Publications by authors named "Jiantao Wang"

84 Publications

Serum Heparanase: A New Clinical Biomarker Involved in Senile Metabolic Inflammatory Syndrome.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 13;14:3221-3228. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Geriatrics, Huashan Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Aging and Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200040, People's Republic of China.

Aim: Metabolic inflammation syndrome (MIS) can lead to a series of complications, but its exact inflammatory mechanism is still unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between heparanase (HPA) and MIS, and the close relationship between HPA and other chronic low-grade inflammation index, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6).

Methods: A total of 105 patients with MIS in the physical examination population of Huashan Hospital affiliated to Fudan University from May to June 2018 were selected as the MIS group, and 52 patients who were relatively healthy during the same period were used as the control group. The basic clinical data of the selected candidates were collected, the levels of serum HPA, CRP and IL-6 were measured by ELISA, and the levels of blood glucose and blood lipids were also detected.

Results: Compared with the control group, the levels of HPA, CRP, IL-6, FBG, HbA, and TG of MIS group were all significantly elevated (all P<0.05), and HDL-C levels were considerably reduced (P<0.05). Correlation analysis showed that there was a noticeably positive correlation between serum HPA level and CRP, IL-6 levels (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Higher HPA levels might play a certain role in the occurrence and development of MIS. There was a certain close correlation between serum HPA level and CRP and IL-6 levels, and which indicated that HPA was involved in the chronic low-grade inflammatory reaction process of MIS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S291612DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8286426PMC
July 2021

Role of amyloid β-peptide in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration.

BMJ Open Ophthalmol 2021 29;6(1):e000774. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Shenzhen Eye Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common eye disease in elderly patients, which could lead to irreversible vision loss and blindness. Increasing evidence indicates that amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) might be associated with the pathogenesis of AMD. In this review, we would like to summarise the current findings in this field. The literature search was done from 1995 to Feb, 2021 with following keywords, 'Amyloid β-peptide and age-related macular degeneration', 'Inflammation and age-related macular degeneration', 'Angiogenesis and age-related macular degeneration', 'Actin cytoskeleton and amyloid β-peptide', 'Mitochondrial dysfunction and amyloid β-peptide', 'Ribosomal dysregulation and amyloid β-peptide' using search engines Pubmed, Google Scholar and Web of Science. Aβ congregates in subretinal drusen of patients with AMD and participates in the pathogenesis of AMD through enhancing inflammatory activity, inducing mitochondrial dysfunction, altering ribosomal function, regulating the lysosomal pathway, affecting RNA splicing, modulating angiogenesis and modifying cell structure in AMD. The methods targeting Aβ are shown to inhibit inflammatory signalling pathway and restore the function of retinal pigment epithelium cells and photoreceptor cells in the subretinal region. Targeting Aβ may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for AMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjophth-2021-000774DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245440PMC
June 2021

Retrograde fluorogold labeling of retinal ganglion cells in neonatal mice.

Ann Transl Med 2021 May;9(10):878

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: The neonatal period, especially postnatal day 10 (P10), is important for mouse retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) development, and an effective labeling technique to track neonatal RGCs is needed. Retrograde fluorogold (FG) labeling is widely used for adult mouse RGCs, but its applicability for the neonatal mouse is still unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficiency of retrograde FG labeling in P10 mice.

Methods: The anatomic location of the superior colliculus (SC) of P10 wild-type C57/BL6J mice was clarified by histological brain section and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Three doses of 3% FG were injected into the SC of 30 mice, and 3 days post-surgery, labeling efficiency was quantified by retinal flat-mounts, and labeling safety was evaluated by mice mortality.

Results: Samples of brain tissue from 2-3.5 mm posterior to the bregma, and from 0.5-2.0 mm lateral to the midline showed major SC-related structures. The FG-positive RGC density in the 0.3 µL group was 3,563.9±311.9 cells/mm, significantly more than in the 0.6 µL group (1,718.6±177.1 cells/mm) or 1.0 µL group (2,496.8±342.2 cells/mm). The mortality rate was 10% in both the 0.3 and 0.6 µL groups, but 40% in the 1.0 µL group.

Conclusions: The appropriate labeling site in P10 mice was confirmed and 0.3 µL FG is an appropriate dose for retrograde labeling of RGCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-2022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184436PMC
May 2021

Probiotic K12 Alleviates Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis in Mice.

Front Immunol 2021 4;12:684824. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Department of Cariology and Endodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: Oral mucositis is the most common oral complication of cancer patients receiving radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, leading to poor quality of life. Limitations of the current interventions on radiation-induced oral mucositis (RIOM) urge the development of novel therapeutics. Here, we evaluated the treatment outcome of probiotic K12 on RIOM mice, and oral microbiota that is associated with the progress of RIOM was further investigated.

Methods: An experimental RIOM mouse model was established, and K12 was applied to the mouse oral cavity daily. Histological analyses were performed to evaluate the severity of oral mucositis and the treatment outcome of K12. The oral microbiota of mice was further analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing, microbial culture and qPCR.

Results: Irradiation induced conspicuous mucositis in the oral cavity of mice. K12 treatment was beneficial for the healing of RIOM, as reflected by reduced ulcer size, increased basal layer epithelial cellularity and mucosal thickness, and elevated epithelial proliferation and attenuated apoptosis. RIOM mice presented significant oral microbial dysbiosis, with an overgrowth of oral anaerobes. K12 treatment reconstituted the oral microbiota and decreased the abundance of oral anaerobes of RIOM mice. In addition, K12 treatment inhibited NI1060 in genus and downregulated the expression of nitrate reductase.

