Publications by authors named "Jianrong Li"

420 Publications

Analysis of flavor formation during production of Dezhou braised chicken using headspace-gas chromatography-ion mobility spec-trometry (HS-GC-IMS).

Food Chem 2021 Sep 1;370:130989. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Shandong Hanon Scientific Instrument Co., Ltd., China.

In order to help the poultry industry to generate higher quality products, the headspace-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (HS-GC-IMS) technique was used to identify volatile substances formed during the processing of Dezhou braised chicken (DBC). A total of 37 volatile substances including aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, esters, terpenoids, furans and pyrazines were identified during DBC processing across seven sampling stages. The analyses identified 2-ethylhexanol as a key flavor chemical within the chicken carcasses, and found that ethyl acetate, 1-hexanol, 4-methyl-2-pentanone and 1-pentanol were mainly produced during the deep-frying stage of processing. Stewing with herbs and spices was found to be an important stage in the flavor impartation process. 2-Butanone, n-nonanal, heptanal and ethanol were positively related to processing stage 3, whereas processing stage 4 was characterized by ethyl propanoate, benzaldehyde, butyl acetate, 2-pentyl furan and 2-heptanone. The processing stages 5, 6 and 7 were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from each other.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130989DOI Listing
September 2021

A highly sensitive ratiometric fluorescent sensor for copper ions and cadmium ions in scallops based on nitrogen doped graphene quantum dots cooperating with gold nanoclusters.

Food Chem 2021 Aug 26;369:130964. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

College of Food Science and Technology, Bohai University, National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Storage, Processing and Safety Control Technology for Fresh Agricultural and Aquatic Products, Food Safety Key Lab of Liaoning Province, The Fresh Food Storage and Processing Technology Research Institute of Liaoning Provincial Universities, China. Electronic address:

Based on the electrostatic interaction, we constructed a ratiometric fluorescence nanomixture of graphene quantum dots-gold nanoclusters (GQDs-AuNCs) for the quantitative detection of Cu and Cd. When Cu or Cd was added into the reaction system, the fluorescence of GSH-AuNCs at 565 nm can be quenched by Cu and enhanced by Cd while the intensity of N-GQDs at 403 nm stayed constant. Under the optimized conditions, the fluorescence intensity ratio (I/I) of the GQDs-AuNCs system was proportional to the concentration of Cu and Cd in the range of 8×10 mol/L-6×10 mol/L and 1×10 mol/L-4×10 mol/L, respectively, with detection limits of 4.12×10 mol/L and 9.43×10 mol/L, respectively. In the presence of Cu and Cd, the paper-based vision sensor would produce visible fluorescent color changes, which can be used for rapid detection on site. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of Cu and Cd in scallops with satisfactory results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130964DOI Listing
August 2021

Boosting Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production through Sensitizing TiO via Novel Nanoclusters.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 17;13(34):40562-40570. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, China.

Improving the light utilization and electron-hole separation efficiency plays a central role in photocatalysis for converting light energy to hydrogen energy. Herein, for the first time, a stable, highly dispersible discrete T4 [CdInSe] cluster is developed as a novel photosensitizer to sensitize TiO for photocatalytic hydrogen production. Compared with pristine TiO (near zero) and the T4 clusters (19.5 μmol g h) that exhibit low hydrogen evolution activities, the T4/TiO composite, constructed from traces of 0.127 mol % T4 cluster-sensitized TiO, exhibits a dramatically improved photocatalytic activity of 328.2 μmol g h, highlighting that the photocatalytic efficiency strongly correlates with that of the T4 cluster. In the meantime, the T4/TiO composites are highly stable, remaining robust in a long-time test of 50 h for photocatalytic hydrogen production. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy, in combination with electrochemical analyses, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence, and density functional theory calculations, indicates that the T4 cluster not only serve as a photosensitizer to absorb visible light but also form a heterojunction between the interface of the T4 cluster and TiO to accelerate electron injection. This work highlights the great potential of the stable and highly dispersed discrete metal chalcogenide clusters as high-efficiency photosensitizers for converting solar energy to chemical energy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c09960DOI Listing
September 2021

2021 Taxonomic update of phylum Negarnaviricota (Riboviria: Orthornavirae), including the large orders Bunyavirales and Mononegavirales.

Arch Virol 2021 Aug 31. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

RNA Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

In March 2021, following the annual International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ratification vote on newly proposed taxa, the phylum Negarnaviricota was amended and emended. The phylum was expanded by four families (Aliusviridae, Crepuscuviridae, Myriaviridae, and Natareviridae), three subfamilies (Alpharhabdovirinae, Betarhabdovirinae, and Gammarhabdovirinae), 42 genera, and 200 species. Thirty-nine species were renamed and/or moved and seven species were abolished. This article presents the updated taxonomy of Negarnaviricota as now accepted by the ICTV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-021-05143-6DOI Listing
August 2021

Identification of Oncorhynchus mykiss nebulin-derived peptides as bitter taste receptor TAS2R14 blockers by in silico screening and molecular docking.

Food Chem 2021 Aug 12;368:130839. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Lab of Nutrition and Functional Food, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, PR China.

