Publications by authors named "Jianxin Zhao"

248 Publications

The autistic-like behaviors development during weaning and sexual maturation in VPA-induced autistic-like rats is accompanied by gut microbiota dysbiosis.

PeerJ 2021 3;9:e11103. Epub 2021 May 3.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, P. R. China.

Researches on gut microbiota in autism have mostly focused on children, but the dynamic changes of gut microbiota from weaning to adulthood were still not clear because of the difficulty of diagnosing autism. In this study, autistic-like rats indued by valproate (VPA) were tracked from weaning (end of breastfeeding; four weeks old) to sexual maturation (food; eight weeks old). Autistic-like rats were found to show obvious developmental disorders. During weaning, autistic-like rats only exhibited obvious repetitive stereotyped behaviors, but the autistic-like behaviors were fully apparent upon sexual maturation. Significant differences were observed between the gut microbiota of autistic-like and healthy rats across both age groups. The correlation analysis results revealed that the correlation between behaviors and some microbiota, especially , did not vary with age or diet. The total amount of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) decreased, butyric acid metabolism decreased, and propionic acid metabolism increased in the feces of autistic-like rats. The correlation between autistic-like behaviors and the butyric acid and propionic acid levels did not vary with diet or age. Inositol phosphate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis were significantly associated with autistic-like behaviors. Our results showed that although the microbiota and SCFAs related to autism were affected by age and diet, some remained consistent irrespective of age and diet, and they could be considered two of the factors related to autistic-like behaviors development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8101471PMC
May 2021

Targeting the Gut Microbiota for Remediating Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders.

J Nutr 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, P. R. China.

The rate of obesity is rapidly increasing and has become a health and economic burden worldwide. As recent studies have revealed that the gut microbiota is closely linked to obesity, researchers have used various approaches to modulate the gut microbiota to treat the condition. Dietary composition and energy intake strongly affect the composition and function of the gut microbiota. Intestinal microbial changes alter the composition of bile acids and fatty acids and regulate bacterial lipopolysaccharide production, all of which influence energy metabolism and immunity. Evidence also suggests that remodeling the gut microbiota through intake of probiotics, prebiotics, fermented foods, and dietary plants, as well as by fecal microbiota transplantation, are feasible methods to remediate obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxab103DOI Listing
May 2021

FJSYC4-1 and FGSZY33L6 alleviate metabolic syndrome gut microbiota regulation.

Food Funct 2021 May;12(9):3919-3930

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China. and School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China and National Engineering Research Center for Functional Food, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China and Beijing Innovation Center of Food Nutrition and Human Health, Beijing Technology and Business University (BTBU), Beijing, China.

Metabolic syndrome, which includes a series of metabolic disorders such as hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance and obesity, has become a catastrophic disease worldwide. Accordingly, probiotic intervention is a new strategy to alleviate metabolic syndrome, which can adjust the gut microbiota to a certain extent. The aim of the current work was to explore the alleviation of metabolic syndrome by Lactobacillus reuteri and L. rhamnosus. Two L. reuteri and two L. rhamnosus strains were administered to mice with a high-fat diet for 12 weeks. All Lactobacillus strains tested significantly slowed weight gain in the mice. Among four strains, L. reuteri FGSZY33L6 and L. rhamnosus FJSYC4-1 showed the strongest ability to relieve blood glucose disorders, blood lipid disorders, tissue damage, and particularly gut microbiota disorders. Thus, our findings indicate that these strains can regulate the gut microbiota and produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which can induce satiety hormones, inhibit food intake and increase satiety, and thus improve metabolic syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo02879gDOI Listing
May 2021

Effects of CCFM1139 on experimental periodontitis in rats.

Food Funct 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, P. R China. and State Key Laboratory of Dairy Biotechnology, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Dairy Biotechnology, Dairy Research Institute, Bright Dairy & Food Co., Ltd., Shanghai 200436, China and National Engineering Research Center for Functional Food, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China.

Periodontitis is a polymicrobial inflammatory disease often characterized by the excessive colonization of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum, which causes alveolar bone resorption and advanced oral inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Limosilactobacillus fermentum CCFM1139 on experimental periodontitis induced following ligature and infection with P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum in vivo. The results showed that L. fermentum CCFM1139 significantly reduced weight loss associated with periodontal inflammation (p < 0.05), while decreasing both the P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum populations within the oral cavity of rats (p < 0.05) and regulating the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1 beta, and IL-8 in the periodontal tissue (p < 0.05). Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and histopathological examination revealed that L. fermentum CCFM1139 supplementation reduced the level of alveolar bone loss and bone porosity and increased bone volume (p < 0.05) in the experimental animals. Furthermore, L. fermentum CCFM1139 exhibited promising effects in preventing the deepening of the periodontal pocket and the increase in the gap between adjacent molars. Thus L. fermentum CCFM1139 was shown to have solid potential as an oral probiotic for protection against periodontitis suggesting that this may be a good candidate in the production of a new functional food for improving periodontitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo00409cDOI Listing
April 2021

The Potential Role of Probiotics in Protection against Influenza a Virus Infection in Mice.