Conclusions: K12 treatment can alleviate RIOM and reconstituted the dysbiotic oral microbiota in mice. K12 may represent a promising adjuvant treatment to improve the quality of life of cancer patients receiving radiotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.684824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213397PMC
June 2021

Surgical membranectomy with modified incision and capsulotomy microscissors for persistent pupillary membrane.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May;10(5):5619-5626

Shenzhen Eye Hospital, Shenzhen Eye Hospital affiliated to Jinan University, School of Optometry, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.

Background: To evaluate the visual outcome and complications of surgical membranectomy with modified incision and capsulotomy microscissors in patients with persistent pupillary membrane (PPM).

Methods: We enrolled eight eyes with PPM in six patients and performed surgical membranectomy with modified incision located near the limbus and corresponding to the middle of the densest membrane strands. Strands near the collarette of the iris were then cut using capsulotomy microscissors and thick strands were removed with capculorhexis forceps. Complications during or after surgery were evaluated, and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were compared pre- and post-surgery.

Results: The mean age of the patients at surgery was 9.5±3.4 years (range, 5.3 to 13.8 years). Bilateral PPMs were found in two patients, small anterior capsular cataracts not locating on the visual axis in three eyes, and deprivational amblyopia in four eyes. There were no traumatic cataracts, endophthalmitis, corneal opacities, or other complications in patients during or after modified surgical membranectomy. After a mean follow-up period of 5.8±0.4 (range, 5.0 to 6.0) months, UCVA was significantly improved from 0.23±0.14 to 0.36±0.20(P=0.026), and BCVA was also significantly improved from 0.32±0.22 pre-operatively to 0.56±0.25 post-operatively (P=0.006).

Conclusions: Surgical membranectomy with modified incision and capsulotomy microscissors may be a safe approach to clear the visual axis of patients with PPM. However further treatments were needed in amblyopic eyes after surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-995DOI Listing
May 2021

New compound heterozygous CYP4V2 mutations in bietti crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy.

Gene 2021 Jul 5;790:145698. Epub 2021 May 5.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Shenzhen Eye Hospital, Jinan University, Shenzhen 518040, China; School of Optometry, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518040, China. Electronic address:

Bietti crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy (BCD) is an autosomal recessive retinal dystrophy which is caused by the mutations of CYP4V2, usually progressing to legal blindness by the 5th or 6th decade of life. Here we identified CYP4V2 compound heterozygous mutations in two female siblings with BCD without subjective symptoms. After 381 pathogenic genes related to retinal diseases were screened by targeted sequence capture array techniques and confirmed by Sanger sequencing, two compound heterozygous mutations in CYP4V2 were found. One was missense mutation c.1198C>T (p.R400C) and the other was frameshift mutation c.802-8_810delinsGC (p.V268_E329del). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed that the ellipsoid zone was absent in the macular regions and electroretinogram (ERG) revealed poor cone and rod responses. Compound heterozygous mutations in CYP4V2 are related to the BCD. Our study expands our knowledge of heterogenic phenotypes and genotypes through genetic diagnosis of the BCD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2021.145698DOI Listing
July 2021

Tuning an Electrode Work Function Using Organometallic Complexes in Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 May 27;143(20):7759-7768. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Xueyuan Avenue 1088, Shenzhen 518055, China.

Low-work-function (WF) metals (including silver (Ag), aluminum (Al), and copper (Cu)) used as external cathodes in inverted perovskite solar cells (PSCs) encounter oxidation caused by air exposure and halogen-diffusion-induced corrosion, which threaten the long-term stability of the device. The cathode interlayer (CIL) has shown promise in reducing the metal WF and thus boosting the device power conversion efficiency (PCE). However, it remains a challenge for current CIL materials to enable high-WF metals (e.g., Au) to be used as cathodes to achieve PSCs with a superior PCE and long-term stability. Here, we use a series of synthesized (carbolong-derived) organometallic complexes as CILs to tune the electrode WF in inverted PSCs. Density functional theory calculations and surface characterizations show that the organometallic complexes that contain anions and cations are prone to form anion-cation dipoles on the metal surface, hence drastically reducing the metal's WF. Photovoltaic devices based on a Ag cathode, which was modified with these organometallic complexes, received a boosted PCE up to 21.29% and a remarkable fill factor that reached 83.52%, which are attributed to the dipole-enhanced carrier transport. The environmental stability of PSCs was further improved after employing Au as a cathode with these organometallic complexes, and the modified devices exhibited no efficiency loss after 4080 h storage measurements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c02118DOI Listing
May 2021

Cross-attention multi-branch network for fundus diseases classification using SLO images.

Med Image Anal 2021 07 10;71:102031. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

National-Regional Key Technology Engineering Laboratory for Medical Ultrasound, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Biomedical Measurements and Ultrasound Imaging, School of Biomedical Engineering, Health Science Center, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China. Electronic address:

Fundus diseases classification is vital for the health of human beings. However, most of existing methods detect diseases by means of single angle fundus images, which lead to the lack of pathological information. To address this limitation, this paper proposes a novel deep learning method to complete different fundus diseases classification tasks using ultra-wide field scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) images, which have an ultra-wide field view of 180-200˚. The proposed deep model consists of multi-branch network, atrous spatial pyramid pooling module (ASPP), cross-attention and depth-wise attention module. Specifically, the multi-branch network employs the ResNet-34 model as the backbone to extract feature information, where the ResNet-34 model with two-branch is followed by the ASPP module to extract multi-scale spatial contextual features by setting different dilated rates. The depth-wise attention module can provide the global attention map from the multi-branch network, which enables the network to focus on the salient targets of interest. The cross-attention module adopts the cross-fusion mode to fuse the channel and spatial attention maps from the ResNet-34 model with two-branch, which can enhance the representation ability of the disease-specific features. The extensive experiments on our collected SLO images and two publicly available datasets demonstrate that the proposed method can outperform the state-of-the-art methods and achieve quite promising classification performance of the fundus diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.media.2021.102031DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis to Identify the Important Coding and Non-coding RNAs Involved in the Pathogenesis of Pterygium.

