Publications by authors named "Jianxin Li"

286 Publications

Dose-Response Association Between High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.

Prev Chronic Dis 2021 May 13;18:E45. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, 100, Kexue Avenue, Gaoxin District, Zhengzhou, Henan 450001, People's Republic of China. Email:

Introduction: Studies investigating the effect of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on stroke and stroke subtypes have reached inconsistent conclusions. The purpose of our study was to clarify the dose-response association between HDL-C level and risk of total stroke and stroke subtypes by a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases through July 30, 2020, for prospective cohort studies that reported the HDL-C-stroke association and extracted the estimate that was adjusted for the greatest number of confounding factors. Restricted cubic splines were used to evaluate the linear and nonlinear dose-response associations.

Results: We included 29 articles, which reported on 62 prospective cohort studies including 900,501 study participants and 25,678 with stroke. The summary relative risk per 1-mmol/L increase in HDL-C level for total stroke was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.76-0.89; I = 42.9%; n = 18); ischemic stroke (IS), 0.75 (95% CI, 0.69-0.82; I = 50.1%; n = 22); intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), 1.21 (95% CI, 1.04-1.42; I = 33.4%; n = 10); and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), 0.98 (95% CI, 0.96-1.00; I = 0%; n = 7). We found a linear inverse association between HDL-C level and risk of total stroke and SAH, a nonlinear inverse association for IS risk, but a linear positive association for ICH risk. The strength and the direction of the effect size estimate for total stroke, IS, ICH, and SAH remained stable for most subgroups. We found no publication bias with Begg's test and Egger's test for the association of HDL-C level with risk of total stroke, IS, and ICH.

Conclusion: A high HDL-C level is associated with reduced risk of total stroke and IS and an increased risk of ICH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd18.200278DOI Listing
May 2021

Dynamic low-coherence interferometry using a double Fizeau cavity.

Opt Lett 2021 May;46(9):2051-2054

The coexistence of anti-vibration and a common optical path is difficult to realize in dynamic Fizeau interferometry. To address this problem, we propose a dynamic low-coherence interferometry (DLI) using a double Fizeau cavity. The DLI method is a new optical model that creatively renders both surfaces of the RM to interfere with the test surface, utilizing a low-coherence source and optical path matching to construct the common-path -polarized Fizeau cavity (-FC) and carrier-frequency -polarized Fizeau cavity (-FC). The relative tilt phases of the -FC are calculated using the carrier frequency interferograms; then the final phase is retrieved with the relative tilt phases and -FC interferograms. The experimental results demonstrate that the DLI method can provide high-precision phase measurement in a vibration environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.416939DOI Listing
May 2021

Fruit and vegetable consumption, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality in China.

Sci China Life Sci 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Epidemiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100037, China.

Evidence about the response patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption with the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality was inconsistent. These associations were examined using a large-scale, population-based Chinese cohort comprising 100,728 participants. A food-frequency questionnaire was used to assess fruit and vegetable consumption. Outcomes were ascertained by interviewing individuals or their proxies and checking hospital records or death certificates. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). At the 736,668 person-years of follow-up, 3,677 CVD cases and 5,466 deaths were identified. The multivariable-adjusted HRs for CVD across increasing quartiles of total fruit and vegetable consumption were 1 (reference), 0.94 (95%CI=0.85-1.04), 0.89 (95%CI=0.80-0.98), and 0.85 (95% CI=0.11-0.95). Moreover, participants in the highest quartile displayed a 13% lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR=0.81; 95% CI=0.80-0.95). A nonlinear dose-response relation was found for CVD, without additional benefits beyond a consumption of 600 g d, whereas the all-cause mortality risk decreased along with higher consumption, with a linear trend. These associations remained significant for fruit consumption but not for vegetable consumption. Our findings indicated that greater fruit and vegetable consumption was significantly associated with a lower risk of CVD and all cause mortality. Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, especially fruit, in the general population would prevent CVD and premature mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1896-xDOI Listing
April 2021

Screening and tissue distribution of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors in mice following oral administration of Garcinia mangostana L. ethanolic extract.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 9;357:129759. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

College of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, 66 Chongshan Road, Shenyang 110036, Liaoning Province, PR China; Academy of Forensic Science, Liaoning University, 66 Chongshan Road, Shenyang 110036, Liaoning Province, PR China. Electronic address:

Garcinia mangostana L. (mangosteen) is a tropical fruit that is rich in xanthones and is thought to have an anti-diabetic effect. In this study, we screened for the xanthones in mangosteen that could inhibit the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), an enzyme that is targeted by diabetic drugs. Mice were orally administered mangosteen extract and blood samples were screened for the presence of PTP1B-interacting xanthones. Six such compounds (1-6) were identified by UF-HPLC-QTOF-MS and their inhibition against PTP1B was confirmed by activity assay. Among them, garcinone E (5) was found to be the most effective PTP1B inhibitor (IC = 0.43 μM). Tissue distribution analysis showed that the six compounds were distributed in eleven tissues, including the liver, muscle, fat, stomach, large intestine, small intestine, brain, kidney, heart, lung, and spleen. The results demonstrated that mangosteen might be a promising source of natural compounds with high PTP1B-inhibitory activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129759DOI Listing
April 2021

Adverse associations of sedentary behavior with cancer incidence and all-cause mortality: A prospective cohort study.

J Sport Health Sci 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100037, China; Department of Epidemiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037, China; School of Medicine, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China. Electronic address:

Background: Inconsistent results have been reported in developed countries for relationships between sedentary behavior and cancer incidence and mortality, and evidence from the Chinese population is scarce. This study aimed to investigate such relationships in large Chinese population-based prospective cohorts and to explore the joint effect and interaction of sedentary behavior and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on these relationships.