Human bitter taste receptor TAS2R14 (T2R14) can widely perceive bitterness, which has always been an issue for people to overcome. This study was aimed at identifying bioactive peptides obtained from Oncorhynchus mykiss nebulin hydrolysates as bitter taste receptor blockers by physicochemical property prediction, molecular docking, and in vitro determination of bitterness intensity using electronic tongue. Exploration of the interaction mechanism of these peptides with T2R14 by molecular docking models indicated that peptides ADM and ADW had high affinities for T2R14 to block the binding of bitter substances into the receptor. Addition of ADM and ADW to quinine caused reduction in bitterness intensity, with IC values of 420.32 ± 6.26 μM and 403.29 ± 4.10 μM, respectively. Hydrogen bond interaction and hydrophobic interaction were responsible for manifesting the high affinities of these peptides for the receptor. Residues Thr86, Asp168, and Phe247 may be the key amino acids within the binding site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130839DOI Listing
August 2021

Preparation of pH-sensitive polylactic acid-naringin coaxial electrospun fiber membranes for maintaining and monitoring salmon freshness.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Oct 14;188:708-718. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

College of Food Science and Technology, Bohai University, National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Storage, Processing and Safety Control Technology for Fresh Agricultural and Aquatic Products, Jinzhou, Liaoning 121013, China. Electronic address:

Seafood spoilage can be prevented by inhibiting the quorum sensing (QS) system between bacteria. However, membrane materials combining freshness indicators with QS inhibition features have rarely been reported. Therefore, in this study, pH-sensitive polylactic acid-naringin coaxial electrospun fibers capable of maintaining and monitoring freshness were prepared and investigated. Surface analysis revealed that the fiber membranes exhibited a smooth surface and an average diameter of 243 nm. FTIR spectroscopy analysis revealed characteristic absorption peaks at 3265 and 1124 cm, confirming the successful loading of naringin and bromocresol purple. Release behavior analysis verified the uninterrupted release of naringin within 192 h, which enabled the fibers to achieve a protease inhibitory activity rate of 35.94%. Furthermore, the coaxial fibers successfully inhibited the expression of rhlI, rhlR, aprA, and fliA in Pseudomonas fluorescens. The real-world applicability of the coaxial fibers was evaluated by the salmon spoilage assay, where a 4-d extension to the shelf life of the coated fillets was attained. Additionally, the color of the coaxial fibers changed with the deterioration of salmon quality and the ΔE value increased from 4.75 to 26.51. These results verify that the prepared fibers can effectively monitor the freshness of seafood products and improve their storage conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.08.087DOI Listing
October 2021

A methyltransferase-defective VSV-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate provides complete protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in hamsters.

J Virol 2021 Aug 11:JVI0059221. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

The current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to dramatic economic and health burdens. Although the worldwide SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaign has begun, exploration of other vaccine candidates is needed due to the uncertainties of the current approved vaccines such as durability of protection, cross-protection against variant strains, and costs of long-term production, and storage. In this study, we developed a methyltransferase-defective recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (mtdVSV)-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate. We generated mtdVSVs expressing SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike (S), S1, or its receptor binding domain (RBD). All these recombinant viruses grew to high titers in mammalian cells despite high attenuation in cell culture. SARS-CoV-2 S protein and its truncations were highly expressed by the mtdVSV vector. These mtdVSV-based vaccine candidates were completely attenuated in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice. Among these constructs, mtdVSV-S induced high levels of SARS-CoV-2 specific neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and Th1-biased T cell immune responses in mice. Syrian golden hamsters immunized with mtdVSV-S triggered SARS-CoV-2 specific NAbs that were higher than convalescent plasma from convalescent COVID-19 patients. In addition, hamsters immunized with mtdVSV-S were completely protected against SARS-CoV-2 replication in lung and nasal turbinate tissues, cytokine storm, and lung pathology. Collectively, our data demonstrate that mtdVSV expressing SARS-CoV-2 S protein is a safe and highly efficacious vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Viral mRNA cap methyltransferase (MTase) is essential for mRNA stability, protein translation, and innate immune evasion. Thus, viral mRNA cap MTase activity is a novel target for development of live attenuated or live vectored vaccine candidates. Here, we developed a panel of MTase-defective recombinant recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (mtdVSV)-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates expressing full-length S, S1, or several versions of the RBD. These mtdVSV-based vaccine candidates grew to high titers in cell culture and were completely attenuated in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice. Among these vaccine candidates, mtdVSV-S induces high levels of SARS-CoV-2 specific neutralizing antibody (Nabs) and Th1-biased immune responses in mice. Syrian golden hamsters immunized with mtdVSV-S triggered SARS-CoV-2 specific NAbs that were higher than convalescent plasma from COVID-19 recovered patients. Furthermore, hamsters immunized with mtdVSV-S were completely protected against SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Thus, mtdVSV is a safe and highly effective vector to deliver SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00592-21DOI Listing
August 2021

Inhibition of elastase enhances the adjuvanticity of alum and promotes anti-SARS-CoV-2 systemic and mucosal immunity.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 08;118(34)

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210;

