Publications by authors named "Jiannan Chen"

35 Publications

β-patchoulene protects against non-alcoholic steatohepatitis via interrupting the vicious circle among oxidative stress, histanoxia and lipid accumulation in rats.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jun 29;98:107915. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510006, China; Dongguan & Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine Cooperative Academy of Mathematical Engineering for Chinese Medicine, Dongguan 523808, China. Electronic address:

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), an extreme progressive subtype of metabolic associated fatty liver disease, is well characterized by hepatic steatosis, injury and inflammation. It causes irreversible hepatic damage and there are no approved interventions for it. β-PAE, a representatively pharmacological active substance isolated from Pogostemon cablin, has been indicated to alleviate hepatic steatosis and injury through modulating lipid metabolism in rats with simple steatosis. However, its protection against NASH remains unclear. Here, this study explored the potential effect of β-PAE against high-fat diet-induced NASH in rats. The results displayed that β-PAE significantly reduced the gains of body weight and epididymal adipose tissue, liver index and attenuated liver histological damages in NASH rats. It also markedly alleviated hepatic inflammation by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation. In NASH, the active NLRP3 inflammasome is caused by hepatic lipid abnormal accumulation-induced oxidative stress. Excessive oxidative stress results in hepatic histanoxia, which exacerbates lipid metabolism disorders by elevating CD36 to suppress AMPK signalling pathways. Moreover, the lipid accumulation led by lipid metabolism dysfunction intensifies oxidative stress. A vicious circle is formed among oxidative stress, histanoxia and lipid accumulation, eventually, but β-PAE effectively interrupted it. Interestingly, soluble CD36 (sCD36) was tightly associated not only with hepatic steatosis and injury but also with inflammation. Collectively, β-PAE exerted a positive effect against NASH by interrupting the vicious circle among oxidative stress, histanoxia and lipid accumulation, and sCD36 may be a promising non-invasive tool for NASH diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107915DOI Listing
June 2021

Gut Microbiota-Mediated Transformation of Coptisine Into a Novel Metabolite 8-Oxocoptisine: Insight Into Its Superior Anti-Colitis Effect.

Front Pharmacol 2021 30;12:639020. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Coptisine (COP) is a bioactive isoquinoline alkaloid derived from Franch, which is traditionally applied for the management of colitis. However, the blood concentration of COP was extremely low, and its gut microbiota-mediated metabolites were thought to contribute to its prominent bioactivities. To comparatively elucidate the protective effect and underlying mechanism of COP and its novel gut microbiota metabolite (8-oxocoptisine, OCOP) against colitis, we used dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce colitis in mice. Clinical symptoms, microscopic alternation, immune-inflammatory parameters for colitis were estimated. The results indicated that OCOP dramatically ameliorated disease activity index (DAI), the shortening of colon length and colonic histopathological deteriorations. OCOP treatment also suppressed the mRNA expression and release of inflammatory mediators (TGF-β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-18, IL-1β and IFN-γ) and elevated the transcriptional and translational levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) as well as the mRNA expression levels of adhesion molecules ( and ). Besides, the activation of NF-κB pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome was markedly inhibited by OCOP. Furthermore, OCOP displayed superior anti-colitis effect to COP, and was similar to MSZ with much smaller dosage. Taken together, the protective effect of OCOP against DSS-induced colitis might be intimately related to inhibition of NF-κB pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome. And the findings indicated that OCOP might have greater potential than COP to be further exploited as a promising candidate in the treatment of colitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.639020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8042337PMC
March 2021

Spectroscopic investigations of the changes in ligand conformation during the synthesis of soy protein-templated fluorescent gold nanoclusters.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Jul 19;255:119725. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Jiangsu 214122, China. Electronic address:

In this paper, the potential relationship between fluorescence and changes in the ligand conformation observed during the synthesis of soy protein-templated fluorescent gold nanoclusters (SP-AuNCs) was studied using a series of spectroscopic techniques. The results show that the determinants of the fluorescence effect in SP-AuNCs changed with the reaction time during the synthesis process. In the early stage of the reaction (within 60 min), the fluorescence intensity was dominated by the Au nucleus, followed by the combination of the Au nucleus and protein ligand. The structure of the protein ligand also underwent a transition from ordered to disordered to ordered. At the same time, its role in the reaction also changed from providing the reducing power to protecting the Au nucleus and contributing to the transition of the fluorescence effect in the AuNCs via ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT). Using two-dimensional (2D) photon spectra correlation analysis, the formation and growth of the Au nuclei and the LMCT effect observed during the synthesis of the SP-AuNCs were found to be the major causes for the changes in the conformation of the protein ligand. Our results are an important discovery and can be used to explain the mechanism of protein ligands in the synthesis of gold nanoclusters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.119725DOI Listing
July 2021

A high-quality genome provides insights into the new taxonomic status and genomic characteristics of Cladopus chinensis (Podostemaceae).

Hortic Res 2020 Apr 1;7(1):46. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Public Service Platform for Industrialization Development Technology of Marine Biological Medicine and Products of the State Oceanic Administration, Fujian Key Laboratory of Special Marine Bioresource Sustainable Utilization, Key Laboratory of Developmental and Neural Biology, College of Life Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, China.