Front Genet 2021 15;12:646550. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Shenzhen Eye Hospital, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Affiliated Shenzhen Eye Hospital of Jinan University, Shenzhen, China.

Pterygium is a common ocular surface disease characterized by abnormal fibrovascular proliferation and invasion, similar to tumorigenesis. The formation of tumors is related to a change in the expression of various RNAs; however, whether they are involved in the formation and development of pterygium remains unclear. In this study, transcriptome analysis of messenger RNAs (mRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs) of paired pterygium and normal conjunctiva was performed to explore key genes regulating the development of pterygium. In total, 579 mRNAs, 275 lncRNAs, and 21 circRNAs were differentially expressed (DE) in pterygium compared with paired conjunctival tissues. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that DE RNAs were associated with extracellular matrix organization, blood vessel morphogenesis, and focal adhesion. Furthermore, through protein-protein interaction network and mRNA-lncRNA co-expression network analysis, key mRNAs including , , and , and key lncRNAs including and were screened and might be involved in the pathogenesis of pterygium. In addition, several circRNAs including were considered to be involved in the pterygium development. This study provides a scientific basis for elucidating the pathogenesis of pterygium and will be beneficial for the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.646550DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005612PMC
March 2021

Efficient Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells Enabled by Dopant-Free Hole-Transporting Materials Based on Dibenzofulvene-Bridged Indacenodithiophene Core Attaching Varying Alkyl Chains.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Mar 10;13(11):13254-13263. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Key Laboratory of Preparation and Application of Environmental-Friendly Materials, Jilin Normal University, Ministry of Education, Changchun 130103, P.R. China.

Inspired by the structural advantages of spiro-OMeTAD, which is the most commonly used hole-transporting material (HTM), two rationally designed HTMs with butterfly-shaped triarylamine groups based on dibenzofulvene-bridged indacenodithiophene (IDT) core (attaching hexyl and octyl chains) have been synthesized, namely, IT-C6 and IT-C8, respectively. Shorter alkyl-chain-based IT-C6 exhibits a marked increase in glass-transition temperature () of 105 °C, whereas IT-C8 shows a of 95 °C. Moreover, it is demonstrated that IT-C6 exhibits a higher hole-transporting mobility, more suitable band energy alignment, better interfacial contact, and passivation effect. The inverted devices of employed HTM based on IT-C6 obtained a champion PCE of 18.34% with a remarkable fill factor (FF) of 82.32%, whereas the IT-C8-based device delivered an inferior PCE of 16.94% with an FF up to 81.20%. Both HTMs embodied inverted devices present high FF values greater than 81%, which are among the highest reported values of small molecular HTM-based PSCs. This work reveals that cutting off the symmetrical spiro-core and subsequently combining IDT (attaching tailored alkyl chains) with the spiro-linkage fluorine to construct the orthogonal molecular conformation is a significant principle for the design of promising dopant-free HTMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c22993DOI Listing
March 2021

CircTP63 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma progression by sponging miR-155-5p and upregulating ZBTB18.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 Mar 8;21(1):156. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Gastroenterology, The Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, Yantai, 264000, Shandong Province, China.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of tumor-related death worldwide due to high morbidity and mortality, yet lacking effective biomarkers and therapies. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a group of non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression through interacting with miRNAs, implicating in the tumorigenesis and progression. A novel circRNA, circTP63, was reported to be an oncogene in HCC. However, its role in HCC remains unclear.

Methods: qRT-PCR was used to assess the mRNA levels of CircTP63 in 90 pairs of tumor and adjacent normal tissues from HCC patients, one human normal hepatic epithelial cell line and HCC cell lines. CCK-8, colony formation, transwell, and flow cytometry assays were performed to detect the cellular function of circTP63/miR-155-5p/ZBTB18 in HCC cells. HCC xenograft mice models were established to assess the in vivo effect of circTP63. Bioinformatic analysis, RNA pull-down and luciferase assays were used to determine the interaction among circTP63/miR-155-5p/ZBTB18.

Results: circTP63 was significantly upregulated in HCC tissues and cell lines. High circTP63 expression is closely associated with the tumor stages, lymph node metastasis, and poor prognosis of HCC patients. Functionally, knockdown of circTP63 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and promoted cell apoptosis of HCC. Meanwhile, overexpression of circTP63 enhanced HCC progression. Mechanically, circTP63 was a sponge of miR-155-5p to facilitate the ZBTB18 expression, and the ZBTB18 expression in HCC tissues was negatively associated with the survival rate of HCC patients. Furthermore, rescued assays revealed that the reduced tumor-promoting effect on HCC cells induced by knockdown of circTP63 can be reversed by miR-155-5p inhibitor or ZBTB18 overexpression.

Conclusion: Our data highlight a critical circTP63-miR-155-5p-ZBTB18 regulatory network involved in the HCC progression, gaining mechanistic insights into the function of circRNAs in HCC progression, and providing effective biomarkers and therapeutic targets for HCC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-021-01753-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938576PMC
March 2021

2D Nanomaterials for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Nanomedicines: Recent Advances and Future Challenges.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 04 29;10(7):e2001743. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Shenzhen Engineering Laboratory of Phosphorene and Optoelectronics, International Collaborative Laboratory of 2D Materials for Optoelectronics Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 518060, P. R. China.

