibited disparity to CL075 stimulation. Our study thus reveals fine TLR8 species specificity which deepens the understanding of TLR8 activation mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2021.05.008DOI Listing
August 2021

Appeasing Pheromones against Bovine Respiratory Complex and Modulation of Immune Transcript Expressions.

Animals (Basel) 2021 May 25;11(6). Epub 2021 May 25.

BIOEPAR, INRAE, Oniris, 44307 Nantes, France.

Bovine respiratory disease is still a major concern and has major economic impact. Another consequence of respiratory infections is the use of antimicrobial molecules to control bacterial pathogens. This can participate in the emergence and shedding of antimicrobial resistance that can threaten animal as well as human health. Appeasing pheromones with their capacity to reduce stress and thus their ability to preserve the functions of the immune system have been proposed to reduce the use of antimicrobial substances. In this study, we assessed the effect of appeasing pheromone administration on bovine health and performance during the fattening period. Zootechnical and health parameters and whole blood immune transcript expressions were measured over four weeks in bulls to determine the effect of the pheromone. We observed increased clinical signs on Day 8 (D8) and decreased clinical signs on D30 in bulls who received the pheromone and a higher expression of interleukin 8 transcripts in this group than in the control group on D8. Our results are overall in line with previous reports in livestock species. Further studies are needed to shed more light on the effect of appeasing pheromones and decipher their exact mechanisms of action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11061545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8229285PMC
May 2021

Chimeric HP-PRRSV2 containing an ORF2-6 consensus sequence induces antibodies with broadly neutralizing activity and confers cross protection against virulent NADC30-like isolate.

Vet Res 2021 May 27;52(1):74. Epub 2021 May 27.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, Jiangsu, China.

Due to the substantial genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), commercial PRRS vaccines fail to provide sufficient cross protection. Previous studies have confirmed the existence of PRRSV broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). However, bnAbs are rarely induced by either natural infection or vaccination. In this study, we designed and synthesized a consensus sequence of PRRSV2 ORF2-6 genes (ORF2-6-CON) encoding all envelope proteins based on 30 representative Chinese PRRSV isolates. The ORF2-6-CON sequence shared > 90% nucleotide identities to all four lineages of PRRSV2 isolates in China. A chimeric virus (rJS-ORF2-6-CON) containing the ORF2-6-CON was generated using the avirulent HP-PRRSV2 JSTZ1712-12 infectious clone as a backbone. The rJS-ORF2-6-CON has similar replication efficiency as the backbone virus in vitro. Furthermore, pig inoculation and challenge studies showed that rJS-ORF2-6-CON is not pathogenic to piglets and confers better cross protection against the virulent NADC30-like isolate than a commercial HP-PRRS modified live virus (MLV) vaccine. Noticeably, the rJS-ORF2-6-CON strain could induce bnAbs while the MLV strain only induced homologous nAbs. In addition, the lineages of VDJ repertoires potentially associated with distinct nAbs were also characterized. Overall, our results demonstrate that rJS-ORF2-6-CON is a promising candidate for the development of a PRRS genetic engineered vaccine conferring cross protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13567-021-00944-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161975PMC
May 2021

Separation performance and mechanism of the novel modified polyether sulfone composite nanofiltration membrane for the detection on dissolved organic nitrogen.

Water Environ Res 2021 Sep 6;93(9):1748-1761. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Suzhou Erye Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Suzhou, China.

The most effective pretreatment method for the detection of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is the nanofiltration (NF) by effectively intercepting DON into the concentrated solution, thus increasing the proportion of DON in solution so that achieving accurate detection of DON. The existing NF pretreatment technology for detection of DON has the problem of low accuracy and unclear separation mechanism of mass transfer upon the NF membranes. Based on the problems of NF membrane, the polyether sulfone (PES) composite NF membrane was modified by mesoporous carbon and the basic performance parameters of the modified PES composite NF membrane were characterized by Static contact angle (SCA), Zeta potential, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that the optimum doping amount of mesoporous carbon is in the range of 0.5%-1.0%. Furthermore, the pore size of NF membrane could be controlled effectively by changing doping amount of mesoporous carbon, so as to guide the improvement of membrane pore structure. After the pretreatment of mesoporous material modified PES composite NF membrane, the ratio of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN)/total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) could be reduced to 0.55-0.65 and the pretreatment effect was also affected by screening effect and electrostatic effect. The best retention performance of amino acids is the 1.0%C modified membrane which retention rate of the amino acid is between 32.3% and 94.7%, and the membrane loss of the four amino acids is much smaller than other membranes. The mass transfer process of NF membrane was simulated by steric-hindrance pore (SHP) model, Teorell-Meyer-Sievers (TMS) model, and Electrostatic Steric-hindrance (ES) model respectively. According to the simulation software designed by ourselves, the dominant effects of screening and electrostatic effects are simultaneously affected by the pore structure of membranes and the size of the contaminant molecules. PRACTITIONER POINTS: The feasibility of mesoporous carbon with modified PES composite nanofiltration membrane pretreatment for DON measurement in comparison to pure NF membranes was investigated. The ability of modified PES composite NF membrane with different molecular weight of DON and the relationship between pore radius of membrane and interception pollutant molecular size was discussed. The influence of screening effect and electrostatic effect on the retention of pollutants was discussed by the SHP model, TMS model and ES model; the simulation software interface is designed and the calculation process of the model is simulated by computer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wer.1562DOI Listing
September 2021

An MRI study of the tibial nerve in the ankle canal and its branches: a method of multiplanar reformation with 3D-FIESTA-C sequences.