The Podostemaceae are ecologically and morphologically unusual aquatic angiosperms that survive only in rivers with pristine hydrology and high water quality and are at a relatively high risk of extinction. The taxonomic status of Podostemaceae has always been controversial. Here, we report the first high-quality genome assembly for Cladopus chinensis of Podostemaceae, obtained by incorporating Hi-C, Illumina and PacBio sequencing. We generated an 827.92 Mb genome with a contig N50 of 1.42 Mb and 27,370 annotated protein-coding genes. The assembled genome size was close to the estimated size, and 659.42 Mb of the assembly was assigned to 29 superscaffolds (scaffold N50 21.22 Mb). A total of 59.20% repetitive sequences were identified, among which long terminal repeats (LTRs) were the most abundant class (28.97% of the genome). Genome evolution analysis suggested that the divergence time of Cladopus chinensis (106 Mya) was earlier than that of Malpighiales (82 Mya) and that this taxon diverged into an independent branch of Podestemales. A recent whole-genome duplication (WGD) event occurred 4.43 million years ago. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the expansion and contraction of oxidative phosphorylation, photosynthesis and isoflavonoid metabolism genes in Cladopus chinensis are probably related to the genomic characteristics of this growing submerged species. Transcriptome analysis revealed that upregulated genes in the shoot group compared to the root group were enriched in the NAC gene family and transcription factors associated with shoot development and defense responses, including WUSCHEL (WUS), ASYMMETRIC LEAVES (ASL), SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM), NAC2, NAC8, NAC29, NAC47, NAC73, NAC83 and NAC102. These findings provide new insights into the genomic diversity of unusual aquatic angiosperms and serve as a valuable reference for the taxonomic status and unusual shoot apical meristem of Podostemaceae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-020-0269-5DOI Listing
April 2020

Insights into salvianolic acid B biosynthesis from chromosome-scale assembly of the Salvia bowleyana genome.

J Integr Plant Biol 2021 Jul 13;63(7):1309-1323. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

The Public Service Platform for Industrialization Development Technology of Marine Biological Medicine and Products of the State Oceanic Administration, Fujian Key Laboratory of Special Marine Bioresource Sustainable Utilization, Southern Institute of Oceanography, College of Life Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, 350117, China.

Salvia bowleyana is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant that is a source of nutritional supplements rich in salvianolic acid B and a potential experimental system for the exploration of salvianolic acid B biosynthesis in the Labiatae. Here, we report a high-quality chromosome-scale genome assembly of S. bowleyana covering 462.44 Mb, with a scaffold N50 value of 57.96 Mb and 44,044 annotated protein-coding genes. Evolutionary analysis revealed an estimated divergence time between S. bowleyana and its close relative S. miltiorrhiza of ~3.94 million years. We also observed evidence of a whole-genome duplication in the S. bowleyana genome. Transcriptome analysis showed that SbPAL1 (PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA-LYASE1) is highly expressed in roots relative to stem and leaves, paralleling the location of salvianolic acid B accumulation. The laccase gene family in S. bowleyana outnumbered their counterparts in both S. miltiorrhiza and Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that the gene family has undergone expansion in S. bowleyana. Several laccase genes were also highly expressed in roots, where their encoded proteins may catalyze the oxidative reaction from rosmarinic acid to salvianolic acid B. These findings provide an invaluable genomic resource for understanding salvianolic acid B biosynthesis and its regulation, and will be useful for exploring the evolution of the Labiatae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jipb.13085DOI Listing
July 2021

Lipid and carotenoid production by the Rhodosporidium toruloides mutant in cane molasses.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Apr 3;326:124816. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

The Public Service Platform for Industrialization Development Technology of Marine Biological Medicine and Products of the State Oceanic Administration, Fujian Key Laboratory of Special Marine Bioresource Sustainable Utilization, Southern Institute of Oceanography, College of Life Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, China. Electronic address:

Cane molasses is beneficial for lipid and carotenoid production in microalgae. We made a survey for the lipid and carotenoid production profile of R. toruloides M18 (MT) with various concentrations of molasses under nitrogen-deficited conditions. The production of α-linolenate and torularhodin from MT were 1.22- and 14.68-fold higher than those of the wild-type strain. We observed that molasses at concentrations of 35 g/L and 70 g/L represented a cheap and environmentally friendly strategy for producing lipids and carotenoids. Transcriptome and WGCNA analysis demonstrated that the genes relevant to the lipid and carotenoid production, including MYB, bHLH, Δ-4 desaturase, Δ-12 desaturase and FA2H, were significantly highly expressed. The results indicated that molasses could represent an inexpensive means for achieving high lipids and carotenoids production in R. toruloides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.124816DOI Listing
April 2021

Oxyberberine, an absorbed metabolite of berberine, possess superior hypoglycemic effect via regulating the PI3K/Akt and Nrf2 signaling pathways.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 May 30;137:111312. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, PR China. Electronic address:

Berberine (BBR) is a promising anti-diabetic isoquinoline alkaloid from Rhizoma coptidis, while its bioavailability was extremely low. Here, the existing form and pharmacokinetics of BBR were comparatively characterized in conventional and antibiotic-induced pseudo germ-free (PGF) rats. Furthermore, we comparatively investigated the antidiabetic effect and potential mechanism of BBR and its intestinal oxidative metabolite oxyberberine (OBB) in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results showed that BBR and OBB existed mainly as protein-bound form in blood, while protein-bound OBB was significantly depleted in PGF rats. Treatment with OBB and BBR effectively decreased clinical symptoms of diabetic rats, reduced blood glucose level, ameliorated the pancreatic damage, and mitigated oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. However, the anti-diabetes effect of BBR was obviously compromised by antibiotics. In addition, OBB exerted superior anti-diabetes effect to BBR of the same dose, significantly up-regulated the mRNA expression of Nrf2 signaling pathway and substantially promoted the pancreatic levels of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. In conclusion, BBR and its absorbed oxidative metabolite OBB were mainly presented and transported in the protein-bound form in vivo. The gut microbiota may play an important role in the anti-diabetes effect of BBR through transforming itself into the superior hypoglycemic metabolite OBB. OBB possessed favorable hypoglycemic and pancreatic β-cells protective effects, which may stand a huge potential to be further developed into a promising anti-diabetes candidate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111312DOI Listing
May 2021

Coptisine ameliorates DSS-induced ulcerative colitis via improving intestinal barrier dysfunction and suppressing inflammatory response.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Apr 27;896:173912. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Pharmacology, Zunyi Medical University, Zhuhai Campus, Zhuhai, 519041, PR China. Electronic address:

Ulcerative colitis (UC), as an autoimmune disease, has been troubling human health for many years. Up to now, the available treatments remain unsatisfactory. Rhizoma Coptidis has been widely applied to treat gastrointestinal diseases in China for a long time, and coptisine (COP) is identified as one of its major active components. This study aimed to evaluate the bioactivity of COP on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mice colitis and clarify the potential mechanism of action. The results revealed that COP treatment markedly alleviated DSS-induced clinical symptoms by relieving body weight loss and the disease activity index (DAI) score. Specifically, the colon length in the COP (50 and 100 mg/kg) groups were obviously longer than that in the DSS group (7.21 ± 0.34, 8.59 ± 0.45 cm vs. 6.71 ± 0.59 cm, P < 0.01). HE staining analysis revealed that COP treatment significantly protected the integrity of intestinal barrier and alleviated inflammatory cells infiltration. Western blot assay confirmed that COP notably improved the intestinal epithelial barrier function by enhancing the expressions of colonic tight junction proteins and inhibited the expressions of apoptosis-related proteins. In addition, COP treatment remarkably suppressed the levels of colonic myeloperoxidase (MPO), adhesion molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-17), while enhanced IL-10 and TGF-β. The mechanism anti-inflammatory of COP might be related to inhibiting the phosphorylation of IκBα, and the translocation of NF-κB p65 from cytoplasm to nucleus. In summary, the study indicated that COP ameliorated DSS-induced colitis, at least partly through maintaining the integrity of intestinal epithelial barrier, inhibiting apoptosis and inflammatory response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.173912DOI Listing
April 2021

Apoptotic activities of brusatol in human non-small cell lung cancer cells: Involvement of ROS-mediated mitochondrial-dependent pathway and inhibition of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response.

Toxicology 2021 03 16;451:152680. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Clinical Research on Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510120, P.R. China; The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510120, P.R. China; State Key Laboratory of Dampness Syndrome of Chinese Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510120, P.R. China.

Brusatol occurs as a characteristic bioactive principle of Brucea javanica (L.) Merr., a traditional medicinal herb frequently employed to tackle cancer in China. This work endeavored to unravel the potential anti-cancer activity and action mechanism of brusatol against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. The findings indicated that brusatol remarkably inhibited the growth of wild-type NSCLC cell lines (A549 and H1650) and epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant cell lines (PC9 and HCC827) in a dose- and time-related fashion, and profoundly inhibited the clonogenic capability and migratory capacity of PC9 cells. Treatment with brusatol resulted in significant apoptosis in PC9 cells, as evidenced by Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometric analysis. The apoptotic effect was closely related to induction of G0-G1 cell cycle arrest, stimulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde, decrease of glutathione levels and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine, a typical ROS scavenger, markedly ameliorated the brusatol-induced inhibition of PC9 cells. Western blotting assay indicated that brusatol pronouncedly suppressed the expression levels of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway-associated proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, accentuated the expression of Bax and Bak, and upregulated the protein expression of XIAP, cleaved caspase-3/pro caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8/pro caspase-8, and cleaved PARP/total PARP. In addition, brusatol significantly suppressed the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1, and abrogated tBHQ-induced Nrf2 activation. Combinational administration of brusatol with four chemotherapeutic agents exhibited marked synergetic effect on PC9 cells. Together, the inhibition of PC9 cells proliferation by brusatol might be intimately associated with the modulation of ROS-mediated mitochondrial-dependent pathway and inhibition of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response. This novel insight might provide further evidence to buttress the antineoplastic efficacy of B. javanica, and support a role for brusatol as a promising anti-cancer candidate or adjuvant to current chemotherapeutic medication in the therapy of EGFR-mutant NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2021.152680DOI Listing
March 2021

The anti-hepatocellular carcinoma effect of Brucea javanica oil in ascitic tumor-bearing mice: The detection of brusatol and its role.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Feb 16;134:111122. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, PR China. Electronic address:

Brucea javanica oil (BJO), one of the main products of Brucea javanica, has been widely used in treating different kinds of malignant tumors. Quassinoids are the major category of anticancer phytochemicals of B. javanica. However, current researches on the anti-cancer effect of BJO mainly focused on oleic acid and linoleic acid, the common major components of dietary edible oils, essential and characteristic components of B. javanica like quassinoids potentially involved remained unexplored. In the current investigation, we developed an efficient HPLC method to detect brusatol, a characteristic quassinoid, and comparatively scrutinized the anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (anti-HCC) effect of BJO, brusatol-free BJO (BF-BJO), and brusatol-enriched BJO (BE-BJO) against hepatoma 22 (H22) in mice. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was utilized to identify the components in BJO. BE-BJO was extracted with 95 % ethanol. The anti-tumor effect of BJO, BF-BJO and BE-BJO was comparatively investigated, and the potential underlying mechanism was explored in H22 ascites tumor-bearing mice. The results indicated that BJO and BE-BJO significantly prolonged the survival time of H22 ascites tumor-bearing mice, while BF-BJO exhibited no obvious effect. BJO and BE-BJO exhibited pronounced anti-HCC activity by suppressing the growth of implanted hepatoma H22 in mice, including ascending weight, abdominal circumference, ascites volume and cancer cell viability, with a relatively wide margin of safety. BJO and BE-BJO significantly induced H22 cell apoptosis by upregulating the miRNA-29b gene level and p53 expression. Furthermore, BJO and BE-BJO treatment substantially downregulated Bcl-2 and mitochondrial Cytochrome C protein expression, and upregulated expression levels of Bax, Bad, cytosol Cytochrome C, caspase-3 (cleaved), caspase‑9 (cleaved), PARP and PARP (cleaved) to induce H22 cells apoptosis. Brusatol was detected in BJO and found to be one of its major active anti-HCC components, rather than fatty acids including oleic acid and linoleic acid. The anti-HCC effect of BJO and BE-BJO was intimately associated with the activation of miRNA-29b, p53-associated apoptosis and mitochondrial-related pathways. Our study gained novel insight into the material basis of BJO in the treatment of HCC, and laid a foundation for a novel specific standard for the quality evaluation of BJO and its commercial products in terms of its anti-cancer application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.111122DOI Listing
February 2021

