Publications by authors named "Jianmin Gao"

131 Publications

Effect of high-temperature and microwave expanding modification on reactivity of coal char for char-NO interaction.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 8;760:144028. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China.

Coal-fired industrial boiler has become a large source of atmospheric pollutants in China, urging to achieve low NOx emissions. This paper adjusts the coal char structure with high-temperature/microwave expanding modification to investigate the char-NO interaction. The results show that after high-temperature or microwave expansion, the pore structure of char is further expanded with more new pore structure of 2-12 nm. The proper expansion temperature/power/treatment-time increases the ablation collapse of char pores and the order of carbon structure. With microwave, COC and CO bands break, forming a large amount of aromatic CC unsaturated carbon atoms, incrseasing the surface active sites of char-NO interaction. The optimum modifications of char-NO reactivity are 800 °C-90 s and 960 W-90 s. The reduction rate of NO by microwave modified char decreases with increase of inlet NO (<1200 ppm), and increases with increase of inlet CO (<8000 ppm). Burnout time of microwave modified char is shortened, with more rapid release of NO and larger conversion rate of char-N to NO. With microwave field, the conversion rate of char-N to NO at 900 °C is more significant than that at 600 °C. The too large microwave power cannot further shorten the char burnout time and the release time of NO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144028DOI Listing
March 2021

Uncertain texture features fusion based method for performance condition evaluation of complex electromechanical systems.

ISA Trans 2020 Dec 13. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

Accurate performance condition evaluation has a pivotal role in maintaining the operating reliability and preventing damage to complex electromechanical systems (CESs), which is still a challenging task. The uncertain features fusion inspired method is developed by utilizing the data-graph conversion, texture analysis, and improved evidence fusion. Unlike the conventional continuous time-series analysis-based methods, the 2D color-spectrums related to the performance conditions are constructed without information losing, and texture features of spectrums are extracted and fused to realize evaluation. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by actual evaluation applications. Moreover, the proposed method provides a new idea for large-scale high-dimensional data processing, decision making, uncertainty handling, and other engineering applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2020.12.021DOI Listing
December 2020

Numerical Simulation of Swirling Impinging Jet Issuing from a Threaded Hole under Inclined Condition.

Entropy (Basel) 2019 Dec 22;22(1). Epub 2019 Dec 22.

State key Laboratory of Mechanical Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

There are some inclined jet holes in the cooling structure of the leading edge region of gas turbine blades. In order to improve the cooling effect of traditional round holes, this paper proposes to replace the round holes with threaded holes, and studies the complex flow and heat transfer performance of the swirling impinging jet (SIJ) issuing from the 45° threaded holes in the inclined condition by numerical simulation. The influencing factors include jet inclination angle (45°-90°), jet-to-plate distance ( = 2, 4, 6), and Reynolds number (6000-24,000). The results show that the inclination angle and jet-to-plate distance have a great influence on the size, shape, and position of vortices in the jet space, while the Reynolds number has little effect on the vortices. In the inclined state, the impinging cooling effect of the swirling impinging jet is better than that of the circular impinging jet (CIJ), both heat transfer coefficients will degrade significantly when the inclination angle is 45°. When the inclination angle is greater than 45°, compared with the round hole, the enhanced heat transfer region for the swirling jet is in the region of r/d < 3, while both of the numbers in the wall jet region are weak, with a value of just 20. At the same time, with the increasing of the inclination angle (α > 45°), the average number on target surface holds a constant value. Under the inclined conditions, the heat transfer coefficient on the target surface for the swirling jet is increased totally with the increasing of the , but when the is larger than 18,000, the rate of enhanced heat transfer gradually weakens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e22010015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7516431PMC
December 2019

Evaluating the effect of hierarchical medical system on health seeking behavior: A difference-in-differences analysis in China.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Jan 18;268:113372. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

School of Public Policy and Administration, Xi'an Jiaotong University, No. 28 Xianning West Road, Xi'an, 710049, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

The unbalanced allocation of healthcare resources and the underutilization of primary care facilities are the core problems that restrict the current healthcare reforms in China. In order to encourage residents to go to primary care facilities, China implemented the Hierarchical Medical System (HMS) in 2015. This study aims to evaluate the effect of HMS on health seeking behavior in China using panel data. Statistics for the study were derived from China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) 2012, 2014, 2016 and 2018, and China health and family planning statistical yearbook 2012, 2014, 2016 and 2018. We employed the difference-in-differences (DID) model with multiple periods. In total, 61,932 residents were incorporated for a final sample covered 25 provinces. The results indicated that the implementation of HMS had a significantly positive effect on the probability of urban residents going to primary care facilities for contact. However, the effect of HMS was not significant for rural residents. Basic health insurance was a significant factor for directing residents to primary care facilities. Self-assessed health, chronic disease, economic level and educational status were also found to be focal factors of health seeking behavior. In conclusion, the introduction of HMS has led to improved health seeking behavior and is worth putting more effort into. For policy makers, basic medical insurance is still an important health policy that enables systematic health seeking behavior. Initiatives to continue to expand the adjustment range of economic incentives should be adopted to promote the implementation of HMS. However, the effect of HMS in chronic disease is poor and efforts to formulate chronic disease as a breakthrough to HMS should be carried out. Moreover, the government should increase the publicity of HMS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113372DOI Listing
January 2021

Decomposing differences in depressive symptoms between older rural-to-urban migrant workers and their counterparts in mainland China.