Alum, used as an adjuvant in injected vaccines, promotes T helper 2 (Th2) and serum antibody (Ab) responses. However, it fails to induce secretory immunoglobulin (Ig) A (SIgA) in mucosal tissues and is poor in inducing Th1 and cell-mediated immunity. Alum stimulates interleukin 1 (IL-1) and the recruitment of myeloid cells, including neutrophils. We investigated whether neutrophil elastase regulates the adjuvanticity of alum, and whether a strategy targeting neutrophil elastase could improve responses to injected vaccines. Mice coadministered a pharmacological inhibitor of elastase, or lacking elastase, developed high-affinity serum IgG and IgA antibodies after immunization with alum-adsorbed protein vaccines, including the spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2). These mice also developed broader antigen-specific CD4 T cell responses, including high Th1 and T follicular helper (Tfh) responses. Interestingly, in the absence of elastase activity, mucosal SIgA responses were induced after systemic immunization with alum as adjuvant. Importantly, lack or suppression of elastase activity enhanced the magnitude of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike subunit 1 (S1) antibodies, and these antibodies reacted with the same epitopes of spike 1 protein as sera from COVID-19 patients. Therefore, suppression of neutrophil elastase could represent an attractive strategy for improving the efficacy of alum-based injected vaccines for the induction of broad immunity, including mucosal immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2102435118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8403952PMC
August 2021

Potential mechanisms of the anti-hypertensive effects of RVPSL on spontaneously hypertensive rats using non-targeted serum metabolomics.

Food Funct 2021 Sep 20;12(18):8561-8569. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013, P. R. China.

The study aimed to investigate potential mechanisms for the anti-hypertensive effects of RVPSL on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) using a non-targeted metabonomic approach. In this study, UPLC/MS-based non-targeted metabolomics was performed to discover metabolite variation of serum in SHRs with RVPSL treatment. As a result, the serum metabolites of SHRs that were administered RVPSL for four weeks exhibited distinct alterations. Nine potential biomarkers, , choline, adenosine, adrenic acid, L-tryptophan, niacinamide, glycocholic acid, propiolic acid, D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, and phosphoglycolic acid, were significantly altered, which were mainly involved in lipid metabolism, vitamin and amino acid metabolism, purine metabolism, the MAPK signaling pathway, and the renin-angiotensin system. This study suggested that RVPSL potentially exerted potent effects of alleviating hypertension in the SHRs mainly integrated regulations of metabolism and production of choline, L-tryptophan, nicotinamide, and adenosine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo01546jDOI Listing
September 2021

N6-methyladenosine promotes induction of ADAR1-mediated A-to-I RNA editing to suppress aberrant antiviral innate immune responses.

PLoS Biol 2021 Jul 29;19(7):e3001292. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

Among over 150 distinct RNA modifications, N6-methyladenosine (m6A) and adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing represent 2 of the most studied modifications on mammalian mRNAs. Although both modifications occur on adenosine residues, knowledge on potential functional crosstalk between these 2 modifications is still limited. Here, we show that the m6A modification promotes expression levels of the ADAR1, which encodes an A-to-I RNA editing enzyme, in response to interferon (IFN) stimulation. We reveal that YTH N6-methyladenosine RNA binding protein 1 (YTHDF1) mediates up-regulation of ADAR1; YTHDF1 is a reader protein that can preferentially bind m6A-modified transcripts and promote translation. Knockdown of YTHDF1 reduces the overall levels of IFN-induced A-to-I RNA editing, which consequently activates dsRNA-sensing pathway and increases expression of various IFN-stimulated genes. Physiologically, YTHDF1 deficiency inhibits virus replication in cells through regulating IFN responses. The A-to-I RNA editing activity of ADAR1 plays important roles in the YTHDF1-dependent IFN responses. Therefore, we uncover that m6A and YTHDF1 affect innate immune responses through modulating the ADAR1-mediated A-to-I RNA editing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3001292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8320976PMC
July 2021

Effect of deacetylated konjac glucomannan on heat-induced structural changes and flavor binding ability of fish myosin.

Food Chem 2021 Dec 6;365:130540. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Flavor Chemistry, Beijing Technology and Business University (BTBU), Beijing 100048, China.

This work investigated the effects of deacetylated konjac glucomannan (DKGM) on heat-induced structural changes and flavor binding in bighead carp myosin. DKGM could cross-link with fish myosin to form a thermostable complex and improve the gel strength of myosin. The incorporation of DKGM increased the surface hydrophobicity and total sulfhydryl content of heat-induced myosin. Increasing DKGM concentrations resulted in a decrease in the absolute zeta potential and a continuous increase in particle size. DKGM addition significantly reduced the α-helical content of myosin with a concomitant increase in β-sheet, β-turn, and random coil content. The binding abilities of myosin to flavors were significantly enhanced by increasing amounts of DKGM, attributing to the accelerative unfolding of myosin secondary structures and the exposure of additional hydrophobic and thiol binding sites. Increased numbers of available hydroxyl groups after DKGM treatment could also cause an increase of flavor adsorption by hydrogen bonding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130540DOI Listing
December 2021

Starch-fatty acid complexes improve the gel properties and enhance the fatty acid content of Nemipterus virgatus surimi under high-temperature treatment.

Food Chem 2021 Nov 30;362:130253. Epub 2021 May 30.

College of Food Science and Technology, Bohai University, National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Storage, Processing and Safety Control Technology for Fresh Agricultural and Aquatic Products, Jinzhou, Liaoning 121013, China.