β-patchoulene improves lipid metabolism to alleviate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease via activating AMPK signaling pathway.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Feb 16;134:111104. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510006, China; Dongguan & Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine Cooperative Academy of Mathematical Engineering for Chinese Medicine, Dongguan, 523808, China. Electronic address:

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been a leading cause of chronic metabolic disease, seriously posing healthy burdens to the public, whereas interventions available for it are limited to date. Patchouli oil had been reported to attenuate hepatic steatosis in our previous study. β-patchoulene (β-PAE) is a representative component separated from patchouli oil with multiple activities, but its effect against NAFLD is still unknown. To investigate the effect and potential mechanism of β-PAE on NAFLD, we used high fat diet (HFD) in vivo and free fatty acid (FFA) in vitro to induce hepatic steatosis in rats and L02 cells, respectively. Histological examination was evaluated via Hematoxylin-eosin and oil red O staining. The parameters for hepatic steatosis were estimated via biochemical kits, western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR. Compound C, the inhibitor of AMPK, was applied further to examine the precise mechanism of β-PAE on NAFLD. Our results indicated that β-PAE significantly attenuated HFD-induced weight gain, hepatic injury, lipid deposition in serum and hepatic tissue as well as FFA induced-lipid accumulation. Besides, β-PAE markedly improved the expression of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its downstream factors which correlate with hepatic lipid synthesis and oxidation in vivo and in vitro. Nevertheless, Compound C abrogated the benefits derived from β-PAE in L02 cells. In conclusion, these results suggest that β-PAE exerts AMPK agonist-like effect to regulate hepatic lipid synthesis and oxidation, eventually prevent NAFLD progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.111104DOI Listing
February 2021

Adaptive Full-State-Constrained Control of Nonlinear Systems With Deferred Constraints Based on Nonbarrier Lyapunov Function Method.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2020 Dec 16;PP. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

In this article, the problem of tracking control is considered for a class of uncertain strict-feedback nonlinear systems with deferred asymmetric time-varying full-state constraints. A novel adaptive robust full-state-constrained control scheme is developed. First, by introducing a novel shifting function, the original constrained system with any initial values is modified to a new constrained system, and the initial values of the modified constrained system remain 0. Then, to remove the feasibility condition caused by the barrier Lyapunov functions, the modified constrained system is further transformed into a new unconstrained system by a brand new nonlinear transformation. Furthermore, the tracking error system of the unconstrained system is constructed by using a new coordinate transformation, and a novel adaptive full-state-constrained control scheme is designed based on this error system through the backstepping recursion method and first-order filters. Finally, the resulting closed-loop system proves to be stable and numerical simulations are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed control strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCYB.2020.3036646DOI Listing
December 2020

Iterative Learning Model-Free Control for Networked Systems With Dual-Direction Data Dropouts and Actuator Faults.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2020 Oct 13;PP. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

In this article, we study the tracking problem for networked nonlinear discrete systems with actuator faults and dual-direction data dropouts. A novel adaptive fault-tolerant iterative learning model-free control strategy is designed. First, by utilizing the method called compact form dynamic linearization, the original nonlinear system model is transformed into an equivalent data-driven model, and the data model contains only one unknown parameter. Both the actuator fault and the system dynamics information are included in this parameter. Then, to model the physical processes of data dropout, a new mathematical relationship is constructed. Furthermore, an adaptive fault-tolerant iterative learning tracking control scheme is developed with only randomly received input/output data. Noting that the high learning rate or convergence rate is required in actual applications, a new varying parameter approach is designed to improve such rate. Finally, it is rigorously proved that the closed loop is stable in the sense of uniform ultimate boundedness, and numerical simulation results are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the designed control strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2020.3027651DOI Listing
October 2020

β-patchoulene simultaneously ameliorated dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and secondary liver injury in mice via suppressing colonic leakage and flora imbalance.

Biochem Pharmacol 2020 12 2;182:114260. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Development and Research of Chinese Medicine, Mathematical Engineering Academy of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address:

Ulcerative colitis (UC) often occurs accompanied by colonic leakage and flora imbalance, resulting in secondary liver injury (SLI). SLI, in turn, aggravates UC, so the treatment of UC should not ignore it. β-patchoulene (β-PAE), a tricyclic sesquiterpene isolated from Pogostemon cablin, has been reported to exert a protective effect in gastrointestinal disease in our previous studies. However, its protection against UC and SLI remains unknown. Here we explored the protective effect and underlying mechanism of β-PAE against dextran sulfate sodium-induced UC and SLI in mice. The results indicated that β-PAE significantly reduced disease activity index, splenic index and attenuated the shortening of colonic length in UC mice. It alleviated colonic pathological changes and apoptosis through protecting tight junctions, reducing neutrophil aggregation, and inhibiting the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules. These effects of β-PAE were associated with the inhibition of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB and ROCK1/MLC2 signalling pathway. UC-induced colonic leakage caused abnormally high LPS levels to result in SLI, and β-PAE markedly inhibited it. β-PAE simultaneously ameliorated SLI with reduced biomarker levels of endotoxin exposure and hepatic inflammation. High levels of LPS were also associated with flora imbalance in UC mice. However, β-PAE restored the diversity of gut microbiota and altered the relative abundance of characteristic flora of UC mice. Escherichia-dominated gut microbiota of UC mice was changed to Oscillospira-dominated after β-PAE treatment. In conclusion, pharmacological effects of β-PAE on UC and SLI were mainly contributed by suppressing colonic leakage and flora imbalance. The findings may have implications for UC treatment that not neglect the treatment of SLI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2020.114260DOI Listing
December 2020

Neutralization of high pH and alkalinity effluent from recycled concrete aggregate by common subgrade soil.