BMC Public Health 2020 Sep 23;20(1):1442. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Central Hospital of Shangluo, Xi'an, Shaanxi, PR China.

Background: There has been an increase in older rural-to-urban migrant workers (aged 50 and above) in mainland China, little known about their depressive symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify depressive symptoms among older rural-to-urban migrant workers, as well as explored the factors leading to differences in depressive symptoms between older rural-to-urban migrant workers and their rural counterparts (older rural dwellers) and urban counterparts (older urban residents) in mainland China. The results provided a comprehensive understanding of the depressive symptoms of older rural-to-urban migrant workers, and had great significance for improving the depressive symptoms for this vulnerable group.

Methods: Data were derived from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) conducted in 2015, and coarsened exact matching (CEM) method was employed to control confounding factors. This study employed a Chinese version 10-item short form of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D 10) to measure depressive symptoms, and used the Social-Ecological Model as a framework to explore influential factors related to depressive symptoms. Specifically, the approach of Fairlie's decomposition was used to parse out differences into observed and unobserved components.

Results: After matching, our findings indicated that the prevalence of depressive symptoms in older rural-to-urban migrant workers was lower than older rural dwellers; and the prevalence of depressive symptoms in older rural-to-urban migrant workers was higher than older urban residents. Fairlie's decomposition analysis indicated that type of in-house shower, sleeping time at night and ill in the last month were proved to be major contributors to the differences in depressive symptoms between older rural-to-urban migrant workers and older rural dwellers; self-reported health and sleeping time at night were proved to be major contributors to the differences in depressive symptoms between older rural-to-urban migrant workers and older urban residents.

Conclusions: Differences in depressive symptoms between older rural-to-urban migrant workers and their rural and urban counterparts did exist. Our findings contributed to a more reliable understanding in depressive symptoms among older rural-to-urban migrant workers. Our findings would be of referential significance for improving older rural-to-urban migrant workers' depressive symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09374-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7510073PMC
September 2020

Peptide Probes of Colistin Resistance Discovered via Chemically Enhanced Phage Display.

ACS Infect Dis 2020 09 19;6(9):2410-2418. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Chemistry, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467, United States.

Colistin is an antibiotic of last resort used to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. The recent surge in reported cases of colistin-resistant infections urgently calls for fast and reliable diagnostic methods, which can be used for the facile detection and proper treatment of these challenging infections. A major mechanism of colistin resistance involves phosphoethanolamine (PE) modification of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the molecular target of colistin. This LPS modification mechanism has been recently reported to be transferrable via a plasmid-carried gene, which is particularly concerning as it may readily confer colistin resistance to a wide array of bacterial pathogens. To develop molecular tools to allow facile detection of colistin resistance, we have herein enlisted a novel phage library that incorporates dynamic covalent warheads to recognize PE modifications on bacterial cells. Screening of this chemically modified phage library against colistin-resistant pathogens revealed a number of peptide probes that readily differentiate colistin-resistant bacterial strains from their colistin-susceptible counterparts. With a fluorophore label, these peptide probes selectively stain colistin-resistant bacteria at sub-to-low micromolar concentrations. The bacterial staining is minimally inhibited by the presence of serum proteins or even blood serum. Mechanistic studies indicate that our peptide probes bind colistin-resistant bacteria primarily by targeting PE-modified lipids. However, some species-specific features of the cell surface can also contribute to the peptides' association to bacterial cells. Further elucidation of such cell surface features may give molecular probes with improved species and strain specificity, which will enable bacterial infection diagnosis with high precision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsinfecdis.0c00206DOI Listing
September 2020

Influence of China's 2009 healthcare reform on the utilisation of continuum of care for maternal health services: evidence from two cross-sectional household surveys in Shaanxi Province.

Int J Equity Health 2020 06 19;19(1):100. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

School of Public Policy and Administration, Xi'an Jiaotong University, No. 28 Xianning West Road, Xi'an, 710049, Shaanxi, China.

Background: Continuum of care for maternal health services (CMHS) is a proven approach to improve health and safety for mothers and newborns. This study aims to explore the influence of China's 2009 healthcare reform on improving the CMHS utilisation.

Methods: This population-based cross-sectional quantitative study included 2332 women drawn from the fourth and fifth National Health Service Surveys of Shaanxi Province, conducted in 2008 and 2013 respectively, before and after China's 2009 healthcare reform. A generalised linear mixed model (GLMM) was applied to analyse the influence of this healthcare reform on utilisation of CMHS. Concentration curves, concentration indexes and its decomposition method were used to analyse the equity of changes in utilisation.