BMC Med Imaging 2021 Mar 17;21(1):51. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Radiology, Third Medical Centre of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100039, China.

Background: The visualization of the tibial nerve and its branches in the ankle canal is helpful for the diagnosis of local lesions and compression, and it is also useful for clinical observation and surgical planning. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of three-dimensional dual-excitation balanced steady-state free precession sequence (3D-FIESTA-C) multiplanar reformation (MPR) display of the tibial nerve and its branches in the ankle canal.

Methods: The subjects were 20 healthy volunteers (40 ankles), aged 22-50 years, with no history of ankle joint disease. The 3D-FIESTA-C sequence was used in the 3.0 T magnetic resonance equipment for imaging. During scanning, each foot was at an angle of 90° to the tibia. The tibial nerve of the ankle canal and its branches were displayed and measured at the same level through MPR.

Results: Most of the tibial nerve bifurcation points were located in the ankle canal (57.5%), few bifurcation points (42.5%) were located at the proximal end of the ankle canal, and none of them were found away from the distal end. The bifurcation between the medial plantar nerve and the lateral plantar nerve was on the line between the tip of the medial malleolus and the calcaneus, and it's angle ranged between 6° and 35°. In MPR images, the display rates of both the medial calcaneal nerve and the subcalcaneal nerve were 100%, and the starting point of the subcalcaneal nerve was always at the distal end of the starting point of the medial calcaneal nerve. In 55% of cases, there were more than two medial calcaneal nerve innervations.

Conclusion: The 3D-FIESTA-C MPR can display the morphological features and positions of the tibial nerve and its branches and the bifurcation point's projection position can be marked on the body surface. This method not only benefited the imaging diagnosis of the tibial nerve and branch-related lesions in the ankle canal, but it also provided a good imaging basis to plan a clinical operation of the ankle canal and avoid surgical injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12880-021-00582-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7968234PMC
March 2021

[Effects of Moringa flavone on cognitive function and neuropathological indexes in diabetic encephalopathy rats].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2020 Dec;32(12):1491-1495

Department of Anatomy, Cangzhou Medical College, Cangzhou 061000, Hebei, China. Corresponding author: Sui Yuelin, Email:

Objective: To investigate the effect of Moringa flavone on cognitive impairment and neuropathological indexes in diabetic encephalopathy (DE) rats.

Methods: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into control group, model group, positive drug group, Moringa low-dose and high-dose groups according to the random number table method, with 10 rats in each group. Diabetic rat model was established by intraperitoneal injection of 25 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) after continuous feeding of high fat and high sugar diet for one week. Blood was collected from the tail vein after 72 hours, the mean value of twice random blood glucose was ≥ 16.67 mmol/L, and the continuous positive urine glucose showed that the diabetes model was successfully prepared. The control group was fed with conventional feed. After successful model establishment, the rats in the Moringa low and high dose groups were given 4.0 g/kg and 8.0 g/kg Moringa extract (Moringa flavone) by gavage everyday, the rats in the positive drug group were given piracetam 0.48 g/kg, and the rats in the model group and control group were given the same amount of normal saline once a day for 30 days. Morris water maze was used to evaluate the cognitive impairment of the rats. The hippocampus of the rats was harvested 12 hours after the last administration, and the advanced glycation end product receptor (RAGE) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were detected by immunohistochemistry. The contents of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), advanced glycation end product (AGE) and choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Results: Compared with the control group, the escape latency and the exploration distance in model group were extended, target quadrant stay time was shortened, the levels of AChE and AGE in brain tissue were significantly increased, and ChAT level was significantly decreased. Morris water maze experiment showed that compared with the model group, in the Moringa low and high dose groups from the 3rd day, the escape latency (s: 35.07±7.21, 33.14±5.35 vs. 43.09±9.83, both P < 0.05) and the exploration distance (m: 8.32±4.23, 8.10±4.97 vs. 13.02±3.67) were significantly shortened (both P < 0.05). The target qauadrant stay time was extended (s: 35.12±3.12, 41.53±8.37 vs. 23.15±4.89, both P < 0.01). The results of ELISA showed that compared with the model group, the levels of AChE and AGE in brain tissue of the Moringa low and high dose groups were significantly decreased [AChE (U/L): 180.22±12.03, 142.67±20.56 vs. 205.27±25.14, AGE (μg/L): 439.10±25.19, 428.27±19.14 vs. 501.28±21.53, all P < 0.05], and the levels of ChAT were significantly increased (U/L: 51.95±5.27, 53.13±5.04 vs. 37.91±5.10, both P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in AChE, AGE or ChAT between the Moringa low and high dose groups. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that the number of RAGE and NF-κB positive cells in DG area of hippocampus increased significantly, and the average gray values of RAGE and NF-κB decreased significantly. Compared with the model group, the RAGE and NF-κB positive cells in the Moringa low and high dose groups were significantly reduced, and the average gray values of RAGE and NF-κB in hippocampus were significantly increased [RAGE (gray value): 110.46±10.04, 117.76±8.64 vs. 92.19±8.76, NF-κB (gray value): 109.40±8.93, 116.59±7.26 vs. 90.74±13.27, all P < 0.05]. There were no significant differences in the expressions of RAGE or NF-κB between the Moringa low and high dose groups.

