Publications by authors named "Jianming Xu"

548 Publications

Alkaline lignin does not immobilize cadmium in soils but decreases cadmium accumulation in the edible part of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

Environ Pollut 2022 Aug 2:119879. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

Heavy metal contamination and low use efficiency of phosphorus (P) fertilizers are worldwide issues. Alkaline lignin is expected to decrease the heavy metal risk and enhance the P availability in heavy-metal-contaminated soils. A 120-day incubation study examined the effects of alkaline lignin on Cd, Pb and P bioavailability and transformation in Cd or Cd/Pb co-contaminated red and cinnamon soils and elucidated the associated mechanisms. A pot experiment further tested Cd accumulation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown in the Cd-contaminated red soil. The amendment of alkaline lignin increased the concentrations of bioavailable Cd by 13-20% in the acid red soil and 97-107% in the alkaline cinnamon soil, respectively, being due to the increase of dissolved organic C concentrations. Meanwhile, it also increased the concentrations of available P in both soils, Al-P in red soil and Ca-P in cinnamon soil. Consequently, alkaline lignin amendment increased lettuce biomass by 8-23% in shoots and by 56-71% in roots, P uptake by 37-50% in shoots and by 28-62% in roots, and limited Cd transport from root to shoot which decreased Cd concentrations by 26% in lettuce shoot (edible part). The results suggest that alkaline lignin increases plant growth and decreases Cd bioaccumulation in the shoot through restricting Cd translocation from the root to shoot and increasing soil P availability but not Cd immobilization, and hence may have potential to reduce vegetable Cd contamination risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119879DOI Listing
August 2022

Functional Properties of Protein Hydrolysates on Growth, Digestive Enzyme Activities, Protein Metabolism, and Intestinal Health of Larval Largemouth Bass ().

Front Immunol 2022 19;13:913024. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Research Centre of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs on Environmental Ecology and Fish Nutrition, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, China.

The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of protein hydrolysates on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, protein metabolism, and intestinal health in larval largemouth bass (). The experimental feeding trial presented in this study was based on five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets formulated with graded inclusion levels of protein hydrolysates, and it showed that protein hydrolysates improved growth performance, reduced larval deformity rate, and increased the activity of digestive enzymes, including pepsin and trypsin. Gene expression results revealed that the supplementation of protein hydrolysates upregulated the expression of intestinal amino acid transporters LAT2 and peptide transporter 2 (PepT2), as well as the amino acid transporters LAT1 in muscle. Dietary provision of protein hydrolysates activated the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway including the up-regulation of TOR and AKT1, and down-regulation of 4EBP1. Additionally, the expression of genes involved in the amino acids response (AAR) pathway, ATF4 and REDD1, were inhibited. Protein hydrolysates inhibited the transcription of some pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-8 and 5-LOX, but promoted the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines TGF-β and IL-10. The 16S rRNA analysis, using V3-V4 region, indicated that dietary protein hydrolysates supplementation reduced the diversity of the intestine microbial community, increased the enrichment of and reduced the enrichment of at the genus level. In summary, protein hydrolysates have been shown to be an active and useful supplement to positively complement other protein sources in the diets for largemouth bass larvae, and this study provided novel insights on the beneficial roles and possible mechanisms of action of dietary protein hydrolysates in improving the overall performance of fish larvae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.913024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9343713PMC
August 2022

Image Super-Resolution Reconstruction Method for Lung Cancer CT-Scanned Images Based on Neural Network.

Biomed Res Int 2022 18;2022:3543531. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Provincial Key Laboratory of Informational Service for Rural Area of Southwestern Hunan, Shaoyang University, Shaoyang, 422000 Hunan, China.

The super-resolution (SR) reconstruction of a single image is an important image synthesis task especially for medical applications. This paper is studying the application of image segmentation for lung cancer images. This research work is utilizing the power of deep learning for resolution reconstruction for lung cancer-based images. At present, the neural networks utilized for image segmentation and classification are suffering from the loss of information where information passes through one layer to another deep layer. The commonly used loss functions include content-based reconstruction loss and generative confrontation network. The sparse coding single-image super-resolution reconstruction algorithm can easily lead to the phenomenon of incorrect geometric structure in the reconstructed image. In order to solve the problem of excessive smoothness and blurring of the reconstructed image edges caused by the introduction of this self-similarity constraint, a two-layer reconstruction framework based on a smooth layer and a texture layer is proposed for a medical application of lung cancer. This method uses a global nonzero gradient number constrained reconstruction model to reconstruct the smooth layer. The proposed sparse coding method is used to reconstruct high-resolution texture images. Finally, a global and local optimization models are used to further improve the quality of the reconstructed image. An adaptive multiscale remote sensing image super-division reconstruction network is designed. The selective core network and adaptive gating unit are integrated to extract and fuse features to obtain a preliminary reconstruction. Through the proposed dual-drive module, the feature prior drive loss and task drive loss are transmitted to the super-resolution network. The proposed work not only improves the subjective visual effect but the robustness has also been enhanced with more accurate construction of edges. The statistical evaluators are used to test the viability of the proposed scheme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/3543531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9314153PMC
July 2022

Host genetic determinants drive compartment-specific assembly of tea plant microbiomes.

Plant Biotechnol J 2022 Jul 25. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Diverse host factors drive microbial variation in plant-associated environments, whereas their genetic mechanisms remain largely unexplored. To address this, we coupled the analyses of plant genetics and microbiomes in this study. Using 100 tea plant (Camellia sinensis) cultivars, the microbiomes of rhizosphere, root endosphere and phyllosphere showed clear compartment-specific assembly, whereas the subpopulation differentiation of tea cultivars exhibited small effects on microbial variation in each compartment. Through microbiome genome-wide association studies, we examined the interactions between tea genetic loci and microbial variation. Notably, genes related to the cell wall and carbon catabolism were heavily linked to root endosphere microbial composition, whereas genes related to the metabolism of metal ions and small organic molecules were overrepresented in association with rhizosphere microbial composition. Moreover, a set of tea genetic variants, including the cytoskeleton-related formin homology interacting protein 1 gene, were strongly associated with the β-diversity of phyllosphere microbiomes, implying their interactions with the overall structure of microbial communities. Our results create a catalogue of tea genetic determinants interacting with microbiomes and reveal the compartment-specific microbiome assembly driven by host genetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13897DOI Listing
July 2022

Biodiversity of Duckweed (Lemnaceae) in Water Reservoirs of Ukraine and China Assessed by Chloroplast DNA Barcoding.