Regenerative medicine has become one of the hottest research topics in medical science that provides a promising way for repairing tissue defects in the human body. Due to their excellent physicochemical properties, the application of 2D nanomaterials in regenerative medicine has gradually developed and has been attracting a wide range of research interests in recent years. In particular, graphene and its derivatives, black phosphorus, and transition metal dichalcogenides are applied in all the aspects of tissue engineering to replace or restore tissues. This review focuses on the latest advances in the application of 2D-nanomaterial-based hydrogels, nanosheets, or scaffolds that are engineered to repair skin, bone, and cartilage tissues. Reviews on other applications, including cardiac muscle regeneration, skeletal muscle repair, nerve regeneration, brain disease treatment, and spinal cord healing are also provided. The challenges and prospects of applications of 2D nanomaterials in regenerative medicine are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202001743DOI Listing
April 2021

Surgical treatment for antiplatelet intracerebral hemorrhage (SAP-ICH): protocol for a prospective cohort study of emergency surgery for severe spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage patients on long-term oral antiplatelet treatment.

Chin Neurosurg J 2021 Jan 11;7(1). Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, No.119 South 4th Ring West Road, Fengtai District, Beijing, 100070, China.

Background: Despite the capability of emergency surgery to reduce the mortality of severe spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage (SSICH) patients, the effect and safety of surgical treatment for severe spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage (SSICH) patients receiving long-term oral antiplatelet treatment (LOAPT) remains unclear. In consideration of this, the cohort study is aimed at figuring out the effect and safety of emergency surgery for SSICH patients on LOAPT.

Methods: As a multicenter and prospective cohort study, it will be conducted across 7 representative clinical centers. Starting in September 2019, the observation is scheduled to be completed by December 2022, with a total of 450 SSICH patients recruited. The information on clinical, radiological, and laboratory practices will be recorded objectively. All of the patients will be monitored until death or 6 months after the occurrence of primary hemorrhage.

Results: In this study, two comparative cohorts and an observational cohort will be set up. The primary outcome is the effect of emergency surgery, which is subject to assessment using the total mortality and comparison in the survival rate of SSICH patients on LOAPT between surgical treatment and conservative treatment. The second outcome is the safety of surgery, with the postoperative hemorrhagic complication which is compared between the operated SSICH patients on and not on LOAPT. Based on the observation of the characteristics and outcome of SSICH patients on LOAPT, the ischemic events after discontinuing LOAPT will be further addressed, and the coagulation function assessment system for operated SSICH patients on LOAPT will be established.

Conclusions: In this study, we will investigate the effect and safety of emergency surgery for SSICH patients on LOAPT, which will provide an evidence for management in the future.

Ethics And Dissemination: The research protocol and informed consent in this study were approved by the Institutional Review Board of Beijing Tiantan Hospital (KY2019-096-02). The results of this study are expected to be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals in 2023.

Trial Registration: Name: Effect and safety of surgical intervention for severe spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage patients on long-term oral antiplatelet treatment. ChiCTR1900024406 . Date of registration is July 10, 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41016-020-00225-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7798270PMC
January 2021

AMD-GAN: Attention encoder and multi-branch structure based generative adversarial networks for fundus disease detection from scanning laser ophthalmoscopy images.

Neural Netw 2020 Dec 17;132:477-490. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

National-Regional Key Technology Engineering Laboratory for Medical Ultrasound, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Biomedical Measurements and Ultrasound Imaging, School of Biomedical Engineering, Health Science Center, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China. Electronic address:

The scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) has become an important tool for the determination of peripheral retinal pathology, in recent years. However, the collected SLO images are easily interfered by the eyelash and frame of the devices, which heavily affect the key feature extraction of the images. To address this, we propose a generative adversarial network called AMD-GAN based on the attention encoder (AE) and multi-branch (MB) structure for fundus disease detection from SLO images. Specifically, the designed generator consists of two parts: the AE and generation flow network, where the real SLO images are encoded by the AE module to extract features and the generation flow network to handle the random Gaussian noise by a series of residual block with up-sampling (RU) operations to generate fake images with the same size as the real ones, where the AE is also used to mine features for generator. For discriminator, a ResNet network using MB is devised by copying the stage 3 and stage 4 structures of the ResNet-34 model to extract deep features. Furthermore, the depth-wise asymmetric dilated convolution is leveraged to extract local high-level contextual features and accelerate the training process. Besides, the last layer of discriminator is modified to build the classifier to detect the diseased and normal SLO images. In addition, the prior knowledge of experts is utilized to improve the detection results. Experimental results on the two local SLO datasets demonstrate that our proposed method is promising in detecting the diseased and normal SLO images with the experts labeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2020.09.005DOI Listing
December 2020

Regulating the Grain Orientation and Surface Structure of Primary Particles through Tungsten Modification to Comprehensively Enhance the Performance of Nickel-Rich Cathode Materials.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Oct 7;12(42):47513-47525. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

National Power Battery Innovation Center, Grinm Group Company Ltd., Beijing 100088, China.