Methods: We included 95,319 Chinese adults without cancer from 3 large cohorts and assessed their sedentary behavior and physical activity with a unified questionnaire. Cancer incidence and mortality were confirmed by interviewing participants or their proxies and checking hospital records and death certificates. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for cancer and mortality were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models.

Results: During 559,002 person-years of follow-up, 2388 cancer events, 1571 cancer deaths, and 4562 all-cause deaths were recorded. Sedentary behavior was associated with increased risk of developing cancer and deaths in a dose-response manner. The multivariable-adjusted HRs (95%CIs) were the following: HR = 1.16, 95%CI: 1.01‒1.33; HR = 1.24, 95%CI: 1.04‒1.48; and HR = 1.15, 95%CI: 1.04‒1.28 for cancer incidence, cancer mortality, and all-cause mortality, respectively, for those having ≥10 h/day of sedentary time compared to those having <6 h/day of sedentary time. Sedentary populations (≥10 h/day) developed cancer or died 4.09 and 2.79 years earlier, respectively, at the index age of 50 years. Failure to achieve the recommended level of MVPA may further aggravate the adverse associations, with the highest cancer and mortality risks being observed among participants with both ≥10 h/day of sedentary time and <150 min/week of MVPA. Limitations of this study include the fact that physical activity information was obtained via questionnaire instead of objective measurement and that there were insufficient incident cases for the analysis of associations between sedentary behavior and site-specific cancers.

Conclusion: Sedentary behavior was associated with an increased risk of cancer and all-cause mortality among Chinese adults, especially for those with ≥10 h/day of sedentary time. It is necessary to reduce sedentary time, in addition to increasing MVPA levels, for the prevention of cancer and premature death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2021.04.002DOI Listing
April 2021

Transcriptome-wide N6-methyladenosine methylation landscape of coronary artery disease.

Epigenomics 2021 May 20;13(10):793-808. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, 167 Beilishi Road, Beijing 100037, China.

To reveal transcriptome-wide N6-methyladenosine (mA) methylome of coronary artery disease (CAD). The mA levels of RNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells measured by colorimetry were significantly decreased in CAD cases. Transcriptome-wide mA methylome profiled by methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeRIP-seq) identified differentially methylated mA sites within both mRNAs and lncRNAs between CAD and control group. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that differentially methylated genes were involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. MeRIP-quantitative real-time PCR assay confirmed the reliability of MeRIP-seq data. Finally, the rat carotid artery balloon injury model was performed to confirm the role of mA demethylase in neointima formation. Our study provided a resource of differentially methylated mA profile for uncovering mA biological functions in the pathogenesis of CAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/epi-2020-0372DOI Listing
May 2021

Early immune responses and prognostic factors in children with COVID-19: a single-center retrospective analysis.

BMC Pediatr 2021 04 17;21(1):181. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Hematology, Wuhan Children's Hospital (Wuhan Medical Care Center for Women and Children), Tongji College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Background: Early diagnostic indicators and the identification of possible progression to severe or critical COVID-19 in children are unknown. To investigate the immune characteristics of early SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and possible key prognostic factors for early identification of critical COVID-19, a retrospective study including 121 children with COVID-19 was conducted. Peripheral blood lymphocyte subset counts, T cell-derived cytokine concentrations, inflammatory factor concentrations, and routine blood counts were analyzed statistically at the initial presentation.

Results: The T lymphocyte subset and natural killer cell counts decreased with increasing disease severity. Group III (critical cases) had a higher Th/Tc ratio than groups I and II (common and severe cases); group I had a higher B cell count than groups II and III. IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, SAA, and procalcitonin levels increased with increasing disease severity. Hemoglobin concentration, and RBC and eosinophil counts decreased with increasing disease severity. Groups II and III had significantly lower lymphocyte counts than group I. T, Th, Tc, IL-6, IL-10, RBC, and hemoglobin had relatively high contribution and area under the curve values.

Conclusions: Decreased T, Th, Tc, RBC, hemoglobin and increased IL-6 and IL-10 in early SARS-CoV-2 infection in children are valuable indices for early diagnosis of severe disease. The significantly reduced Th and Tc cells and significantly increased IL-6, IL-10, ferritin, procalcitonin, and SAA at this stage in children with critical COVID-19 may be closely associated with the systemic cytokine storm caused by immune dysregulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-021-02561-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8052550PMC
April 2021

Excellent Early Outcomes of Combined Chemotherapy with Arsenic Trioxide for Stage 4/M Neuroblastoma in Children A Multi center Nonrandomize d Controlled Trial.

Oncol Res 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

This nonrandomized, multi center cohort, open label clinical trial evaluated theefficacy and safety of combined chemotherapy with arsenic trioxide (ATO) in childrenwith stage 4/M neuroblastoma (NB). We enrolled patients who were newly diagnosedwith NB and assessed as stage 4/M and received either traditional chemotherapy or ATOcombined with chemotherapy according to their own wishes. Twenty two patients wereenrolled i n the trial group (ATO combined with chemotherapy) and thirteen patientswere enrolled in the control group (traditional chemotherapy). Objective response rate(ORR) at 4 weeks after completing induction chemotherapy was defined as the mainoutcome and adv erse events were monitored and graded in the meantime. Data cutoffdate was Dec. 31, 2019. Finally, we found that p patients who received ATO combined with chemotherapy had a significantly higher response rate than those who treated with traditional chemotherapy (ORR: 86.36% vs 46.16%, P=0.020). Reversible cardiotoxicity was just observed in 3 patients who treated with ATO and no other differential adverse events were observed between two groups. ATO combined with chemotherapy can significantly improve end-induction response in high-risk neuroblastoma and our novel regimen is well tolerated in pediatric patients. These results highlight the superiority of chemotherapy with arsenic trioxide, which creates new opportunity for prolonging survival. Besides, this treatment protocol furthest minimizes therapeutic costs compared with anti-GD2 therapy, MIBG and proton therapy, and can decrease the burden to families and society. However, we also need to bring into more cases to consolidate our conclusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/096504021X16184815905096DOI Listing
April 2021