The effect of high amylose corn starch (HAS)-fatty acid complexes on the gel properties, protein secondary structure, microstructure, fatty acid content, and sensory properties of surimi under high-temperature treatment were investigated. The formation of HAS-fatty acid complexes increased melting temperature and decreased average particle size of HAS. The addition of HAS-fatty acid complexes significantly improved the breaking force, deformation and whiteness of surimi gels. The water in surimi gels containing HAS or HAS-fatty acid complexes became increasingly immobilized. HAS or HAS-fatty acid complexes promoted protein conformational transition from α-helix structure to other three secondary structure. Surimi gels added with HAS-fatty acid complexes had more compact network structure and higher fatty acid content. Moreover, the better sensory properties were obtained in surimi gels containing HAS-fatty acid complexes. Therefore, starch-fatty acid complexes not only could improve the gel properties of surimi, but also enhance its fatty acid content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130253DOI Listing
November 2021

Changes in taste substances during fermentation of fish sauce and the correlation with protease activity.

Food Res Int 2021 06 26;144:110349. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Flavor Chemistry, Beijing Technology and Business University (BTBU), Beijing 100048, China.

Anchovy sauce shows different taste profiles under different fermentation time. The change rules of free amino acids was measured by amino acid analyzer, and other taste substances, such as nucleotides and organic acids in anchovy sauce under different fermentation time were also investigated. Moreover, the correlation between protease activity and taste substances in anchovy sauce fermentation was analyzed by orthogonal partial least squares. Throughout the fermentation process, the taste substances in anchovy sauce increased during early months and then decreased as time increased. The content of amino acid nitrogen, TCA-soluble peptides, 5'-nucleotides (AMP, GMP, IMP) and organic acids (lactic acid, succinic acid) in anchovy sauce increased by 26%, 33%, (45%, 35%, 68%) and (27%, 2%) respectively in comparison with 6 months fermentation. Total amino acid content reached its maximum after 18 months fermentation. Results of electronic tongue demonstrated that the umami of anchovy sauce after 12 months fermentation increased by 17% in comparison with 6 months fermentation. A model correlating changes in protease activity with taste formation suggested that protease activity impacted the content of Ala, Glu, Lys, Asp, Leu, TCA-soluble peptides and succinic acid. This study can provide empirical evidence to guide the efficient processing of anchovy sauce.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110349DOI Listing
June 2021

Recent developments in maintaining gel properties of surimi products under reduced salt conditions and use of additives.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 May 28:1-16. Epub 2021 May 28.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.

Salt is a necessary condition to produce a surimi product that is based on the gelation of salt-soluble myofibrillar proteins. Recently, there has been a growing concern among consumers to consume healthy foods due to the threat of several chronic diseases caused by an unhealthy diet. Methods of reducing salt content out of concern for health issues caused by excessive sodium intake may affect the gel properties of surimi, as can many health-oriented food additives. Several studies have investigated different strategies to improve the health characteristics of surimi products without decreasing gel properties. This review reports recent developments in this area and how the gel properties were successfully maintained under reduced-salt conditions and the use of additives. This review of recent studies presents a great deal of progress made in the health benefits of surimi and can be used as a reference for further development in the surimi product processing industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1931024DOI Listing
May 2021

Characterization and structure-activity relationship of novel umami peptides isolated from Thai fish sauce.

Food Funct 2021 Jun;12(11):5027-5037

College of Food Science and Engineering, Bohai University. National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Storage, Processing and Safety Control Technology for Fresh Agricultural and Aquatic Products, Jinzhou, Liaoning 121013, China.

Fish sauce has a prominent umami flavor. In this study, umami peptides were isolated, purified and identified from Thai fish sauce, and their structure-activity relationships were analyzed. Six novel umami peptides were characterized and verified by using sensory evaluation and a electronic tongue. Molecular docking with T1R1/T1R3 receptors showed that the interaction forces were mainly hydrogen bonds, electrostatic interaction and van der Waals force. In the constructed three dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship model (3D-QSAR) model, the regression coefficient (R2) for the degree of dispersion between the predicted molecular and the experimental values of the six peptides was 0.976. The association between the structure and activity of umami peptides was revealed through 3D-QSAR. Results showed that the spatial effect was significant for long chain peptides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo03326jDOI Listing
June 2021

Methods of Generating Dielectrophoretic Force for Microfluidic Manipulation of Bioparticles.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 06 19;7(6):2043-2063. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States.

Manipulation of microscale bioparticles including living cells is of great significance to the broad bioengineering and biotechnology fields. Dielectrophoresis (DEP), which is defined as the interactions between dielectric particles and the electric field, is one of the most widely used techniques for the manipulation of bioparticles including cell separation, sorting, and trapping. Bioparticles experience a DEP force if they have a different polarization from the surrounding media in an electric field that is nonuniform in terms of the intensity and/or phase of the electric field. A comprehensive literature survey shows that the DEP-based microfluidic devices for manipulating bioparticles can be categorized according to the methods of creating the nonuniformity via patterned microchannels, electrodes, and media to generate the DEP force. These methods together with the theory of DEP force generation are described in this review, to provide a summary of the methods and materials that have been used to manipulate various bioparticles for various specific biological outcomes. Further developments of DEP-based technologies include identifying materials that better integrate with electrodes than current popular materials (silicone/glass) and improving the performance of DEP manipulation of bioparticles by combining it with other methods of handling bioparticles. Collectively, DEP-based microfluidic manipulation of bioparticles holds great potential for various biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.1c00083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205986PMC
June 2021