Foods 2021 Apr 20;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China.

Influenza A virus induces severe respiratory tract infection and results in a serious global health problem. Influenza infection disturbs the cross-talk connection between lung and gut. Probiotic treatment can inhibit influenza virus infection; however, the mechanism remains to be explored. The mice received 1025, CCFM1026, and their mixture MIX for 19 days. Effects of probiotics on clinical symptoms, immune responses, and gut microbial alteration were evaluated. 1025 and MIX significantly reduced the loss of body weight, pathological symptoms, and viral loading. CCFM1026 significantly reduced the proportion of neutrophils and increased lymphocytes, the expressions of TLR7, MyD88, TRAF6, and TNF-α to restore the immune disorders. MIX increased the antiviral protein MxA expression, the relative abundances of , , , , and further regulated SCFA metabolism resulting in an enhancement of butyrate. The correlation analysis revealed that the butyrate was positively related to MxA expression ( < 0.001) but was negatively related to viral loading ( < 0.05). The results implied the possible antiviral mechanisms that MIX decreased viral loading and increased the antiviral protein MxA expression, which was closely associated with the increased butyrate production resulting from gut microbial alteration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10040902DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8073107PMC
April 2021

A Comprehensive Assessment of the Safety of DSM 2950.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 23;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China.

In recent years, has attracted attention for its role in ameliorating host diseases. In particular, DSM 2950 has been considered a potential probiotic due to its ability to mitigate inflammation in poly(I:C) induced HT-29 cells. Thus, to promote the development of indigenous intestinal microorganisms with potential probiotic function, we conducted a comprehensive experimental analysis of DSM 2950 to determine its safety. This comprised a study of its potential virulence genes, antibiotic resistance genes, genomic islands, antibiotic resistance, and hemolytic activity and a 14-day test of its acute oral toxicity in mice. The results indicated no toxin-related virulence genes in the DSM 2950 genome. Most of the genomic islands in DSM 2950 were related to metabolism, rather than virulence expression. DSM 2950 was sensitive to most of the tested antibiotics but was tolerant of treatment with kanamycin, neomycin, clindamycin, or ciprofloxacin, probably because it possessed the corresponding antibiotic resistance genes. Oral acute toxicity tests indicated that the consumption of DSM 2950 does not cause toxic side effects in mice. Overall, the safety profile of DSM 2950 confirmed that it could be a candidate probiotic for use in food and pharmaceutical preparations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9050908DOI Listing
April 2021

Gene-Phenotype Associations Involving Human-Residential Bifidobacteria (HRB) Reveal Significant Species- and Strain-Specificity in Carbohydrate Catabolism.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 21;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China.

Bifidobacteria are among the first colonizers of the human gastrointestinal tract. Different bacterial species use different mechanisms for utilization of various carbon sources in order to establish themselves in the complex microbial ecosystem of the gut. However, these mechanisms still need to be explored. Here, a large gene-phenotype correlation analysis was carried out to explore the metabolic and genetic diversity of bifidobacterial carbohydrate utilization abilities. In this study, we used 21 different carbohydrates to determine the growth phenotypes, the distribution of glycoside hydrolases (GHs), and gene clusters related to the utilization of multiple carbon sources in six human-residential species. Five carbohydrates significantly stimulated growth of almost all strains, while the remaining sugars exhibited species- and strain-specificity. Correspondingly, different species also had specific GHs involved in fermentation of plant or host glycans. Moreover, we analyzed several carbohydrate utilization gene clusters, such as 2-fucosyllactose (2'FL), sialic acid (SA), and fructooligosaccharide (FOS). In summary, by using 217 bifidobacterial strains and a wide range of growth substrates, our research revealed inter- and intra-species differences in bifidobacterial in terms of carbohydrate utilization. The findings of this study are useful for the process of developing prebiotics for optimum growth of probiotics, especially species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9050883DOI Listing
April 2021

Role of the mitochondrial citrate-oxoglutarate carrier in lipid accumulation in the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina.

Biotechnol Lett 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214122, People's Republic of China.

Objectives: The transport of citrate from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm is essential during lipid accumulation. This study aimed to explore the role of mitochondrial citrate-oxoglutarate carrier in lipid accumulation in the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina.

Results: Homologous MaYHM (the gene encoding the mitochondrial citrate-oxoglutarate carrier) was overexpressed in M. alpina. The fatty acid content of MaYHM-overexpressing recombinant strains was increased by up to 30% compared with the control. Moreover, the intracellular α-ketoglutarate level in recombinant strains was increased by 2.2 fold, together with a 23-35% decrease in NAD-isocitrate dehydrogenase activity compared with the control. The overexpression of MaYHM altered the metabolic flux in the glutamate dehydrogenase shunt and 4-aminobutyric acid shunt during metabolic reprogramming, supplying more carbon to synthesize fatty acids.