Effective Deep Attributed Network Representation Learning With Topology Adapted Smoothing.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 Mar 26;PP. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Attributed networks are ubiquitous in the real world, such as social networks. Therefore, many researchers take the node attributes into consideration in the network representation learning to improve the downstream task performance. In this article, we mainly focus on an untouched ``oversmoothing'' problem in the research of the attributed network representation learning. Although the Laplacian smoothing has been applied by the state-of-the-art works to learn a more robust node representation, these works cannot adapt to the topological characteristics of different networks, thereby causing the new oversmoothing problem and reducing the performance on some networks. In contrast, we adopt a smoothing parameter that is evaluated from the topological characteristics of a specified network, such as small worldness or node convergency and, thus, can smooth the nodes' attribute and structure information adaptively and derive both robust and distinguishable node features for different networks. Moreover, we develop an integrated autoencoder to learn the node representation by reconstructing the combination of the smoothed structure and attribute information. By observation of extensive experiments, our approach can preserve the intrinsical information of networks more effectively than the state-of-the-art works on a number of benchmark datasets with very different topological characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCYB.2021.3064092DOI Listing
March 2021

High-efficiency full-surface defects detection for an ICF capsule based on a null interferometric microscope.

Appl Opt 2021 Feb;60(4):A62-A72

Laser inertial confinement fusion (ICF) triggers a nuclear fusion reaction via the evenly compressed capsule containing deuterium tritium fuel with a high-power laser. However, isolated defects on the surface of the capsules reduce the probability of ignition. In this paper, we present a full-surface defects detection method based on a null interferometric microscope (NIM) to achieve high-precision, high-efficiency, and full-surface defects detection on ICF capsules. A dynamic phase-shifting module is applied to the NIM to achieve a single-shot measurement in a single subaperture. With the capsule controlling system, the capsule is rotated and scanned along a planned lattice to get all subapertures measured. The eccentricity error can be measured from wavefront aberrations and compensated online to guarantee the measurement accuracy during the scanning process. After the scanning process, all of the surface defects are identified on the full-surface map. Theories and experimental results indicate that for the capsule with 875-µm-diameter, the lateral resolution could reach 0.7 µm and the measurement time is less than 1 h. The number of sampling points can reach about 50 million. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed system is the first to achieve full-surface defects detection of ICF capsules with such high efficiency and high resolution at the same time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.404174DOI Listing
February 2021

Nitrogen forms and metabolism affect plant defence to foliar and root pathogens in tomato.

Plant Cell Environ 2021 May 21;44(5):1596-1610. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Department of Horticulture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Nitrogen (N) influences a myriad of physiological processes while its effects on plant defences and the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, the interaction between tomato and pathogens was examined under four N regimes (sole NO or mixed NO /NH of total 1 and 7 mM N, denoting low and high N regimes, respectively) followed by inoculation with two bacterial pathogens, Pseudomonas syringae and Ralstonia solanacearum. Tomato immunity against both pathogens was generally higher under low N as well as NO as the sole N source. The disease susceptibility was reduced by silencing N metabolism genes such as NR, NiR and Fd-GOGAT, while increased in NiR1-overexpressed plants. Further studies demonstrated that the N-modulated defence was dependent on the salicylic acid (SA) defence pathway. Low N as well as the silencing of N metabolism genes increased the SA levels and transcripts of its maker genes, and low N-enhanced defence was blocked in NahG transgenic tomato plants that do not accumulate SA, while exogenous SA application attenuated the susceptibility of OE-NiR1. The study provides insights into the mechanisms of how nitrogen fertilization and metabolism affect plant immunity in tomato, which might be useful for designing effective agronomic strategies for the management of N supply.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pce.14019DOI Listing
May 2021

Comprehensive analysis of ceRNA network related to lincRNA in glioblastoma and prediction of clinical prognosis.

BMC Cancer 2021 Jan 26;21(1):98. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Neurosurgery, Hongqi Hospital Affiliated to Mudanjiang Medical University, No. 5, Tongxiang Road, Aimin, MuDanJiang, HeiLongJiang, China.

Background: Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are capable of regulating several tumours, while competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks are of great significance in revealing the biological mechanism of tumours. Here, we aimed to study the ceRNA network of lincRNA in glioblastoma (GBM).

Methods: We obtained GBM and normal brain tissue samples from TCGA, GTEx, and GEO databases, and performed weighted gene co-expression network analysis and differential expression analysis on all lincRNA and mRNA data. Subsequently, we predicted the interaction between lincRNAs, miRNAs, and target mRNAs. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed on the mRNAs using CGGA data, and a Cox proportional hazards regression model was constructed. The ceRNA network was further screened by the DEmiRNA and mRNA of Cox model.

Results: A prognostic prediction model was constructed for patients with GBM. We assembled a ceRNA network consisting of 18 lincRNAs, 6 miRNAs, and 8 mRNAs. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis was carried out on four lincRNAs with obvious differential expressions and relatively few studies in GBM.

Conclusion: We identified four lincRNAs that have research value for GBM and obtained the ceRNA network. Our research is expected to facilitate in-depth understanding and study of the molecular mechanism of GBM, and provide new insights into targeted therapy and prognosis of the tumour.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-07817-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7836476PMC
January 2021

Transcriptome analysis of salt stress responsiveness in the seedlings of wild and cultivated Ricinus communis L.