Plants (Basel) 2022 May 30;11(11). Epub 2022 May 30.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Eco-Agricultural Biotechnology around Hongze Lake, School of Life Sciences, Huaiyin Normal University, Huai'an 223300, China.

Monitoring and characterizing species biodiversity is essential for germplasm preservation, academic studies, and various practical applications. Duckweeds represent a group of tiny aquatic plants that include 36 species divided into 5 genera within the Lemnaceae family. They are an important part of aquatic ecosystems worldwide, often covering large portions of the water reservoirs they inhabit, and have many potential applications, including in bioremediation, biofuels, and biomanufacturing. Here, we evaluated the biodiversity of duckweeds in Ukraine and Eastern China by characterizing specimens using the two-barcode protocol with the chloroplast and spacer sequences. In total, 69 Chinese and Ukrainian duckweed specimens were sequenced. The sequences were compared against sequences in the NCBI database using BLAST. We identified six species from China (, , , , , and ) and six from Ukraine (, , , , , and ). The most common duckweed species in the samples from Ukraine were and , accounting for 17 and 15 out of 40 specimens, respectively. The most common duckweed species in the samples from China was , accounting for 15 out of 29 specimens. and were also common in China, accounting for five and four specimens, respectively. According to both and barcode analyses, the species identified as does not form a uniform taxon similar to other duckweed species, and therefore the phylogenetic status of this species requires further clarification. By monitoring duckweeds using chloroplast DNA sequencing, we not only precisely identified local species and ecotypes, but also provided background for further exploration of native varieties with diverse genetic backgrounds. These data could be useful for future conservation, breeding, and biotechnological applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants11111468DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9182681PMC
May 2022

Novel insights into probabilistic health risk and source apportionment based on bioaccessible potentially toxic elements around an abandoned e-waste dismantling site.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Sep 30;838(Pt 3):156372. Epub 2022 May 30.

College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

The study of potentially toxic element (PTE) hazards around e-waste recycling areas has attracted increasing attention but does not consider elemental bioaccessibility. Here, the respiratory and oral bioaccessibilities were incorporated into probabilistic health risk evaluation and source contribution apportionment. The results showed that soil Cd yielded the highest respiratory and oral bioaccessibility, whereas Cr in soils and vegetables attained the lowest oral bioaccessibility. When incorporating metal bioaccessibility into health risk assessment, a 48.3%-55.7% overestimation of non-cancer and cancer risks can be avoided relative to the risk assessment based on the total concentrations of PTEs. More importantly, priority control metals were misidentified without consideration of bioaccessibility. Cadmium, As, and Cr were screened as the priority metal(loid)s for targeted risk control based on the total PTEs, whereas Cd, Zn, and Cu were the priority metal(loid)s based on the bioaccessible PTEs. Furthermore, source apportionment revealed that >50% of oral bioaccessible Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in farmland were contributed by e-waste dismantling activities, whereas bioaccessible As and Cr mainly originated from agrochemical applications and natural sources, respectively. This study emphasizes the refinement of risk estimation and source apportionment through metal bioaccessibility adjustment, which facilitates the realistic assessment of adverse health effects in humans and the precise identification of high-risk sources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156372DOI Listing
September 2022

The effects of biochar aging on rhizosphere microbial communities in cadmium-contaminated acid soil.

Chemosphere 2022 Sep 28;303(Pt 2):135153. Epub 2022 May 28.

Department of Animal, Plant and Soil Sciences, Centre for AgriBioscience, La Trobe University, Melbourne Campus, Bundoora, Victoria, 3086, Australia. Electronic address:

Biochars are widely used in the remediation of Cd-contaminated soils. However, changes in the bacterial communities in the rhizosphere contaminated with Cd in response to biochar aging are poorly studied. Addressing this gap in knowledge is important to improving micro-ecological services on healthy growth of plants with mitigation strategies against Cd contamination. An aging experiment (270 days) was conducted with biochars derived from poultry litter and sugar-gum wood added to a Cd-contaminated acid soil. Bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of Brassica rapa and bulk soils were investigated after 1, 90 and 270 days of biochar aging. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in bacterial Shannon and Simpson indices between the control and biochar treatments. However, compared to the no-Cd control, the addition of Cd decreased the relative abundances of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi and Acidobacteriota but increased those of Actinobacteriota and Proteobacteria. Poultry-litter biochar had the largest effect on bacterial community composition, especially in the rhizosphere. Aging of poultry-litter biochar increased the abundance of Armatimonadota over time more than the sugar-gum-wood biochar, which was attributed to a lower pH and higher bioavailability of Cd in the sugar-gum-wood biochar treatment. The addition of poultry-litter biochar to the contaminated soil mitigated the bioaccumulation of Cd by increasing soil pH and restoring soil bacterial ecology in contaminated acid soils over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.135153DOI Listing
September 2022

Ammonia Emissions from Croplands Decrease with Farm Size in China.

Environ Sci Technol 2022 07 27;56(14):9915-9923. Epub 2022 May 27.

College of Environmental & Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Farm size affects nitrogen fertilizer input and agricultural practices, which are key determinants of ammonia (NH) emissions from croplands. However, the degree to which NH emissions are associated with changes in farm size is not well understood yet despite its crucial role in achieving agricultural sustainability in China, where agricultural production is still dominated by smallholder farms. Here we provide a first analysis of the relationship between farm size and NH emissions based on 863 000 surveys conducted in 2017 across China. Results show that NH emissions (kg ha) on average decrease by 0.07% for each 1% increase in average farm size. This change occurs mainly due to a reduction in nitrogen fertilizer use and the introduction of more efficient fertilization practices. The largest reduction in NH emissions is found in maize, with less pronounced changes in rice cultivation, and none for wheat production. Overall lower NH emissions factors can be observed in the north of China with increasing farm size, especially in the northeast, the opposite pattern was found in the south. National total NH emissions could be approximately halved (1.5 Tg) in a scenario favoring a conversion to large-scale farming systems. This substantial reduction potential highlights the potential of such a transition to reduce NH emissions, including benefits from a socioeconomic point of view as well as for improving air quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.2c01061DOI Listing
July 2022

Contamination with multiple heavy metals decreases microbial diversity and favors generalists as the keystones in microbial occurrence networks.

