Publications by authors named "Jianqin Zhang"

32 Publications

Redox-sensitive CDC-42 clustering promotes wound closure in C. elegans.

Cell Rep 2021 Nov;37(8):110040

Center for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine and Department of Cardiology of the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310058, China; Zhejiang University-University of Edinburgh Institute, Key Laboratory of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

Tissue damage induces immediate-early signals, activating Rho small GTPases to trigger actin polymerization essential for later wound repair. However, how tissue damage is sensed to activate Rho small GTPases locally remains elusive. Here, we found that wounding the C. elegans epidermis induces rapid relocalization of CDC-42 into plasma membrane-associated clusters, which subsequently recruits WASP/WSP-1 to trigger actin polymerization to close the wound. In addition, wounding induces a local transient increase and subsequent reduction of HO, which negatively regulates the clustering of CDC-42 and wound closure. CDC-42 CAAX motif-mediated prenylation and polybasic region-mediated cation-phospholipid interaction are both required for its clustering. Cysteine residues participate in intermolecular disulfide bonds to reduce membrane association and are required for negative regulation of CDC-42 clustering by HO. Collectively, our findings suggest that HO-regulated fine-tuning of CDC-42 localization can create a distinct biomolecular cluster that facilitates rapid epithelial wound repair after injury.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.110040DOI Listing
November 2021

Genomic Copy Number Variants in CML Patients With the Philadelphia Chromosome (Ph+): An Update.

Front Genet 2021 10;12:697009. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Hematology, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Background: Submicroscopic segmental imbalances detected by array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) were discovered to be common in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients with (9;22) as the sole chromosomal anomaly. To confirm the findings of the previous study and expand the investigation, additional CML patients with (9;22) as the sole chromosomal anomaly were recruited and copy number variants (CNVs) were searched for.

Methods: Karyotyping tests were performed on 106 CML patients during January 2010-September 2019 in our Genetics Laboratory. Eighty-four (79.2%) patients had the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome as the sole chromosomal anomaly. Only 49(58.3%) of these 84 patients had sufficient marrow or leukemia blood materials to additionally be included in the array-CGH analysis. Fluorescence hybridization (FISH) was carried out to confirm the genes covered by the deleted or duplicated regions of the CNVs.

Results: 11(22.4%) out of the 49 patients were found to have one to three somatic segmental somatic segmental (CNVs), including fourteen deletions and three duplications. The common region associated with deletions was on 9q33.3-34.12. Identified in five (45.5%) of the 11 positive patients with segmental CNVs, the deletions ranged from 106 kb to 4.1 Mb in size. Two (18.2%) cases had a deletion in the ABL1-BCR fusion gene on der (9), while three (27.3%) cases had a deletion in the ASS1 gene. The remaining CNVs were randomly distributed on different autosomes.

Conclusion: Subtle genomic CNVs are relatively common in CML patients without cytogenetically visible additional chromosomal aberrations (ACAs). Long-term studies investigating the potential impact on patient prognosis and treatment outcome is underway.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.697009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8383316PMC
August 2021

Characterization and Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Skeletal Muscle in Pekin Duck at Different Growth Stages Using RNA-Seq.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 16;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Xianyang 712100, China.

Skeletal muscle, accounting for approximately 50% of body weight, is the largest and most important tissue. In this study, the gene expression profiles and pathways in skeletal muscle of Pekin duck were investigated and compared at embryonic day 17, 21, and 27 and postnatally at 6 months of age. An average of 49,555,936 reads in each sample was obtained from the transcriptome libraries. Over 70.0% of alternative splicing (AS) in each sample was mainly alternative 5' first exon (transcription start site)-the first exon splicing (TSS) and alternative 3' last exon (transcription terminal site)-the last exon splicing (TTS), indicating that TSS and TTS were the most common AS event in Pekin ducks, and these AS events were closely related to the regulation of muscle development at different growth stages. The results provided a valuable genomic resource for selective breeding and functional studies of genes. A total of 299 novel genes with ≥2 exons were obtained. There were 294 to 2806 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in each pairwise comparison of Pekin duck. Notably, 90 DEGs in breast muscle and 9 DEGs in leg muscle were co-expressed at all developmental points. DEGs were validated by qPCR analysis, which confirmed the tendency of the expression. DEGs related to muscle development were involved in biological processes such as "endodermal cell differentiation", "muscle cell cellular homeostasis", "skeletal muscle tissue growth" and "skeletal muscle cell differentiation", and were involved in pathways such as oxidative phosphorylation, ECM-receptor (extracellular matrix receptor) interaction, focal adhesion, carbon metabolism, and biosynthesis of amino acids. Some DEGs, including 4, , , and , as well as , , and , played crucial roles in muscle growth and development. This study provides valuable information about the expression profile of mRNAs and pathways from duck skeletal muscle at different growth stages, and further functional study of these mRNAs and pathways could provide new ideas for studying the molecular networks of growth and development in duck skeletal muscle.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11030834DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000258PMC
March 2021

Skeletal Muscle Transcriptome Analysis of Hanzhong Ma Duck at Different Growth Stages Using RNA-Seq.

Biomolecules 2021 02 19;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China.

As one of the most important poultry worldwide, ducks () are raised mainly for meat and egg products, and muscle development in ducks is important for meat production. Therefore, an investigation of gene expression in duck skeletal muscle would significantly contribute to our understanding of muscle development. In this study, twenty-four cDNA libraries were constructed from breast and leg muscles of Hanzhong Ma ducks at day 17, 21, 27 of the embryo and postnatal at 6-month-old. High-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics were used to determine the abundances and characteristics of transcripts. A total of 632,172,628 (average 52,681,052) and 637,213,938 (average 53,101,162) reads were obtained from the sequencing data of breast and leg muscles, respectively. Over 71.63% and 77.36% of the reads could be mapped to the genome. In the skeletal muscle of Hanzhong duck, intron variant (INTRON), synonymous variant (SYNONYMOUS_CODING), and prime 3' UTR variant (UTR_3_PRIME) were the main single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) annotation information, and "INTRON", "UTR_3_PRIME", and downstream-gene variant (DOWNSTREAM) were the main insertion-deletion (InDel) annotation information. The predicted number of alternative splicing (AS) in all samples were mainly alternative 5' first exon (transcription start site)-the first exon splicing (TSS) and alternative 3' last exon (transcription terminal site)-the last exon splicing (TTS). Besides, there were 292 to 2801 annotated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in breast muscle and 304 to 1950 annotated DEGs in leg muscle from different databases. It is worth noting that 75 DEGs in breast muscle and 49 DEGs in leg muscle were co-expressed at all developmental points of comparison, respectively. The RNA-Seq data were confirmed to be reliable by qPCR. The identified DEGs, such as 2, , 6, 2, 2, 3, 3, and 1, were specially highlighted, indicating their strong associations with muscle development in the Hanzhong Ma duck. KEGG pathway analysis suggested that regulation of actin cytoskeleton, oxidative phosphorylation, and focal adhesion were involved in the development of skeletal muscle. The findings from this study can contribute to future investigations of the growth and development mechanism in duck skeletal muscle.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11020315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927120PMC
February 2021