J Biotechnol 2021 Feb 6;327:106-116. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

College of Life Science, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, 150040, China. Electronic address:

Soil salinity is one of the major environmental factors, influencing agricultural productivity of crops. As a non-edible and ideal oilseed crop, castor (Ricinus communis L.) has great industrial value in biofuel, but molecular mechanisms of salt stress regulation are still unknown. In this study, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for differential salt tolerance in two castor cultivar (wild castor : Y, cultivated castor 'Tongbi 5': Z) were identified. 12 libraries were sampled for Illumina high-throughput sequencing to consider 132,426 nonredundant unigenes and 31,221 gene loci. Multiple phytohormones and transcription factors (TFs) were correlated with salt-tolerance and differently enriched in these two genotypes. The type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2C) homologs were all upregulated under salt stress. Importantly, IAA (1), DELLA (1) and Jasmonate zim domain (JAZ) (1) were also identified and found to be differentially expressed. Based on the co-expressed module by regulatory networks and heatmap analysis, ERF/AP2, WRKY and bHLH families were prominently participate in high salt stress response of wild and cultivated castor. Finally, these results highlight that the hub DEGs and families were more accumulated in cultivated castor than those in wild castor, providing novel insights into the salinity adaptive mechanisms and genetic improvement in castor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2020.12.020DOI Listing
February 2021

Transcriptomic and genetic approaches reveal an essential role of the NAC transcription factor SlNAP1 in the growth and defense response of tomato.

Hortic Res 2020 Dec 25;7(1):209. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Department of Horticulture, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, 310058, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China.

With global climate change, plants are frequently being exposed to various stresses, such as pathogen attack, drought, and extreme temperatures. Transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in numerous plant biological processes; however, the functions of many tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) TFs that regulate plant responses to multiple stresses are largely unknown. Here, using an RNA-seq approach, we identified SlNAP1, a NAC TF-encoding gene, which was strongly induced by various stresses. By generating SlNAP1 transgenic lines and evaluating their responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in tomato, we found that SlNAP1-overexpressing plants showed significantly enhanced defense against two widespread bacterial diseases, leaf speck disease, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000, and root-borne bacterial wilt disease, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. In addition, SlNAP1 overexpression dramatically improved drought tolerance in tomato. Although the SlNAP1-overexpressing plants were shorter than the wild-type plants during the early vegetative stage, eventually, their fruit yield increased by 10.7%. Analysis of different hormone contents revealed a reduced level of physiologically active gibberellins (GAs) and an increased level of salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in the SlNAP1-overexpressing plants. Moreover, EMSAs and ChIP-qPCR assays showed that SlNAP1 directly activated the transcription of multiple genes involved in GA deactivation and both SA and ABA biosynthesis. Our findings reveal that SlNAP1 is a positive regulator of the tomato defense response against multiple stresses and thus may be a potential breeding target for improving crop yield and stress resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-020-00442-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7759572PMC
December 2020

Long-Term Prognosis of Moderate to Severe Coronary Artery Calcification in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

Circ J 2020 Dec 9;85(1):50-58. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Cardiology, Fu Wai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Peking Union Medical College & Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences.

Background: Moderate/severe coronary artery calcification (CAC) predicts worse clinical outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, to date most studies have been modest in size and with limited follow-up. We aimed to assess the association between calcification severity and long-term clinical outcomes in a large cohort undergoing PCI.Methods and Results:In total, 10,068 consecutive patients who underwent PCI at Fuwai Hospital were enrolled in this prospective observational study. Patients were categorized as none/mild or moderate/severe CAC according to the severity of the target lesion by visual assessment of coronary angiography. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), a composite event of death, myocardial infarction and revascularization, at 5 years were assessed. None/mild CAC was observed in 8,229 (81.7%) patients, and moderate/severe CAC was observed in 1,839 (18.3%) patients. Patients with moderate/severe CAC had a significantly higher rate of 5-year unplanned revascularization (15.2% vs. 13.2%, P=0.022) and MACE (20.7% vs. 17.9%, P=0.005). After propensity score matching, the moderate/severe CAC group still had a higher rate of 5-year unplanned revascularization (15.2% vs. 12.6%, P=0.019). Cox regression analysis using clinically significant variables revealed moderate/severe calcification was independently associated with higher risk of 2-year unplanned target vessel revascularization (hazard ratio (HR)=1.287, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.036-1.600, P=0.023) and MACE (HR=1.242, 95% CI: 1.039-1.484, P=0.017), but not 5-year unplanned revascularization and MACE.

Conclusions: In patients undergoing PCI, moderate/severe coronary calcification increases the risk of long-term MACE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-20-0761DOI Listing
December 2020

High CO - and pathogen-driven expression of the carbonic anhydrase βCA3 confers basal immunity in tomato.

New Phytol 2021 03 12;229(5):2827-2843. Epub 2020 Dec 12.

Department of Horticulture, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

Atmospheric CO concentrations exert a strong influence on the susceptibility of plants to pathogens. However, the mechanisms involved in the CO -dependent regulation of pathogen resistance are largely unknown. Here we show that the expression of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) β-CARBONIC ANHYDRASE 3 (βCA3) is induced by the virulent pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. The role of βCA3 in the high CO -mediated response in tomato and two other Solanaceae crops is distinct from that in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using βCA3 knock-out and over-expression plants, we demonstrate that βCA3 plays a positive role in the activation of basal immunity, particularly under high CO . βCA3 is transcriptionally activated by the transcription factor NAC43 and is also post-translationally regulated by the receptor-like kinase GRACE1. The βCA3 pathway of basal immunity is independent on stomatal- and salicylic-acid-dependent regulation. Global transcriptome analysis and cell wall metabolite measurement implicate cell wall metabolism/integrity in βCA3-mediated basal immunity under both CO conditions. These data not only highlight the importance of βCA3 in plant basal immunity under high CO in a well-studied susceptible crop-pathogen system, but they also point to new targets for disease management strategies in a changing climate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.17087DOI Listing
March 2021

Long non-coding RNA NCK1-AS1 promotes the proliferation, migration and invasion of non-small cell lung cancer cells by acting as a ceRNA of miR-137.