Environ Pollut 2022 Aug 10;306:119406. Epub 2022 May 10.

Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China; The Rural Development Academy at Zhejiang University, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

Soil contamination with multiple heavy metals poses threats to human health and ecosystem functioning. Using the Nemerow pollution index, which considers the effects of multiple heavy metals, we compared the diversity and composition of bacteria, fungi and protists and their potential interactions in response to a multi-metal contamination gradient. Multi-metal contamination significantly altered the community composition of bacteria, fungi and protists, and the degree of alteration increased with increasing severity of contamination. The alpha-diversity of bacteria, fungi and protists significantly decreased with increasing contamination level. The dominant generalists, found in all soil samples, were Gammaproteobacteria, Chloroflexi and Bacillus sp, whereas the dominant specialists were Anaerolineaceae, Entoloma sp. and Sandonidae_X sp. The relative abundances of generalists were positively correlated, whereas those of specialists were negatively correlated, with the Nemerow pollution index. In addition, the complexity of the microbial co-occurrence network increased with increasing contamination level. Generalists, rather than specialists, were the keystones in the microbial co-occurrence network and played a crucial role in adaptation to multi-metal contamination through enhanced potential interactions within the entire microbiome. Our results provide insights into the ecological effects of multi-metal contamination on the soil microbiome and will help to develop bio-remediation technologies for contaminated soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119406DOI Listing
August 2022

Learning From Human Demonstrations for Wheel Mobile Manipulator: An Unscented Model Predictive Control Approach.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2022 May 13;PP. Epub 2022 May 13.

Industry 4.0 requires new production models to be more flexible and efficient, which means that robots should be capable of flexible skills to adapt to different production and processing tasks. Learning from demonstration (LfD) is considered as one of the promising ways for robots to obtain motion and manipulation skills from humans. In this article, a framework that enables a wheel mobile manipulator to learn skills from humans and complete the specified tasks in an unstructured environment is developed, including a high-level trajectory learning and a low-level trajectory tracking control. First, a modified dynamic movement primitives (DMPs) model is utilized to simultaneously learn the movement trajectories of a human operator's hand and body as reference trajectories for the mobile manipulator. Considering that the auxiliary model obtained by the nonlinear feedback is hard to accurately describe the behavior of mobile manipulator with the presence of uncertain parameters and disturbances, a novel model is established, and an unscented model predictive control (UMPC) strategy is then presented to solve the trajectory tracking control problem without violating the system constraints. Moreover, a sufficient condition guaranteeing the input to state practical stability (ISpS) of the system is obtained, and the upper bound of estimated error is also defined. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed strategy is validated by three simulation experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2022.3171595DOI Listing
May 2022

An enlarging ecological risk: Review on co-occurrence and migration of microplastics and microplastic-carrying organic pollutants in natural and constructed wetlands.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Sep 6;837:155772. Epub 2022 May 6.

Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

Wetlands are a key hub for the accumulation of microplastics (MPs) and have great load capacity to organic pollutants (OPs), thus, have been a hot research topic. It has shown that OPs adsorbed on MPs could be transported to anywhere and MP-associated biofilms also affects the co-occurrence of MPs and OPs. This would induce the desorption of MP-carrying OPs into environment again, increasing latent migration and convergence of MPs and OPs in wetlands. Considering MPs vector effect and MP-associated biofilms, it is necessary to integrate MPs information on its occurrence characteristics and migration behavior for an improved assessment of ecological risk brought by MPs and MP-carrying OPs to whole wetland ecosystems. In this review, we studied papers published from 2010 to 2020, focused on the interaction of MPs with OPs and the role of their co-occurrence and migration on ecological risk to wetlands. Results suggested the interaction between MPs and OPs dominated by adsorption altered their toxicity and environmental behavior, and the corresponding ecological risk induced by their co-occurrence to wetlands is various and complicated. Especially, constructed wetlands as the special hub for the migration of MPs and MP-carrying OPs might facilitate their convergence between natural and constructed wetlands, posing a potential enlarging ecological risk to whole wetlands. Since the study of MPs in wetlands has still been in a primary stage, we hope to provide a new sight to set forth the potential harm of MPs and MP-carrying OPs to wetlands and useful information for follow-up study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.155772DOI Listing
September 2022

Microbial interactions enhanced environmental fitness and expanded ecological niches under dibutyl phthalate and cadmium co-contamination.

Environ Pollut 2022 Aug 27;306:119362. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

MOE Laboratory of Biosystem Homeostasis and Protection, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Co-contamination of organic pollutants and heavy metals is universal in the natural environment. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP), a typical plasticizer, frequently coexists with cadmium (Cd) in nature. However, little attention has been given to the impacts of co-contamination by DBP and Cd on microbial communities or the responses of microbes. To address this, a microcosm experiment was conducted by supplying the exogenous DBP-degrading bacterium Glutamicibacter nicotianae ZM05 to investigate the interplay among DBP-Cd co-contamination, the exogenous DBP-degrading bacterium G. nicotianae ZM05, and indigenous microorganisms. To adapt to co-contamination stress, microbial communities adjust their diversity, interactions, and functions. The stability of the microbial community decreased under co-contamination, as evidenced by lower diversity, simpler network, and fewer ecological niches. Microbial interactions were strengthened, as evidenced by enriched pathways related to microbial communications. Meanwhile, interactions between microorganisms enhanced the environmental fitness of the exogenous DBP-degrading bacterium ZM05. Based on co-occurrence network prediction and coculture experiments, metabolic interactions between the non-DBP-degrading bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans ZM16 and ZM05 were proven. Strain ZM16 utilized protocatechuic acid, a DBP downstream metabolite, to relieve acid inhibition and adsorbed Cd to relieve toxic stress. These findings help to explain the responses of bacterial and fungal communities to DBP-Cd co-contamination and provide new insights for the construction of degrading consortia for bioremediation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119362DOI Listing
August 2022

Health-related quality of life in patients with advanced well-differentiated pancreatic and extrapancreatic neuroendocrine tumors treated with surufatinib versus placebo: Results from two randomized, double-blind, phase III trials (SANET-p and SANET-ep).