Conclusions: Moringa flavonoids could obviously improve the cognitive dysfunction and memory ability of DE model rats, improve the pathological changes of hippocampus, and have a certain protective effect on brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn121430-20200330-00459DOI Listing
December 2020

Downregulation of microRNA-15b-5p Targeting the Akt3-Mediated GSK-3/-Catenin Signaling Pathway Inhibits Cell Apoptosis in Parkinson's Disease.

Biomed Res Int 2021 6;2021:8814862. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yatsen University, Guangzhou 510080, China.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is an incurable progressive disorder resulting from neurodegeneration, and apoptosis is considered a dominant mechanism underlying the process of neurodegeneration. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are small and noncoding RNAs involved in many a biological process like apoptosis and regulation of gene expressions, have been found in postmortem brain samples of patients with PD, as well as and models of PD. To explore the impact of miR-15b-5p and Akt3 on apoptosis in the progression of PD, the method of quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was employed, and the analysis result showed upregulated expression of miR-15b-5p and downregulated expression of Akt3 in the serum of PD patients, MPP-induced SH-SY5Y cells, and the brain tissues of MPTP-induced mice. Meanwhile, the dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to demonstrate the regulator-target interaction between miR-15b-5p and Akt3; flow cytometry and spectrophotometry revealed that transfection of miR-15b-5p mimic and si-Akt3 increased the rate of apoptosis and caspase-3 activity, whereas transfecting the miR-15b-5p inhibitor and Akt3-overexpression plasmid repressed the rate of apoptosis and caspase-3 activity in the MPP-induced SH-SY5Y cell model and the MPTP-induced mouse model. Additionally, analysis of western blotting (WB) assays and revealed that proapoptosis proteins (Bax, caspase-3, GSK-3, and -catenin) showed markedly upregulated expression in the miR-15b-5p inhibitor and si-Akt3-overexpression groups, while the expression of an antiapoptosis gene (i.e., Bcl2) was downregulated. These analysis results indicate that downregulation of miR-15b-5p by targeting the Akt3-mediated GSK-3/-catenin signaling pathway would repress cell apoptosis in PD and . It is expected that the research findings would help find new therapeutic targets for treatment of PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8814862DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7806375PMC
June 2021

Optimization of pretreatment in pymetrozine production wastewater via reactive distillation and side-stream distillation methods with response surface methodology.

Water Sci Technol 2021 Jan;83(2):463-474

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lake of Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China E-mail:

Lots of highly concentrated saline organic wastewater is produced during the pymetrozine production process, causing environmental pollution and waste of resources if discharged directly. Research on actual pymetrozine wastewater treatment is quite scarce. Existing treatment methods of pesticide wastewater usually have disadvantages of long treatment time, low processing efficiency and low recovery rate. To solve these problems, a pretreatment process for pymetrozine wastewater was studied based on material recovery and pollutant degradation. The ammonia conversion process was experimentally investigated by reactive distillation. The reaction product vapor was neutralized and then separated by side-stream distillation. Aspen Plus and response surface methodology were employed to simulate and optimize the operating conditions. Box-Behnken design was used to investigate the individual and interaction effects on methanol purification and sodium acetate removal. Experimental study was carried out on the basis of theoretical simulation data. The result showed that the optimized methanol content on tower top was 99.28% with a yield of 99.95% and methanol content of side withdrawal was 0.01%. The process can be applied for pesticide wastewater treatment to recycle high purity chemical materials, and meets the national sewage comprehensive emission standard.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2020.599DOI Listing
January 2021

African Swine Fever Virus Structural Protein p17 Inhibits Cell Proliferation through ER Stress-ROS Mediated Cell Cycle Arrest.

Viruses 2020 12 24;13(1). Epub 2020 Dec 24.

College Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China.