Am J Transl Res 2020 15;12(10):6908-6920. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Weifang People's Hospital Weifang City, Shandong Province, China.

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play important roles in carcinogenesis and progression. In this study, we mainly investigate the potential influence of lncRNA NCK1 antisense RNA 1 (NCK1-AS1) on the progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). RT-PCR was performed to determine the expression of NCK1-AS1 and miR-137 in NSCLC specimens and cell lines. The clinical significance of NCK1-AS1 in 148 patients was analyzed statistically. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed to estimate the diagnostic value of NCK1-AS1 and miR-137. Regulatory effects of NCK1-AS1 on proliferative, colony formation abilities, metastasis and apoptosis of SK-MES-1 and H1299 cells were assessed through a series of functional experiments. RNA-pull down and Dual-Luciferase reporter assay was performed to verify the sponge effect of NCK1-AS1 on miR-137. We observed that NCK1-AS1 expression was upregulated, while miR-137 expression was down-regulated in NSCLC specimens and cell lines. Increased NCK1-AS1 expression was positively correlated with TNM stage and lymph node metastasis and poor clinical outcome. The diagnostic value of NCK1-AS1 and miR-137 expression was also confirmed. Functionally, knockdown of NCK1-AS1 suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of NSCLC cells, and promoted apoptosis. Moreover, NCK1-AS1 was able to adsorb miR-137 via a sponge effect. Overall, our findings suggested that NCK1-AS1 may be a candidate biomarker and a target for new therapies in NSCLC patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7653585PMC
October 2020

Characterization of dissolved organic matter for understanding the adsorption on nanomaterials in aquatic environment: A review.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 23;269:128690. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Environment & Energy, Sejong University, Seoul, 05006, South Korea. Electronic address:

Nanomaterials (NMs) have received tremendous attention as emerging adsorbents for environmental applications. The ever-increasing release into aquatic systems and the potential use in water treatment processes heighten the likelihood of the interactions of NMs with aquatic dissolved organic matter (DOM). Once DOM is adsorbed on NMs, it substantially modifies the surface properties, thus altering the fate and transport of NMs, as well as their toxic effects on (micro)organisms in natural and engineered systems. The environmental consequences of DOM-NMs interaction have been widely studied in the literature. In contrast, a comprehensive understanding of DOM-NM complexes, particularly regarding the controlling factors, is still lacking, and its significance has been largely overlooked. This gap in the knowledge mainly arises from the complex and heterogeneous structures of the DOM, which prompts the urgent need to further characterize the DOM properties to deepen the understanding associated with the adsorption processes on NMs. This review aims to provide in-depth insights into the complex DOM adsorption behavior onto NMs, whether they are metal- or carbon-based materials. First, we summarize the up-to-date analytical methods to characterize the DOM to unravel the underlying adsorption mechanisms. Second, the key DOM characteristics governing the adsorption processes are discussed. Next, the environmental factors, such as the nature of adsorbents and solution chemistry, affecting the DOM-NM interactions, are identified and discussed. Finally, future studies are recommended to fully understand the chemical traits of DOM upon its adsorption onto NMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128690DOI Listing
April 2021

Modelling and correction for polarization errors of a 600 mm aperture dynamic Fizeau interferometer.

Opt Express 2020 Oct;28(22):33355-33370

The polarization errors of large aperture dynamic interferometers based on the polarization phase shifting method are mainly coming from the effects of imperfect polarized elements and birefringence of large elements. Using the Lissajous ellipse fitting algorithm to correct the influence of the polarized device can effectively eliminate single and double frequency print through errors. We develop a wave plate model for analyzing the birefringence effect, and on this basis, we establish the relationship between the calculated phase and the ideal phase distribution. Experiments are carried out on a 600mm aperture Fizeau interferometer and then compared with the result acquired through the wavelength tuning method. The difference between PV is only 0.002λ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.409983DOI Listing
October 2020

Identification and Pharmacokinetics of Quinone Reductase 2 Inhibitors after Oral Administration of L. Extract in Rat by LC-MS/MS.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Oct 15;68(43):11975-11986. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016, Liaoning, People's Republic of China.

L. (mangosteen) is a famous tropical fruit that contains a large number of xanthones. Regular consumption of mangosteen may confer health benefits and prevent some diseases, such as malaria. Quinone reductase 2 (QR-2) is a cytosolic enzyme found in human red blood cells, and it is becoming a target for chemoprevention because it is involved in the mechanisms of several diseases, including malaria. To understand whether the xanthones present in mangosteen might inhibit the activity of QR-2, blood samples were collected from rat following the oral administration of mangosteen extract and then incubated with QR-2 followed by UF-HPLC-QTOF/MS analysis to rapidly screen for and identify the QR-2-inhibiting xanthones. A total of 16 xanthones were identified, and six of these (α-mangostin, γ-mangostin, 8-deoxyartanin, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2,8-di(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone, garcinone E, and 9-hydroxycalabaxanthone) were subjected to QR-2 inhibition assay. γ-Mangostin exhibited the strongest inhibition, achieving an IC value of 3.82 ± 0.51 μM. Its interaction with QR-2 was found to involve hydrogen bond and arene-arene interaction as revealed by molecular docking. The present study could provide new insight into the potential application of mangosteen as functional food ingredients for inhibiting the activity of QR-2. However, the extent of daily intake of mangosteen required and the exact contribution of mangosteen to the prevention and treatment of malaria remain subjects of further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c04439DOI Listing
October 2020

Performance of an Integrated Membrane Process with Electrochemical Pre-Treatment on Poultry Slaughterhouse Wastewater Purification.