Eur J Cancer 2022 07 28;169:1-9. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Clinical and Regulatory Affairs, HUTCHMED, Shanghai, China.

Aim: To investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients who had neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) from SANET trials.

Methods: Eligible patients were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive surufatinib or placebo. HRQoL questionnaires, including the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-G.I.NET21, were collected. The prespecified HRQoL outcome was the mean change of scores from baseline to the last available visit for each domain. Time until definitive deterioration (TUDD) was defined as the time from randomization to deterioration of ≥10 points from baseline in domain score, disease progression, or death.

Results: 370 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to surufatinib (n = 242) or placebo (n = 128). No significant difference in mean scores change from baseline to the last available visit was observed for QLQ-C30 and QLQ- G.I.NET21 domains, with the exception of diarrhea. The mean score of diarrhea increased 11.7 points from baseline in the surufatinib arm and decreased 1.2 points in the placebo arm, and the between-group difference was 12.9 points. Compared with placebo, surufatinib treated patients had a significantly longer TUDD for dyspnea (hazard ratio [HR] 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-0.86; P = 0.0058) and a significantly shorter TUDD for diarrhea (HR 2.91; 95% CI, 1.66-5.10; P < 0.0001). There were no significant differences in TUDD for the remaining domains of QLQ-C30 and G.I.NET-21.

Conclusions: HRQoL was similar in patients treated with surufatinib and placebo except for diarrhea. The preservation of HRQoL supports surufatinib as a treatment option for NETs.

Clinical Trial Information: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02589821, NCT02588170.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2022.03.027DOI Listing
July 2022

Biochar alleviated the toxicity of atrazine to soybeans, as revealed by soil microbial community and the assembly process.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Aug 18;834:155261. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

Atrazine has a detrimental effect on soybean growth in corn-soybean rotation systems. A knowledge gap exists regarding how rhizosphere microbial interactions respond to atrazine stress, and specifically, whether they may alleviate the detriment of atrazine on soybeans, this serving as a target to alleviate the adverse impact. Biochar are widely used for remediation in herbicide contamination soil, however, little is known about how biochar fuels the microbiomes in rhizosphere to improve soybean performance. We investigated the response of the microbial community to atrazine stress with and without biochar application to soybean cultivation in a greenhouse experiment. Atrazine had detrimental effects on soybeans and nodules, reshaping the microbial community in both the bulk and rhizosphere soil. Biochar application was able to ameliorate atrazine effects on soybean and nodule activity, with an increase in competition among microbes in the soybean rhizosphere soils. Biochar favored the probiotics such as the bacteria Lysobacter, Paenarthrobacter, and Sediminibacterium in the rhizosphere soils. The relative abundance of Lysobacter exhibited strong-negative correlations with potential pathogens. Elastic net regression with bioindicators and environmental factors accurately predicted the residual content of atrazine in soil. Collectively, our results provide a practical strategy of using biochar to improve soil quality for corn-soybean rotation that is contaminated with residual atrazine. Overall, beneficial plant microbes and changes in microbial interactions and assembly processes in the soybean rhizosphere are capable of alleviating atrazine stress on soybean growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.155261DOI Listing
August 2022

Phase Ia/Ib Study of the Selective MET Inhibitor, Savolitinib, in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors: 
Safety, Efficacy, and Biomarkers.

Oncologist 2022 Apr 21. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology/Early Drug Development Center, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Background: Savolitinib has shown good tolerability and preliminary efficacy, but efficacy biomarkers require investigation. The main purpose of this study was to confirm in Chinese patients the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of savolitinib and to explore overall benefit in tumors bearing c-Met aberration.

Methods: This was an open-label, multi-center, 2-part phase I study. A starting dose of 600 mg QD was initiated in the escalation phase, utilizing a 3+3 design with repeated QD and BID dosing. In the dose expansion phase, we enrolled patients with gastric cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with documented c-met aberration into 5 cohorts to further explore biomarkers. c-Met overexpression and amplification were assessed by immunohistochemistry and FISH, respectively.

Results: The safety analysis set included 85 patients. Only one dose-limiting toxicity (grade 3 fatigue) was reported in the 600 mg BID dosing group. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events were nausea (29.4%), vomiting (27.1%), and peripheral edema (21.2%). Notably, in gastric cancer, response was only observed in patients with MET amplification (copy number 9.7-18.4), with an objective response rate of 35.7% and a disease control rate of 64.3%. For patients with NSCLC bearing a MET exon 14 skipping mutation, obvious target lesion shrinkage was observed in 2 of 4 patients, although PR was not achieved.

Conclusion: The RP2D of savolitinib was established as 600 mg QD or 500 mg BID in Chinese patients. The promising response observed in patients with gastric cancer with c-met amplification and NSCLC with MET exon 14 skipping mutation warrants further investigation.

Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT0198555.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oncolo/oyab066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9074963PMC
April 2022

Co-high-efficiency washing agents for simultaneous removal of Cd, Pb and As from smelting soil with risk assessment.