Results: This study showed post-reform CMHS utilisation was higher in both rural and urban women than the CMHS utilisation pre-reform (according to China's policy defining CMHS). The rate of CMHS utilisation increased from 24.66 to 41.55% for urban women and from 18.31 to 50.49% for rural women (urban: χ = 20.64, P < 0.001; rural: χ = 131.38, P < 0.001). This finding is consistent when the WHO's definition of CMHS is applied for rural women after reform (12.13% vs 19.26%; χ = 10.99, P = 0.001); for urban women, CMHS utilisation increased from 15.70 to 20.56% (χ = 2.57, P = 0.109). The GLMM showed that the rate of CMHS utilisation for urban women post-reform was five times higher than pre-reform rates (OR = 5.02, 95%CL: 1.90, 13.31); it was close to 15 times higher for rural women (OR = 14.70, 95%CL: 5.43, 39.76). The concentration index for urban women decreased from 0.130 pre-reform (95%CI: - 0.026, 0.411) to - 0.041 post-reform (95%CI: - 0.096, 0.007); it decreased from 0.104 (95%CI: - 0.012, 0.222) to 0.019 (95%CI: - 0.014, 0.060) for rural women. The horizontal inequity index for both groups of women also decreased (0.136 to - 0.047 urban and 0.111 to 0.019 for rural).

Conclusions: China's 2009 healthcare reform has positively influenced utilisation rates and equity of CMHS's utilisation among both urban and rural women in Shaanxi Province. Addressing economic and educational attainment gaps between the rich and the poor may be effective ways to improve the persistent health inequities for rural women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-020-01179-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7304157PMC
June 2020

Fast and Stable N-Terminal Cysteine Modification through Thiazolidino Boronate Mediated Acyl Transfer.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2020 08 2;59(34):14246-14250. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Chemistry, Boston College, Merkert Chemistry Center, 2609 Beacon Street, Chestnut Hill, MA, 02467, USA.

We report a novel conjugation of N-terminal cysteines (NCys) that proceeds with fast kinetics and exquisite selectivity, thereby enabling facile modification of NCys-bearing proteins in complex biological milieu. This new NCys conjugation proceeds via a thiazolidine boronate (TzB) intermediate that results from fast (k : ≈5000 m  s ) and reversible conjugation of NCys with 2-formylphenylboronic acid (FPBA). We designed a FPBA derivative that upon TzB formation elicits intramolecular acyl transfer to give N-acyl thiazolidines. In contrast to the quick hydrolysis of TzB, the N-acylated thiazolidines exhibit robust stability under physiologic conditions. The utility of the TzB-mediated NCys conjugation is demonstrated by rapid and non-disruptive labeling of two enzymes. Furthermore, applying this chemistry to bacteriophage allows facile chemical modification of phage libraries, which greatly expands the chemical space amenable to phage display.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202000837DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8041485PMC
August 2020

Roles of Ion-Exchangeable Sodium in the Conversion Process of Tar to Soot during Rapid Pyrolysis of Two Brown Coals in a Drop-Tube Reactor.

ACS Omega 2020 Apr 17;5(16):9078-9092. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiamusi University, 258, Xuefu Street, Jiamusi, Heilongjiang 154007, China.

In this work, two series of brown coals (including acid-washed coal and ion-exchangeable Na-loaded coal) were pyrolyzed in a drop-tube reactor. The experimental results revealed that soot and tar yields of Na-loaded coals were significantly lower than that of acid-washed coals. Gasified Na can reduce the formation of big soot agglomerates. During coal primary pyrolysis, ion-exchangeable Na can reduce the amount and aromaticity of primary tar. Na released with volatiles can catalyze the cracking of aliphatic and aromatic compounds, inhibit the polymerization between aromatic rings, and promote the combination of soot/tar with oxygen-containing substances, resulting in the decrease of graphite crystallite size and the increase of amorphous carbon content. Na can also reduce the organization degree of soot by forming intercalation compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.9b03441DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7191602PMC
April 2020

Phase-modulation combined deflectometry for small defect detection.

Appl Opt 2020 Mar;59(7):2016-2023

Deflectometry has been widely used to detect defects on specular surfaces. However, it is still very challenging to detect defects on semispecular or diffuse surfaces because of the low contrast and low signal-to-noise ratio. To address this challenge, we proposed a phase-modulation combined method for accurate defect detection. Based on the phase and modulation of captured fringes, a dual-branch convolutional neural network is employed to simultaneously extract geometric and photometric features from the phase-shifting pattern sequence and modulation, which improves the defect detection performance significantly. Compared to state-of-the-art methods, we believe the results demonstrated the proposed method's effectiveness and capability to reduce false positives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.382104DOI Listing
March 2020

Dielectrophoresis assisted rapid, selective and single cell detection of antibiotic resistant bacteria with G-FETs.