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a highly pathogenic large DNA virus that causes African swine fever (ASF) in domestic pigs and wild boars. The p17 protein, encoded by the D117L gene, is a major transmembrane protein of the capsid and the inner lipid envelope. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of p17 on cell proliferation and the underlying mechanisms of action. The effects of p17 on cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been examined in 293T, PK15, and PAM cells, respectively. The results showed that p17 reduced cell proliferation by causing cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. Further, p17-induced oxidative stress and increased the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Decreasing the level of ROS partially reversed the cell cycle arrest and prevented the decrease of cell proliferation induced by p17 protein. In addition, p17-induced ER stress, and alleviating ER stress decreased the production of ROS and prevented the decrease of cell proliferation induced by p17. Taken together, this study suggests that p17 can inhibit cell proliferation through ER stress and ROS-mediated cell cycle arrest, which might implicate the involvement of p17 in ASF pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13010021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7823474PMC
December 2020

Characterization of four types of MLV-derived porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses isolated in unvaccinated pigs from 2016 to 2020.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Jan 22;134:102-111. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009, PR China; Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009, PR China; Comparative Medicine Research Institute, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009, PR China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009, PR China. Electronic address:

Modified live vaccines (MLVs) have been utilized to combat porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), which raises a serious concern about the MLV-derived PRRS virus (PRRSV) isolates. During the routine investigation of PRRSV in China, four lung samples collected from unvaccinated diseased pigs from 2016 to 2020 were detected as PRRSV positive. The PRRSVs shared high ORF5 identities to CH-1R, JXA1-R, TJM-F92 and RespPRRS MLV vaccines, respectively. The viruses were isolated in Marc-145 cells and denominated as SD1612-1, JS1703-21, JSTZ1907-714 and JSYC20-05-1. Genome comparison confirmed that these isolates share the highest genomic homologies to CH-1R (97.96%), JXA1-R (99.64%), TJM-F92 (99.00%) and RespPRRS MLV (99.57%) than any other known isolates. Genome-based phylogenetic analysis showed that SD1612-1 and CH-1R, JS1703-21 and JXA1-R, JSTZ1907-714 and TJM-F92, JSYC20-05-1 and RespPRRS MLV were grouped in the same branches. In addition, amino acids unique to corresponding vaccine attenuations were also identified in our isolates. Noticeably, amino-acids potentially associated with the virulence revision from MLV strains to parental virulent viruses were also identified in the MLV-derived isolates. Our results confirm that the four types of MLV-derived isolates are circulating and evolving in Chinese swine herds for years, which highlights the necessity for the fair use of PRRS MLVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2020.12.007DOI Listing
January 2021

A novel polyethersulfone/modified activated carbon fiber composite membrane: potential for removal micropollutants from water under the electric field.

Water Sci Technol 2020 Dec;82(11):2234-2249

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China E-mail:

This study aimed to develop a novel composite membrane based on polyethersulfone (PES) and modified activated carbon fibers (ACFs) to remove of sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) from water. The modification of ACFs was conducted by using acid, Fe, and Mn and was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and water contact angle measurement. Later on, the composite membranes were prepared using PES (9 wt%), N-N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) (75 wt%), polyethylene pyrrolidone (PVP) (5 wt%), anhydrous lithium chloride (LiCl) (1 wt%), and various types of modified ACFs (0.8 wt%) as additives. It was found that the contact angle of the membrane decreased by more than 20°, and the zeta potential decreased by more than 10 mV. ACF modified by Fe was used as an admixture, membrane obtained the high comprehensive performance. Especially bovine serum albumin (BSA) rejection rate and flux recovery ratio (FRR) reached 98.8% and 98.4%, respectively. And the removal rates of SMZ increased by 24.6% under the electric field. The degradation products were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS). Based on this result, the possible degradation pathways of SMZ are proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2020.488DOI Listing
December 2020

Quantitative DCE-MRI: an efficient diagnostic technique for evaluating early micro-environment permeability changes in ankylosing spondylitis.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2020 Nov 24;21(1):774. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, Tai'an, 271000, Shandong, China.

Background: In the management of early inflammatory joint of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), there is a need for reliable noninvasive quantitative monitoring biomarker to closely assess status of synovitis progression. Cognizant to this,studies geared on improving techniques for quantitative evaluation of micro-environment permeability of the joint space are necessary. Such improved techniques may provide tissue perfusion as important biological parameters and can further help in understanding the origin of early changes associated with AS. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the diagnostic performance and determine longitudinal relationships of early micro-environment active in the joint space of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) with a rat model by using quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI).

Methods: Thirty wistar male rats were randomly assigned to the model (n = 15) or control (n = 15) group. All rats underwent DCE-MRI of SIJ region at fixed time points (12, 17 and 22 weeks),between September 2018 and October 2019. Differences in permeability parameters between the two groups at the same time point were compared by using an independent samples t test. Spearman correlations of DCE-MRI parameters with different time points in model group were analyzed. All statistical analyses were performed with software.