Chemosphere 2022 Aug 15;300:134581. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environment Engineering, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016, China. Electronic address:

Soil washing is considered a highly efficient technology due to its higher removal rate of multiple heavy metals from contaminated soil. However, previous studies on Cd, Pb and As washing agents for soils with complex contaminations did not consider the differences in As and Cd/Pb properties, resulting in the lack of effective washing compounds and washing conditions for soils with complex contaminations. Moreover, most traditional washing agents can cause secondary pollution. In this study, HEDTA and lactic acid (LA) treatments resulted in a higher Cd and Pb removal, while 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP) was more effective in As removal. Most importantly, a new washing strategy was proposed with a new combined high-efficiency washing agents consisting of HEDP + LA + FeCl with a ratio of 6:3:1. Considering washing efficiency and consumption under optimal washing conditions, i.e. the soil/liquid (S/L) ratio of 1:20 and washing time of 48 h, the rates of Cd, Pb and As removal were 79.93%, 69.84% and 61.55%, respectively. In addition, washing process could influence the speciation of heavy metals, especially oxidizable and residual Cd and Pb fractions, as well as reducible As fraction. The washing process using the new washing agent can significantly reduce the pollution level and health risk of Cd, Pb and As contamination. The results of this study can provide an efficient washing agent for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils at smelting sites, which will help protect human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.134581DOI Listing
August 2022

Nuclear receptor coactivator SRC-1 promotes colorectal cancer progression through enhancing GLI2-mediated Hedgehog signaling.

Oncogene 2022 05 13;41(20):2846-2859. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, Innovation Center for Cell Signaling Network, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, 361102, China.

Overexpression of nuclear coactivator steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1) and aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway are associated with various tumorigenesis; however, the significance of SRC-1 in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its contribution to the activation of Hh signaling are unclear. Here, we identified a conserved Hh signaling signature positively correlated with SRC-1 expression in CRC based on TCGA database; SRC-1 deficiency significantly inhibited the proliferation, survival, migration, invasion, and tumorigenesis of both human and mouse CRC cells, and SRC-1 knockout significantly suppressed azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS)-induced CRC in mice. Mechanistically, SRC-1 promoted the expression of GLI family zinc finger 2 (GLI2), a major downstream transcription factor of Hh pathway, and cooperated with GLI2 to enhance multiple Hh-regulated oncogene expression, including Cyclin D1, Bcl-2, and Slug. Pharmacological blockages of SRC-1 and Hh signaling retarded CRC progression in human CRC cell xenograft mouse model. Together, our studies uncover an SRC-1/GLI2-regulated Hh signaling looping axis that promotes CRC tumorigenesis, offering an attractive strategy for CRC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-022-02308-8DOI Listing
May 2022

Integrated survey on the heavy metal distribution, sources and risk assessment of soil in a commonly developed industrial area.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2022 May 6;236:113462. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environment Engineering, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China. Electronic address:

The Jiangzhe Area was relatively common area that rely on industrial process for rapid development with serious heavy metals contamination. This study investigated the spatial, vertical and speciation distribution, correlation of heavy metals, as well as assessed pollution and health risks in three representative contamination industries at Jingjiang (electroplating site), Taizhou (e-waste recycling site) and Wenzhou (leather production site) in the Jiangzhe Area. The results indicated that the Cr(VI) pollution was serious in all three sites and there was a tendency to gradually decrease with depth. As for other heavy metals, not only the total concentration, but also the addition of acid soluble and reducible speciation generally decreased with soil depth at Jingjiang and Taizhou sites. Significantly positive correlations supported by correlation analysis were detected between the following elements: Cu-Ni (p < 0.01), Cr(VI)-Ni (p < 0.05) and Cr(VI)-Cu (p < 0.05) at Jingjiang site, Cu-Ni (p < 0.01), Cu-Cd (p < 0.01) and Ni-Cd (p < 0.05) at Taizhou site indicating possibly the same sources and pathways of origin, while the significantly negative correlation of Cd-Ni (p < 0.05) at Wenzhou site meaning the different sources. As regards the pollution assessment of topsoil, the mean PI value indicated that Cr(VI) contaminated severe in all three sites. In general, Jingjiang site was severe pollution (4.06), while Taizhou and Wenzhou (2.27 and 2.66) were moderate pollution, as NIPI value shown. In terms of health risk assessment that received much attention, non-carcinogenic risks caused by Pb contamination were significant for children at Jingjiang and Taizhou sites, with the HI values of 3.42E+ 00 and 2.03E+ 00, respectively. Ni caused unacceptable carcinogenic risk for both adults and children at all three sites. The present study can help to better understand the contamination characteristics of heavy metals in the commonly developed industrial area, and thus to control the environmental quality, so as to truly achieve the goal of "Green Deal objectives ".
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2022.113462DOI Listing
May 2022

Diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection by physicians in China: A nationwide cross-sectional study.

Helicobacter 2022 Jun 1;27(3):e12889. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Department of Gastroenterology, Haikou People's Hospital, Haikou, Hainan, China.

Background: To investigate the current state of knowledge and practice of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection management in China.

Materials And Methods: This nationwide, multicenter, cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted between March and April 2021 with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori infection in 31 provinces, encompassing over 1000 hospitals in mainland China. General physician information, diagnostic and detection status, eradication treatment, reexamination and follow-up after treatment, and basic knowledge of physicians were collected and compared with the Fifth Chinese National Consensus Report on Management of H. pylori infection and the 2016 Maastricht V/Florence guidelines. The subgroup analysis was also performed.

Results: Of the 6873 questionnaire respondents, 48.8% were males, and 51.2% were females. Approximately, 26.5% of respondents indicated that their hospitals had dedicated clinics for managing H. pylori infection. Moreover, 88.0% of respondents prescribed a bismuth-containing quadruple regimen as the initial eradication treatment, and 92.7% deemed the gastric acid suppression critical. Furthermore, 91.0% of respondents routinely recommended a reexamination 1-2 months after eradication therapy, and 95.1% advised patients to stop PPI treatment at least 2 weeks before reexamination. The detail of following (the choice of target population/methods; the choice/availability of drugs/regimens, indications for eradication, factors influencing eradication efficacy/improvement methods and factors influencing adherence, management options/factors influencing relapse; the timing and methods, awareness of reinfection rates/prevention measures, and the approach to continuing education, awareness of guidelines, and acceptance of current core concepts of management) was also described. Subgroup analysis further revealed that significant differences were existed in being gastroenterologist or not, different education level, professional title, years of working, and provincial administrative regions.