Expression and kinetic analysis of carboxylesterase LmCesA1 from Locusta migratoria.

Biotechnol Lett 2021 May 29;43(5):995-1004. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, 030006, China.

Objective: To investigate the biochemical characterization of the carboxylesterase LmCesA1 from Locusta migratoria.

Results: We expressed recombinant LmCesA1 in Sf9 cells by using the Bac-to-bac baculovirus expression system. Enzyme kinetic assays showed that the K values of LmCesA1 for α-naphthyl acetate (α-NA) and β-naphthyl acetate (β-NA) were 0.08 ± 0.01 mM and 0.22 ± 0.03 mM, respectively, suggesting that LmCesA1 has a higher affinity for α-NA. LmCesA1 retained its enzymatic activity during incubations at pH 7-10 and at 10-30 °C. In an inhibition experiment, two organophosphate pesticides (malaoxon and malathion) and one pyrethroid pesticide (deltamethrin) showed different inhibition profiles against purified LmCesA1. Recombinant LmCesA1 activity was significantly inhibited by malaoxon in vitro. UPLC analysis showed that no metabolites were detected.

Conclusions: These results suggest that overexpression of LmCesA1 enhances malathion sequestration to confer malathion tolerance in L. migratoria.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10529-021-03086-1DOI Listing
May 2021

Comparative Transcriptome Profiling of Ovary Tissue between Black Muscovy Duck and White Muscovy Duck with High- and Low-Egg Production.

Genes (Basel) 2020 12 31;12(1). Epub 2020 Dec 31.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

The egg-laying rate is an important indicator for evaluating fertility of poultry. In order to better understand the laying mechanism of Muscovy ducks, gene expression profiles and pathways of ovarian tissues in high- and low-laying black (BH and BL) and white Muscovy ducks (WH and WL) during the peak production period were performed by using RNA-seq. The total number of reads produced for each ovarian sample ranged from 44,344,070 to 47,963,328. A total of 113, 619 and 87 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in BH-vs-WH, BL-vs-BH and BL-vs-WL, respectively. Among them, 54, 356 and 49 genes were up regulated and 59, 263 and 38 genes were down regulated. In addition, there were only 10 up-regulated genes in WL-vs-WH. In the comparison of DEGs in black and white Muscovy ducks, two co-expressed DEG genes were detected between BH-vs-WH and BL-vs-WL and seven DEGs were co-expressed between BL-vs-BH and WL-vs-WH. The RNA-Seq data were confirmed to be reliable by qPCR. Numerous DEGs known to be involved in ovarian development were identified, including 2, , , 2, , 1, 18, 5 and 4. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations indicated that DEGs related to ovarian development were mainly enriched in biological processes of "circadian sleep/wake cycle process," "negative regulation of transforming growth factor-β secretion," "positive regulation of calcium ion transport" in BH-vs-WH and "cell surface receptor signaling pathway," "Notch signaling pathway" and "calcium ion transport" in BL-vs-BH. Besides, "steroid biosynthetic process," "granulosa cell development" and "egg coat formation" were mainly enriched in BL-vs-WL and "reproduction," "MAPK cascade" and "mitotic cell cycle" were mainly enriched in WL-vs-WH. KEGG pathway analysis showed that the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and ovarian steroidogenesis were the most enriched in Muscovy duck ovary transcriptome data. This work highlights potential genes and pathways that may affect ovarian development in Muscovy duck.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12010057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7824526PMC
December 2020

Paeonol Pretreatment Attenuates Anoxia-Reoxygenation Induced Injury in Cardiac Myocytes via a BRCA1 Dependent Pathway.

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2020 ;68(12):1163-1169

Department of Cardiology, The Affiliated Hangzhou Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Hangzhou First People's Hospital.

Breast cancer type 1 sensitive protein (BRCA1) is a well-known tumor suppressor and its role in oxidative stress has been confirmed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether paeonol has a protective effect on myocardial hypoxia-reoxygenation (A/R) injury, and to explore H9C2 cells through a mechanism-dependent pathway mediated by BRCA1. H9C2 cells were pretreated with paeonol (10 µM) for 18 h before hypoxia was induced to establish a cell model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Use commercial kits to detect antioxidant indicators, including relative oxygen content (ROS) levels, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, and creatine kinase (CK-MB) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activity. The cell viability was analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction method. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to detect BRCA1 mRNA and protein levels. The expression levels of BRCA1, NLRP3 and ACS were determined by Western blotting. In addition, the release of interleukin (IL)-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was also evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The results showed that paeonol (10 µM) can significantly improve the hypoxic A/R damage of H9C2 cells, and the BRCA1 expression of H9C2 cells pretreated with paeonol was significantly increased before A/R damage was induced. BRCA1 is widely known in breast and ovarian cancer. Our data proves that the down-regulation of BRCA1 participates in the decrease of cell viability and the decrease of CK-MB and LDH activities, and protects cells by inhibiting the production of ROS and the activation of Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes and NF-κB. In conclusion, paeonol significantly improved the A/R damage of H9C2 cells induced by hypoxia through the BRCA1/ROS-regulated NLRP3 inflammasome/IL-1β and NF-κB/TNF-α/IL-6 pathways. It may be a potential drug against myocardial I/R injury.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/cpb.c20-00524DOI Listing
May 2021

The Mediation of miR-34a/miR-449c for Immune Cytokines in Acute Cold/Heat-Stressed Broiler Chicken.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Nov 20;10(11). Epub 2020 Nov 20.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Xianyang 712100, China.