Biosens Bioelectron 2020 May 27;156:112123. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, 02467, United States. Electronic address:

The rapid increase in antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria has become a global threat, which besides the development of new drugs, requires rapid, cheap, scalable, and accurate diagnostics. Label free biosensors relying on electrochemical, mechanical, and mass based detection of whole bacterial cells have attempted to meet these requirements. However, the trade-off between selectivity and sensitivity of such sensors remains a key challenge. In particular, point-of-care diagnostics that are able to reduce and/or prevent unneeded antibiotic prescriptions require highly specific probes with sensitive and accurate transducers that can be miniaturized and multiplexed, and that are easy to operate and cheap. Towards achieving this goal, we present a number of advances in the use of graphene field effect transistors (G-FET) including the first use of peptide probes to electrically detect antibiotic resistant bacteria in a highly specific manner. In addition, we dramatically reduce the needed concentration for detection by employing dielectrophoresis for the first time in a G-FET, allowing us to monitor changes in the Dirac point due to individual bacterial cells. Specifically, we realized rapid binding of bacterial cells to a G-FET by electrical field guiding to the device to realize an overall 3 orders of magnitude decrease in cell-concentration enabling a single-cell detection limit, and 9-fold reduction in needed time to 5 min. Utilizing our new biosensor and procedures, we demonstrate the first selective, electrical detection of the pathogenic bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus and antibiotic resistant Acinetobacter baumannii on a single platform.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2020.112123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7219479PMC
May 2020

Radiolabeled Cationic Peptides for Targeted Imaging of Infection.

Contrast Media Mol Imaging 2019 29;2019:3149249. Epub 2019 Oct 29.

Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Molecular probes targeting bacteria provide opportunities to target bacterial infections in vivo for both imaging and therapy. In the current study, we report the development of positron emission tomography (PET) probes for imaging of live bacterial infection based on the small molecules HLys-DOTA, a polycationic peptide synthesized as the D-isomer (RYWVAWRNRG) conjugated to 1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-N',N″,N‴,N-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) and AB1-HLys-DOTA, which includes an unnatural amino acid AB1 that preferentially binds to bacteria membrane lipids with amine groups via formation of iminoboronates. HLys-DOTA and AB1-HLys-DOTA peptides were radiolabeled with Cu and investigated as PET imaging agents to track bacterial infection in vitro and in intramuscularly infected (IM) mice models. Cell uptake studies at 37°C in (SA) show higher uptake of Cu-AB1-HLys-DOTA; 98.47 ± 3.54% vs Cu-HLys-DOTA; 39.12 ± 3.27% at 24 h. Standard uptake values (SUV) analysis of the PET images resulted in mean SUV of 0.70 ± 0.08, 0.49 ± 0.04, and 0.31 ± 0.01 for Cu-AB1-HLys-DOTA and 0.17 ± 0.06, 0.16 ± 0.02, and 0.13 ± 0.01 for Cu-HLys-DOTA at 1, 4, and 24 h post injection, respectively, in the infected muscles. Similarly, in the biodistribution studies, dose uptake in the infected muscles was 4 times higher in the targeted Cu-AB1-HLys-DOTA group than in the Cu-HLys-DOTA group and 2-3 times higher than in the PBS control group at 1, 4, and 24 h post injection. Cu-AB1-HLys-DOTA was able to distinguish between SA-infected muscle and (PA) infected muscle with lower mean SUV of 0.28 ± 0.10 at 1 h post injection. This illustrates the utility of the AB1 covalently targeting group in synergy with the HLys peptide, which noncovalently binds to bacterial membranes. These results suggest that Cu-labeled AB1-HLys-DOTA peptide could be used as an imaging probe for detection of bacterial infection in vivo with specificity for Gram-positive bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/3149249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7008241PMC
July 2020

Explaining Income-Related Inequalities in Dietary Knowledge: Evidence from the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 01 15;17(2). Epub 2020 Jan 15.

School of Public Policy and Administration, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

Lack of adequate dietary knowledge may result in poor health conditions. This study aims to measure income-related inequality in dietary knowledge, and to explain the sources of the inequality. Data were from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) conducted in 2015. A summary of the dietary knowledge score and dietary guideline awareness was used to measure the dietary knowledge of respondents. The concentration index was employed as a measure of socioeconomic inequality and was decomposed into its determining factors. The study found that the proportion of respondents who correctly answered questions on dietary knowledge was significantly low for some questions. Compared to rural residents, urban residents had a higher proportion of correctly answered dietary knowledge questions. In addition, there are pro-rich inequalities in dietary knowledge. This observed inequality is determined not only by individual factors but also high-level area factors. Our study recommends that future dietary education programs could take different strategies for individuals with different educational levels and focus more on disadvantaged people. It would be beneficial to consider local dietary habits in developing education materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7013705PMC
January 2020

N, S-Double Labeling of N-Terminal Cysteines via an Alternative Conjugation Pathway with 2-Cyanobenzothiazole.

J Org Chem 2020 02 9;85(3):1756-1763. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Department of Chemistry , Boston College , Merkert Chemistry Center, 2609 Beacon Street , Chestnut Hill , Massachusetts 02467 , United States.

Conjugation of 2-cyanobenzothiazole (CBT) with N-terminal cysteines (NCys) typically gives a luciferin product. We herein report an alternative reaction pathway leading to an N-terminal amidine rendering the side chain thiol available for further modification. Examination of peptide sequence dependence of this amidine conjugation reveals a tripeptide tag CIS that allows facile N, S-double labeling of a protein of interest with >90% yield. This alternative reaction pathway of CBT-NCys condensation presents a significant addition to the toolbox for site-specific protein modifications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.9b02959DOI Listing
February 2020

Application of 14-MHz Ultrasonography with Tissue Harmonic Imaging to Determine Posterior Capsule Integrity in Traumatic Cataract.