Conclusions: Overexpression of MaYHM resulted in more efflux of citrate from mitochondria to the cytoplasm and enhanced lipid accumulation. These findings provide new perspectives for the improvement of industrial lipid production in M. alpina.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10529-021-03133-xDOI Listing
April 2021

Identification of the key characteristics of strains for the alleviation of ulcerative colitis.

Food Funct 2021 Apr;12(8):3476-3492

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, P. R China. and School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China.

Bifidobacterium longum (B. longum) species are widely used to prevent and treat ulcerative colitis (UC). In this study, phylogenetic and pan-genomic characterization of 122 B. longum strains was performed on the basis of 936 core genes; among these, four strains from different branches of the phylogenetic tree were selected for an evaluation of anti-inflammatory and immune modulatory activities in a DSS-induced colitis mouse model. Among the tested B. longum strains (B. longum FBJ20M1, B. longum FGDLZ8M1, B. longum FGSZY16M3, and B. longum FJSWXJ2M1), B. longum FGDLZ8M1 was found to most effectively alleviate colitis by reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, restoring the colon length, and maintaining the mucosal integrity. The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of B. longum FGDLZ8M1 were related to the inhibition of NF-κB signaling. Genomic analysis indicated that these protective effects of B. longum FGDLZ8M1 may be related to specific genes associated with carbohydrate transport and metabolism and defense mechanisms (e.g., tolerance to bile salts and acids). Correlation analysis indicated that gastrointestinal transit tolerance was the most strongly associated factor. Our findings may contribute to the rapid screening of lactic acid bacterial strains with UC-alleviating effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo00017aDOI Listing
April 2021

Effects of Bacillus coagulans as an adjunct starter culture on yogurt quality and storage.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, PR China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, PR China. Electronic address:

Bacillus coagulans has been widely studied for its probiotic properties. Therefore, identifying a strain that can be used as an adjunct starter culture for yogurt production would have commercial value. In this study, 30 B. coagulans strains were isolated from vegetable samples from 11 provinces or autonomous regions in China, and their pan-genomic and phylogenetic characteristics were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis categorized 30 strains into 4 different subphylotypes, including subtype I (11 isolates), subtype II (7 isolates), subtype III (11 isolates), and subtype IV (1 isolate). Four B. coagulans strains (B. coagulans-70, B. coagulans-78, B. coagulans-79, and B. coagulans-100) were randomly selected from each subphylotype of the phylogenetic tree as adjunct starter cultures. Compared with the other tested strains, B. coagulans-70 showed the highest count in yogurt at the end of the manufacturing period. Comparative genome analysis indicated that the different bacterial levels of B. coagulans strains in yogurt may be associated with the abundance of genes related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism (e.g., sucrose utilization). Finally, differences in texture and volatile flavor compound profiles were observed between the yogurt samples. Compared with the other groups, the addition of B. coagulans-70 exerted a positive effect on the appearance and texture of yogurt products. Volatile analysis showed increased quantities of 2-heptanone, 2-nonanone, amyl alcohol, and 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone in the B. coagulans-70 group compared with control yogurts. These results above combined with the results of a sensory evaluation indicated that B. coagulans-70 is the most suitable strain for further use in functional dairy product development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-19876DOI Listing
April 2021

Inhibitory effect of microwave heating on cathepsin l-induced degradation of myofibrillar protein gel.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 20;357:129745. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China; Key Laboratory of Refrigeration and Conditioning Aquatic Products Processing, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Xiamen 361022, China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China. Electronic address:

This work was aimed to compare the effect of microwave (MW) heating on the cathepsin L (Cat L)-induced degradation of myofibrillar protein (MP) gels with that of water bath (WB) heating. First, Cat L from silver carp was purified and determined to be 45 kDa. The gel strength of the MW-heated MP gels were significantly higher than those of the WB-heated when Cat L was added (P < 0.05). The gel electrophoresis pattern and scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that MW heating inhibited the Cat l-induced hydrolysis of MP gels. In addition, the number of sulfhydryl groups and surface hydrophobicity of MW-heated gels were lower than those of WB-heated gels when Cat L was added. These results indicated that MW heating could effectively weaken the degradation of Cat L on MP gels by manipulating disulfide bonds and hydrophobic amino acids, resulting in good gel properties and a compact protein network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129745DOI Listing
April 2021

Correction: Lactic acid bacteria alleviate polycystic ovarian syndrome by regulating sex hormone related gut microbiota.

Food Funct 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, PR China. and School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, PR China and National Engineering Research Center for Functional Food, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, PR China and Beijing Innovation Centre of Food Nutrition and Human Health, Beijing Technology and Business University (BTBU), Beijing 100048, PR China.