An increasing amount of evidence has revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) participated in immune regulation and reaction to acute cold and heat stresses. As a new type of post-transcriptional regulatory factor, miRNA has received widespread attention; However, the specific mechanism used for this regulation still needs to be determined. In this study, thirty broilers at the same growth period were divided into three groups and treated with different temperature and humidity of CS (10-15 °C and 90% Relative Humidity (RH)), HS (39 °C and 90% RH), and NS (26 °C and 50-60% RH) respectively. After 6 h, splenic tissues were collected from all study groups. miRNA sequencing was performed to identify the differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) between HS, CS, and NS. We found 33, 37, and 7 DEMs in the HS-NS, HS-CS, CS-NS group. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that DEMs were significantly enriched in cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and functioned as the cellular responders to stress. We chose two miRNA, miR-34a and miR-449c, from the same family and differential expressed in HS-CS and HS-NS group, as the research objects to predict and verify the target genes. The dual-luciferase reporter assay and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) confirmed that two cytokines, IL-2 and IL-12α, were the direct target genes of miR-34a and miR-449c. To further understand the mediation mechanism of miRNAs in acute cold/heat-stressed broiler chicken, a splenic cytokines profile was constructed. The results showed that IL-1β was strongly related to acute heat stress in broiler chicken, and from this we predicted that the increased expression of IL-1β might promote the expression of miR-34a, inducing the upregulation of interferon-γ (INF-γ) and IL-17. Our finds have laid a theoretical foundation for the breeding of poultry resistance and alleviation of the adverse effects of stress.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10112168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7699918PMC
November 2020

An inverse association of weight and the occurrence of asymptomatic gallbladder stone disease in hypercholesterolemia patients: a case-control study.

Lipids Health Dis 2020 Oct 23;19(1):228. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Nutrition, The Fourth People's Hospital of Shaanxi, No. 512, Xianning East Road, Xi'an, 710043, China.

Background: Despite the fact that the majority of gallstones formed in the gallbladder are mainly composed of cholesterol, as they are formed from cholesterol-supersaturated bile, and hypercholesterolemia is a common metabolic disorder, which is closely related to cardiac, hepatic, renal and other oxidative damage inflammation and necrosis, there is still no consensus regarding the contribution of blood serum lipids in the pathogenesis of gallbladder stone disease (GSD). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between hypercholesterolemia and the risk of new-onset asymptomatic GSD, and to determine the prevalence of factors associated with new-onset asymptomatic GSD in patients with hypercholesterolemia.

Methods: In this study, 927 Chinese patients with new-onset asymptomatic gallstone disease and 845 healthy controls were enrolled starting from August 2012. Patients were matched for age, gender, race, occupation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels (FBG). Body mass index (BMI), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and serum lipids indexes were compared and the relationships between BMI, blood lipid and gallbladder stone hazards were examined by logistic multivariate regression models.

Results: The result showed a significantly higher morbidity with GSD in hypercholesterolemia than non-hypercholesterolemia patients (Χ = 17.211, P < 0.001). Of hypercholesterolemia patients, low density lipoprotein (OR = 1.493, P = 0.029) and NAFLD (OR = 2.723, P = 0.022) were significant risk factors for GSD, while being male (OR = 0.244, P = 0.033), weight (OR = 0.961, P = 0.022), high density lipoprotein (OR = 0.305, P < 0.001), and FBG (OR = 0.687, P = 0.034) were significantly negatively correlated with GSD in univariate analysis. Multivariate logistic regression indicated weakly positive correlations with NAFLD (OR = 3.284, P = 0.054), and significant negative correlations with weight (OR = 0.930, P = 0.018), HDL-c (OR = 0.144, P < 0.001), and GSD.

Conclusion: Hypercholesterolemia acts as an independent risk factor for new-onset asymptomatic GSD, while obesity and NAFLD are synergistic factors. Interestingly, it is first reported that elevated weight was inversely associated with GSD in patients with hypercholesterolemia. The results of this study suggest that effective control of hyperlipidemia is of greater significance than weight loss, which might make the situation worse, in the prevention of GSD in obese patients with hyperlipidemia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12944-020-01402-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7585169PMC
October 2020

Global COVID-19 pandemic demands joint interventions for the suppression of future waves.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 10 28;117(42):26151-26157. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing, China;

Emerging evidence suggests a resurgence of COVID-19 in the coming years. It is thus critical to optimize emergency response planning from a broad, integrated perspective. We developed a mathematical model incorporating climate-driven variation in community transmissions and movement-modulated spatial diffusions of COVID-19 into various intervention scenarios. We find that an intensive 8-wk intervention targeting the reduction of local transmissibility and international travel is efficient and effective. Practically, we suggest a tiered implementation of this strategy where interventions are first implemented at locations in what we call the Global Intervention Hub, followed by timely interventions in secondary high-risk locations. We argue that thinking globally, categorizing locations in a hub-and-spoke intervention network, and acting locally, applying interventions at high-risk areas, is a functional strategy to avert the tremendous burden that would otherwise be placed on public health and society.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2012002117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7585010PMC
October 2020

Astragaloside IV Extends Lifespan of by Improving Age-Related Functional Declines and Triggering Antioxidant Responses.

Rejuvenation Res 2021 Apr 1;24(2):120-130. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, China.

Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) is a representative component of astragaloside saponins in dried roots of Astragali Radix. Astragaloside possesses a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities, including antibacterial, anti-fibrosis, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. However, the role of AS-IV in antiaging remains unclear. In this article, we studied the function of AS-IV in antiaging by using the () model. We showed that AS-IV can prolong the lifespan of in a natural aging model, a paraquat injury model, and a heat stress model and improve the movement capacity of nematodes. H-NMR data indicate an improvement of glutamate content and a decrease in glucose in the AS-IV treatment group compared with the control. Further investigation revealed that AS-IV can induce the mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) genes and increase the activities of SOD and CAT in the nematode. Interestingly, AS-IV could not extend the lifespan of , , , , , , , , and mutants. These data indicate that AS-IV prevents aging via mainly improving age-related functional declines, the antioxidant capacity of nematodes and partially modulating the insulin/insulin growth factor 1 signaling pathway activity. Our results provide new insights into how AS-IV prevents and treats aging.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/rej.2020.2312DOI Listing
April 2021

Apolipophorin-II/I Contributes to Cuticular Hydrocarbon Transport and Cuticle Barrier Construction in .