Conclusions: Chinese physicians' skills and knowledge about the diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori infection could be improved. More works on education are needed in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hel.12889DOI Listing
June 2022

MERRA-2 PM mass concentration reconstruction in China mainland based on LightGBM machine learning.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jun 6;827:154363. Epub 2022 Mar 6.

Shanghai Typhoon Institute, Shanghai Meteorological Service, Shanghai 200030, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Meteorology and Health, Shanghai Meteorological Service, Shanghai 200030, China.

MERRA-2 developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) provides the long-term record of surface PM mass concentration since 1980s, but needs great improvement over mainland China according to recent studies. In this study, a newly developed light gradient boosting machine (LGBM) model is introduced to correct the MERRA-2 PM record over mainland China by incorporating the meteorological reanalysis and satellite AOD retrievals. A 40-year surface PM record covering mainland China is reconstructed from 1980 to 2019, providing a new dataset for exploring the interactions between climate variability and air pollution. The new record exhibits not only much better magnitude but also more excellent variabilities of surface PM loading compared to original MERRA-2 products. The correlation coefficient, the root-mean-square error and the mean error between the observed and reconstructed records are 0.8, less than 28.5 μg·m, and 0.33 μg·m, respectively, which are much better than those of 0.27, 45.8 μg·m, and 1.64 μg·m between the observed and MERRA-2 PM records. The PM record with longer term and higher accuracy developed in this study provides a better base for the research on the climate change variability and air pollution in mainland China. However, limitations of the reconstructed record still exist, especially in the Tibetan Plateau and marine regions with very sparse surface measurements, which need further correction in the future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.154363DOI Listing
June 2022

Clinical and biomarker analyses of sintilimab versus chemotherapy as second-line therapy for advanced or metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a randomized, open-label phase 2 study (ORIENT-2).

Nat Commun 2022 02 14;13(1):857. Epub 2022 Feb 14.

Innovent Biologics, Inc., Suzhou, China.

This randomized, open-label, multi-center phase 2 study (NCT03116152) assessed sintilimab, a PD-1 inhibitor, versus chemotherapy in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after first-line chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS), while exploratory endpoint was the association of biomarkers with efficacy. The median OS in the sintilimab group was significantly improved compared with the chemotherapy group (median OS 7.2 vs.6.2 months; P = 0.032; HR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.50-0.97). Incidence of treatment-related adverse events of grade 3-5 was lower with sintilimab than with chemotherapy (20.2 vs. 39.1%). Patients with high T-cell receptor (TCR) clonality and low molecular tumor burden index (mTBI) showed the longest median OS (15.0 months). Patients with NLR < 3 at 6 weeks post-treatment had a significantly prolonged median OS (16.6 months) compared with NLR ≥ 3. The results demonstrate a significant improvement in OS of sintilimab compared to chemotherapy as second-line treatment for advanced or metastatic ESCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-28408-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8844279PMC
February 2022

Molecular mechanism of the TGF‑β/Smad7 signaling pathway in ulcerative colitis.

Mol Med Rep 2022 04 9;25(4). Epub 2022 Feb 9.

Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230022, P.R. China.

Aberrant TGF‑β/Smad7 signaling has been reported to be an important mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of a number of potential anti‑colitis agents on intestinal epithelial permeability and the TGF‑β/Smad7 signaling pathway in an experimental model of colitis. A mouse model of colitis was first established before anti‑TNF‑α and 5‑aminosalicyclic acid (5‑ASA) were administered intraperitoneally and orally, respectively. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, histological index (HI) of the colon and the disease activity index (DAI) scores were then detected in each mouse. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunohistochemical and functional tests, including Evans blue (EB) and FITC‑dextran (FD‑4) staining, were used to evaluate intestinal mucosal permeability. The expression of epithelial phenotype markers E‑cadherin, occludin, zona occludens (ZO‑1), TGF‑β and Smad7 were measured. In addition, epithelial myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) expression and activity were measured. Anti‑TNF‑α and 5‑ASA treatments was both found to effectively reduce the DAI score and HI, whilst decreasing colonic MPO activity, plasma levels of FD‑4 and EB permeation of the intestine. Furthermore, anti‑TNF‑α and 5‑ASA treatments decreased MLCK expression and activity, reduced the expression of Smad7 in the small intestine epithelium, but increased the expression of TGF‑β. In mice with colitis, TEM revealed partial epithelial injury in the ileum, where the number of intercellular tight junctions and the expression levels of E‑cadherin, ZO‑1 and occludin were decreased, all of which were alleviated by anti‑TNF‑α and 5‑ASA treatment. In conclusion, anti‑TNF‑α and 5‑ASA both exerted protective effects on intestinal epithelial permeability in an experimental mouse model of colitis. The underlying mechanism may be mediated at least in part by the increase in TGF‑β expression and/or the reduction in Smad7 expression, which can inhibit epithelial MLCK activity and in turn reduce mucosal permeability during the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2022.12632DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8855156PMC
April 2022

Nivolumab Combination Therapy in Advanced Esophageal Squamous-Cell Carcinoma.

N Engl J Med 2022 02;386(5):449-462

From Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Y.D., T.M.), National Cancer Center Hospital (K. Kato), Toranomon Hospital (M.U.), and Keio University School of Medicine (Y.K.), Tokyo, Akita University Hospital, Akita (S.M.), Kanagawa Cancer Center, Kanagawa (T.O.), and Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, Osakasayama (H.K.) - all in Japan; University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (J.A.A.); Fifth Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing (J.X.), and Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (T.L.); Klinika Onkologii i Radioterapii, Narodowy Instytut Onkologii, Warsaw, Poland (L.W.); National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei (C.-H.H.), and E-Da Hospital and I-Shou University, Kaohsiung (W.-C.Y.) - both in Taiwan; Institut de Recherche en Cancérologie de Montpellier, INSERM, Université Montpellier, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (A.A.), and Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (F.E.H.) - both in France; Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (M.D.B.); Institute of Cancer of São Paulo, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (M.I.B.); Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark (E.H.); Hospital Provincial del Centenario, Rosario, Argentina (S.A.O.); the Division of Medical Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea (H.R.K.); the Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (W.M.), the UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, London (J.B.), and the Royal Marsden Hospital (Surrey), Sutton (I.C.) - all in the United Kingdom; and Bristol Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ (I.X., X.L., M.L., K. Kondo, A.P., J.G.).