A safe and highly efficacious measles virus-based vaccine expressing SARS-CoV-2 stabilized prefusion spike.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 03;118(12)

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210;

The current pandemic of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) highlights an urgent need to develop a safe, efficacious, and durable vaccine. Using a measles virus (rMeV) vaccine strain as the backbone, we developed a series of recombinant attenuated vaccine candidates expressing various forms of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and its receptor binding domain (RBD) and evaluated their efficacy in cotton rat, IFNARmice, IFNAR-hCD46 mice, and golden Syrian hamsters. We found that rMeV expressing stabilized prefusion S protein (rMeV-preS) was more potent in inducing SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies than rMeV expressing full-length S protein (rMeV-S), while the rMeVs expressing different lengths of RBD (rMeV-RBD) were the least potent. Animals immunized with rMeV-preS produced higher levels of neutralizing antibody than found in convalescent sera from COVID-19 patients and a strong Th1-biased T cell response. The rMeV-preS also provided complete protection of hamsters from challenge with SARS-CoV-2, preventing replication in lungs and nasal turbinates, body weight loss, cytokine storm, and lung pathology. These data demonstrate that rMeV-preS is a safe and highly efficacious vaccine candidate, supporting its further development as a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2026153118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000430PMC
March 2021

Effects of 1-MCP treatment on sprouting and preservation of ginger rhizomes during storage at room temperature.

Food Chem 2021 Jul 9;349:129004. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

College of Food Science and Technology, Bohai University, National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Storage, Processing and Safety Control Technology for Fresh Agricultural and Aquatic Products, Bohai University, Jinzhou, Liaoning 121013, PR China. Electronic address:

The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of 1-MCP on the sprouting and preservation of ginger rhizomes during storage at room temperature. Ginger rhizomes were treated with 1 µL L 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and stored at 23 ± 0.2 °C. Our data showed that application of 1-MCP reduced the rate of sprouting during storage compared with the control rhizome. Respiration rate and the reducing sugar content were also reduced following 1-MCP treatment, while the starch content increased. 1-MCP treatment increased the total phenol content and inhibited polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity. 1-MCP treatment was also associated with a higher ascorbic acid content but a reduced crude fiber content. The generation of superoxide anion free radicals (O), hydrogen peroxide (HO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower following 1-MCP treatment, while the activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher compared with the controls. These results suggested that application of 1-MCP could reduce sprouting rates, decrease the accumulation of ROS, and maintain the quality of ginger rhizomes during storage at room temperature. It would be useful to further explore the role and mechanisms of action of ethylene in regulating the sprouting of ginger rhizomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129004DOI Listing
July 2021

Nonsegmented Negative-Sense RNA Viruses Utilize -Methyladenosine (mA) as a Common Strategy To Evade Host Innate Immunity.

J Virol 2021 04 12;95(9). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

-Methyladenosine (mA) is the most abundant internal RNA modification catalyzed by host RNA methyltransferases. As obligate intracellular parasites, many viruses acquire mA methylation in their RNAs. However, the biological functions of viral mA methylation are poorly understood. Here, we found that viral mA methylation serves as a molecular marker for host innate immunity to discriminate self from nonself RNA and that this novel biological function of viral mA methylation is universally conserved in several families in nonsegmented negative-sense (NNS) RNA viruses. Using mA methyltransferase (METTL3) knockout cells, we produced mA-deficient virion RNAs from the representative members of the families , , and and found that these mA-deficient viral RNAs triggered significantly higher levels of type I interferon compared to the mA-sufficient viral RNAs, in a RIG-I-dependent manner. Reconstitution of the RIG-I pathway revealed that mA-deficient virion RNA induced higher expression of RIG-I, bound to RIG-I more efficiently, enhanced RIG-I ubiquitination, and facilitated RIG-I conformational rearrangement and oligomerization. Furthermore, the mA binding protein YTHDF2 is essential for suppression of the type I interferon signaling pathway, including by virion RNA. Collectively, our results suggest that several families in NNS RNA viruses acquire mA in viral RNA as a common strategy to evade host innate immunity. The nonsegmented negative-sense (NNS) RNA viruses share many common replication and gene expression strategies. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs for many of these viruses. We found that representative members of the families , , and among the NNS RNA viruses acquire mA methylation in their genome and antigenome as a means to escape recognition by host innate immunity via a RIG-I-dependent signaling pathway. Viral RNA lacking mA methylation induces a significantly higher type I interferon response than mA-sufficient viral RNA. In addition to uncovering mA methylation as a common mechanism for many NNS RNA viruses to evade host innate immunity, this study discovered a novel strategy to enhance type I interferon responses, which may have important applications in vaccine development, as robust innate immunity will likely promote the subsequent adaptive immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01939-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8104112PMC
April 2021

Roles of calcium-dependent protein kinases mediated reactive oxygen species homeostasis in inducing resistance of apples by acibenzolar-S-methyl.