Nickel-rich layered oxides, as the most promising commercial cathode material for high-energy density lithium-ion batteries, experience significant surface structural instabilities that lead to severe capacity deterioration and poor thermal stability. To address these issues, radially aligned grains and surface LiNiWO-like heterostructures are designed and obtained with a simple tungsten modification strategy in the LiNiCoMnO cathode. The formation of radially aligned grains, manipulated by the WO modifier during synthesis, provides a fast Li diffusion channel during the charge/discharge process. Moreover, the tungsten tends to enter into the lattice of the primary particle surface, and the armor-type tungsten-rich heterostructure protects the bulk material from microcracks, structural transformations, and surface side reactions. First-principles calculations indicate that oxygen is more stable in the surface tungsten-rich heterostructure than elsewhere, thus triggering an improved surface structural stability. Consequently, the 2 wt % WO-modified LiNiCoMnO ([email protected]) material shows outstanding prolonged cycling performance (capacity retention of 80.85% after 500 cycles) and excellent rate performance (5 C, 188.4 mA h g). In addition, its layered-to-rock salt phase transition temperature is increased by 80 °C compared with that of the pristine cathode. This work provides a novel surface modification approach and an in-depth understanding of the overall performance enhancement of nickel-rich layered cathodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c12893DOI Listing
October 2020

Research on Inlet and Outlet Structure Optimization to Improve the Performance of Piezoelectric Pump.

Micromachines (Basel) 2020 Jul 29;11(8). Epub 2020 Jul 29.

School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130025, China.

As piezoelectric pumps are used in more fields, they are gradually failing to meet the application requirements due to their low output performance. Therefore, improving the output performance of piezoelectric pumps helps to expand their applications. This paper argued that the dynamic load of liquid in the inlet and outlet pipelines was an important factor that weakened the performance of piezoelectric pumps. Therefore, in order to reduce the dynamic load, it was proposed to replace the conventional piezoelectric pump inlet and outlet by an elastic inlet and outlet. After introducing the structure and working principle of elastic inlet and outlet, the mechanism of reducing the dynamic load by elastic inlet and outlet was analyzed. Then, the influence of the elastic cavity height on the performance of the piezoelectric pump was studied from both fluid simulation and theoretical analysis. Finally, several prototypes were made. The effectiveness of the elastic inlet and outlet on improving the performance of the prototype and the effect of the elastic cavity height on the performance of the prototype were tested, respectively. The test results showed that the elastic inlet and outlet effectively improved the flow rate and output backpressure without increasing the maximum output backpressure. The maximum flow rate of the pump system without load was increased by 36%. In addition, the elastic cavity height adversely affected the flow rate and output backpressure of the prototypes, but had no effect on the maximum output backpressure. In summary, the elastic inlet and outlet can effectively increase the output performance of the piezoelectric pump, but the design height should be appropriately reduced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi11080735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7463949PMC
July 2020

Clinical and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiographic Features in Patients with Postcataract Endophthalmitis.

J Ophthalmol 2020 4;2020:8723241. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Shenzhen Eye Hospital, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, 18 Zetian Road, Shenzhen, China.

Purpose: To report the clinical presentations and optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiographic features of patients with postcataract surgery endophthalmitis due to . A retrospective observational study of 4 patients who developed endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) was performed to control the infection. Patients were followed up for six months. Complete ophthalmological examination results were collected before and after PPV.

Results: Patients' response to PPV therapy was excellent and the infection was cured in all cases. OCTA showed that, at the one-month follow-up, the vascular density (VD) and perfusion density (PD) in the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) were significantly lower than those in healthy collateral eyes. As time went on, the SCP-VD and SCP-PD values gradually improved.

Conclusions: With early PPV, the infection caused by can be cured. OCTA provides a quantitative noninvasive assessment to evaluate the severity and prognosis of patients with endophthalmitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8723241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7355360PMC
July 2020

Knockouts of a late flowering gene via CRISPR-Cas9 confer early maturity in rice at multiple field locations.

Plant Mol Biol 2020 Sep 4;104(1-2):137-150. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Corteva™ Agriscience, Johnston, IA, USA.

Key Message: OsGhd7 gene was discovered by screening our rice activation tagging population. CRISPR-Cas9 created knockouts of OsGhd7 conferred early flowering and early maturity in rice varieties across multiple geographical locations in China. Our research shows that OsGhd7 is a good target for breeding early maturity rice varieties, and an excellent example of the advantages of applying the CRISPR-Cas9 technology for trait improvement. Flowering time (heading date) is an important trait for crop cultivation and yield. In this study, we discovered a late flowering gene OsGhd7 by screening our rice activation tagging population, and demonstrated that overexpression of OsGhd7 delayed flowering time in rice, and the delay in flowering time depended on the transgene expression level. OsGhd7 is a functional allele of the Ghd7 gene family; knockouts of OsGhd7 generated by CRISPR-Cas9 significantly accelerated flowering time and the earliness of the flowering time depended on field location. The homozygous OsGhd7 knockout lines showed approximately 8, 10, and 20 days earlier flowering than controls at three different locations in China (Changsha City, Sanya City, and Beijing City, respectively) that varied from 18.25° N to 39.90° N. Furthermore, knockouts of OsGhd7 also showed an early flowering phenotype in different rice varieties, indicating OsGhd7 can be used as a common target gene for using the CRISPR technology to modulate rice flowering time. The importance of OsGhd7 and CRISPR technology for breeding early maturity rice varieties are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11103-020-01031-wDOI Listing
September 2020