Membranes (Basel) 2020 Sep 24;10(10). Epub 2020 Sep 24.

State Key Laboratory of Separation Membranes and Membrane Processes, National Center for International Joint Research on Separation Membranes, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tiangong University, Tianjin 300387, China.

Industrial activities produce a variety of pollutants that may not be easily treated using centralized wastewater treatment systems based on a single treatment unit. The variability of the pollutants brings the importance of industrial-specific integrated wastewater treatment plants such as integrated membrane filtration systems. However, the performance of a membrane filtration process can be highly affected by the presence of high amounts of suspended particles in the raw wastewater. Therefore, proper selection of a pre-treatment unit prior to a membrane filtration wastewater treatment system is a key aspect of its performance. This study investigated the performance of an integrated membrane filtration treatment system connected to an electrochemical process (pre-treatment) on the purification of a poultry slaughterhouse wastewater toward achieving a high-quality effluent. The industrial-scale treatment plant installed at the Izhevsk Production Corporative (PC) poultry farm in Kazakhstan is composed of an electrochemical, ultrafiltration (UF), and reverse osmosis (RO) as the main treatment units. From the analysis results, the electrochemical pre-treatment unit was observed to be highly effective for the removal of some physicochemical parameters such as turbidity, color, total suspended solids, total iron, aluminum, chemical oxygen demand, and biochemical oxygen demand; with removal efficiency ranging from 71 to 85%. The low removal efficiency of the pre-treatment system was also observed from free and total chlorine, nitrites, nitrates, phosphates, and ammonium nitrogen; with removal efficiency ranging from 4 to 45%. While in general, the overall treatment train was observed to be highly efficient for some physicochemical parameters such as turbidity, color, total suspended solids, as well as chemical and biochemical oxygen demand; maintaining almost 100% removal efficiency throughout the study period. Also, the high removal efficiency of the electrochemical pre-treatment processes led to a relatively low rate of cake formation on the membrane filters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/membranes10100256DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7599518PMC
September 2020

The 17-y spatiotemporal trend of PM and its mortality burden in China.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 10 21;117(41):25601-25608. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100037, China;

Investigations on the chronic health effects of fine particulate matter (PM) exposure in China are limited due to the lack of long-term exposure data. Using satellite-driven models to generate spatiotemporally resolved PM levels, we aimed to estimate high-resolution, long-term PM and associated mortality burden in China. The multiangle implementation of atmospheric correction (MAIAC) aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 1-km resolution was employed as a primary predictor to estimate PM concentrations. Imputation techniques were adopted to fill in the missing AOD retrievals and provide accurate long-term AOD aggregations. Monthly PM concentrations in China from 2000 to 2016 were estimated using machine-learning approaches and used to analyze spatiotemporal trends of adult mortality attributable to PM exposure. Mean coverage of AOD increased from 56 to 100% over the 17-y period, with the accuracy of long-term averages enhanced after gap filling. Machine-learning models performed well with a random cross-validation of 0.93 at the monthly level. For the time period outside the model training window, prediction values were estimated to be 0.67 and 0.80 at the monthly and annual levels. Across the adult population in China, long-term PM exposures accounted for a total number of 30.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 28.6, 33.2) million premature deaths over the 17-y period, with an annual burden ranging from 1.5 (95% CI: 1.3, 1.6) to 2.2 (95% CI: 2.1, 2.4) million. Our satellite-based techniques provide reliable long-term PM estimates at a high spatial resolution, enhancing the assessment of adverse health effects and disease burden in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1919641117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7568266PMC
October 2020

Gender-differential effects on blood glucose levels between acarbose and metformin in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a sub-analysis of the MARCH trial.

Endocr J 2021 Jan 10;68(1):69-79. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, 100029, China.

Using the data from the trial of Metformin and AcaRbose in Chinese as the initial Hypoglycemic treatment (MARCH), this study was performed to compare the differential effects of acarbose and metformin on glucose metabolism after stratification by gender. Six hundred and forty patients who had finished the whole 48-week follow-up were included. The reduction of haemoglobin A1c (HbA) was comparable between acarbose- and metformin-treated patients among either females or males, and it was also similar between males and females treated with either acarbose or metformin for 24 and 48 weeks. The dropping of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in acarbose-treated females was significantly less than that in metformin-treated females at both 24 and 48 weeks. Furthermore, the decrease of 2-hour postprandial glucose (2hPPG) in acarbose-treated males was significantly greater than that in metformin-treated males at both 24 and 48 weeks. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that drug selection was an independent factor affecting the decrease of FPG in female patients while it independently influenced 2hPPG in males at week 24 and 48. The reductions of FPG and 2hPPG at week 24 and 48 were also significantly different between metformin-treated females and metformin-treated males although gender was not an independent regulating factor. Our study indicates that there might be gender-differential effects on FPG and 2hPPG reduction when the comparisons are made between acarbose and metformin treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1507/endocrj.EJ20-0006DOI Listing
January 2021

Gut microbiota is involved in the alleviation of loperamide-induced constipation by honey supplementation in mice.

Food Sci Nutr 2020 Aug 27;8(8):4388-4398. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

The Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University Dalian China.