Results: At 12 weeks,the K,K and V values in the model group were slightly lower than those in control group,but all the differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Compared with control group,the transfer constant (K) values increased significantly at 17 weeks and 22 weeks in model group,while the rate constant (K) and volume of extravascular extracellular space (V) significantly increased only at 22 weeks(p < 0.05). The K,K and V were positively correlated with increasing time points (r = 0.946, P<0.01 for K; r = 0.945, P<0.01 for K; and r = 0.832, P<0.01 for V).

Conclusion: Quantitative DCE-MRI parameters are valuable for evaluating the early longitudinal relationship of micro-environment permeability changes in the joint space of SIJ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-020-03805-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685584PMC
November 2020

Development and application of a quadruplex real-time PCR assay for differential detection of porcine circoviruses (PCV1 to PCV4) in Jiangsu province of China from 2016 to 2020.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 May 28;68(3):1615-1624. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, P.R. China.

To date, four species of porcine circoviruses (PCVs), including PCV1-4, have been reported to exist in the clinical cases. Fast and effective differential detection is critical to monitor the infection and co-infection status of PCVs for adopting reliable control strategies. However, currently available methods cannot simultaneously differentiate the four species of PCV strains. In this study, a quadruplex real-time PCR assay based on TaqMan probes was developed for differential detection of PCV1-4. The new quadruplex real-time PCR assay exhibited satisfied specificity, sensitivity, repeatability and reproducibility. In addition, the new assay was applied to the detection of 120 clinical samples collected from 2016 to 2020 in Jiangsu province of China and compared with previously reported PCV1-4 singleplex conventional PCR assays. Based on the clinical performance, the results from the quadruplex real-time PCR and conventional PCR assays showed 100% agreement. A total of 47 samples were detected as PCV positive by the quadruplex real-time PCR assay, including 1, 2, 1 samples were co-infected with PCV1 and PCV4, PCV2 and PCV3, PCV2 and PCV4, respectively. Full-length ORF2 sequencing and phylogenetic analysis supported the real-time PCR results that 5, 34, 8 and 4 of the 51 PCV sequences were PCV1, PCV2, PCV3 and PCV4, respectively. This study provides a promising alternative tool for rapid differential detection of PCVs and confirms the coexistence of all species of PCV1-4 strains in Jiangsu province in recent years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13833DOI Listing
May 2021

Porcine IFI16 Negatively Regulates cGAS Signaling Through the Restriction of DNA Binding and Stimulation.

Front Immunol 2020 14;11:1669. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Comparative Medicine Research Institute, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.

The innate immunity DNA sensors have drawn much attention due to their significant importance against the infections with DNA viruses and intracellular bacteria. Among the multiple DNA sensors, IFI16, and cGAS are the two major ones, subjected to extensive studies. However, these two DNA sensors in livestock animals have not been well defined. Here, we studied the porcine IFI16 and cGAS, and their mutual relationship. We found that both enable STING-dependent signaling to downstream IFN upon DNA transfection and HSV-1 infection, and cGAS plays a major role in DNA signaling. In terms of their relationship, IFI16 appeared to interfere with cGAS signaling as deduced from both transfected and knockout cells. Mechanistically, IFI16 competitively binds with agonist DNA and signaling adaptor STING and thereby influences second messenger cGAMP production and downstream gene transcription. Furthermore, the HIN2 domain of porcine IFI16 harbored most of its activity and mediated cGAS inhibition. Thus, this study provides a unique insight into the porcine DNA sensing system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01669DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7456882PMC
April 2021

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Interferes with Swine Influenza A Virus Infection of Epithelial Cells.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Sep 5;8(3). Epub 2020 Sep 5.

BIOEPAR, INRAE, Oniris, 44307 Nantes, France.

Respiratory infections are still a major concern in pigs. Amongst the involved viruses, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and the swine influenza type A virus (swIAV) have a major impact. These viruses frequently encounter and dual infections are reported. We analyzed here the molecular interactions between viruses and porcine tracheal epithelial cells as well as lung tissue. PRRSV-1 species do not infect porcine respiratory epithelial cells. However, PRRSV-1, when inoculated simultaneously or shortly before swIAV, was able to inhibit swIAV H1N2 infection, modulate the interferon response and alter signaling protein phosphorylations (ERK, AKT, AMPK, and JAK2), in our conditions. SwIAV inhibition was also observed, although at a lower level, by inactivated PRRSV-1, whereas acid wash treatment inactivating non-penetrated viruses suppressed the interference effect. PRRSV-1 and swIAV may interact at several stages, before their attachment to the cells, when they attach to their receptors, and later on. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that PRRSV can alter the relation between swIAV and its main target cells, opening the doors to further studies on the interplay between viruses. Consequences of these peculiar interactions on viral infections and vaccinations using modified live vaccines require further investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7565700PMC
September 2020

Comparative study of imaging and histology of sacroiliac joint in normal rats based on IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2020 Jul 20;21(1):472. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, No. 366 Taishan Street, Taian City, 271000, Shandong, China.