J Ophthalmol 2019 12;2019:4903703. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Clinical College of Ophthalmology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin Eye Hospital, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Tianjin Eye Institute, Tianjin, China.

Purpose: To report the application of 14-MHz ultrasonography with tissue harmonic imaging (14 MHz + THI) to determine the integrity of the posterior capsule (PC) in traumatic cataract (TC).

Methods: Patients with TC who were scheduled to undergo cataract extraction and whose PC could not be observed by slit lamp examination were included in the study. The status of the PC was determined by 14 MHz + THI before cataract extraction and confirmed during surgery. The results regarding PC integrity obtained from 14 MHz + THI and intraoperative direct observation were compared.

Result: The study enrolled 52 eyes of 52 patients (49 men and 3 women), with a mean age of 42.15 years ± 11.23 (SD). The nature of the trauma was blunt (3 eyes) or sharp (49 eyes). The 14 MHz + THI method showed 21 PCs to be intact and 31 to have ruptured before cataract surgery. During surgery, 23 PCs were observed to be intact, while 29 PCs were ruptured. 27 PCs were ruptured and 19 were intact, as determined by the two methods. The 14 MHz + THI observations were consistent with the intraoperative observations of the PC (kappa = 0.764), with no significant difference between the two methods (=0.687). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 14 MHz + THI for observation of the PC were 93.10%, 82.60%, and 88.46%, respectively.

Conclusion: The 14 MHz + THI method can accurately reveal the integrity of the PC in TC. It has important clinical value in the selection of cataract surgery methods and the prediction of complications during TC surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/4903703DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6875210PMC
November 2019

Socioeconomic inequalities in the prevalence of chronic diseases and preventive care among adults aged 45 and older in Shaanxi Province, China.

BMC Public Health 2019 Nov 6;19(1):1460. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

School of Public Policy and Administration, Xi'an Jiaotong University, P.O Box 86, No. 76 West Yanta Road, Xi'an, 710061, Shaanxi, China.

Background: Monitoring inequalities in chronic disease prevalence and their preventive care can help build effective strategies to improve health equality. Using hypertension and diabetes as a model, this study measures and decomposes socioeconomic inequalities in their prevalence and preventive care among Chinese adults aged 45 years and older in Shaanxi Province, an underdeveloped western region of China.

Methods: Data of 27,728 respondents aged 45 years and older who participated in the fifth National Health Services Survey conducted in 2013 in Shaanxi Province were analyzed. The relative indexes of inequalities based on Poisson regressions were used to assess disparities in the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes and their preventive care between those with the lowest and the highest socioeconomic status, and the concentration index was used to measure the magnitude of the socioeconomic-related inequality across the entire socioeconomic spectrum. The contribution of each factor to the inequality was further estimated via the concentration index decomposition.

Results: Our results indicate a higher prevalence of hypertension and diabetes among the rich than the poor individuals aged 45 years and older in Shaanxi Province, China. Among individuals with hypertension or diabetes, significant inequalities favoring the rich were observed in the use of preventive care, i.e. in adequate use of medication and of blood pressure/blood glucose monitoring. Furthermore, economic status, educational level, employment status, and urban-rural areas were identified as the key socioeconomic indicators for monitoring the inequalities in the patient preventive care.

Conclusions: Our study suggests that the existence of clear inequities in the prevalence of chronic diseases and preventive care among adults aged 45 and older in Shaanxi Province, China. These inequalities in chronic diseases could be as much a cause as a consequence of socioeconomic inequalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7835-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6833131PMC
November 2019

Micro-Frequency Shifting Projection Technique for Inter-Reflection Removal.

Opt Express 2019 Sep;27(20):28293-28312

Inter-reflection removal is vital for complex-scene reconstruction. However, most methods assume that the tested surface is a diffuse, and are limited to removal of inter-reflection caused only by diffuse reflections. For all kinds of inter-reflections caused by diffuse and specular reflections, a micro-frequency shifting (MFS) projection technique is presented. Because the modulation variation with frequency in inter-reflection regions is larger than that of other regions, we use the MFS technique to detect inter-reflections, where patterns with specifically designed frequency-shifts and base frequencies are projected. Inter-reflections are detected through large variations in modulation, and removed using a regional-projection technique. Experimental results validate the effectiveness for diffuse and specular inter-reflection removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.27.028293DOI Listing
September 2019

Adaptive symbolic transfer entropy and its applications in modeling for complex industrial systems.

Chaos 2019 Sep;29(9):093114

Western China Institute of Quality Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

Directed coupling between variables is the foundation of studying the dynamical behavior of complex systems. We propose an adaptive symbolic transfer entropy (ASTE) method based on the principle of equal probability division. First, the adaptive kernel density method is used to obtain an accurate probability density function for an observation series. Second, the complete phase space of the system can be obtained by using the multivariable phase space reconstruction method. This provides common parameters for symbolizing a time series, including delay time and embedding dimension. Third, an optimization strategy is used to select the appropriate symbolic parameters of a time series, such as the symbol set and partition intervals, which can be used to convert the time series to a symbol sequence. Then the transfer entropy between the symbolic sequences can be carried out. Finally, the proposed method is analyzed and validated using the chaotic Lorenz system and typical complex industrial systems. The results show that the ASTE method is superior to the existing transfer entropy and symbolic transfer entropy methods in terms of measurement accuracy and noise resistance, and it can be applied to the network modeling and performance safety analysis of complex industrial systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5086100DOI Listing
September 2019

Prevalence and income-related equity in hypertension in rural China from 1991 to 2011: differences between self-reported and tested measures.