Food Chem 2021 Jun 19;346:128881. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

College of Food Science and Technology, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013, PR China; National and Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Storage, Processing and Safety Control Technology for Fresh Agricultural and Aquatic Products, Jinzhou 121013, PR China. Electronic address:

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and ethylenebis (oxyethylenenitrilo) tetraacetic acid (EGTA) treatments on calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism in apples. Postharvest ASM treatment increased HO content, reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid contents, and NADPH oxidase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase activities and retarded catalase activity and MdCAT expression in apples. ASM treatment enhanced MdSOD, MdPOD, MdAPX, MdGR, MdCDPK1, MdCDPK4, MdCDPK5, MdCDPK7, and MdCDPK21 expressions in apples. However, EGTA + ASM treatments suppressed HO, glutathione and ascorbic acid contents, NADPH oxidase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities. EGTA + ASM treatments suppressed the selected genes expressions in ROS metabolism and CDPKs, but up-regulated MdCAT expression in apples. These findings suggest that CDPKs play a vital role in regulating ROS metabolism and involve in inducing resistance in apples by ASM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128881DOI Listing
June 2021

Effects of metal ions on activity and structure of phenoloxidase in Penaeus vannamei.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Mar 19;174:207-215. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

College of Food Science and Technology, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013, China. Electronic address:

Phenoloxidase (PO) is a typical metal enzyme, which requires metal ions as prosthetic groups to enable the full exertion of its activity. To study how metal ions affected the activity and structure of PO enzymes, while providing reference materials for in-depth investigations, we examined the effects of different metal ions (Cu, Zn, Mg, Ca, and Ba) on their activities. Furthermore, Cu and Mg were selected for further investigation through UV spectra, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, AFM, and FTIR. It was revealed that Cu had a more obvious effect on PO compared to Mg. The PO could be activated when the concentrations of Cu and Mg were lower than 10 and 10 mol/L, respectively, and maximum PO activities (182.14% and 141.02%) were observed at 10 mol/L concentrations of Cu and Mg. When the concentrations of Cu and Mg were higher than 10 and 10 mol/L, the activities PO were inhibited. The results of the UV-vis and fluorescence spectra revealed that Cu shaped the tertiary structure of PO, whereas the effect of Mg was slight. The AFM results demonstrated that high concentrations of Cu and Mg resulted in PO aggregation. FTIR analysis indicated that the total content of PO α-helices and β-sheets decreased with higher concentrations of Cu and Mg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.01.112DOI Listing
March 2021

Mucosal Delivery of Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vectors Expressing Envelope Proteins of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Induces Protective Immunity in Cotton Rats.

J Virol 2021 02 24;95(6). Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract (LRT) infections, with increased severity in high-risk human populations, such as infants, the immunocompromised, and the elderly. Although the virus was identified more than 60 years ago, there is still no licensed vaccine available. Over the years, several vaccine delivery strategies have been evaluated. In this study, we developed two recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vector-based vaccine candidates expressing the RSV-G (attachment) protein (rVSV-G) or F (fusion) protein (rVSV-F). All vectors were evaluated in the cotton rat animal model for their immunogenicity and protective efficacy against an RSV-A2 virus challenge. Intranasal (i.n.) delivery of rVSV-G and rVSV-F together completely protected the lower respiratory tract (lungs) at doses as low as 10 PFU. In contrast, doses greater than 10 PFU were required to protect the upper respiratory tract (URT) completely. Reimmunization of RSV-immune cotton rats was most effective with rVSV-F. In immunized animals, overall antibody responses were sufficient for protection, whereas CD4 and CD8 T cells were not necessary. A prime-boost immunization regimen increased both protection and neutralizing antibody titers. Overall, mucosally delivered rVSV-vector-based RSV vaccine candidates induce protective immunity and therefore represent a promising immunization regimen against RSV infection. Even after decades of intensive research efforts, a safe and efficacious RSV vaccine remains elusive. Expression of heterologous antigens from rVSV vectors has demonstrated several practical and safety advantages over other virus vector systems and live attenuated vaccines. In this study, we developed safe and efficacious vaccine candidates by expressing the two major immunogenic RSV surface proteins in rVSV vectors and delivering them mucosally in a prime-boost regimen. The main immune parameter responsible for protection was the antibody response. These vaccine candidates induced complete protection of both the upper and lower respiratory tracts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02345-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8094962PMC
February 2021

Accurate analysis of HCl in biomethane using laser absorption spectroscopy and ion-exchange chromatography.

Analyst 2021 Feb 6;146(4):1402-1413. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), 38116 Braunschweig, Germany.

Biomethane is a renewable energy gas with great potential to contribute to the diversification and greening of the natural gas supply. Ideally, biomethane can directly be injected into the natural gas grid system. For grid injection, specifications such as those in EN 16723-1 shall be met. One of the impurities to be monitored is hydrogen chloride (HCl). To assess conformity with the specification for HCl, accurate and reliable test methods are required. Here, we report the development of three novel test methods, based on a variety of laser absorption spectroscopy techniques (Direct absorption spectroscopy-DAS and wavelength modulation spectroscopy-WMS) and ion-exchange chromatography, for the measurement of HCl in biomethane. Gas mixtures of HCl in biomethane were used to demonstrate the performance of the spectroscopic systems in the nmol mol to low μmol mol ranges, achieving uncertainties in the 4% range, k = 2. For ion-exchange chromatography analysis, HCl was first collected on an alkali-impregnated quartz fiber filter. The analysis was performed according to ISO 21438-2 and validated using synthetic biomethane spiked with HCl. The relative expanded uncertainties for the ion exchange chromatography HCl measurements are in the 10-37% range, k = 2. The results presented for the 3 test methods demonstrate that the respective methods can be used for HCl conformity assessment in biomethane.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0an01955kDOI Listing
February 2021

Rationally Designed ACE2-Derived Peptides Inhibit SARS-CoV-2.