Relationship between periodontal disease and lung cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Periodontal Res 2020 Oct 25;55(5):581-593. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Periodontal disease (PD), as a chronic bacterial infection, might cause cardiovascular and some other systemic diseases, with recent studies reporting that it exhibits some connection with lung cancer. While studies have shown that poor oral health might increase the risk of lung cancer, the veracity of these reports is questionable. Therefore, this meta-analysis was undertaken to investigate the association between PD and the risk of lung cancer. A search was run in PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases up to January 1, 2020. Cohort and case-control studies investigating the correlation between PD and lung cancer were included. Eligibility assessment and data extraction were conducted independently, and a meta-analysis was performed to synthesize the data. The association between PD, edentulism, and lung cancer was measured by the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) or odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) provided in articles. We employed appropriate effect model in terms of I (a fixed-effect model for PD and a random-effect model for edentulism) to obtain summary effect estimates. Statistical heterogeneity was investigated by chi-square test and I statistics. Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to assess the quality of their method. Six cohort studies (eight references) and two case-control studies, assessed as high-quality, involving 167 256 participants, were included in the review. The summary estimates based on adjusted data showed an association between PD and a significant risk of lung cancer both in cohort studies (HR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.25-1.58; I  = 8.7%) and case-control studies (OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.16-1.98; I  = 36.5%). Similar features were found in the sensitivity analysis and subgroups for six cohort studies, of male only (HR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.15-2.60), setting the lung cancer incidence as endpoint (HR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.24-1.57; I  = 23.9%), and adjusting alcohol for multifactorial HR (HR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.21-1.57; I  = 39.9%). The summary HR for edentulism was 1.93 (95% CI = 1.05-3.57; I  = 55.3%). No obvious publication bias was detected. This systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrated a significant association between PD and the incidence of lung cancer. Further observational studies are required by using standardized measurements to assess the periodontal status and by eliminating confounding factors, such as alcohol and diabetes, to verify such a relationship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jre.12772DOI Listing
October 2020

PDGFRβ plays an essential role in patient vitreous-stimulated contraction of retinal pigment epithelial cells from epiretinal membranes.

Exp Eye Res 2020 08 16;197:108116. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Shenzhen Eye Hospital, Shenzhen Eye Institute, Jinan University, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, PR China. Electronic address:

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is associated with clinical proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), which is characterized by formation of sub- or epi-retinal membranes that consist of cells including retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and extracellular matrix. RPE cells play an important role in PVR pathogenesis. Previous findings indicated that PDGF receptor (PDGFR)α was essential in experimental PVR induced by fibroblasts. In RPE cells derived from epiretinal membranes from patients with PVR (RPEMs), Akt was activated by PDGF-B but not PDGF-A, which suggested that PDGFRβ was the predominant PDGFR isoform expressed in RPEMs. Indeed, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated depletion of PDGFRβ in RPEMs attenuated patient vitreous-induced Akt activation and cellular responses intrinsic to PVR including cell proliferation, migration, and contraction. We conclude that PDGFRβ appears to be the PVR relevant PDGFR isoform in RPEMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2020.108116DOI Listing
August 2020

Ocular manifestations of a hospitalised patient with confirmed 2019 novel coronavirus disease.

Br J Ophthalmol 2020 06 7;104(6):748-751. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Ophthalmology, Shenzhen Eye Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

Purpose: To report the ocular characteristics and the presence of viral RNA of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in conjunctival swab specimens in a patient with confirmed 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19).

Participant And Methods: A 30-year-old man with confirmed COVID-19 and bilateral acute conjunctivitis which occurred 13 days after illness onset. Based on detailed ophthalmic examination, reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was performed to detect SARS-CoV-2 virus in conjunctival swabs. The ocular characteristics, presence of viral RNA and viral dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in the conjunctival specimens were evaluated.

Results: Slit lamp examination showed bilateral acute follicular conjunctivitis. RT-PCR assay demonstrated the presence of viral RNA in conjunctival specimen 13 days after onset (cycle threshold value: 31). The conjunctival swab specimens remained positive for SARS-CoV-2 on 14 and 17 days after onset. On day 19, RT-PCR result was negative for SARS-CoV-2.

Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 is capable of causing ocular complications such as viral conjunctivitis in the middle phase of illness. Precautionary measures are recommended when examining infected patients throughout the clinical course of the infection. However, conjunctival sampling might not be useful for early diagnosis because the virus may not appear initially in the conjunctiva.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2020-316304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7211077PMC
June 2020

Transcriptome-wide study of the response of human trabecular meshwork cells to the substrate stiffness increase.

J Cell Biochem 2020 06 1;121(5-6):3112-3123. Epub 2020 Mar 1.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Shenzhen Eye Institute, Shenzhen Eye Hospital, Jinan University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

Elevated intraocular pressure, a major risk factor of glaucoma, is caused by the abnormal function of trabecular outflow pathways. Human trabecular meshwork (HTM) tissue plays an important role in the outflow pathways. However, the molecular mechanisms that how TM cells respond to the elevated IOP are largely unknown. We cultured primary HTM cells on polyacrylamide gels with tunable stiffness corresponding to Young's moduli ranging from 1.1 to 50 kPa. Then next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to obtain the transcriptomic profiles of HTM cells. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that genes related to glaucoma including DCN, SPARC, and CTGF, were significantly increased with elevated substrate stiffness, as well as the global alteration of HTM transcriptome. Extracellular matrix (ECM)-related genes were selectively activated in response to the elevated substrate stiffness, consistent with the known molecular alteration in glaucoma. Human normal and glaucomatous TM tissues were also obtained to perform RNA-seq experiments and supported the substrate stiffness-altered transcriptome profiles from the in vitro cell model. The current study profiled the transcriptomic changes in human TM cells upon increasing substrate stiffness. Global change of ECM-related genes indicates that the in vitro substrate stiffness could greatly affect the biological processes of HTM cells. The in vitro HTM cell model could efficiently capture the main pathogenetic process in glaucoma patients, and provide a powerful method to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.29578DOI Listing
June 2020

Identification of the Differentially Expressed Genes of Muscle Growth and Intramuscular Fat Metabolism in the Development Stage of Yellow Broilers.