J Environ Qual 2020 Jan 17;49(1):172-183. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Dep. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Geological Engineering and Environmental Chemistry and Technology Programs, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53706, USA.

Use of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) as highway basecourse material conserves virgin aggregate, reduces energy consumption and CO emissions, and may also decrease costs during construction. However, concerns remain over possible negative environmental impacts associated with high pH (>11) effluent from RCA in contact with water. This study examines the reactive transport of high-pH and high-alkalinity water, modeled on RCA leachate, through model subgrade soils. By developing an understanding of the reactions controlling effluent neutralization, this study aims to quantify the change in pH from the discharge site through surrounding subgrade soils. Four types of subgrade soils with a range of mineral composition, Atterberg limits, and cation exchange capacities (CECs) are examined. They include a clayey sand (SC10), low-plasticity clays (M14, SC25), and a high-plasticity clay (CH38). Batch reaction experiments are used to develop kinetic parameters describing the neutralization of high-pH and -alkalinity leachate by clay minerals through mineral dissolution and reprecipitation. Given this information, a reactive transport model incorporating advection, diffusion, and reaction is used to model the change in pH as a function of distance traveled through model subgrade soils and is applied to laboratory-scale column experiments. The rate at which the high pH front travels is directly related to a soil's clay mineral content. Soils with high CECs effectively delay the propagation of hydroxide front by the dissolution of clay minerals. This study demonstrates that common subgrade soils with moderate clay content will effectively neutralize high pH leachate initially produced by RCA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jeq2.20008DOI Listing
January 2020

Deterioration and Oxidation Characteristics of Black Shale under Immersion and Its Impact on the Strength of Concrete.

Materials (Basel) 2020 May 31;13(11). Epub 2020 May 31.

Sichuan Railway Investment Group Co., Ltd., Chengdu 610081, China.

Black shale, which usually contains pyrite, is easily oxidized and generates acid discharge. This acidic environment is not favorable for concrete in engineering applications and is likely to affect the durability of engineering structures. This study investigated the effect of acid discharge from the weathering of black shale on the strength of concrete under partially immersed conditions. Black shale concrete immersion tests were conducted at different immersion depths to evaluate the oxidation conduction of black shale. Water chemistry and oxidation products were monitored during and after the immersion tests. The quality and strength of the black shale and concrete specimens were obtained before and after the immersion by testing the ultrasonic wave velocity and uniaxial compressive strength. The results indicated that a lower immersion depth of black shale reveals a higher degree of oxidation, and the capillary zone in black shale is critical for black shale oxidation in terms of mass transfer. The ultrasonic velocity of the concrete showed different change patterns in the immersed and non-immersed zones. Precipitation and additional hydration enhanced the quality and entirety of the concrete (increased ultrasonic velocity) at the non-immersed or partially-immersed zones, while the dissolution of concrete was dominant in the immersed zone (decreased ultrasonic velocity) and induced a reduction of concrete quality. The compressive strength of the concrete was enhanced after immersion. The concrete strength slightly increased by 5-15%. This phenomenon is attributed to the filling of the voids by the precipitations of minerals, such as goethite and anhydrite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13112515DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7321495PMC
May 2020

A high-quality genome provides insights into the new taxonomic status and genomic characteristics of (Podostemaceae).

Hortic Res 2020 1;7:46. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

1Public Service Platform for Industrialization Development Technology of Marine Biological Medicine and Products of the State Oceanic Administration, Fujian Key Laboratory of Special Marine Bioresource Sustainable Utilization, Key Laboratory of Developmental and Neural Biology, College of Life Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, China.

The Podostemaceae are ecologically and morphologically unusual aquatic angiosperms that survive only in rivers with pristine hydrology and high water quality and are at a relatively high risk of extinction. The taxonomic status of Podostemaceae has always been controversial. Here, we report the first high-quality genome assembly for of Podostemaceae, obtained by incorporating Hi-C, Illumina and PacBio sequencing. We generated an 827.92 Mb genome with a contig N50 of 1.42 Mb and 27,370 annotated protein-coding genes. The assembled genome size was close to the estimated size, and 659.42 Mb of the assembly was assigned to 29 superscaffolds (scaffold N50 21.22 Mb). A total of 59.20% repetitive sequences were identified, among which long terminal repeats (LTRs) were the most abundant class (28.97% of the genome). Genome evolution analysis suggested that the divergence time of (106 Mya) was earlier than that of Malpighiales (82 Mya) and that this taxon diverged into an independent branch of Podestemales. A recent whole-genome duplication (WGD) event occurred 4.43 million years ago. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the expansion and contraction of oxidative phosphorylation, photosynthesis and isoflavonoid metabolism genes in are probably related to the genomic characteristics of this growing submerged species. Transcriptome analysis revealed that upregulated genes in the shoot group compared to the root group were enriched in the NAC gene family and transcription factors associated with shoot development and defense responses, including WUSCHEL (WUS), ASYMMETRIC LEAVES (ASL), SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM), NAC2, NAC8, NAC29, NAC47, NAC73, NAC83 and NAC102. These findings provide new insights into the genomic diversity of unusual aquatic angiosperms and serve as a valuable reference for the taxonomic status and unusual shoot apical meristem of Podostemaceae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-020-0269-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7109043PMC
April 2020

Oxyberberine, a novel gut microbiota-mediated metabolite of berberine, possesses superior anti-colitis effect: Impact on intestinal epithelial barrier, gut microbiota profile and TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB pathway.