Correction for 'Lactic acid bacteria alleviate polycystic ovarian syndrome by regulating sex hormone related gut microbiota' by Yufeng He et al., Food Funct., 2020, 11, 5192-5204, DOI: 10.1039/C9FO02554E.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo90033aDOI Listing
April 2021

Development of gut microbiota and bifidobacterial communities of neonates in the first 6 weeks and their inheritance from mother.

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1-13

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.

Microbiota especially play an important role in adjusting and maintaining homeostatic balance within the infant intestine. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between maternal and infant gut microbiota and identify the species that may transfer from mother to infant over the first 42 days of the infant's life. Nineteen mother-infant-pair fecal samples were collected and the diversity and composition of the total bacterial and communities were analyzed via 16S rDNA and bifidobacterial gene high throughput sequencing. The results revealed that the relative abundance of was significantly higher in the infant gut while and were at lower relative abundance in 7-day and 42-day infant fecal samples compared to the maternal samples. The maternal gut has more . In the infant group, and relative abundance increased while subsp. decreased from days 7 to 42. Additionally, subsp. isolated from FGZ16 and FGZ35 may have transferred from mother to infant and colonized the infant gut. The results of the current study provide insight toward the infant gut microbiota composition and structure during the first 42 days and may help guide supplementation strategies in mothers and infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490976.2021.1908100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8049200PMC
April 2021

Strains Improve Constipation Symptoms and Regulate Intestinal Flora in Mice.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 18;11:655258. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.

Constipation is a prevalent gastrointestinal disorder that seriously reduces the quality of life. Clinical studies have shown that a great change or severe imbalance occurs in the intestinal microbiota of people with constipation. This study explored whether bacteriocin-producing and non-bacteriocin-producing strains resulted in differences in the alleviation of constipation and changes in the fecal flora in BALB/c mice. The constipation-related indicators, gastrointestinal regulatory peptides and gut microbiota were identified to evaluate their alleviating effects and underlying mechanisms. The time to the first black-stool defecation and the gastrointestinal transit rate in constipated mice were found to be somewhat improved by four . strains ( > 0.05). Moreover, there were significant differences in the level of most gastrointestinal regulatory peptides in the serum, as well as in the composition and abundance of intestinal microbiota in different groups ( < 0.05). At the phylum level, the relative abundance of Firmicutes was significantly increased, but those of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were significantly reduced after the administration of four . strains for 14 d ( < 0.05). The levels of and genera from were significantly decreased, whereas and were upregulated when bacteriocin-producing . CCFM18 and CCFM28 strains were provided in the diet ( < 0.05). The results indicated that although constipation-related symptoms were alleviated to only a limited degree, the administration of four . strains effectively regulated the gut flora and provided a potential health benefit to the host, especially the bacteriocin-producing . strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.655258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8012752PMC
March 2021

Isolated from Different Hosts Modifies the Intestinal Microbiota and Displays Differential Metabolic and Immunomodulatory Properties in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 21;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 21.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu, China.

The incidence of obesity, which is closely associated with the gut microbiota and chronic inflammation, has rapidly increased in the past 40 years. Therefore, the probiotic-based modification of the intestinal microbiota composition has been developed as a strategy for the treatment of obesity. In this study, we selected four strains isolated from the feces of newborn and elderly humans to investigate whether supplementation with of various origins could alleviate obesity in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 60% energy as fat) received one of the following 14-week interventions: (i) N4_N3, (ii) Z25, (iii) 17_3, (iv) 2016_7_2, and (v) phosphate-buffered saline. The metabolic parameters, thermogenesis, and immunity of all treated mice were measured. Cecal and colonic microbial profiles were determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Intestinal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The strains isolated from the feces of elderly humans ( Z25, 17_3, and 2016_7_2) decreased the body weight or weight gain of mice, whilst the strain isolated from the newborn ( N4_N3) increased the body weight of mice. The strains isolated from the elderly also increased serum leptin concentrations and induced the expression of thermogenesis- and lipid metabolism-related genes in brown adipose tissue. All the strains alleviated inflammations in the spleen and brain and modified the cecal and colonic microbiota. Particularly, all strains reversed the HFD-induced depletion of and reduced the development of beta-lactam resistance. In addition, the strains isolated from the elderly increased the relative abundances of potentially beneficial genera, such as , and . We speculate that such increased abundance of commensal bacteria may have mediated the alleviation of obesity, as supplementation decreased the intestinal production of SCFAs, thereby reducing energy delivery to the host mice. Our results revealed that certain strains of can alleviate obesity and modify the gut microbiota of mice. The tested strains of showed different effects on lipid metabolism and immunity regulation, with these effects related to whether they had been isolated from the feces of newborn or elderly humans. This indicates that from different sources may have disparate effects on host health possibly due to the transmission of origin-specific functions to the host.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13031017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004121PMC
March 2021

[Application of omics technology in oleaginous microorganisms].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 Mar;37(3):846-859

School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu, China.