BMC Health Serv Res 2019 Jul 1;19(1):437. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

School of Public Policy and Administration, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China.

Background: Along with economic growth and living standard improvement, hypertension has become one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in China. Self-reported measures and tested measures of hypertension may differ significantly due to the low awareness of prevalence. The objective of this study is to figure out whether and how self-reported measures differ from tested measures in terms of prevalence and equity.

Method: We have used data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey database from 1991 to 2011 and extracted the data of rural areas using hukou system. Hypertension is categorized into two groups: self-reported hypertension and tested hypertension. To evaluate the equity of self-reported hypertension and tested hypertension, we calculated their Concentration Index (C) and decomposed C based on which we have obtained the horizontal-inequity index (HI) of each year. Probit Model was deployed to analyze the key determinants of hypertension prevalence.

Results: We found that the prevalence of both self-reported hypertension and tested hypertension have sharply increased from 1991 to 2011 in rural China and the population of tested hypertension was significantly larger than that of self-reported hypertension. For self-reported hypertension, prevalence rate increased from 2.72 to 13.2% and for tested hypertension it increased from 11.01 to 25.05%. Both of the Concentration Index (C) and horizontal-inequity index (HI) of self-reported hypertension and tested hypertension appeared to be contradictory. The C and HI of self-reported hypertension in 2011 were 0.032 and 0.060 respectively while the C and HI of tested hypertension were - 0.024 and - 0.015 respectively.

Conclusion: More efforts should be put into for improving the poor's health, especially in equal access to health services. Symptom-based measures such as tested hypertension should be adopted more widely in empirical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4289-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6604163PMC
July 2019

Heterodyne interferometer with two parallel-polarized input beams for high-resolution roll angle measurement.

Opt Express 2019 May;27(10):13820-13830

We have proposed an improved heterodyne interferometric roll measurement system with enhanced resolution in this paper. Two beams with different frequencies but with the same polarization state input to the interferometer are provided by two acousto-optic modulators. A quarter-wave plate is employed in each path before the two beams are combined to generate a beat frequency. A mathematical model for the measurement system is established based on Jones' calculus. The measurement resolution is doubled because the sensitive areas of the two beams appear simultaneously. Experimental results show that in the range of 0.1° the gain coefficient reaches 229 which is twice that of the traditional method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.27.013820DOI Listing
May 2019

Urban-rural-specific trend in prevalence of general and central obesity, and association with hypertension in Chinese adults, aged 18-65 years.

BMC Public Health 2019 May 30;19(1):661. Epub 2019 May 30.

School of Public Policy and Administration, Xi'an Jiaotong University, No.28 Xianning West Road, Xi'an, 710049, Shaanxi, China.

Background: China has the largest obese population in the world, and the prevalence of central obesity is increasing dramatically in China. Moreover, the rapid economic growth of China in recent decades has led to rapid urbanization in rural China. However, studies comparing the prevalence trends of different types of obesity and the association of obesity with hypertension between urban and rural areas in China are very scarce, and most studies have focused only on the difference in the prevalence of overweight and general obesity or hypertension among rural and urban populations. Therefore, the focus of this study was to examine the shifts in the overall distribution of the prevalence of different types of obesity and to estimate the risk of hypertension in different types of obesity among urban and rural adults aged 18-65 years.

Methods: Seven iterations of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), conducted in 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011, were used in this study. A total of 53,636 participants aged 18-65 years were included. Obesity was classified into three types based on body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). A log-binomial model was constructed to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) of hypertension with three types of obesity.

Results: The age-standardized prevalence of central obesity only, general obesity only, and both central and general obesity increased from 15.8, 0.2 and 2.9% in 1993 to 30.3, 0.9 and 10.3% in 2011, respectively. The prevalence of central obesity only (urban vs. rural: 20.8% vs. 13.4% in 1993, 29.6% vs. 30.6% in 2011) and both central and general obesity (urban vs. rural: 3.5% vs. 2.5% in 1993, 10.0% vs. 10.6% in 2011) in rural adults exceeded that in urban adults in 2011. Participants with both central and general obesity had the highest risk for incident hypertension compared with those with normal body measurements (adjusted PR, urban: 2.30 (95% CI, 2.01-2.63), rural: 2.50 (95% CI, 2.25-2.77)).

Conclusions: Both WC and BMI should be considered measures of obesity and targeted in hypertension prevention. More attention should be paid to the incidence of central obesity in adults in rural China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7018-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6543650PMC
May 2019

Biocompatible conjugation of Tris base to 2-acetyl and 2-formyl phenylboronic acid.

Org Biomol Chem 2019 06 30;17(24):5908-5912. Epub 2019 May 30.