Pharmacol Res 2020 02 19;152:104603. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Development and Research of Chinese Medicine, Mathematical Engineering Academy of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510006, PR China. Electronic address:

Berberine (BBR), a naturally-occurring isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from several Chinese herbal medicines, has been widely used for the treatment of dysentery and colitis. However, its blood concentration was less than 1 %, and intestinal microflora-mediated metabolites of BBR were considered to be the important material basis for the bioactivities of BBR. Here, we investigated the anti-colitis activity and potential mechanism of oxyberberine (OBB), a novel gut microbiota metabolite of BBR, in DSS-induced colitis mice. Balb/C mice treated with 3 % DSS in drinking water to induce acute colitis were orally administrated with OBB once daily for 8 days. Clinical symptoms were analyzed, and biological samples were collected for microscopic, immune-inflammation, intestinal barrier function, and gut microbiota analysis. Results showed that OBB significantly attenuated DSS-induced clinical manifestations, colon shortening and histological injury in the mice with colitis, which achieved similar therapeutic effect to azathioprine (AZA) and was superior to BBR. Furthermore, OBB remarkably ameliorated colonic inflammatory response and intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction. OBB appreciably inhibited TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB signaling pathway through down-regulating the protein expressions of TLR4 and MyD88, inhibiting the phosphorylation of IκBα, and the translocation of NF-κB p65 from cytoplasm to nucleus. Moreover, OBB markedly modulated the gut dysbiosis induced by DSS and restored the dysbacteria to normal level. Taken together, the result for the first time revealed that OBB effectively improved DSS-induced experimental colitis, at least partly through maintaining the colonic integrity, inhibiting inflammation response, and modulating gut microflora profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2019.104603DOI Listing
February 2020

Dihydroberberine, a hydrogenated derivative of berberine firstly identified in Phellodendri Chinese Cortex, exerts anti-inflammatory effect via dual modulation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.

Int Immunopharmacol 2019 Oct 8;75:105802. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Development and Research of Chinese Medicine, Mathematical Engineering Academy of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510006, PR China; Dongguan Mathematical Engineering Academy of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Dongguan 523808, PR China. Electronic address:

Dihydroberberine (DHB), a hydrogenated derivative of berberine (BBR), has been firstly identified in Phellodendri Chinese Cortex (PC) by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Nowadays most researches on PC focus on its main components like BBR, however, the role of its naturally-occurring derivatives remains poorly defined heretofore. The present work aimed to comparatively evaluate the in vivo anti-inflammatory properties and mechanisms of DHB and BBR in three typical inflammatory murine models. The results showed that DHB effectively mitigated acetic acid-induced vascular permeability, xylene-elicited ear edema and carrageenan-caused paw edema. Meanwhile, DHB markedly attenuated the inflammatory cell infiltration in pathological sections of ears and paws. DHB was also observed to significantly decrease the production and mRNA expression levels of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, NO (iNOS) and PGE2 (COX-2), increase the release of IL-10, and inhibit the activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. The anti-inflammatory effect of DHB was weaker than that of BBR. The results might further contribute to unraveling the pharmacodynamic basis of PC and support its ethnomedical use in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. DHB possesses good potential to be further developed into a promising anti-inflammatory alternative, and can serve as a lead template for novel anti-inflammatory candidate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2019.105802DOI Listing
October 2019

Autographa Californica Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus P48 (Ac103) Is Required for the Efficient Formation of Virus-Induced Intranuclear Microvesicles.

Virol Sin 2019 Dec 10;34(6):712-721. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, China.

Our previous study has shown that the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) p48 (ac103) gene is essential for the nuclear egress of nucleocapsids and the formation of occlusion-derived virions (ODVs). However, the exact role of p48 in the morphogenesis of ODVs remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that p48 was required for the efficient formation of intranuclear microvesicles. To further understand its functional role in intranuclear microvesicle formation, we characterized the distribution of the P48 protein, which was found to be associated with the nucleocapsid and envelope fractions of both budded virions and ODVs. In AcMNPV-infected cells, P48 was predominantly localized to nucleocapsids in the virogenic stroma and the nucleocapsids enveloped in ODVs, with a limited but discernible distribution in the plasma membrane, nuclear envelope, intranuclear microvesicles, and ODV envelope. Furthermore, coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that among the viral proteins required for intranuclear microvesicle formation, P48 associated with Ac93 in the absence of viral infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12250-019-00147-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6889236PMC
December 2019

pH-Dependent Leaching Characteristics of Major and Toxic Elements from Red Mud.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 06 10;16(11). Epub 2019 Jun 10.

Faculty of Geosciences and Environmental Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 611756, China.

This study analyzes the leaching behavior of elements from red mud (bauxite residue) at pH values ranging from 2 to 13. The leaching characteristics of metals and contaminated anions in five red mud samples produced by Bayer and combined processes were analyzed using the batch leaching technique following the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 1313. In addition, the geochemical model of MINTEQ 3.1 was used to identify the leaching mechanisms of metals. The results showed that Ca, Mg, and Ba follow the cationic leaching pattern. Al, As, and Cr show an amphoteric leaching pattern. The leaching of Cl is unaffected by the pH. The maximum leaching concentration of the proprietary elements occurs under extremely acidic conditions (pH = 2), except for As. The leaching concentration of F reaches 1.4-27.0 mg/L in natural pH conditions (i.e., no acid or base addition). At the same pH level, the leaching concentrations of Pb, As, Cr, and Cu are generally higher from red mud produced by the combined process than that those of red mud from the Bayer process. The leaching concentration of these elements is not strongly related to the total elemental concentration in the red mud. Geochemical modeling analysis indicates that the leaching of metal elements, including Al, Ca, Fe, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mg, Ba, and Mn, in red mud are controlled by solubility. The leaching of these elements depended on the dissolution/precipitation of their (hydr)oxides, carbonate, or sulfate solids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16112046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6603915PMC
June 2019

Geochemical Characteristics and Toxic Elements in Alumina Refining Wastes and Leachates from Management Facilities.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 04 11;16(7). Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Faculty of Geosciences and Environmental Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province 611756, China.