Background: Currently, few studies have described the relationship between functional MRI findings and histology of normal sacroiliac joint (SIJ). Besides, due to the difficulties in access to SIJ, authentic animal models are important in providing opportunities for quantitative parameter extraction on imaging.

Aims: This study aimed at exploring the parameters of Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (IVIM-DWI) and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) and comparing them with the histology of the SIJ in normal rats with different ages.

Methods: A total of thirty 7-week-old male Wistar rats were included in the study. The parameters of IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI in the bone marrow and the joint space of SIJ were measured at 8, 13, 18, 23, 28, and 33 weeks. The histological analysis of the SIJ was examined using light microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis.

Results: The D values in the sacral and iliac bone marrow of normal rats decreased with an increase in age. One-way ANOVA analysis indicated a significant difference in D values in different age groups (P<0.005). The normal values of D*, f, Fenh (%), Senh (%/s) in the sacral bone marrow, the iliac bone marrow, and the joint space in SIJ of normal rats were obtained. The results showed that in the six groups of rats of different ages, the histology of the SIJ surface was smooth and clear, the cartilage cells were intact, and no thickening or pannus formation was observed.

Conclusions: This study obtained the IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI parameters of the sacral and iliac bone marrow and the synovial area of the joint space in normal rats. The parameters in normal rats can be used in future research to compare to similar parameters in animal models or patients with SIJ diseases. This study serves as a guide for future research in SIJ diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-020-03481-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7370526PMC
July 2020

Chicken DNA Sensing cGAS-STING Signal Pathway Mediates Broad Spectrum Antiviral Functions.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Jul 9;8(3). Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Comparative Medicine Research Institute, Yangzhou University, 88 South University Avenue, Yangzhou 225009, China.

The innate DNA sensing receptors are one family of pattern recognition receptors and play important roles in antiviral infections, especially DNA viral infections. Among the multiple DNA sensors, cGAS has been studied intensively and is most defined in mammals. However, DNA sensors in chickens have not been much studied, and the chicken cGAS is still not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the chicken cGAS-STING signal axis, revealed its synergistic activity, species-specificity, and the signal essential sites in cGAS. Importantly, both cGAS and STING exhibited antiviral effects against DNA viruses, retroviruses, and RNA viruses, suggesting the broad range antiviral functions and the critical roles in chicken innate immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7563795PMC
July 2020

Coinfections and their molecular consequences in the porcine respiratory tract.

Vet Res 2020 Jun 16;51(1):80. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

INRAE, Oniris, BIOEPAR, 44300, Nantes, France.

Understudied, coinfections are more frequent in pig farms than single infections. In pigs, the term "Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex" (PRDC) is often used to describe coinfections involving viruses such as swine Influenza A Virus (swIAV), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), and Porcine CircoVirus type 2 (PCV2) as well as bacteria like Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The clinical outcome of the various coinfection or superinfection situations is usually assessed in the studies while in most of cases there is no clear elucidation of the fine mechanisms shaping the complex interactions occurring between microorganisms. In this comprehensive review, we aimed at identifying the studies dealing with coinfections or superinfections in the pig respiratory tract and at presenting the interactions between pathogens and, when possible, the mechanisms controlling them. Coinfections and superinfections involving viruses and bacteria were considered while research articles including protozoan and fungi were excluded. We discuss the main limitations complicating the interpretation of coinfection/superinfection studies, and the high potential perspectives in this fascinating research field, which is expecting to gain more and more interest in the next years for the obvious benefit of animal health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13567-020-00807-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296899PMC
June 2020

CT imaging features of 34 patients infected with COVID-19.

Clin Imaging 2020 Dec 16;68:226-231. Epub 2020 May 16.

Department of Radiology, Tai'an Central Hospital, Shandong First Medical University, Tai'an 271000, Shandong, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To retrospectively analyze the CT findings in patients infected with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Materials And Methods: The thirty-four cases, 15 females and 19 males, with an age ranging from 7 to 88 years old, confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), were used for our study. All thin-section CT scans of the lungs were performed in all of patients. The clinical, laboratory and CT imaging were available to evaluate in all patients.