Front Physiol 2020 8;11:790. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Research Institute of Applied Biology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, China.

Apolipophorins are carrier proteins that bind lipids and mediate their transport from tissue to tissue in animals. Apolipophorin I and II (apoLp-II/I) are the major apolipophorins in insects. The implication of apoLp-II/I in cuticle lipid-barrier formation in insects has not been addressed to date. In the present study, we investigated the function of apoLp-II/I in the migratory locust (). During the development of fifth instar nymphs, transcript levels increased until mid-instar, and then decreased gradually until molting to the adult stage. We found that was predominately expressed in the fat body and the integument including oenocytes and epidermal cells. Immunodetection experiments revealed that LmapoLp-I mainly localized in the cytoplasm of oenocytes and epidermal cells. Silencing of caused molting defects in nymphs. Importantly, RNA interference against resulted in a significant decrease in the content of cuticle surface lipids including alkanes and methyl alkanes. Cuticular permeability was significantly enhanced in these nymphs in Eosin Y penetration assays. By consequence, desiccation resistance and insecticide tolerance of ds-treated locusts were reduced. Taken together, our results indicate that is involved in the transport and deposition of surface-cuticular lipids that are crucial for maintaining normal cuticle barrier function in .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7360829PMC
July 2020

Clinical analysis of surgery for type III esophageal atresia via thoracoscopy: a study of a Chinese single-center experience.

J Cardiothorac Surg 2020 Mar 30;15(1):55. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Fujian Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, 350001, P. R. China.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of the operation for type III esophageal atresia using a thoracoscope.

Methods: The clinical data for 92 patients with type III esophageal atresia in our hospital from January 2015 to December 2018 were analyzed retrospectively. There were 49 patients in group A who underwent thoracoscopic surgery and 43 patients in group B who underwent conventional surgery.

Results: The mechanical ventilation time (55.7 ± 11.4 h vs 75.6 ± 19.2 h), intensive care time (3.6 ± 1.8d vs 4.7 ± 2.0d), postoperative hospitalization time (13.1 ± 2.2d vs 16.8 ± 4.3d), thoracic drainage volume (62.7 ± 25.5 ml vs 125.4 ± 46.1 ml), blood transfusion volume (30.5 ± 10.4 ml vs 55.3 ± 22.7 ml) and surgical incision length (2.0 ± 0.5 cm vs 8.0 ± 1.8 cm) in group A were lower than those in group B, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Among the postoperative complications, the incidences of postoperative severe pneumonia (8.2% vs 23.3%), poor wound healing (2.0% vs 14.0%) and chest wall deformity (0% vs 11.6%) in group A were significantly lower than those in group B (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of anastomotic stricture, tracheomalacia or gastroesophageal reflux between the two groups after surgery and early during follow-up (P > 0.05), and there were no complications such as achalasia signs and esophageal diverticulum in either group.

Conclusion: Surgery for type III esophageal atresia via thoracoscopy has the same safety and clinical effectiveness as traditional surgery and has the advantages of smaller incision and chest wall deformity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13019-020-01097-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7106587PMC
March 2020

The Value of Thoracic Lavage in the Treatment of Anastomotic Leakage After Surgery for Type III Esophageal Atresia.

Med Sci Monit 2020 Mar 11;26:e919962. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Fujian Provincial Maternity and Children's Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to define whether the addition of thoracic lavage to chest drainage was more efficient than the use of chest drainage alone in the treatment for anastomotic leaks in type III esophageal atresia. MATERIAL AND METHODS The clinical data of 42 patients with anastomotic leakage treated with the addition of thoracic lavage from January 2012 to March 2019 in our hospital were analyzed retrospectively. The clinical data of 50 patients with anastomotic leakage treated without thoracic lavage from March 1999 to December 2011 in our hospital were selected as controls. RESULTS The duration of fistula healing, mechanical ventilation, hospitalization in intensive care unit, and gastric tube intubation in the thoracic lavage group were significantly shorter than those in the non-lavage group. The cost of hospitalization and the incidence of severe pneumonia were significantly lower in the thoracic lavage group than in the non-lavage group. The diameter of the anastomotic opening after anastomotic fistula healing was wider in the thoracic lavage group than in the non-lavage group. CONCLUSIONS The technique of thoracic lavage is simple, economical and convenient and can effectively promote the healing of anastomotic fistulas, accelerate postoperative recovery in children and reduce the cost of treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.919962DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7085236PMC
March 2020

Astragaloside IV derived from Astragalus membranaceus: A research review on the pharmacological effects.

Adv Pharmacol 2020 18;87:89-112. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, China. Electronic address:

Decoctions prepared from the roots of Astragali Radix are known as "Huangqi" and are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of viral and bacterial infections, inflammation, as well as cancer. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), one of the major compounds from the aqueous extract of Astragalus membranaceus, is a cycloartane-type triterpene glycoside chemical. To date, many studies in cellular and animal models have demonstrated that AS-IV possesses potent protective effects in cardiovascular, lung, kidney and brain. Based on studies over the past several decades, this review systematically summarizes the pharmacological effects, pharmacokinetics and the toxicity of AS-IV. We analyze in detail the pharmacological effects of AS-IV on neuroprotection, liver protection, anti-cancer and anti-diabetes, attributable to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic properties, and the roles in enhancement of immunity, attenuation of the migration and invasion of cancer cells and improvement of chemosensitivity of chemotherapy drugs. In addition, the latest developments in the combination of AS-IV and other active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine or chemical drugs are detailed. These pharmacological effects are associated with multiple signaling pathways, including the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway, EGFR-Nrf2 signaling pathway, Akt/PDE3B signaling pathway, AMPK signaling pathway, NF-κB signaling pathway, Nrf2 antioxidant signaling pathways, PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, PKC-α-ERK1/2-NF-κB pathway, IL-11/STAT3 signaling pathway, Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway, JNK/c-Jun/AP-1 signaling pathway, PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway, miRNA-34a/LDHA pathway, Nox4/Smad2 pathway, JNK pathway and NF-kB/PPARγ pathway. This review will provide an overall understanding of the pharmacological functions of astragaloside IV on neuroprotection, liver protection, anti-cancer and anti-diabetes. In light of this, AS-IV will be a potent alternative therapeutic agent for treatment of the above mentioned diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.apha.2019.08.002DOI Listing
June 2020

Clinical Analysis of Azygos Vein Preservation Under Thoracoscope in the Operation of Type III Esophageal Atresia.