Genes (Basel) 2020 02 26;11(3). Epub 2020 Feb 26.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

High-quality chicken meat is an important source of animal protein for humans. Gene expression profiles in breast muscle tissue were determined, aiming to explore the common regulatory genes relevant to muscle and intramuscular fat (IMF) during the developmental stage in chickens. Results show that breast muscle weight (BMW), breast meat percentage (BMP, %), and IMF (%) continuously increased with development. A total of 256 common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during the developmental stage were screened. Among them, some genes related to muscle fiber hypertrophy were upregulated (e.g., CSRP3, LMOD2, MUSTN1, MYBPC1), but others (e.g., ACTC1, MYL1, MYL4) were downregulated from Week 3 to Week 18. During this period, expression of some DEGs related to the cells cycle (e.g., CCNB3, CCNE2, CDC20, MCM2) changed in a way that genetically suggests possible inhibitory regulation on cells number. In addition, DEGs associated with energy metabolism (e.g., ACOT9, CETP, LPIN1, DGAT2, RBP7, FBP1, PHKA1) were found to regulate IMF deposition. Our data identified and provide new insights into the common regulatory genes related to muscle growth, cell proliferation, and energy metabolism at the developmental stage in chickens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes11030244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7140879PMC
February 2020

Screening of tea saponin-degrading strain to degrade the residual tea saponin in tea seed cake.

Prep Biochem Biotechnol 2020 28;50(7):697-707. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang City, China.

Although tea seed cake (TSC) possesses high nutritional value, its high content of tea saponin (TS) limits its potential as feed. This study aimed to degrade TS in TSC by saponin-degrading strain and used a multistrains fermentation method to improve its nutritional value and palatability. Three saponin-degrading strains were isolated from mill soil and identified as sp. FCTS301, sp. FCTS302, and sp. FCTS303. Single-factor experiment showed that sp. FCTS301 had the highest degradation rate of TS. Response surface analysis for sp. FCTS301 indicated that the optimum culture conditions were as follows: initial pH of 7.2, culture temperature of 34.2 °C, inoculation amount of 7.3%, the agitation rate of 150 rpm, and the TS concentration of 10.0 g/L. Under these conditions, the maximum degradation rate was 82.6%. The fermentation process of TSC was obtained by a multistrains fermentation experiment. Considering the protein content, crude fiber degradation rate, and TS degradation rate of each group, the optimum inoculum amount of strains included sp. FCTS301, NCUF414, NCUF306.5, and NCUF201.1(5%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%). After TS was degraded efficiently, fermented TSC can be presumed a potential feed raw material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826068.2020.1731827DOI Listing
February 2021

Comparison of OCT angiography in children with a history of intravitreal injection of ranibizumab versus laser photocoagulation for retinopathy of prematurity.

Br J Ophthalmol 2020 11 12;104(11):1556-1560. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Ophthalmology, Shenzhen Eye Hospital, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Shenzhen University School of Medicine, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China

Purpose: To compare the foveal microvascular structure characteristics in children with a history of intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR) versus laser photocoagulation (LP) for retinopathy of prematurity by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA).

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 17 children (28 eyes) underwent IVR and 20 children (37 eyes) underwent LP were recruited. The age of doing OCTA examination of the two groups are 5.4±1.1 years and 6.3±1.8 years, respectively (p=0.07). Spectral-domain OCTA was performed for all the eyes with a scan size of 3×3 mm. The data of the superficial retinal layer were analysed. The foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and vessel density (including vessel length density (VLD) and perfusion density (PD)) were measured using the software of OCTA (Cirrus AngioPlex 5000, Carl Zeiss, Meditec, Dubin, California, USA). The central foveal thicknesses (CFT) were measured by cross-sectional OCT.

Results: In the central fovea, the retinal VLD and PD of patients with IVR were 13.82±2.99 mm/mm and 0.25±0.05 mm/mm, respectively, which were significantly lower than those of the LP group (15.64±2.71 mm/mm and 0.28±0.05 mm/mm, p=0.01 and p=0.006). The FAZ area of patients with IVR and LP were 0.13±0.09 mm and 0.09±0.07 mm, respectively (p=0.048). The CFT of patients with IVR and LP were 200.7±16.7 µm and 220.9±22.7 µm, respectively (p<0.01). The logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity of patients with IVR and LP were 0.2±0.1 and 0.1±0.1, respectively (p=0.01). There was no significant difference in the parafoveal and foveal VLD and PD, FAZ morphological index and spherical equivalent refraction (SER) between the two groups.

Conclusion: The IVR might contribute to microvascular changes in the macular zone, such as reducing the central foveal VLD and PD, while the LP might contribute to microstructural changes, such as smaller FAZ and thicker CFT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2019-315520DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7587223PMC
November 2020

Targeted Blood Metabolomic Study on Retinopathy of Prematurity.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2020 02;61(2):12

,.

Purpose: This study aims at exploring alterations of major metabolites and metabolic pathways in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) infants and identifying biomarkers that may merit early diagnosis of ROP.

Methods: We analyzed targeted metabolites from 81 premature infants (<34 weeks of gestational age), including 40 ROP cases (15 males and 25 females, birth weight 1.263 ± 0. 345 kg, gestational age 31.20 ± 4.62 weeks) and 41 cases (30 males, 11 females, birth weight 1.220 ± 0.293 kg, gestational age 30.96 ± 4.17 weeks) of well-matched non-ROP controls. Metabolites were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Standard multivariate and univariate analysis was performed to interpret metabolomic results.