Background: First-line chemotherapy for advanced esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma results in poor outcomes. The monoclonal antibody nivolumab has shown an overall survival benefit over chemotherapy in previously treated patients with advanced esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma.

Methods: In this open-label, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned adults with previously untreated, unresectable advanced, recurrent, or metastatic esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive nivolumab plus chemotherapy, nivolumab plus the monoclonal antibody ipilimumab, or chemotherapy. The primary end points were overall survival and progression-free survival, as determined by blinded independent central review. Hierarchical testing was performed first in patients with tumor-cell programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression of 1% or greater and then in the overall population (all randomly assigned patients).

Results: A total of 970 patients underwent randomization. At a 13-month minimum follow-up, overall survival was significantly longer with nivolumab plus chemotherapy than with chemotherapy alone, both among patients with tumor-cell PD-L1 expression of 1% or greater (median, 15.4 vs. 9.1 months; hazard ratio, 0.54; 99.5% confidence interval [CI], 0.37 to 0.80; P<0.001) and in the overall population (median, 13.2 vs. 10.7 months; hazard ratio, 0.74; 99.1% CI, 0.58 to 0.96; P = 0.002). Overall survival was also significantly longer with nivolumab plus ipilimumab than with chemotherapy among patients with tumor-cell PD-L1 expression of 1% or greater (median, 13.7 vs. 9.1 months; hazard ratio, 0.64; 98.6% CI, 0.46 to 0.90; P = 0.001) and in the overall population (median, 12.7 vs. 10.7 months; hazard ratio, 0.78; 98.2% CI, 0.62 to 0.98; P = 0.01). Among patients with tumor-cell PD-L1 expression of 1% or greater, a significant progression-free survival benefit was also seen with nivolumab plus chemotherapy over chemotherapy alone (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.65; 98.5% CI, 0.46 to 0.92; P = 0.002) but not with nivolumab plus ipilimumab as compared with chemotherapy. The incidence of treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or 4 was 47% with nivolumab plus chemotherapy, 32% with nivolumab plus ipilimumab, and 36% with chemotherapy alone.

Conclusions: Both first-line treatment with nivolumab plus chemotherapy and first-line treatment with nivolumab plus ipilimumab resulted in significantly longer overall survival than chemotherapy alone in patients with advanced esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma, with no new safety signals identified. (Funded by Bristol Myers Squibb and Ono Pharmaceutical; CheckMate 648 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03143153.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2111380DOI Listing
February 2022

Biochar-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron can simultaneously decrease cadmium and arsenic uptake by rice grains in co-contaminated soil.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Mar 3;814:152798. Epub 2022 Jan 3.

Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental & Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) and Arsenic (As) in rice grains are a primary exposure source for human beings. However, the simultaneous stabilization of Cd and As in soil becomes difficult due to the opposite properties of those. In this study, we investigated the simultaneous effects of biochar-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI-BC) and water management on the decrease of Cd and As bioaccumulation in rice grain. Compared to the control, 0.25-1.00% nZVI-BC coupled with alternate wetting and drying (AWD) management simultaneously decreased the bioaccumulation of Cd and As in rice grains by 15.85-69.16% and 23.06-59.45%, respectively. The cancer risk associated with rice consumption effectively reduced by 15.60-52.41% after the application of nZVI-BC, and the lowest cancer risk was detected in 1.00% nZVI-BC under AWD management. Furthermore, rice cultivated under AWD management had a lower total cancer risk than that cultivated under continuous flooded (CF) management with the same amendment of type and dose. The reduction of soil Cd and As availability and the formation of iron plaque dominated the decrease of Cd and As uptake by rice grains. The elevated soil pH was responsible for Cd adsorption, and the dominant mechanism for As immobilization was the formation of complexes. The iron plaque was double-edged, promoting and inhibiting Cd uptake by rice, wherein the inhibition was predominant under aerobic conditions. In addition, iron plaque was a barrier to preventing the As accumulation by rice, a larger amount of As was immobilized on the iron plaque with nZVI-BC treatment. This study sheds new insights on the simultaneous remediation of Cd and As co-contaminated paddy fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.152798DOI Listing
March 2022

Common Genomic Aberrations in Mouse and Human Breast Cancers with Concurrent P53 Deficiency and Activated PTEN-PI3K-AKT Pathway.

Int J Biol Sci 2022 1;18(1):229-241. Epub 2022 Jan 1.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030.

Simultaneous P53 loss and activation of the PTEN-restricted PI3K-AKT pathway frequently occur in aggressive breast cancers. P53 loss causes genome instability, while PTEN loss and/or activating mutations of PIK3CA and AKT promote cancer cell proliferation that also increases incidences of genomic aberrations. However, the genomic alterations associated with P53 loss and activated PTEN-PI3K-AKT signaling in breast cancer have not been defined. Spatiotemporally controlled breast cancer models with inactivation of both P53 and Pten in adult mice have not been established for studying genomic alterations. Herein, we deleted both floxed and genes in the mammary gland epithelial cells in adult mice using a RCAS virus-mediated Cre-expressing system. These mice developed small tumors in 21 weeks, and poorly differentiated larger tumors in 26 weeks. In these tumors, we identified 360 genes mutated by nonsynonymous point mutations and small insertions and deletions (NSPMs/InDels), 435 genes altered by copy number amplifications (CNAs), and 450 genes inactivated by copy number deletions (CNDs). Importantly, 22.2%, 75.9% and 27.3% of these genes were also altered in human breast tumors with P53 and PTEN losses or P53 loss and activated PI3K-AKT signaling by NSPMs/InDels, CNAs and CNDs, respectively. Therefore, inactivation of P53 and Pten in adult mice causes rapid-growing breast tumors, and these tumors recapitulate a significant number of genetic aberrations in human breast tumors with inactivated P53 and activated PTEN-PI3K-AKT signaling. Further characterization of these commonly altered genes in breast cancer should help to identify novel cancer-driving genes and molecular targets for developing therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.65763DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8692138PMC
March 2022

Assembly of root-associated bacterial community in cadmium contaminated soil following five-year consecutive application of soil amendments: Evidences for improved soil health.