J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2020 Apr 11;30(4):448-452. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Fujian Provincial Maternity and Children's Hospital, Fuzhou, P. R. China.

The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical effectiveness of azygos vein preservation when using a thoracoscope in the operation for type III esophageal atresia for children. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 34 patients (group B) who underwent the thoracoscopic operation of type III esophageal atresia with azygos vein preservation from January 2017 to April 2018. The clinical data of 36 patients (group A) who underwent the thoracoscopic operation of type III esophageal atresia with azygos vein mutilation from April 2015 to December 2016 were selected as a control group. All patients were successfully operated on. There was no significant difference in the operation time, amount of bleeding, mechanical ventilation time, and intensive care time between the azygos vein mutilation group and azygos vein preservation group. Compared with the operation severing the azygos vein, preservation of azygos vein has obvious advantages in postoperative hospitalization time, the incidence of anastomotic leakage ( < .05). The follow-up results for 1 year after the operation showed that the incidence of anastomotic stricture with preservation of azygos vein was significantly lower than that with azygos vein transection ( < .05). The thoracoscopic operation of type III esophageal atresia with azygos vein preservation can not only improve the edema of esophageal tissue around the esophagus, but also reduce the occurrence of esophageal anastomotic leakage and accelerate the postoperative recovery of children, and it has the same safety as the operation with azygos vein mutilation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/lap.2019.0611DOI Listing
April 2020

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor regulates the expression of LmGSTd7 and is associated with chlorpyrifos susceptibility in Locusta migratoria.

Pest Manag Sci 2019 Nov 26;75(11):2916-2924. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

Research Institute of Applied Biology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China.

Background: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) belongs to the bHLH-PAS (basic Helix-Loop-Helix - Period/ARNT/Single minded) family of transcription factors. AhR is a ligand-activated transcription factor, which participates in the sensing and transmitting stimuli of endogenous and exogenous chemicals, and subsequently activates the transcription of genes related to various physiological and detoxification functions.

Result: In this study, a single full-length LmAhR sequence was cloned and characterized. RNA interference (RNAi) and insecticide bioassays showed that LmAhR plays a vital role in chlorpyrifos susceptibility. To better identify aryl hydrocarbon receptor from locusta migratoria (LmAhR)-regulated genes involved in chlorpyrifos susceptibility, a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed using double-stranded (ds)GFP- and dsLmAhR-injected Locusta migratoria. Differential gene expression analysis identified 145 down-regulated and 67 up-regulated genes (P ≤ 0.05 and fold change ≥2) in dsLmAhR-knockdown insects. We selected 27 down-regulated genes and verified their expression levels using reverse transcription quantitative PCR. Finally, one glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene (LmGSTd7) was selected as a candidate detoxification gene and was further validated via RNAi and chlorpyrifos bioassays.

Conclusion: Our data suggest that AhR is associated with chlorpyrifos susceptibility via the regulation of LmGSTd7 expression in L. migratoria. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.5600DOI Listing
November 2019

Contributions of dsRNases to differential RNAi efficiencies between the injection and oral delivery of dsRNA in Locusta migratoria.

Pest Manag Sci 2019 Jun 8;75(6):1707-1717. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Research Institute of Applied Biology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, China.

Background: The efficiency of RNA interference (RNAi) varies considerably among different insect species, and there is growing evidence to suggest that degradation of double-stranded (dsRNA) prior to uptake is an important factor that limits the efficiency of RNAi in insects. In Locusta migratoria, RNAi is highly efficient when dsRNA is delivered by injection, but not by feeding. However, detailed mechanisms causing such differential RNAi efficiency are still elusive.

Results: We identified and characterized the full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs) of two new dsRNA nuclease (dsRNase) genes from L. migratoria, which were named LmdsRNase1 and LmdsRNase4. Transcript analyses revealed that LmdsRNase1 and LmdsRNase4 were highly expressed in hemolymph with relatively lower expression in other tested tissues. Our study using heterologously expressed LmdsRNase1 and LmdsRNase4 fusion proteins showed that LmdsRNase1 can degrade dsRNA rapidly at an optimal pH of 5, whereas LmdsRNase4 had no activity at any of the pH values examined. In comparing the substrate specificity of the four LmdsRNases, we found that only LmdsRNase1 and LmdsRNase2 digested dsRNA; however, our experiments suggested that the physiological pH of hemolymph (7.0) suppresses LmdsRNase1 activity permitting significant dsRNA stability in this tissue. Conversely, the physiological pH of midgut juice (6.8) is ideal for LmdsRNase2 activity, resulting in degradation of dsRNA in midgut.

Conclusion: The physiological pH of different insect tissues or compartments can significantly alter the stability of dsRNA by influencing LmdsRNase activity in L. migratoria. Thus, new strategies to overcome such obstacles are expected to help implement RNAi-based technologies for insect pest management. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.5291DOI Listing
June 2019

Wide-field anti-aliased quantitative differential phase contrast microscopy.