Bioconjug Chem 2021 01 24;32(1):215-223. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Microbial Infection & Immunity, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, United States.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 is a novel and highly pathogenic coronavirus and is the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The high morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19 and the lack of an approved drug or vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 underscores the urgent need for developing effective antiviral therapies. Therapeutics that target essential viral proteins are effective at controlling virus replication and spread. Coronavirus Spike glycoproteins mediate viral entry and fusion with the host cell, and thus are essential for viral replication. To enter host cells, the Spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and related coronavirus, SARS-CoV, bind the host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor through their receptor binding domains (RBDs). Here, we rationally designed a panel of ACE2-derived peptides based on the RBD-ACE2 binding interfaces of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. Using SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV Spike-pseudotyped viruses, we found that a subset of peptides inhibits Spike-mediated infection with IC values in the low millimolar range. We identified two peptides that bound Spike RBD in affinity precipitation assays and inhibited infection with genuine SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, these peptides inhibited the replication of a common cold causing coronavirus, which also uses ACE2 as its entry receptor. Results from the infection experiments and modeling of the peptides with Spike RBD identified a 6-amino-acid (Glu37-Gln42) ACE2 motif that is important for SARS-CoV-2 inhibition. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 with peptide-based inhibitors. These findings will allow for the successful development of engineered peptides and peptidomimetic-based compounds for the treatment of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.0c00664DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7784661PMC
January 2021

Effects of different processing steps on the flavor and colloidal properties of cloudy apple juice.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Jul 28;101(9):3819-3826. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

College of Food Science and Technology, Bohai University, Jinzhou, China.

Background: Flavor loss is a common problem when manufacturing apple juice and is closely related to the properties of the colloidal pectin particles in cloudy juice. The flavor changes and particle properties of three varieties of apple juice ('Ralls', 'Golden Delicious' and 'Fuji') during processing were investigated.

Results: Compared with manually pressed juice, juice made by industrial pulping and filtration contained larger particles, resulting in the 'sweet and sour' taste of the juice being relatively weak and the diversity of aromas narrower, as determined by E-nose analysis. Pulping and filtration, however, released some important flavor esters, such as butyl butyrate, hexyl-2-methyl butyrate, and hexyl butyrate. The transformation of volatile compounds during apple juice processing was closely related to the apple cultivar but, in all three varieties, the content of 1-hexanal and (E)-2-hexenal in the juice gradually decreased during processing. Pectinase treatment reduced the colloid particle size and increased the ζ-potential of the juice, resulting in better uniformity and stability, as well as increasing the content of nonanal. After pasteurization, the colloidal particles tended to aggregate and the ζ-potential decreased. Many volatile compounds decreased in concentration or disappeared after heat treatment.

Conclusion: The flavor and colloidal properties of cloudy apple juice changed markedly during processing and the effect of each processing step was different. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11016DOI Listing
July 2021

Development of antiviral and bacteriostatic chitosan-based food packaging material with grape seed extract for murine norovirus, and control.

Food Sci Nutr 2020 Nov 30;8(11):6174-6181. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Food Science and Technology The Ohio State University Columbus OH USA.

Edible coatings and films based on chitosan, and containing grape seed extract (GSE), were developed and their activities tested against murine norovirus (MNV-1), and K12. Grape seed extract concentrations of 1%, 1.5%, and 2.5% dissolved in deionized water resulted in MNV-1 plaque reductions ( < .05) of 1.75, 2.60, and 3.58 log PFU/ml, respectively after 3 hr. Two percent (w/w) chitosan solutions incorporated with 2.5% and 5% GSE also significantly ( < .05) reduced MNV-1 titers by 2.68 and 4.00 log PFU/ml, respectively after 3 hr. Additionally, incorporation of the GSE into the chitosan films also showed antimicrobial efficacy against MNV-1, .  and .  K12. Chitosan films containing 5%, 10%, and 15% GSE caused MNV-1 reductions of 0.92, 1.89, and 2.27 log PFU/ml, respectively, after 4 hr of incubation. Also, after 24 hr, the 5% and 10% GSE films reduced MNV-1 titers by 1.90 and 3.26 log PFU/ml, respectively, while the 15% GSE film reduced MNV-1 to undetectable levels. For .  K12, there were reductions of 2.28, 5.18, and 7.14 log CFU/ml after 24 hr exposure by the 5%, 10%, and 15% GSE films, respectively. Also, . counts were reduced by 3.06, 6.15, and 6.91 log CFU/ml by the 5%, 10%, and 15% GSE films, respectively. This study demonstrated that GSE in edible films and coatings is effective against the organisms tested, and this shows that they are effective against foodborne microbes of public health concerns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7684593PMC
November 2020

Identification of novel umami peptides from myosin via homology modeling and molecular docking.