J Hazard Mater 2022 03 17;426:128095. Epub 2021 Dec 17.

Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Soil amendments have been extensively used to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils by immobilizing or altering edaphic properties to reduce the bioavailability of heavy metals. However, the potential influences of long-term soil amendments applications on microbial communities and polluted soil health are still in its infancy despite that have been applied for decades. We used amplicon sequencing and q-PCR array to characterize the root-associated microbial community compositions and rhizosphere functional genes in a five-year field experiment with consecutive application of four amendments (lime, biochar, pig manure, and a commercial Mg-Ca-Si conditioner). Compared with the control, soil amendments reduced the available Cd (CaCl extractable Cd) in soils and strongly affected bacterial community compositions in four root-associated niches. Five rare keystone bacterial species were found belonging to the family Gallionellaceae (1), Haliangiaceae (1), Anaerolineaceae (2), and Xanthobacteraceae (1), which significantly correlated with soil pH and the functional genes nifH and phoD. Random forest analysis showed that rhizosphere soil pH and microbial functions, and root-associated keystone bacterial community compositions mainly influenced the Cd concentrations in rice grains. Altogether, our field data revealed five-year consecutive application of soil amendments regulated root-associated microbial community assembly and enhanced microbial functions, thereby improved rhizosphere health of Cd-contaminated soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.128095DOI Listing
March 2022

Interruption of Klf5 acetylation in basal progenitor cells promotes luminal commitment by activating Notch signaling.

J Genet Genomics 2022 Jun 21;49(6):579-582. Epub 2021 Dec 21.

Department of Human Cell Biology and Genetics, Southern University of Science and Technology School of Medicine, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055, China; Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA; Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgg.2021.11.013DOI Listing
June 2022

Rhizobium Symbiotic Capacity Shapes Root-Associated Microbiomes in Soybean.

Front Microbiol 2021 2;12:709012. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Root-microbiome interactions are of central importance for plant performance and yield. A distinctive feature of legumes is that they engage in symbiosis with N-fixing rhizobia. If and how the rhizobial symbiotic capacity modulates root-associated microbiomes are still not yet well understood. We determined root-associated microbiomes of soybean inoculated with wild type (WT) or a mutant of USDA 110 by amplicon sequencing. UPLC-MS/MS was used to analyze root exudates. The gene is responsible for fucose-methylation of Nod factor secreted by USDA 110 WT strain. Soybean roots inoculated with the mutant showed a significant decrease in nodulation and root-flavonoid exudation compared to roots inoculated with WT strain. The mutant-inoculated roots exhibited strong changes in microbiome assembly in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane, including reduced diversity, changed co-occurrence interactions and a substantial depletion of root microbes. Root exudates and soil physiochemical properties were significantly correlated with microbial community shift in the rhizosphere between different rhizobial treatments. These results illustrate that rhizobial symbiotic capacity dramatically alters root-associated microbiomes, in which root exudation and edaphic patterns play a vital role. This study has important implications for understanding the evolution of plant-microbiome interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.709012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8678110PMC
December 2021

The KEYNOTE-811 trial of dual PD-1 and HER2 blockade in HER2-positive gastric cancer.

Nature 2021 12 15;600(7890):727-730. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, also known as ERBB2) amplification or overexpression occurs in approximately 20% of advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinomas. More than a decade ago, combination therapy with the anti-HER2 antibody trastuzumab and chemotherapy became the standard first-line treatment for patients with these types of tumours. Although adding the anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1) antibody pembrolizumab to chemotherapy does not significantly improve efficacy in advanced HER2-negative gastric cancer, there are preclinical and clinical rationales for adding pembrolizumab in HER2-positive disease. Here we describe results of the protocol-specified first interim analysis of the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III KEYNOTE-811 study of pembrolizumab plus trastuzumab and chemotherapy for unresectable or metastatic, HER2-positive gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma ( https://clinicaltrials.gov , NCT03615326). We show that adding pembrolizumab to trastuzumab and chemotherapy markedly reduces tumour size, induces complete responses in some participants, and significantly improves objective response rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04161-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8959470PMC
December 2021

Potential driving forces and probabilistic health risks of heavy metal accumulation in the soils from an e-waste area, southeast China.

Chemosphere 2022 Feb 6;289:133182. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

College of Environmental Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

The integrated analysis of the distribution characteristics, health risks, and source identification of heavy metals is crucial for formulating prevention and control strategies for soil contamination. In this study, the area around an abandoned electronic waste dismantling center in China was selected as the research area. The probabilistic health risks caused by heavy metals were evaluated by the Monte Carlo simulation. Random forest, partial least squares regression, and generalized linear models were utilized to predict heavy metal distributions and identify the potential driving factors affecting heavy metal accumulation in soil. The relationships of spatial variation between the heavy metal contents and environmental variables were further visualized. The results revealed that cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) were the primary soil pollutants in the study area and caused high ecological risks. The probabilistic health risk assessment indicated that the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks for all populations were acceptable. However, children are more susceptible to heavy metal soil contamination than adults. The sensitivity analyses indicated that the total contents of soil heavy metals and soil ingestion rate were the dominant factors affecting human health. The random forest model, with R values of 0.41, 0.65, 0.57, 0.71, and 0.58 for Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb, respectively, predicted the heavy metal concentrations better than the other two models. The distance to the nearest industrial enterprise, industrial output, and agricultural chemical input were the main factors affecting Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb accumulations in the soil, and soil pH and soil parent material were the primary factors influencing Ni accumulation in the soil. The visualization results of the geographically weighted regression model showed a significant relationship between soil heavy metal contents and industrial activity level. This study could be utilized as a reference for policymakers to formulate prevention and control strategies for heavy metal pollution in agricultural areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.133182DOI Listing
February 2022
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