Opt Express 2018 Sep;26(19):25129-25146

Differential phase contrast (DPC) microscopy is a popular methodology to recover quantitative phase information of thin transparent samples under multi-axis asymmetric illumination patterns. Based on spatially partially coherent illuminations, DPC provides high-quality, speckle-free 3D reconstructions with lateral resolution up to twice the coherent diffraction limit, under the precondition that the pixel size of the imaging sensor is small enough to prevent spatial aliasing/undersampling. However, microscope cameras are in general designed to have a large pixel size so that the intensity information transmitted by the optical system cannot be adequately sampled or digitized. On the other hand, using an image sensor with a smaller pixel size or adding a magnification camera adapter to the camera can resolve the undersampling at the expense of a reduced field of view (FOV). To solve this tradeoff, we introduce a new variation of quantitative DPC approach, termed anti-aliased DPC (AADPC), which uses several aliased intensity images under asymmetric illuminations to recover wide-field aliasing-free phase images. Besides, phase transfer functions under different illumination patterns in DPC are analyzed to design an illumination scheme with better phase transfer characteristics. AADPC starts from an initial phase estimate obtained by a DPC-like deconvolution based on the system's weak phase transfer function under discrete half-annular illumination. Then the obtained initial phase map is further refined by the iterative de-multiplexing algorithm to overcome pixel-aliasing and improve the imaging resolution. The data redundancy requirement as well as the optimal illumination scheme of AADPC are analyzed and discussed based on several simulations, suggesting that the spatial undersampling can be mitigated through the iterative algorithm that uses only 4 images, yielding a nearly 4-fold increase in the space-bandwidth product (SBP) compared to the conventional DPC approach. We experimentally verify that AADPC can achieve a half-pitch imaging resolution of 345 nm, corresponding to 1.88× of the theoretical Nyquist-Shannon sampling resolution limit imposed by the sensor pixel size. The high-speed, high-throughput quantitative phase imaging capabilities of AADPC are also demonstrated by imaging HeLa cells mitosis in vitro, achieving a full-pitch lateral resolution of 665 nm across a wide FOV of 1.77mm at 25 fps.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.26.025129DOI Listing
September 2018

Multiple biological defects caused by calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans are associated with the activation of oxidative damage.

J Appl Toxicol 2018 06 19;38(6):801-809. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, 030006, Shanxi, China.

Calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside (CG) is an important active isoflavone compound in Radix Astragali that has many bioactivities. However, the toxicological effects and related toxicological mechanism of CG have been rarely documented. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the toxicity effects of CG on the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Some characteristics of the nematode, including lifespan, movement behavior and reproductive capacity, were used to detect the toxic effects of CG on C. elegans. The results showed that CG could shorten the lifespan of C. elegans by up to 25.3% and severely damage the movement of N2 larvae compared with the control group. Moreover, CG could prolong the generation times and reduce the brood sizes. Furthermore, CG promoted the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which caused oxidative stress, increased the mRNA expression of sod-1, sod-2, sod-3, sod-5, ctl-1, ctl-2 and ctl-3, and induced the antioxidant enzymes activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase to scavenge free radicals. However, antioxidant treatment experiments showed that Trolox could reduce the level of ROS caused by CG to the normal state of the control. These results suggested that the generation and elimination of ROS could not restore normal homeostasis in C. elegans treated by CG. These findings indicated that the activation of oxidative damage is one of the most important toxic mechanisms of CG in C. elegans.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.3588DOI Listing
June 2018

A double-stranded RNA degrading enzyme reduces the efficiency of oral RNA interference in migratory locust.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2017 07 31;86:68-80. Epub 2017 May 31.

Research Institute of Applied Biology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006, China. Electronic address:

Application of RNA interference (RNAi) for insect pest management is limited by variable efficiency of RNAi in different insect species. In Locusta migratoria, RNAi is highly efficient through injection of dsRNA, but oral delivery of dsRNA is much less effective. Efforts to understand this phenomenon have shown that dsRNA is more rapidly degraded in midgut fluid than in hemolymph due to nuclease enzyme activity. In the present study, we identified and characterized two full-length cDNAs of double-stranded RNA degrading enzymes (dsRNase) from midgut of L. migratoria, which were named LmdsRNase2 and LmdsRNase3. Gene expression analysis revealed that LmdsRNase2 and LmdsRNase3 were predominantly expressed in the midgut, relatively lower expression in gastric caeca, and trace expression in other tested tissues. Incubation of dsRNA in midgut fluid from LmdsRNase3-suppressed larvae or control larvae injected with dsGFP resulted in high levels of degradation; however, dsRNA incubated in midgut fluid from LmdsRNase2-suppressed larvae was more stable, indicating LmdsRNase2 is responsible for dsRNA degradation in the midgut. To verify the biological function of LmdsRNase2 in vivo, nymphs were injected with dsGFP, dsLmdsRNase2 or dsLmdsRNase3 and chitinase 10 (LmCht10) or chitin synthase 1 (LmCHS1) dsRNA were orally delivered. Mortality associated with reporter gene knockdown was observed only in locusts injected with dsLmdsRNase2 (48% and 22%, for dsLmCht10 and dsLmCHS1, respectively), implicating LmdsRNase2 in reducing RNAi efficiency. Furthermore, recombinantly expressed LmdsRNase2 fusion proteins degraded dsRNA rapidly, whereas LmdsRNase3 did not. These results suggest that rapid degradation of dsRNA by dsRNase2 in the midgut is an important factor causing low RNAi efficiency when dsRNA is orally delivered in the locust.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2017.05.008DOI Listing
July 2017

An inverse association of body mass index and prostate-specific antigen in northwest men of China: a population-based analysis.

Int J Clin Exp Med 2015 15;8(3):4557-62. Epub 2015 Mar 15.

Department of Urology Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical School, Xi'an Jiaotong University Xi'an, China.

Objectives: To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in Chinese men and to investigate whether this relationship was independent of other factors.

Methods: Cross-sectional analysis was in men aged 19 to 82 years old (N=12,964) who without prostate cancer and had health examination between 2008 and 2013 in a clinical center in Xi'an, China. Obesity and overweight were classified according to the WHO criterion. Mean PSA level was calculated by categories (normal weight, overweight, and obesity) and age group (≤ 40, 41-59, ≥ 60 years old). The association between BMI and PSA was examined using multivariate regression models and stratified by age.

Results: The crude prevalence was 38.42% for overweight and 3.47% for obesity in the study population. Mean PSA level increased with age at each BMI category. BMI was negatively associated with PSA level at each age group, independent of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and prostate volume. Per unit increase in BMI was associated with a decrease of PSA by 0.03 (P=0.05), 0.11(P < 0.001), and 0.15 (P < 0.001) in men aged ≤ 40, between 41 to 59, and > 60 years old, respectively.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that a higher BMI is associated with a lower level of PSA in healthy Chinese men across all age group, independent of prostate volume and FPG. With the current obesity epidemic, individual's BMI should be considered when PSA test is used to screen or diagnose prostate cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4443218PMC
June 2015

Skin transcriptome profiles associated with skin color in chickens.