Department of Chemistry, Merkert Chemistry Center, Boston College, 2609 Beacon Street, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467, USA.

We describe the biocompatible conjugation of the Tris base to 2-formyl and 2-acetylphenylboronic acid (abbreviated as 2-FPBA and 2-APBA respectively), which have emerged as a versatile chemotype for fast biocompatible conjugation reactions. Tris base was found to react with 2-FPBA/APBA to give oxazolidinoboronate (OzB) complexes, analogous to the thiazolidinoboronate (TzB) and imidazolidinoboronate (IzB) complex formation that we recently reported. The Tris conjugations proceed well in complex biological media, and in contrast to the TzB/IzB complexes, the Tris conjugates exhibit superior kinetic stability (dissociation over days) as well as chemical stability against oxidation. We demonstrate the utility of such conjugation chemistries via a small molecule-induced peptide cyclization in blood serum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9ob00726aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6581600PMC
June 2019

New Health Care Reform and Impoverishment among Chronic Households in China: A Random-Intercept Approach.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 03 26;16(6). Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Centre for Health Economics, Monash Business School, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800, Australia.

High out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for chronic disease care often contribute directly to household poverty. Although previous studies have explored the determinants of impoverishment in China, few published studies have compared levels of impoverishment before and after the New Health Care Reform (NHCR) in households with members with chronic diseases (hereafter referred to as chronic households). Our study explored this using data from the fourth and fifth National Health Service Surveys conducted in Shaanxi Province. In total, 1938 households in 2008 and 7700 households in 2013 were included in the analysis. Rates of impoverishment were measured using a method proposed by the World Health Organization. Multilevel logistic modeling was used to explore the influence of the NHCR on household impoverishment. Our study found that the influence of NHCR on impoverishment varied by residential location. After the reform, in rural areas, there was a significant decline in impoverishment, although the impoverishment rate remained high. There was little change in urban areas. In addition, impoverishment in the poorest households did not decline after the NHCR. Our findings are important for policy makers in particular for evaluating reform effectiveness, informing directions for health policy improvement, and highlighting achievements in the efforts to alleviate the economic burden of households that have members with chronic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16061074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466394PMC
March 2019

Effects of China's urban basic health insurance on preventive care service utilization and health behaviors: Evidence from the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

PLoS One 2018 31;13(12):e0209890. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

International Business School Suzhou, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Background: Lifestyle choices are important determinants of individual health. Few studies have investigated changes in health behaviors and preventive activities brought about by the 2007 implementation of Urban Resident Basic Health Insurance (URBMI) in China. This study, therefore, aimed to explore whether URBMI has reduced individuals' incentives to adopt healthy behaviors and utilize preventive care services.

Methods: Data were drawn from two waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Respondents were categorized according to their insurance situation before and after the URBMI reform in 2006 and 2011. Propensity score matching and difference-in-differences methods were used to measure levels of preventive care and behavior changes over time. Estimations were also made based on gender, self-reported health, and income.

Results: We found that URBMI implementation did not change residents' utilization of preventive care services or their smoking habits, drinking habits, or other risky behaviors overall. However, the likelihood of sedentariness did increase by five percentage points. Females tended to be more sedentary while males were less likely to drink soft drinks. Residents with poor self-reported health exercised less while those who reported good health were more likely to be sedentary. Low- and middle-income residents were likely to be sedentary while middle-income people tended to smoke after becoming insured.

Conclusion: Since URBMI implementation, some unhealthy behaviors like sedentariness have increased among those who were newly insured, and different subgroups have reacted differently. This suggests that the insurance design needs to be optimized and effective measures need to be adopted to help improve people's lifestyle choices.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0209890PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6312240PMC
May 2019

Fabrication of Macroporous Biomorphic SiC from Cellulose Nanofibers Aerogel.

Materials (Basel) 2018 Nov 30;11(12). Epub 2018 Nov 30.

MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Materials Science and Application, College of Materials Science and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China.

The biomorphic Silicon Carbide (BioSiC) ceramic with highly interconnected porous three-dimensional (3D) structure was fabricated by utilizing balsa wood cellulose nanofibers aerogel as the biotemplate and polycarbosilane (PCS) as the preceramic precursor. Evolution of morphology, composition, and pore properties from untreated wood to porous BioSiC was investigated systemically. The shrinkage and weight gain during pyrolysis was discussed. It was found that the structure of as-synthesized BioSiC was related to the microstructure of wood aerogel template and the concentration of PCS precursor. The proper microstructure of cellulose skeleton which was essential for the infiltration process could obtained by removing lignin and hemicellulose appropriately. The optimum PCS content was 40 wt. % for easy infiltration and proper SiC content. The results revealed that the dredged skeleton of cellulose was reproduced perfectly by PCS ceramization. The obtained BioSiC presented high porosity (61.03%) and low density (0.86 g/cm³) with good Darcy permeability (19.22 mD).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma11122430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6317016PMC
November 2018

High numerical aperture multifocal metalens based on Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements.