A nationwide investigation was carried out to evaluate the geochemical characteristics and environmental impacts of red mud and leachates from the major alumina plants in China. The chemical and mineralogical compositions of red mud were investigated, and major, minor, and trace elements in the leachates were analyzed. The mineral and chemical compositions of red mud vary over refining processes (i.e., Bayer, sintering, and combined methods) and parental bauxites. The main minerals in the red mud are quartz, calcite, dolomite, hematite, hibschite, sodalite, anhydrite, cancrinite, and gibbsite. The major chemical compositions of red mud are Al, Fe, Si, Ca, Ti, and hydroxides. The associated red mud leachate is hyperalkaline (pH > 12), which can be toxic to aquatic life. The concentrations of Al, Cl, F, Na, NO₃, and SO₄ in the leachate exceed the recommended groundwater quality standard of China by up to 6637 times. These ions are likely to increase the salinization of the soil and groundwater. The minor elements in red mud leachate include As, B, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Mo, Ti, V, and Zn, and the trace elements in red mud leachate include Ag, Be, Cd, Co, Hg, Li, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, and Tl. Some of these elements have the concentration up to 272 times higher than those of the groundwater quality standard and are toxic to the environment and human health. Therefore, scientific guidance is needed for red mud management, especially for the design of the containment system of the facilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6480639PMC
April 2019

Multilayer network analysis of miRNA and protein expression profiles in breast cancer patients.

PLoS One 2019 4;14(4):e0202311. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Harbin Institute of Technology (Shenzhen), Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

MiRNAs and proteins play important roles in different stages of breast tumor development and serve as biomarkers for the early diagnosis of breast cancer. A new algorithm that combines machine learning algorithms and multilayer complex network analysis is hereby proposed to explore the potential diagnostic values of miRNAs and proteins. XGBoost and random forest algorithms were employed to screen the most important miRNAs and proteins. Maximal information coefficient was applied to assess intralayer and interlayer connection. A multilayer complex network was constructed to identify miRNAs and proteins that could serve as biomarkers for breast cancer. Proteins and miRNAs that are nodes in the network were subsequently categorized into two network layers considering their distinct functions. The betweenness centrality was used as the first measurement of the importance of the nodes within each single layer. The degree of the nodes was chosen as the second measurement to map their signalling pathways. By combining these two measurements into one score and comparing the difference of the same candidate between normal tissue and cancer tissue, this novel multilayer network analysis could be applied to successfully identify molecules associated with breast cancer.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0202311PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448837PMC
December 2019

Distributed adaptive containment control of uncertain QUAV multiagents with time-varying payloads and multiple variable constraints.

ISA Trans 2019 Jul 8;90:107-115. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

School of Electronics, Information and Electric Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Dongchuan Road 800, Shanghai, 200240, China.

This paper considers the containment control problem for uncertain QUAV (Quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) multiagents with time-varying payloads under a fixed topology graph, and a distributed adaptive containment control protocol with multiple variable constraints is proposed. Generally, the control framework is classified into two layers. In the first layer, the desired trajectories are determined for followers by the communication topology and initial values of leaders. For the second layer, the ith QUAV follower is required to track the desired trajectory by employing the information of itself and neighbors. Under the second layer, the system of the ith agent is decoupled into two subsystems: the translational subsystem and the rotational subsystem. For the translational subsystem, the distributed adaptive containment controller is designed via dynamic surface control method to track the desired position trajectory. With such method, the information requirement of ith agent for its neighbors can be reduced significantly. For the rotational subsystem, the adaptive tracking controller is constructed to track the desired attitudes derived from translational subsystem through commonly used attitudes extraction algorithms. In the end, the resulting closed-loop system is proved to be stable in the sense of uniformly ultimate boundness, and the effectiveness of the proposed approach is illustrated by numerical simulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2019.01.001DOI Listing
July 2019

MicroRNA-186 is associated with hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2019 03 21;7(3):e531. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Department of General Pracitce, Hainan General Hospital, Haikou, China.

Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of small noncoding RNAs and are essential in the regulation of gene expression. Their impacts on gene expression have been reported in various diseases. The role of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) in the development and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has also been demonstrated. However, the role of microRNA-186 (miR-186) in relation to HIF in COPD is unknown.

Methods: Cell culture experiments were performed using human lung fibroblast cells (MRC-5). Cell viability was determined by MTT and flow cytometry assays. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis were used to assess the expression levels of HIF-1α and inflammatory cytokines. Dual-luciferase reporter assays were used to reveal the correlation between miR-186 and HIF-1α.

Results: After miR-186 transfection, the cell lines showed reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis. After overexpression of miR-186, we found that the HIF-1α expression level was reduced in MRC-5 cells. We found that miR-186 can affect apoptosis of inflammatory fibroblasts through the regulation of HIF-1α and affect the downstream signaling pathways.

Conclusions: These data suggested that miR-186 contributes to the pathogenesis of COPD and that miRNA-186 may also affect the HIF-1α-dependent lung structure maintenance program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6418446PMC
March 2019

Protective Effect of Pogostone on 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid-Induced Experimental Colitis via Inhibition of T Helper Cell.