PLoS One 2015 1;10(6):e0127301. Epub 2015 Jun 1.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China; Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Agriculture, Yanging, Shaanxi, China.

Nutritional and medicinal benefits have been attributed to the consumption of tissues from the black-boned chickens in oriental countries. Lueyang black-boned chicken is one of the native chicken breeds. However, some birds may instead have white or lighter skin, which directly causes economic losses every year. Previous studies of pigmentation have focused on a number of genes that may play important roles in coat color regulation. Illumina2000 sequencing technology was used to catalog the global gene expression profiles in the skin of the Lueyang chicken with white versus black skin. A total of 18,608 unigenes were assembled from the reads obtained from the skin of the white and black chickens. A total of 649 known genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, with 314 genes that were up regulated and 335 genes that were down-regulated, and a total of 162 novel genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, consisting of 73 genes that were up-regulated (including 4 highly expressed genes that were expressed exclusively in the skin of the black chickens) and 89 genes that were down-regulated. There were also a total of 8 known coat-color genes expressed in previous studies (ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R). In this study, 4 of which showed greater expression in the black chickens, and several were up-regulated, such as KIT, ASIP, TYR and OCA2. To our surprise, KITLG, MITF and MC1R showed no significant difference in expression between the black- and white-skinned chickens, and the expression of TYRP1 was not detected in either skin color. The expression of ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R was validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and the results of the qPCR were consistent with the RNA-seq. This study provides several candidate genes that may be associated with the development of black versus white skin. More importantly, the fact that the MC1R gene showed no significant difference in expression between the black and white chickens is of particular interest for future studies that aim to elucidate its functional role in the regulation of skin color.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0127301PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4452617PMC
March 2016

Two homologous carboxylesterase genes from Locusta migratoria with different tissue expression patterns and roles in insecticide detoxification.

J Insect Physiol 2015 Jun 1;77:1-8. Epub 2015 Apr 1.

Research Institute of Applied Biology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006, China. Electronic address:

Carboxylesterases (CarEs) play a crucial role in detoxification of xenobiotics and resistance to insecticides in insects. In this study, two cDNAs of CarE genes (LmCesA4 and LmCesA5) were sequenced from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. The cDNAs of LmCesA4 and LmCesA5 putatively encoded 538 and 470 amino acid residues, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of the two CarE genes showed 45.0% identities, possessed highly conserved catalytic triads (Ser-Glu-His), and clustered in phylogenetic analysis. These results suggest that they are homologous genes. Both CarE genes were expressed throughout the developmental stages. However, LmCesA4 was predominately expressed in the midgut (including the gastric caeca) and fat bodies, whereas LmCesA5 was mainly expressed in the gastric caeca. The in situ hybridization results showed that the transcripts of the two genes were localized in apical and basal regions of the columnar cells in the gastric caeca. Gene silencing followed by insecticide bioassay increased the mortalities of deltamethrin-, malathion-, and carbaryl-treated locusts by 29.5%, 31.0% and 20.4%, respectively, after the locusts were injected with LmCesA4 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). In contrast, the injection of LmCesA5 dsRNA did not significantly increase the susceptibility of the locusts to any of these insecticides. These results suggest that these genes not only show different tissue expression patterns but also play different roles in insecticide detoxification.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2015.03.013DOI Listing
June 2015

Two chitinase 5 genes from Locusta migratoria: molecular characteristics and functional differentiation.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2015 Mar 24;58:46-54. Epub 2015 Jan 24.

Research Institute of Applied Biology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006, China. Electronic address:

The duplication of chitinase 5 (Cht5) into two to five different genes has been reported only in mosquito species to date. Here, we report the duplication of Cht5 genes (LmCht5-1 and LmCht5-2) in the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria). Both LmCht5-1 (505 aa) and LmCht5-2 (492 aa) possess a signal peptide and a catalytic domain with four conserved motifs, but only LmCht5-1 contains a chitin-binding domain. Structural and phylogenetic analyses suggest that LmCht5-1 is orthologous to other insect Cht5 genes, whereas LmCht5-2 might be newly duplicated. Both LmCht5 genes were expressed in all tested tissues with LmCht5-1 highly expressed in hindgut and LmCht5-2 highly expressed in integument, foregut, hindgut and fat bodies. From the fourth-instar nymphs to the adults, LmCht5-1 and LmCht5-2 showed similar developmental expression patterns with transcript peaks prior to each nymphal molting, suggesting that their expression levels are similarly regulated. Treatment with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E; the most active molting hormone) and reducing expression of EcR (ecdysone receptor gene) by RNAi increased and decreased expression of both LmCht5 genes, respectively, indicating that both genes are responsive to 20E. Although transcript level of LmCht5-2 is generally 10-fold higher than that of LmCht5-1, RNAi-mediated suppression of LmCht5-1 transcript led to severe molting defects and lethality, but such effects were not seen with RNAi of LmCht5-2, suggesting that the newly duplicated LmCht5-2 is not essential for development and survivorship of the locust.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2015.01.004DOI Listing
March 2015

Molecular and functional characterization of cDNAs putatively encoding carboxylesterases from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

PLoS One 2014 10;9(4):e94809. Epub 2014 Apr 10.

Research Institute of Applied Biology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, People's Republic of China.

Carboxylesterases (CarEs) belong to a superfamily of metabolic enzymes encoded by a number of genes and are widely distributed in microbes, plants and animals including insects. These enzymes play important roles in detoxification of insecticides and other xenobiotics, degradation of pheromones, regulation of neurodevelopment, and control of animal development. In this study, we characterized a total of 39 full-length cDNAs putatively encoding different CarEs from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, one of the most severe insect pests in many regions of the world, and evaluated the role of four CarE genes in insecticide detoxification. Our phylogenetic analysis grouped the 39 CarEs into five different clades including 20 CarEs in clade A, 3 in D, 13 in E, 1 in F and 2 in I. Four CarE genes (LmCesA3, LmCesA20, LmCesD1, LmCesE1), representing three different clades (A, D and E), were selected for further analyses. The transcripts of the four genes were detectable in all the developmental stages and tissues examined. LmCesA3 and LmCesE1 were mainly expressed in the fat bodies and Malpighian tubules, whereas LmCesA20 and LmCesD1 were predominately expressed in the muscles and hemolymph, respectively. The injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) synthesized from each of the four CarE genes followed by the bioassay with each of four insecticides (chlorpyrifos, malathion, carbaryl and deltamethrin) increased the nymphal mortalities by 37.2 and 28.4% in response to malathion after LmCesA20 and LmCesE1 were silenced, respectively. Thus, we proposed that both LmCesA20 and LmCesE1 played an important role in detoxification of malathion in the locust. These results are expected to help researchers reveal the characteristics of diverse CarEs and assess the risk of insecticide resistance conferred by CarEs in the locust and other insect species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0094809PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3983256PMC
June 2015

RNA interference revealed the roles of two carboxylesterase genes in insecticide detoxification in Locusta migratoria.