Microbial oils are potential resources of fuels and food oils in the future. In recent years, with the rapid development of systems biology technology, understanding the physiological metabolism and lipid accumulation characteristics of oleaginous microorganisms from a global perspective has become a research focus. As an important tool for systems biology research, omics technology has been widely used to reveal the mechanism of high-efficiency production of oils by oleaginous microorganisms. This provides a basis for rational genetic modification and fermentation process control of oleaginous microorganisms. In this article, we summarize the application of omics technology in oleaginous microorganisms, introduced the commonly used sample pre-processing and data analysis methods for omics analysis of oleaginous microorganisms, reviewe the researches for revealing the mechanism of efficient lipid production by oleaginous microorganisms based on omics technologies including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics (modification) and metabolomics (lipidomics), as well as mathematical models based on omics data. The future development and application of omics technology for microbial oil production are also proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13345/j.cjb.200642DOI Listing
March 2021

Protein diets with the role of immune and gut microbial regulation alleviate DSS-induced chronic ulcerative colitis.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Mar 22;9(3):1259-1270. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology Jiangnan University Wuxi China.

The association between diet and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been confirmed. However, the role of protein consumption in IBD remains controversial. This research aimed to explore the effects of milk-based protein (MBP), potato protein (PP), and mixed protein (MP) on the recovery of mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC). MP alleviated UC symptoms through reducing colon shortening and tissue damage, decreasing neutrophil infiltration, maintaining the mucous layer integrity, and suppressing the expression of TNF-α, IL-17A, IL-6, and IL-1β. MBP and PP decreased the colon shortening and IL-1β levels but PP increased the MUC2 expression. Additionally, the gut microbial structure and composition were altered after different proteins supplement. Compared to DSS-treated mice, MP-treated mice showed that increased abundances in and and decreased abundances in , , and . MBP increased the proportion of and reduced , but PP increased and and decreased . Correspondence analysis of gut microbial composition to determine the effects of protein diets on immune response and pathological characteristics also verified the interaction between gut microbiota and alleviation of colitis. These results provide a theoretical basis for the selection of raw materials for clinical enteral nutrition preparations and potential use for potato protein wastes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1914DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7958528PMC
March 2021

Synergistic Protective Effects of Different Dietary Supplements Against Type 2 Diabetes via Regulating Gut Microbiota.

J Med Food 2021 Mar;24(3):319-330

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China.

Diabetes mellitus is a global health problem, and its prevalence continues to increase. Dietary supplements, including probiotics, prebiotics, and plant extracts, have been shown to alleviate diabetes. In this study, the synergistic effects of two types of dietary supplements were investigated in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Sixty mice were divided into the following six groups: control, model (induced by a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin), drug (metformin), probiotic ( spp.), formula A (probiotics, plant extracts, and soybean peptide), and formula B (probiotics, prebiotics, and soybean peptide). All three dietary interventions (probiotic, formula A, and formula B groups) significantly reduced the blood glucose level and oral glucose tolerance level and effectively improved some biochemical parameters ( chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and blood lipid level) and regulated gut microbiota. Notably, formula B exhibited a better ability on reducing the blood glucose level, regulating the gut microbiota, and increasing the short-chain fatty acid levels compared with the probiotics alone and formula A. Thus, formula B may exert synergistic protective effects against T2DM through a mechanism involving probiotics and prebiotics of gut microbiota regulation. This study provides a theoretical basis for the application of probiotic dietary supplements to the treatment of T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2020.4759DOI Listing
March 2021

Electromagnetic properties of crayfish and its responses of temperature and moisture under microwave field.

J Food Sci 2021 Apr 17;86(4):1306-1321. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Key Laboratory of Refrigeration and Conditioning Aquatic Products Processing, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Xiamen, 361022, China.

To reveal the application potential of microwave heating in the thermal processing of crayfish, this work explored the electromagnetic properties of different parts of crayfish and the patterns of temperature and moisture responses in crayfish during microwave heating. The results of electromagnetic analysis demonstrated that the electromagnetic properties of different parts of crayfish were different, and the tail had higher dielectric properties and reflective loss than other parts, but the maximum thickness of each part of crayfish was almost within their heating depth of microwave. The visual imaging and numerical simulation of temperature and moisture responses showed there were nonuniform temperature and moisture distributions in crayfish during microwave heating. The crayfish tail was selectively heated and rapidly cooked, but its moisture loss was far less than the mass loss of whole crayfish. Furthermore, the immobilized water in crayfish tail meat was continuously converted to free water, while the bound water was relatively stable during microwave heating. This work provided the theoretical references for the assumption that cooking the crayfish by microwave to overcome the shortcomings of boiling. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: In this work, we innovatively applied microwave heating to the heat processing of crayfish, and analyzed the electromagnetic properties of different parts in crayfish and explored its temperature and moisture responses under microwave field. Although this is a basic research, which provided some theoretical references for the assumption that microwave heating of crayfish (Procambarus clarkia) may be a clean and efficient means of overcoming the shortcomings associated with boiling. In particular, the simulation model of crayfish was established according to its real size and shape, which provided an option for the prediction of temperature response of crayfish in the microwave field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15667DOI Listing
April 2021

Both living and dead Faecalibacterium prausnitzii alleviate house dust mite-induced allergic asthma through the modulation of gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acid production.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.