Front Pharmacol 2017 17;8:829. Epub 2017 Nov 17.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Development and Research of Chinese Medicine, School of Chinese Materia Medica, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic immune-related disease mainly caused by the disequilibrium of T helper (Th) cell paradigm? Pogostone (PO) is one of the major chemical constituents of (Blanco) Benth. The present study aims to investigate the potential benefit of PO against IBD in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced experimental colitis model. PO treatment by enema significantly brought down the disease activity index (DAI) of the TNBS-challenged rats, which was manifested by the ameliorated inflammatory features including ulceration, adhesion, and edema. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and immunohistochemistry analysis showed that PO effectively relived colon damage by restoring epithelium, and more importantly, by inhibiting the infiltration of pro-inflammatory Th1 and Th17 cells in the colon. Additionally, PO inhibited the activity of myeloperoxidase and secretion of inflammatory cytokines including IFN-γ, IL-12p70, IL-17A, and IL-10. Together with our previous findings, the present data indicated that the anti-IBD effect of PO probably related to its direct inhibition on Th cell proliferation and suppression of the cytokines secretion. These results highlighted the potential of PO as a promising candidate to relieve IBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2017.00829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5699238PMC
November 2017

Water Droplet Spreading and Wicking on Nanostructured Surfaces.

Langmuir 2017 07 30;33(27):6701-6707. Epub 2017 Jun 30.

Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory for CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology of Beijing, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University , Beijing 100084, China.

Phase-change heat transfer on nanostructured surfaces is an efficient cooling method for high heat flux devices due to its superior wettability. Liquid droplet spreading and wicking effect then dominate the heat transfer. Therefore, this study investigates the flow behavior after a droplet touches a nanostructured surface focusing on the ZnO nanowire surface with three different nanowire sizes and two array types (regular and irregular). The spreading diameter and the wicking diameter are measured against time. The results show that the average spreading and wicking velocities on a regular nanostructured surface are both smaller than those on an irregular nanostructured surface and that the nanowire size affects the liquid spreading and capillary wicking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.7b01223DOI Listing
July 2017

Anti-Inflammation of Natural Components from Medicinal Plants at Low Concentrations in Brain via Inhibiting Neutrophil Infiltration after Stroke.

Mediators Inflamm 2016;2016:9537901. Epub 2016 Sep 5.

Department of Neurology, Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050000, China; Hebei Vascular Homeostasis Key Laboratory for Neurology, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050000, China.

Inflammation after stroke consists of activation of microglia/astrocytes and infiltration of blood-borne leukocytes, resulting in brain damage and neurological deficits. Mounting data demonstrated that most natural components from medicinal plants had anti-inflammatory effects after ischemic stroke through inhibiting activation of resident microglia/astrocytes within ischemic area. However, it is speculated that this classical activity cannot account for the anti-inflammatory function of these natural components in the cerebral parenchyma, where they are detected at very low concentrations due to their poor membrane permeability and slight leakage of BBB. Could these drugs exert anti-inflammatory effects peripherally without being delivered across the BBB? Factually, ameliorating blood-borne neutrophil recruitment in peripheral circulatory system has been proved to reduce ischemic damage and improve outcomes. Thus, it is concluded that if drugs could achieve effective concentrations in the cerebral parenchyma, they can function via crippling resident microglia/astrocytes activation and inhibiting neutrophil infiltration, whereas the latter will be dominating when these drugs localize in the brain at a low concentration. In this review, the availability of some natural components crossing the BBB in stroke will be discussed, and how these drugs lead to improvements in stroke through inhibition of neutrophil rolling, adhesion, and transmigration will be illustrated.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5027307PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9537901DOI Listing
September 2016

Analysis of 2-(2-Phenylethyl)chromones by UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS and Multivariate Statistical Methods in Wild and Cultivated Agarwood.

Int J Mol Sci 2016 May 23;17(5). Epub 2016 May 23.

School of Chinese Materia Medica, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Agarwood is the fragrant resinous material mainly formed from species of Aquilaria. 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones, especially the highly oxidized 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones, are the main representative compounds from agarwood. It is important to determine whether agarwood in trade is from cultivated trees or natural trees in the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). We characterized the 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones in agarwood by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) and differentiated wild from cultivated agarwood by metabolomic analysis. A total of 141 chromones including 50 potentially new compounds were evaluated as belonging to four structural classes (unoxidized 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-(2-phenylethyl)-chromones, bi-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones, and tri-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones). The metabolic difference between wild and cultivated agarwood was analyzed by component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Fourteen markers of metabolisms in wild and cultivated agarwood were constructed (e.g., 6,7-dimethoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone, 6,8-dihydroxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone, 6-methoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone, etc.). These results indicated that UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS-based metabonomics analysis in agarwood may be useful for distinguishing wild agarwood from cultivated agarwood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms17050771DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4881590PMC
May 2016

Association of multiple genetic variants with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease susceptibility in Hainan region.

Clin Respir J 2017 Nov 12;11(6):727-732. Epub 2015 Nov 12.

School of Life Sciences, Northwest University, Xi'an, 710069, China.

Background And Aims: Recent genome-wide association studies have shown associations between variants in loci (4q28.1, 6p21.32, 6p21.1, 6q16.1, 10q22.1 and 10q22.3) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or smoking behaviors. The objective of this study was to look for associations between 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at these six loci and COPD susceptibility in Hainan region.

Methods: A case-control cohort was composed of 200 COPD cases and 401 controls that were genotyped and analyzed statistically. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed by chi-square (χ ) test and genetic models by unconditional logistic regression.

Results: After Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) P value screening, we excluded the SNP rs12220777 with P < 0.001. By χ test only rs9296092 which located on 6p21.32 was provided the strongest evidence of an increasing risk of COPD with an OR of 3.28 (95% CI = 1.03 - 2.32; P = 0.003) between cases and controls. By genetic models analysis, we not only found rs9296092 increased COPD risk, but also found in the over-dominant model the genotype 'C/T' (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.33 - 0.93; P = 0.023) of rs950063 was proved to be associated with decreased COPD risk.

Conclusions: This study is the first to provide evidence of importance of rs9296092 and rs950063 for risk of COPD in Hainan Province. Further studies are needed to characterize the functional sequences that cause COPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/crj.12407DOI Listing
November 2017
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