Results: The patients present with fever (85.29%, n = 29), cough (67.65%, n = 23), fatigue or myalgia (26.47%, n = 9), and pharyngalgia (8.82%, n = 3). The 4 patients (11.76%) with no symptoms were identified during screening for close contacts, who had typical CT findings. On initial CT scans, the bilateral lung involved was shown in 24 cases (70.59%), while 29 (82.35%) cases were distributed in peripheral. The pure ground glass opacity (GGO) was shown in 18 cases (52.94%), the GGO with consolidation was in 12 cases (35.29%), and full consolidation only in 3 cases. The lesion with air bronchogram was seen in 14 (41.18%) cases, with enlarged blood vessel in 17 (50.00%) cases, with crazy-paving pattern in 8 (23.53%) cases, with fine reticular pattern in 4 (11.77%) cases, and with intralesional vacuole sign in 6 (17.65%) cases. The pleural effusion was seen in one patient. Follow-up imaging in 19 patients during the study time window demonstrated mild, moderate or severe progression of disease, as manifested by increasing extent and density of lung opacities.

Conclusions: The bilateral GGO with air bronchogram, enlarged blood vessel, fine reticular pattern, and peripheral distribution are the early CT findings of COVID-19. The crazy-paving pattern and intralesional vacuole sign are the features of progressive stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2020.05.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7229931PMC
December 2020

The infectious cDNA clone of commercial HP-PRRS JXA1-R-attenuated vaccine can be a potential effective live vaccine vector.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Apr 18. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, P.R. China.

Multiple commercial porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) modified live vaccines are currently utilized in Chinese swine herds due to the limited cross-protection of vaccines and coexistence of different PRRS viruses. In this study, an infectious cDNA clone of the highly pathogenic PRRS (HP-PRRS) vaccine JXA1-R strain was generated. We successfully rescued the virus from direct in vitro DNA transfection of rJXA1-R clone, which has similar growth kinetics to the parental JXA1-R virus in Marc-145 cells. To further evaluate the potential use of the cloned rJXA1-R virus as a live vector for foreign gene expression, the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was inserted between non-structural and structural genes. Our results showed that the dynamic expression of EGFP can be visualized by live cell imaging system during the infection in Marc-145 cells. The availability of our cloned JXA1-R viruses provides a crucial platform to study the fundamental biology of HP-PRRS virus vaccine and also serves as a potential effective vector for developing live vector vaccines against swine pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13575DOI Listing
April 2020

High genetic diversity of Chinese porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses from 2016 to 2019.

Res Vet Sci 2020 Aug 8;131:38-42. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009, PR China; Comparative Medicine Research Institute, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009, PR China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, China; Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009, PR China. Electronic address:

High genetic diversity and limited cross-protection are two major reasons for ineffective control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. Therefore, it's important to dynamically monitor the prevalence of PRRSV for adopting appropriate control strategy. In this study, we analyzed PRRSV infection by detecting 712 clinical samples collected from 2016 to 2019 in China. Totally 100 samples were detected as PRRSV positive, including 2 and 98 samples were infected with PRRSV1 and PRRSV2, respectively. In addition, two out of the 98 PRRSV2 positive samples were co-infected with two distinct viruses. ORF5-based phylogenetic analysis showed that JXA1-like HP-PRRSV2 (lineage 8) and NADC30-like PRRSV2 (lineage 1) isolates are currently predominant, but QYYZ-like PRRSV2, CH-1a-like PRRSV2 and PRRSV1 isolates also co-exist in Chinese swine herds. In addition, two commercial MLV-derived viruses (TJM-F92-like and JXA1-R-like) were frequently detected. GP5 alignment also detected insertion and deletion in the extravirion domain. Our study presents the up-to-date PRRSV infection status and highlights the high genetic diversity of PRRSV currently circulating in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2020.04.004DOI Listing
August 2020

Inter-relation analysis of signaling adaptors of porcine innate immune pathways.

Mol Immunol 2020 05 3;121:20-27. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Cohmparative Medicine Research Institute, Yangzhou University, China; College Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, China; Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety, Yangzhou, 225009, China. Electronic address:

To study the interrelationship between the signaling adaptors of innate pattern recognition receptor (PRR) pathways including toll-like receptor (TLR), retinoic acid-inducible gene-1-like receptor (RLR), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR), and cytoplasmic DNA recognition receptors (CDR) pathways. The coding genes of porcine TRIF, MAVS, STING, MyD88, RIPK2, and ASC were isolated from PK15 cells. Phylogenetic analysis of the six adaptor proteins in pig, cattle, goat, horse, human, mouse, chicken, and duck performed by MEGA 5.05 showed that these adaptors have slightly different similarity across species. The expression of these proteins in transfected cells were detected by both Western blotting and confocal microscopy. All six adaptors were visualized in cytoplasm but with different distribution patterns. The activities of the six adaptors triggering NF-κB and ISRE signaling and downstream gene productions were examined by dual-luciferase reporter assay and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. The results showed that STING has an ability to activate ISRE signaling, MyD88, RIPK2 and ASC possess NF-κB signal activity, while TRIF and MAVS can activate both. Furthermore, the mutual signaling effects were assessed by NF-κB and ISRE dual-luciferase reporter assay in the co-expression experiments. STING was shown to enhance MAVS activated NF-κB signaling and MyD88 could heighten STING activated ISRE signaling. However, all other adaptors inhibited each other to varying degrees. The work provides a global insight of porcine innate immune signaling pathways and their interaction network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2020.02.013DOI Listing
May 2020

Values of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in evaluating the activity of sacroiliitis in ankylosing spondylitis of rat model.