Chemosphere 2013 Oct 27;93(6):1207-15. Epub 2013 Jul 27.

Institute of Applied Biology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006, China.

Carboxylesterases (CarEs) play key roles in metabolism of specific hormones and detoxification of dietary and environmental xenobiotics in insects. We sequenced and characterized CarE cDNAs putatively derived from two different genes named LmCesA1 and LmCesA2 from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, one of the most important agricultural pests in the world. The full-length cDNAs of LmCesA1 (1892 bp) and LmCesA2 (1643 bp) encode 543 and 501 amino acid residues, respectively. The two deduced CarEs share a characteristic α/β-hydrolase structure, including a catalytic triad composed of Ser-Glu (Asp)-His and a consensus sequence GQSAG, which suggests that both CarEs are biologically active. Phylogenetic analysis grouped both LmCesA1 and LmCesA2 into clade A which has been suggested to be involved in dietary detoxification. Both transcripts were highly expressed in all the nymphal and adult stages, but only slightly expressed in eggs. Analyses of tissue-dependent expression and in situ hybridization revealed that both transcripts were primarily expressed in gastric caeca. RNA interference (RNAi) of LmCesA1 and LmCesA2 followed by a topical application of carbaryl or deltamethrin did not lead to a significantly increased mortality with either insecticide. However, RNAi of LmCesA1 and LmCesA2 increased insect mortalities by 20.9% and 14.5%, respectively, when chlorpyrifos was applied. These results suggest that these genes might not play a significant role in detoxification of carbaryl and deltamethrin but are most likely to be involved in detoxification of chlorpyrifos in L. migratoria.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.06.081DOI Listing
October 2013

Molecular cloning and biochemical analysis of tyrosinase from the crested ibis in China.

Biochem Genet 2012 Dec 19;50(11-12):936-45. Epub 2012 Sep 19.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, China.

The crested ibis, one of the most endangered birds in the world, could benefit from research into its genetic diversity as a tool for conservation in the future. Tyrosinase is thought to play a major role in the production of common yellow to black melanins in birds. We have cloned and sequenced four exons of the crested ibis tyrosinase gene and discovered that the amino acid sequence has high similarity to zebra finch tyrosinase (93 %), followed by chicken (91 %) and quail (91 %). Some functional and structural domains in the crested ibis tyrosinase coding area were found to be conserved during evolution. Nine sequence variants were found in the partial coding sequence, one in exon 1 and eight in exon 4. Sequence variant 1 (SV1) shows intermediate polymorphism (0.25 < PIC < 0.5), and further study is needed to determine whether it can be used as a potential molecular marker in crested ibis artificial breeding programs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10528-012-9533-1DOI Listing
December 2012

Structural and catalytic role of two conserved tyrosines in Delta-class glutathione S-transferase from Locusta migratoria.

Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 2012 Jul 11;80(2):77-91. Epub 2012 May 11.

Research Institute of Applied Biology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China.

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are an important family of detoxifying enzymes and play a key role in pesticide resistance in the insect. Tyrosine is essential for its detoxification function. In the present study, two conserved tyrosine residues are located at positions 108 and 116 in H-site of LmGSTD1. To elucidate how the two residues participate in the catalytic process and keeping structural stability, four mutants, Y108A, Y108E, Y116A, and Y116E, were generated. It was found that the four mutants affected the specific activity of LmGSTD1 in various degrees, depending on the types of substrate and reaction mechanism. Steady-state kinetics assay revealed that Y108E and Y116E had a significant influence on GSH-binding ability, which indicates the two tyrosine residues of H-site contribute to topology rearrangement of G-site. Both Y116A and Y116E exhibited lower CDNB-binding affinity, suggesting that Y116 takes part in hydrophobic substrate binding. The thermostability assay, intrinsic, and 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) florescence results showed that the two tyrosine residues were involved in regulation of active-site conformation. Finally, homology modeling provided evidence that the two tyrosines in H-site participate in hydrophobic substrate binding. Furthermore, Y108 is closer to the S atom of S-hexylglutathione. In conclusion, the two tyrosines in LmGSTD1 are important residues in both the catalytic process and protein stability.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/arch.21025DOI Listing
July 2012

Genomics-based approaches to screening carboxylesterase-like genes potentially involved in malathion resistance in oriental migratory locust (Locusta migratoria manilensis).

Pest Manag Sci 2011 Feb;67(2):183-90

Research Institute of Applied Biology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China.

Background: Previous studies have indicated that increased carboxylesterase (CarE) activity is a major mechanism of malathion resistance in field populations of the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen), in China. The aim of the present study was to screen CarE-like genes from a large locust expressed sequence tag (EST) database and to assess their potential roles in malathion resistance.

Results: Twenty-five ESTs derived from different CarE-like genes in the locust EST database were identified, and 12 candidate genes with significantly increased expressions, ranging from 2.6- to 11.6-fold in a field-derived resistant (FR) colony of the locust, were found. These candidate genes were constitutively expressed in all nymph and adult stages, and most of them were predominantly expressed in the gastric caeca and the midgut. Among the 12 genes, two representative genes (LmCarE9 and LmCarE25) were chosen for RNAi followed by malathion bioassay. The nymph mortalities increased from 34.3 to 65.2 and 54.2% respectively after LmCarE9 and LmcarE25 were silenced. These results indicated significant roles of these CarE-like genes in conferring malathion resistance in the locust.

Conclusion: Multiple CarE-like genes were involved in malathion resistance in the locust. As validated by RNAi followed by malathion bioassay, LmCarE9 and LmcarE25 played a significant role in conferring malathion resistance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.2049DOI Listing
February 2011
-->