Food Chem 2021 May 28;344:128728. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013, PR China. Electronic address:

The structure of the umami receptor T1R1/T1R3 was constructed using homology modeling and molecular dynamics, and the interactions between peptides and this umami receptor were studied by molecular docking. The umami intensity of the peptides was also investigated by using an electronic tongue. The results showed that 99.3% of the amino acid residues in the homologous model of the T1R1/T1R3 heterodimer were within the allowable range, which is greater than the threshold requirement of 90% of the residues in the high-quality model structure. Five novel peptides (DK, EEK, EDQK, SEGGR, and QDSIGS) were selected and synthesized. The umami intensity of these five peptides was stronger than that of monosodium glutamate. The docking results revealed that the interactions between peptides and the major amino acids residues Arg151, Asp147, and Gln52 of T1R1 play critical roles in the production of umami taste.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128728DOI Listing
May 2021

Discrete Supertetrahedral Tn Chalcogenido Clusters Synthesized in Ionic Liquids: Crystal Structures and Photocatalytic Activity.

Chempluschem 2020 Nov;85(11):2487-2498

State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, 350002, P. R. China.

Discrete supertetrahedral Tn chalcogenido clusters, which can be regarded as the smallest semiconductor quantum dots with precise chemical composition, have attracted considerable attention due to their outstanding photoluminescent, photoelectric, and photo/electrocatalytic properties. Such discrete molecular clusters are suitable for solution processing towards functional materials and can be used as precursors for constructing open-framework chalcogenides. Traditionally they were synthesized hydro(solvo)thermally with molecular solvents (e. g. water or organic amines), while until recently imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) were found suitable for their preparation acting as reactive solvent and stabilizer for molecular clusters. We discuss herein recent advances in the syntheses, crystal structures, and selected properties of discrete supertetrahedral Tn chalcogenido clusters obtained in ILs. In particular, the enhanced photocatalytic properties of monodispersed Tn clusters in solvents are highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cplu.202000639DOI Listing
November 2020

Identification, taste characterization and molecular docking study of novel umami peptides from the Chinese anchovy sauce.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Jun 24;101(8):3140-3155. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Flavor Chemistry, Beijing Technology and Business University (BTBU), Beijing, China.

Background: Fish sauce has a subtle flavor with prominent umami and salty taste, and is accompanied by a certain sweetness and bitterness. In order to identify a wider range of umami peptides, Chinese southern and northern anchovy sauce were selected for the study.

Results: Seventeen peptides were obtained by separation and purification, and their taste activity was predicted. Through the taste characterization and descriptive analysis, it was found that the synthesized peptides were umami and umami-enhancing peptides. Seventeen umami peptides were simulated and embedded into the umami receptor T1R1/T1R3 by inserting into the Venus flytrap domain (VFTD) of the T1R3 subunit; the interaction forces were mainly hydrogen bonding, electrostatic interaction, van der Waals force and hydrophobic interaction. According to the docking interaction energies, long-chain peptides may be easier to bind to the receptor than short-chain peptides. Asp196, Glu128 and Glu197 were the main binding sites for docking, and could affect umami synergism.

Conclusion: For the first time, novel umami peptides in Chinese anchovy sauce have been reported. This study is helpful for discovering umami marine resource peptides, and can provide a basis for further understanding the flavor system of anchovy sauce. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10943DOI Listing
June 2021

A Novel Live Attenuated Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Candidate with Mutations in the L Protein SAM Binding Site and the G Protein Cleavage Site Is Protective in Cotton Rats and a Rhesus Macaque.

J Virol 2021 01 13;95(3). Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Center for Vaccines and Immunity, Abigail Wexner Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USA

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections in children of <5 years of age worldwide, infecting the majority of infants in their first year of life. Despite the widespread impact of this virus, no vaccine is currently available. For more than 50 years, live attenuated vaccines (LAVs) have been shown to protect against other childhood viral infections, offering the advantage of presenting all viral proteins to the immune system for stimulation of both B and T cell responses and memory. The RSV LAV candidate described here, rgRSV-L(G1857A)-G(L208A), contains two modifications: an attenuating mutation in the -adenosylmethionine (SAM) binding site of the viral mRNA cap methyltransferase (MTase) within the large (L) polymerase protein and a mutation in the attachment (G) glycoprotein that inhibits its cleavage during production in Vero cells, resulting in virus with a "noncleaved G" (ncG). RSV virions containing the ncG have an increased ability to infect primary well-differentiated human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cultures which model the site of immunization, the ciliated airway epithelium. This RSV LAV candidate is produced efficiently in Vero cells, is highly attenuated in HBE cultures, efficiently induces neutralizing antibodies that are long lasting, and provides protection against an RSV challenge in the cotton rat, without causing enhanced disease. Similar results were obtained in a rhesus macaque. Globally, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of death in children under 1 year of age, yet no vaccine is available. We have generated a novel RSV live attenuated vaccine candidate containing mutations in the L and G proteins. The L polymerase mutation does not inhibit virus yield in Vero cells, the cell type required for vaccine production, but greatly reduces virus spread in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cultures, a logical predictor of attenuation. The G attachment protein mutation reduces its cleavage in Vero cells, thereby increasing vaccine virus yield, making vaccine production more economical. In cotton rats, this RSV vaccine candidate is highly attenuated at a dose of 10 PFU and completely protective following immunization with 500 PFU, 200-fold less than the dose usually used in such studies. It also induced long-lasting antibodies in cotton rats and protected a rhesus macaque from RSV challenge. This mutant virus is an excellent RSV live attenuated vaccine candidate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01568-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7925107PMC
January 2021
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