Magn Reson Imaging 2020 05 22;68:30-35. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, Tai'an, Shandong 271000, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To prospectively evaluate the ability of IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI in detecting early activity of sacroiliitis in rat model of ankylosing spondylitis by comparing with pathological results.

Methods: 20 wistar male rats were induced by bovine proteoglycan combined with complete/incomplete Freund's adjuvant as model group, and 20 healthy male rats were used as the control group. The parameters of IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI in synovial regions of SIJ were measured respectively at 7th, 12th, 17th, and 22th weeks after the last induction, and the pathological features of SIJ were taken also, further studying the pathological characteristics of sacroiliac region. Independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. The prediction parameters and diagnostic efficiency were compared by ROC curve.

Results: There was no significant difference of image parameters between the model and control groups at the 7th, 12th weeks after the last induction, and there were no positive findings in histopathological examination at the same time. At the 17th week after induction, the f and Fenh%, Senh% between the model and the control groups were statistically significant. At the 22th week, there was a statistically significant increase all the values in model group than those in control group (P < 0.05). Histologic examination confirmed inflmmtorycell infiitrtion at the 17th week and pannus forming of synovium on the surface of cartilage at the 22th week in the model groups. The Fenh%, Senh%, D and f had the moderate diagnostic efficiency and the areas under the curve were 0.77, 0.75, 0.77 and 0.82 respectively. The Senh% demonstrated the highest sensitivity (71.4%) and f demonstrated the highest specificity (95.0%).

Conclusion: IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI can be used as the sensitive imaging methods to detect and accurate diagnosis the early activity of sacroiliitis in AS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mri.2020.01.007DOI Listing
May 2020

The signaling relations between three adaptors of porcine C-type lectin receptor pathway.

Dev Comp Immunol 2020 03 18;104:103555. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Comparative Medicine Research Institute, Yangzhou University, China; College Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, China; Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety, Yangzhou, 225009, China. Electronic address:

As one family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), The C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) play a key role in the anti-fungal infection. The CLR pathway signaling is relayed by adaptor complex which comprises CARD9, BCL10 and MALT1. However, the relationship between these three adaptors has not been investigated. In this study, we isolated porcine CARD9, BCL10 and MALT1 and examined their signaling functions. The three ectopic adaptors were similarly and uniformly expressed in cytoplasm, with CARD9 inactive, BCL10 significant active, and MALT1 slightly active for downstream NF-κB signaling and gene expressions. With the three adaptors together, NF-κB signaling and gene expressions were strongly activated, however, no IFN signal was activated in any case. The signaling relationship between the adaptors were dissected, the NF-κB signaling results showed that CARD9 could inhibit both BCL10 and MALT1 activities, while BCL10 and MALT1 synergized each other particularly when moderate amount of BCL10 plus low amount of MALT1 were considered. Low amount of CARD9 could further synergized with BCL10 and MALT1, maximizing signaling activity of the adaptor complex. This study revealed the porcine CLR pathway adaptor signaling functions and their optimal collective activity, thus providing a unique insight into the porcine innate immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2019.103555DOI Listing
March 2020

Combined use of Serum miR-499a-5p and CA199 Increases the Diagnostic Sensitivity of Pancreatic Cancer.

Clin Lab 2019 Nov;65(11)

Background: The current study aims to explore the clinical value of serum miR-499a-5p in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

Methods: One hundred twenty-four patients with pancreatic cancer (cancer group), 100 patients with benign pancreatic diseases (benign control group), and 100 healthy people (healthy control group) were selected as the observation objects from January 2017 to June 2017. Fasting venous blood samples were collected to detect the levels of CA199 and the relative expression of miR-499a-5p in serum, and to evaluate the diagnostic value for pancreatic cancer.

Results: The expression of CA199 in the benign control group and cancer group was significantly higher than that in the healthy control group. However, the expression of miR-499a-5p in the cancer group was significantly higher than that in the benign control group and the healthy control group. But no difference of serum miR-499a-5p level was found in the benign control group and the healthy control group. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that when used alone, the sensitivity and specificity of miR-499a-5p in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer were better than that of CA199 (p < 0.05). Moreover, when serum miR-499a-5p was combined with CA199, the diagnostic value for pancreatic cancer increased significantly (p < 0.05). Dual luciferase reporter assay showed that PTEN was a target gene of miR-499a-5p.

Conclusions: In summary, miR-499a-5p is a new, non-invasive biomarker, and the combination of miR-499a-5p and CA199 can improve the diagnostic sensitivity of pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/Clin.Lab.2019.190416DOI Listing
November 2019
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