Constipation is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders accompanied with intestinal dysbiosis. Laxatives for constipation usually have side effects. Bee honey is a natural food with unique composition, antimicrobial properties, and bifidogenic effect. In order to assess whether honey can ameliorate loperamide-induced constipation in BALB/c mice through the alteration of the gut microbiota, the present study was undertaken. Mice were given Jarrah honey (7.5 g/kg body weight) by gavage once per day for 5 days. Fecal water content, intestinal transit rate together with the colon concentrations of substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) were evaluated. Furthermore, we determined the effect of honey treatment on gut microbiota in mice using stool genomic 16S rRNA sequencing. As a result, honey showed an obvious improvement in fecal water content and alleviated constipation by modulating the microbial composition of the microbiota, and this was highly associated with a proportional decrease in gut . In addition, we found that the colon level of neurotransmitters SP and VIP was significantly related to microbial variations. Our results indicate that gut microbiota is involved in the alleviation of loperamide-induced constipation by honey supplementation in mice, and it could be considered as an evaluating parameter in constipation therapy strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1736DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7455974PMC
August 2020

Application of polyamide 6 microfiber non-woven fabrics in the large-scale production of all-solid-state lithium metal batteries.

J Power Sources 2020 Nov 23;475:228663. Epub 2020 Aug 23.

State Key Laboratory of Separation Membranes and Membrane Processes, National Center for International Joint Research on Separation Membranes, School of Textile Science and Engineering, Tiangong University, Tianjin, 300387, PR China.

All-solid-state electrolytes have received extensive attention due to their excellent safety and good electrochemical performance. However, due to the harsh conditions of the preparation process, the commercial production of all-solid-state electrolytes remains a challenge. The outbreak of the novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) has caused great inconvenience to people, while also allowing soft, lightweight and mass-producible non-woven fabrics in masks come into sight. Here, a polymer/polymer solid composite electrolyte is obtained by introducing the polyamide 6 (PA6) microfiber non-woven fabric into PEO polymer through the hot-pressing method. The addition of the PA6 non-woven fabric with lithium-philic properties can not only reduce the crystallinity of the polymer, but also provide more functional transmission sites and then promote the migration of lithium ions at the molecular level. Moreover, due to the sufficient mechanical strength and flexibility of the PA6 non-woven fabric, the composite electrolyte shows excellent inhibition ability of lithium dendrite growth and high electrochemical stability. The novel design concept of introducing low-cost and large-scale production of non-woven fabrics into all-solid-state composite electrolytes to develop high-performance lithium metal batteries is attractive, and can also be broadened to the combination of different types of polymers to meet the needs of various batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2020.228663DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7443327PMC
November 2020

Typically inhibiting USP14 promotes autophagy in M1-like macrophages and alleviates CLP-induced sepsis.

Cell Death Dis 2020 08 20;11(8):666. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing, 210023, China.

Macrophages, with diverse functions and variable phenotypes, are considered as an important executor of inflammatory diseases. And it has been proved that autophagy is deeply connected with the development of inflammation, while the exact regulatory mechanism still remains unclear, and the application of autophagy regulators in anti-inflammation needs to be further confirmed. Here, we firstly verified that neochromine S5 (hereinafter referred to as S5) significantly inhibited M1-like macrophage polarization with decrease of the proinflammatory cytokines and downregulation of NF-κB and STAT1 signals. Then, in vivo experiments demonstrated S5 improved cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis specially based on the regulation of M1-like macrophages. Mechanistic studies indicated that S5 treatment dramatically upregulated cellular autophagy in M1-like macrophage. Furthermore, by multiple methods, S5 was revealed to directly bind with ubiquitin-specific proteases 14 (USP14) at Ser404, Phe405, and Cys414 by hydrogen bond to inhibit its deubiquitinating activity, and block USP14-TRAF6 (TNF receptor associated factor 6) interaction, subsequently promoting ubiquitination of Beclin1, interrupting Beclin1-Bcl2 interaction, and accumulating the autophagosome in macrophages, which finally resulted in the blockade of M1-like macrophage polarization. Animal experiments also confirmed the protection of S5 in CLP mice was dependent on activation of macrophage autophagy. What's more, as a novel USP14 inhibitor, S5 exhibited higher efficiency and safety than IU1, the known USP14 inhibitor. Therefore, this study has demonstrated that typically inhibiting USP14 promotes autophagy in M1-like macrophages and alleviates CLP-induced sepsis. Moreover, we provide a new candidate compound, S5, for sensitizing autophagy to interfere with the macrophage inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-02898-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7441392PMC
August 2020

Sub-Acute Treatment of Curcumin Derivative J147 Ameliorates Depression-Like Behavior Through 5-HT-Mediated cAMP Signaling.

Front Neurosci 2020 8;14:701. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Gastroenterology, Wenzhou No. 3 Clinical Institute Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou People's Hospital, Wenzhou, China.

Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe mental disorder related to the deficiency of monoamine neurotransmitters, particularly to abnormalities of 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) and its receptors. Our previous study suggested that acute treatment with a novel curcumin derivative J147 exhibited antidepressant-like effects by increasing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level in the hippocampus of mice. The present study expanded upon our previous findings and investigated the antidepressant-like effects of sub-acute treatment of J147 for 3 days in male ICR mice and its possible relevancy to 5-HT and 5-HT receptors and downstream cAMP-BDNF signaling.

Methods: J147 at doses of 1, 3, and 9 mg/kg (via gavage) was administered for 3 days, and the anti-immobility time in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests (FST and TST) was recorded. The radioligand binding assay was used to determine the affinity of J147 to 5-HT and 5-HT receptor. Moreover, 5-HT or 5-HT agonist or its antagonist was used to determine which 5-HT receptor subtype is involved in the antidepressant-like effects of J147. The downstream signaling molecules such as cAMP, PKA, pCREB, and BDNF were also measured to determine the mechanism of action.