Background: Asthma is increasingly prevalent worldwide, and novel strategies to prevent or treat this disease are needed. Probiotic intervention has recently been reported to be effective for asthma prevention. Here, we explored the effects of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii on the development of allergic airway inflammation in a murine model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic asthma.

Results: Supplementation with living and dead F. prausnitzii blocked eosinophil, neutrophil, lymphocyte and macrophage influx and alleviated the pathological changes. Moreover, both living and dead F. prausnitzii administration decreased the levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13 and immunoglobulin G1, elevated regulatory T cell (Tregs) ratio, improved microbial dysbiosis and enhanced short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. Network correlation analysis revealed that the immune indicators were strongly associated with SCFA production. Based on the linear discriminant analysis effect size, Turicibacter was found to be the core genus related to HDM-induced asthma. Living F. prausnitzii treatment enriched Faecalibaculum, Dubosiella and Streptococcus, while dead F. prausnitzii treatment increased Muribaculaceae and Parabacteroides. Interestingly, both living and dead F. prausnitzii administration enriched Lachnoclostridium and normalized the pathways involving carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, which might be related to SCFA production.

Conclusion: Faecalibacterium prausnitzii exerts an anti-asthmatic effect partly by gut microbiota modulation and SCFA production, suggesting its potential as a probiotic agent for allergic asthma prevention. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11207DOI Listing
March 2021

Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Genes Involved in FGSZY16M3 Biofilm Formation.

Microorganisms 2021 Feb 14;9(2). Epub 2021 Feb 14.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China.

Biofilm formation has evolved as an adaptive strategy for bacteria to cope with harsh environmental conditions. Currently, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation in bifidobacteria. A time series transcriptome sequencing analysis of both biofilm and planktonic cells of FGSZY16M3 was performed to identify candidate genes involved in biofilm formation. Protein-protein interaction network analysis of 1296 differentially expressed genes during biofilm formation yielded 15 clusters of highly interconnected nodes, indicating that genes related to the SOS response (, , , , , , and ) associated with the early stage of biofilm formation. Genes involved in extracellular polymeric substances were upregulated (, , , , , , , , and ) in the stage of biofilm maturation. To further investigate the genes related to biofilm formation, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed with 2032 transcript genes, leading to the identification of nine WGCNA modules and 133 genes associated with response to stress, regulation of gene expression, quorum sensing, and two-component system. These results indicate that biofilm formation in is a multifactorial process, involving stress response, structural development, and regulatory processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7917626PMC
February 2021

Supernatants of and Strains Exhibited Antioxidative Effects on A7R5 Cells.

Microorganisms 2021 Feb 22;9(2). Epub 2021 Feb 22.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China.

Vascular reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an essential role in cardiovascular diseases and the antioxidative effects of probiotics have been widely reported. To screen the probiotic strains that may prevent cardiovascular diseases, we tested the antioxidative effects of supernatants of different and strains on A7R5 cells. Preincubation with supernatants of CCFM752, CCFM1149, or CCFM10 significantly suppressed the angiotensin II-induced increases in ROS levels and increased catalase (CAT) activity in A7R5, whereas CCFM752 inhibited NADPH oxidase activation and CCFM1149 enhanced the intracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity simultaneously. Treatment with CCFM752, CCFM1149, or CCFM10 supernatants had no significant impact on transcriptional levels of , , , , , or , but altered the overall transcriptomic profile and the expression of genes relevant to protein biosynthesis, and up-regulated the 60S ribosomal protein L7a (Rpl7a). A positive correlation between Rpl7a expression and intracellular CAT activity implied that Rpl7a may participate in CAT synthesis in A7R5. Supernatant of CCFM752 could also down-regulate the expression of NADPH oxidase activator 1 (Noxa1) and angiotensinogen in A7R5. Collectively, the probiotic strains CCFM752, CCFM1149, and CCFM10 exhibited antioxidative attributes on A7R5 cells and might help to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020452DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927071PMC
February 2021

Community-wide changes reflecting bacterial interspecific interactions in multispecies biofilms.

Crit Rev Microbiol 2021 May 2;47(3):338-358. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.