Results: Glycine, glutamate, leucine, serine, piperidine, valine, tryptophan, citrulline, malonyl carnitine (C3DC), and homocysteine were identified as the top discriminant metabolites. In particular, discriminant concentrations of C3DC and glycine were also confirmed by univariate analysis as statistically significant different between ROP and non-ROP infants.

Conclusions: This study gained an insight into the metabolomic aspects of ROP development. We suggest that higher blood levels of C3DC and glycine can be promising biomarkers to predict the occurrence, but not the severity of ROP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.61.2.12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7326483PMC
February 2020

Comparison of Mammography and Ultrasonography for Tumor Size of DCIS of Breast Cancer.

Curr Med Imaging Rev 2019 ;15(2):209-213

Department of Ultrasound, Tangshan Gongren Hospital, Tangshan, Hebei, China.

Objective: Accurate assessment of breast tumor size preoperatively is important for the initial decision-making in surgical approach. Therefore, we aimed to compare efficacy of mammography and ultrasonography in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of breast cancer.

Methods: Preoperative mammography and ultrasonography were performed on 104 women with DCIS of breast cancer. We compared the accuracy of each of the imaging modalities with pathological size by Pearson correlation. For each modality, it was considered concordant if the difference between imaging assessment and pathological measurement is less than 0.5cm.

Results: At pathological examination tumor size ranged from 0.4cm to 7.2cm in largest diameter. For mammographically determined size versus pathological size, correlation coefficient of r was 0.786 and for ultrasonography it was 0.651. Grouped by breast composition, in almost entirely fatty and scattered areas of fibroglandular dense breast, correlation coefficient of r was 0.790 for mammography and 0.678 for ultrasonography; in heterogeneously dense and extremely dense breast, correlation coefficient of r was 0.770 for mammography and 0.548 for ultrasonography. In microcalcification positive group, coeffient of r was 0.772 for mammography and 0.570 for ultrasonography. In microcalcification negative group, coeffient of r was 0.806 for mammography and 0.783 for ultrasonography.

Conclusion: Mammography was more accurate than ultrasonography in measuring the largest cancer diameter in DCIS of breast cancer. The correlation coefficient improved in the group of almost entirely fatty/ scattered areas of fibroglandular dense breast or in microcalcification negative group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573405614666180131163321DOI Listing
September 2020

Small-cell lung cancer with Mallory-Weiss syndrome as the prominent manifestation.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2019 1;12(7):2758-2762. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Lung Cancer Center, Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

The presence of Mallory-Weiss syndrome (MWS) in patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is uncommon. MWS is characterized by longitudinal superficial mucosal laceration at the esophagogastric junction and can be caused by a variety of causes, with upper digestive tract hemorrhage as the primary manifestation. SCLC is the most invasive histological subtype of lung cancer, and approximately a quarter of all SCLC patients undergo paraneoplastic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, such as hyponatremia. In this study, we report a case of MWS in a middle-aged patient who was diagnosed with SCLC associated with hyponatremia. Clinicians should be alerted of the presence of MWS in upper gastrointestinal bleeding, such as epigastric pain, hematemesis, or melena, and keep SCLC in mind as a potential cause for underlying disease identification.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6949582PMC
July 2019

Cross-species Analyses of Intra-species Behavioral Differences in Mammals and Fish.

Neuroscience 2020 03 10;429:33-45. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

School of Pharmacy, Southwest University, Chongqing, China; Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia. Electronic address:

Multiple species display robust behavioral variance among individuals due to different genetic, genomic, epigenetic, neuroplasticity and environmental factors. Behavioral individuality has been extensively studied in various animal models, including rodents and other mammals. Fish, such as zebrafish (Danio rerio), have recently emerged as powerful aquatic model organisms with overt individual differences in behavioral, nociceptive and other CNS traits. Here, we evaluate individual behavioral differences in mammals and fish, emphasizing the importance of cross-species analyses of intraspecies variance in experimental models of normal and pathological CNS functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.12.035DOI Listing
March 2020

A deep learning system for identifying lattice degeneration and retinal breaks using ultra-widefield fundus images.

Ann Transl Med 2019 Nov;7(22):618

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060, China.

Background: Lattice degeneration and/or retinal breaks, defined as notable peripheral retinal lesions (NPRLs), are prone to evolving into rhegmatogenous retinal detachment which can cause severe visual loss. However, screening NPRLs is time-consuming and labor-intensive. Therefore, we aimed to develop and evaluate a deep learning (DL) system for automated identifying NPRLs based on ultra-widefield fundus (UWF) images.

Methods: A total of 5,606 UWF images from 2,566 participants were used to train and verify a DL system. All images were classified by 3 experienced ophthalmologists. The reference standard was determined when an agreement was achieved among all 3 ophthalmologists, or adjudicated by another retinal specialist if disagreements existed. An independent test set of 750 images was applied to verify the performance of 12 DL models trained using 4 different DL algorithms (InceptionResNetV2, InceptionV3, ResNet50, and VGG16) with 3 preprocessing techniques (original, augmented, and histogram-equalized images). Heatmaps were generated to visualize the process of the best DL system in the identification of NPRLs.

Results: In the test set, the best DL system for identifying NPRLs achieved an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.999 with a sensitivity and specificity of 98.7% and 99.2%, respectively. The best preprocessing method in each algorithm was the application of original image augmentation (average AUC =0.996). The best algorithm in each preprocessing method was InceptionResNetV2 (average AUC =0.996). In the test set, 150 of 154 true-positive cases (97.4%) displayed heatmap visualization in the NPRL regions.

Conclusions: A DL system has high accuracy in identifying NPRLs based on UWF images. This system may help to prevent the development of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment by early detection of NPRLs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2019.11.28DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6944533PMC
November 2019
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