Results: The results demonstrated that sub-acute treatment of J147 remarkably decreased the immobility time in both the FST and TST in a dose-dependent manner. J147 displayed high affinity to 5-HT receptor prepared from mice cortical tissue and was less potent at 5-HT receptor. These effects of J147 were blocked by pretreatment with a 5-HT antagonist NAD-299 and enhanced by a 5-HT agonist 8-OH-DPAT. However, 5-HT receptor antagonist NAS-181 did not appreciably alter the effects of J147 on depression-like behaviors. Moreover, pretreatment with NAD-299 blocked J147-induced increases in cAMP, PKA, pCREB, and BDNF expression in the hippocampus, while 8-OH-DPAT enhanced the effects of J147 on these proteins' expression.

Conclusion: The results suggest that J147 induces rapid antidepressant-like effects during a 3-day treatment period without inducing drug tolerance. These effects might be mediated by 5-HT-dependent cAMP/PKA/pCREB/BDNF signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00701DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7360862PMC
July 2020

Applying a new pomelo peel derived biochar in microbial fell cell for enhancing sulfonamide antibiotics removal in swine wastewater.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Dec 23;318:123886. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Faculty of Environmental Sciences, VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Viet Nam.

A sequential anode-cathode double-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a promising system for simultaneously removing contaminants, recovering nutrients and producing energy from swine wastewater. To improve sulfonamide antibiotics (SMs)'s removal in the continuous operating of MFC, one new pomelo peel-derived biochar was applied in the anode chamber in this study. Results demonstrated that SMs can be absorbed onto the heterogeneous surfaces of biochar through pore-filling and π-π EDA interaction. Adding biochar to a certain concentration (500 mg/L) could enhance the efficiency in removing sulfamethoxazole, sulfadiazine and sulfamethazine to 82.44-88.15%, 53.40-77.53% and 61.12-80.68%, respectively. Moreover, electricity production, COD and nutrients removal were improved by increasing the concentration of biochar. Hence, it is proved that adding biochar in MFC could effectively improve the performance of MFC in treating swine wastewater containing SMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123886DOI Listing
December 2020

Simultaneously enhancing degradation of refractory organics and achieving nitrogen removal by coupling denitrifying biocathode with MnO/Ti anode.

J Hazard Mater 2021 01 15;402:123467. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

State Key Laboratory of Separation Membranes and Membrane Processes, National Center for International Joint Research on Membrane Science and Technology, Tiangong University, Tianjin 300387, China; School of Material Science and Engineering, Tiangong University, Tianjin 300387, China. Electronic address:

To simultaneously remove carbon and nitrogen from refractory organic wastewater, this study couples the denitrifying biocathode and MnO/Ti anode to oxidize refractory organic pollutants in the anode chamber and remove NO-N in the cathode chamber (denitrifying biocathode-electrocatalytic reactor, DBECR). After inoculation, DBECR started up at 1.3 and 1.5 V with NO-N reduction peak appearing on the cyclic voltammetry curve and increased NO-N removal by approximately 90 %. Compared to the electrocatalytic reactor without inoculation (ECR), NO-N removal of DBECR significantly increased from 0.09 to 0.45 kg NO-N/m NCC/d (NCC: net cathodic compartment). NO-N removal correlated well with charges/current flowing through the circuit of DBECR, further validating the presence of electrotrophic denitrifiers. Moreover, coupling of denitrifying biocathode significantly enhanced methylene blue (MB) removal in the anode chamber (0.18 ± 0.002 and 2.92 ± 0.02 g COD/m/d for ECR and DBECR, respectively). This was because the growth of eletrotrophic denitrifiers increased the cathodic potential and thus the potential of MnO/Ti anode. The higher potential of MnO/Ti anode promoted the generation of hydroxyl radicals and consequently promoted MB removal. This study demonstrated that DBECR not only realized nitrogen removal in the cathode chamber, but also enhanced refractory organic carbon degradation in the anode chamber.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123467DOI Listing
January 2021

Chronic Effects of High Fine Particulate Matter Exposure on Lung Cancer in China.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2020 12;202(11):1551-1559

Department of Epidemiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Limited cohort studies have evaluated chronic effects of high fine particulate matter (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm [PM]) exposure on lung cancer. To investigate the response pattern of lung cancer associated with high PM exposure. A Chinese cohort of 118,551 participants was followed up from 1992 to 2015. By incorporating PM exposure at 1 km spatial resolution generated using the satellite-based model during 2000-2015, we estimated the association between lung cancer and time-weighted average PM concentration using Cox proportional hazard models. A total of 844 incident lung cancer cases were identified during 915,053 person-years of follow-up. Among them, 701 lung cancer deaths occurred later. The exposure-response curves for lung cancer associated with PM exposure were nonlinear, with steeper slopes at the higher concentrations. Adjusted for age, sex, geographical region, urbanization, education level, smoking status, alcohol consumption, work-related physical activity, and body mass index, participants exposed to the second-fifth quintiles of PM had higher risk for lung cancer incidence than those exposed to the first quintile, with hazard ratios of 1.44 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-1.88), 1.49 (95% CI, 1.12-1.99), 2.08 (95% CI, 1.42-3.04), and 2.45 (95% CI, 1.83-3.29), respectively. The corresponding hazard ratios for lung cancer mortality were 1.83 (95% CI, 1.33-2.50), 1.80 (95% CI, 1.29-2.53), 2.50 (95% CI, 1.62-3.86), and 2.95 (95% CI, 2.09-4.17), respectively. We provide strong evidence that high PM exposure leads to an elevated risk of lung cancer incidence and mortality, highlighting that remarkable public health benefits could be obtained from the improvement of air quality in highly polluted regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202001-0002OCDOI Listing
December 2020