Existence of most bacterial species, in natural, industrial, and clinical settings in the form of surface-adhered communities or biofilms has been well acknowledged for decades. Research predominantly focusses on single-species biofilms as these are relatively easy to study. However, microbiologists are now interested in studying multispecies biofilms and revealing interspecific interactions in these communities because of the existence of a plethora of different bacterial species together in almost all natural settings. Multispecies biofilms-led emergent properties are triggered by bacterial social interactions which have huge implication for research and practical knowledge useful for the control and manipulation of these microbial communities. Here, we discuss some important bacterial interactions that take place in multispecies biofilm communities and provide insights into community-wide changes that indicate bacterial interactions and elucidate underlying mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1040841X.2021.1887079DOI Listing
May 2021

Lactulose significantly increased the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium and Blautia in mice feces as revealed by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, P. R. China.

Background: Lactulose was one of the earliest prebiotics to be identified. To assess the potential risk of large intakes of lactulose to the intestinal microbiota, mice were fed a diet containing lactulose (0%, 5% and 15%, w/w) for 2 weeks and the changes in the fecal microbiota were evaluated by 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing.

Results: Lactulose intervention decreased the α-diversity of the fecal microbiota in both low-dose and high-dose groups. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria was significantly increased, while that of Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased after lactulose intervention. At the genus level, the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium belonging to Actinobacteria was significantly increased, and that of Alistipes belonging to Bacteroidetes was decreased in both low-dose and high-dose groups. The relative abundance of Blautia was significantly increased from 0.2% to 7.9% in the high-dose group and one strain of Blautia producta was isolated from the mice feces. However, the strain could not utilize lactulose.

Conclusion: Overall, the microbial diversity was decreased after lactulose treatment, with significant increases in the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium. We also provide a strategy to increase the relative abundance of Blautia in the intestine by lactulose feeding at high doses, although the mechanism is not revealed. This will help us understand the prebiotic effect of lactulose on the host health. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11181DOI Listing
March 2021

Daily intake of Lactobacillus alleviates autistic-like behaviors by ameliorating the 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolic disorder in VPA-treated rats during weaning and sexual maturation.

Food Funct 2021 Mar 25;12(6):2591-2604. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China.

Probiotic therapy targeting gut-brain axis has been proven to be effective in treating autistic patients. The present study aimed to assess the ability of three Lactobacillus strains (L. helveticus CCFM1076, L. acidophilus La28, and L. acidophilus JCM 1132) to alleviate autistic-like behavioral symptoms in VPA-treated rats from weaning to sexual maturation. For the first time, we assessed the synthesis of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) and the metabolic capacity of the 5HT system in the peripheral and central nervous systems (PNS and CNS, respectively) based on tryptophan metabolism based on VPA-induced autism model. We also assessed gut microbiota, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) at the end of week 8. While improving autistic-like behavioral symptoms, we found L. helveticus CCFM1076 was more beneficial in regulating 5HT anabolism and catabolism, balancing excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter release in the PNS and CNS, and increasing oxytocin (OT) synthesis in the hypothalamus. A significant correlation was noted between 5HT levels and the release of GABA, glutamate (Glu), and OT, suggesting that 5HT plays a vital role in the neuroendocrine network. Analyses of the gut microbiota and SCFA levels revealed greater Turicibacter abundance and lower butyric acid levels in VPA-treated rats, which have been reported to be associated with 5HT levels. L. helveticus CCFM1076 helped reduce Turicibacter abundance and up-regulate butyric acid levels, while L. acidophilus La28 and L. acidophilus JCM 1132 did not. L. helveticus CCFM1076 restored neurotransmitter homeostasis by improving the balance of the 5HT system in the PNS and CNS, thereby ameliorating autistic-like behaviors. This finding will help in the development of bioproducts for treating autism and in the establishment of a treatment model mimicking the intestinal environment of autistic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo02375bDOI Listing
March 2021

Crosstalk between sIgA-Coated Bacteria in Infant Gut and Early-Life Health.

Trends Microbiol 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China; National Engineering Research Center for Functional Food, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Gut microbiota transmission from mother to offspring has attracted much interest in recent years. The gut microbiota in the infant plays a potentially significant role in modulating and maintaining the development of infant immunity. Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), the major immunoglobulin in the intestine, can target polysaccharides and flagellin on the bacterial surface, resulting in sIgA-coated bacteria. The presentation of specific bacteria coated with sIgA may be a signal of disease and provide novel insights into the relationship between infant microbiota and disease. Here, we review the composition of sIgA-coated bacteria in the adult intestine, human milk, and the infant intestine, as well as the factors that influence the development of gut microbiota in early life. Then, we highlight the diseases that are related to variations in sIgA-coated bacteria in the infant and adult intestine. Furthermore, we discuss the possibility that sIgA-coated bacteria could play a role in mediating both innate and adaptive immune responses. Finally, we propose directions for future research to promote our understanding within this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2021.01.012DOI Listing
February 2021

Unraveling the Microbial Mechanisms Underlying the Psychobiotic Potential of a Bifidobacterium breve Strain.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 04 9;65(8):e2000704. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China.

Scope: The antidepressant-like effect of psychobiotics has been observed in both pre-clinical and clinical studies, but the molecular mechanisms of action are largely unclear. To address this, the psychobiotic strain Bifidobacterium breve CCFM1025 is investigated for its genomic features, metabolic features, and gut microbial and metabolic modulation effect.

Methods And Results: Unlike B. breve FHLJDQ3M5, CCFM1025 significantly decreases the chronically stressed mice's depressive-like behaviors and neurological abnormalities. CCFM1025 has more genes encoding glycoside hydrolases (GHs) when comparing to FHLJDQ3M5's genome, which means CCFM1025 has a superior carbohydrate utilization capacity and living adaptivity in the gut. CCFM1025 also produces higher levels of neuromodulatory metabolites, including hypoxanthine, tryptophan, and nicotinate. The administration of CCFM1025 reshapes the gut microbiome of chronically stressed mice. It results in higher cecal xanthine, tryptophan, short-chain fatty acid levels, and enhances fatty acid and tryptophan biosynthesis capability in the gut-brain interaction (identified by in silico analyses) than FHLJDQ3M5-treated mice.

Conclusions: Genomic and metabolic features involving GHs and neuromodulatory metabolites may determine the antidepressant-like effect of B. breve CCFM1025. Psychobiotics' characterization in this manner may provide guidelines for developing novel psychopharmacological agents in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.202000704DOI Listing
April 2021

Comparative Genomic Analysis of Isolated from Different Niches.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Feb 8;12(2). Epub 2021 Feb 8.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China.

can adapt to a variety of niches and is widely distributed in many sources. We used comparative genomics to explore the differences in the genome and in the physiological characteristics of isolated from pickles, fermented sauce, and human feces. The relationships between genotypes and phenotypes were analyzed to address the effects of isolation source on the genetic variation of . The comparative genomic results indicate that the numbers of unique genes in the different strains were niche-dependent. isolated from fecal sources generally had more strain-specific genes than isolated from pickles. The phylogenetic tree and average nucleotide identity (ANI) results indicate that in pickles and fermented sauce clustered independently, whereas the fecal was distributed more uniformly in the phylogenetic tree. The pan-genome curve indicated that the exhibited high genomic diversity. Based on the analysis of the carbohydrate active enzyme and carbohydrate-use abilities, we found that strains isolated from different sources exhibited different expression of the Glycoside Hydrolases (GH) and Glycosyl Transferases (GT) families and that the expression patterns of carbohydrate active enzymes were consistent with the evolution relationships of the strains. strains exhibited niche-specific characteristicsand the results provided better understating on genetics of this species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12020241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7914981PMC
February 2021

-a new functional genus with potential probiotic properties?

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1-21

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University , Wuxi, Jiangsu, China.

is a genus of anaerobic bacteria with probiotic characteristics that occur widely in the feces and intestines of mammals. Based on phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses, some species in the genera and have been reclassified as , so to date, there are 20 new species with valid published names in this genus. An extensive body of research has recently focused on the probiotic effects of this genus, such as biological transformation and its ability to regulate host health and alleviate metabolic syndrome. This article reviews the origin and biological characteristics of and the factors that affect its abundance and discusses its role in host health, thus laying a theoretical foundation for the development of new functional microorganisms with probiotic properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490976.2021.1875796DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7872077PMC
February 2021

Strain-Specific Effects of on Hypercholesterolemic Rats and Potential Mechanisms.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jan 28;22(3). Epub 2021 Jan 28.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China.

Hypercholesterolemia is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease, which is among the major causes of death worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore whether Bifidobacterium longum strains exerted intra-species differences in cholesterol-lowering effects in hypercholesterolemic rats and to investigate the potential mechanisms. SD rats underwent gavage with each strain (CCFM 1077, I3, J3 and B3) daily for 28 days. CCFM 1077 exerted the most potent cholesterol-lowering effect, followed by I3 and B3, whereas B3 had no effect in alleviating hypercholesterolemia. Divergent alleviation of different strains on hypercholesterolemia can be attributed to the differences in bile salt deconjugation ability and cholesterol assimilation ability in vitro. By 16S rRNA metagenomics analysis, the relative abundance of beneficial genus increased in the CCFM 1077 treatment group. The expression of key genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were also altered after the CCFM 1077 treatment. In conclusion, exhibits strain-specific effects in the alleviation of hypercholesterolemia, mainly due to differences in bacterial characteristics, bile salt deconjugation ability, cholesterol assimilation ability, expressions of key genes involved in cholesterol metabolism and alterations of gut microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7866116PMC
January 2021