Appl Opt 2018 Sep;57(27):7891-7894

A high numerical aperture multifocal metalens was proposed based on well-designed Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements. Both circularly and linearly polarized incident lights could be tightly focused into diffraction-limited focal spots. Right and left circularly polarized focal spots could be realized simultaneously by illuminating a linearly polarized beam. The highest numerical aperture reached to 0.84 with full width at half-maximum of 263 nm. Moreover, we also presented a metalens whose optical elements are hybrid arranged and the metalens can realize spin-independent focusing with a numerical aperture of 0.8. The presented metalens has significant potential applications in particles manipulation and high-resolution imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.57.007891DOI Listing
September 2018

Chiral optical field generated by an annular subzone vortex phase plate.

Opt Lett 2018 Oct;43(19):4594-4597

We proposed and experimentally demonstrated a novel method for generating a chiral beam with controllable intensity twist lobes and direction by using annular subzone (AS) vortex phase plates, which is composed of different ASs and different vortex phases. The phase distribution continuity between two adjacent ASs determines the intensity distribution of the light field. The rotated direction of the optical filed is determined by the topological charge sign. The number of intensity twist lobes is determined by the topological charge gradient between adjacent subzones. The experimental results show that this method is effective and practical, which offers broad potential applications in particle manipulation, chiral microstructure fabrication, and optical tweezers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.43.004594DOI Listing
October 2018

Urban-rural difference in the associations between living arrangements and the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of the elderly in China-Evidence from Shaanxi province.

PLoS One 2018 20;13(9):e0204118. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Monash Business School, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: So far limited evidence exist comparing the difference between urban and rural elder residents in relation to how living arrangements correlates to health-related quality of life(HRQOL) of the elderly.

Objective: This study aims to compare the HRQOL of the elderly with four living arrangements: living with spouse only (LS), living alone (LA), living with a spouse and adult children(LSC) and the single elderly living with adult children (SLC) in urban and rural areas of China.

Methods: The data were drawn from the 2013 wave of Chinese National Health Service Survey in Shaanxi Province, which included 11,729 elderly people. The Chinese version of the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire was used to measure the HRQOL. Tobit regression model and logistic regression models were employed to estimate the associations between living arrangements and the HRQOL of the elderly.

Results: The EQ-5D utility scores of the urban elderly with four different living arrangements (LS, LA,LSC and SLC) were 0.9141, 0.8392, 0.8176 and 0.9080, which were almost all higher than their rural counterparts. After controlling other confounding variables, tobit regression estimates showed that the EQ-5D utility scores of the single elderly either living alone or living with adult children were lower than the elderly living with a spouse in urban areas. In rural areas only the single elderly living with adult children were more disadvantaged. Additionally the logistic regression results showed living-alone elderly had worse psychological health and the single elderly living with adult children had worse physical health.

Conclusion: The findings suggest that the urban elderly have better HRQOL than the rural elderly and the elderly with different living arrangements in urban and rural area have different HRQOL. More attention should be given to the poor mental health of the elderly living alone and the worse physical health of the single elderly living with adult children.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0204118PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6147447PMC
March 2019

Heat-Induced Discoloration of Chromophore Structures in Eucalyptus Lignin.

Materials (Basel) 2018 Sep 11;11(9). Epub 2018 Sep 11.

MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Material Science and Application, College of Materials Science and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China.

The color changes corresponding to chromophore structures in lignin caused by exposure of Eucalyptus ( and ) to heat were investigated. Eucalyptus wood powders were heat treated under saturated steam atmospheres for 10 h at 110 °C, 130 °C and 150 °C. The lignin was isolated before and after heat treatment. The physicochemical properties of the lignin and changes in chromophore structures during heat treatment was evaluated through wet chemical analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), diffuse reflectance ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (DRUV-Vis), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and C Cross polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (C CPMAS NMR). Wood color darkened and reddened with the increase in pressure and temperature. Depolymerization and dehydration reactions occurred via demethoxylation with heat treatment in saturated steam at 110 °C or 130 °C. Lignin condensed to form insoluble compounds after heat treatment in saturated steam at 150 °C. G units increased and S units decreased through demethylation during heat treatment, as revealed by FTIR and C-NMR analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma11091686DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6163460PMC
September 2018

The distribution of benefits under China's new rural cooperative medical system: evidence from western rural China.

Int J Equity Health 2018 09 5;17(1):137. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Centre for Health Economics, Monash Business School, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: China's New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) enables insured citizens to enjoy the same benefit package by paying a flat-rate premium. However, it still remains uncertain whether economically disadvantaged enrollees receive insurance benefits that at least match those of non-disadvantaged enrollees. This article, therefore, estimates the distribution of benefits under the NCMS across economic groups and compares the magnitude of economic-related inequity changes in the NCMS benefits.

Methods: Data were drawn from two-wave large-scale representative and comparable cross-sectional household health survey datasets conducted in Shaanxi Province in 2008 and 2013. In total, 9506 (2008) and 38,010 (2013) NCMS enrollees were included. The benefits from the NCMS are measured in two ways: via the probability of receiving reimbursements and via the absolute amount of the obtained reimbursements. Two-part models were used to estimate the benefit distribution and to adjust benefits for health care needs. Concentration curve, dominance test of the concentration curve, and concentration index (CI) were used to estimate the overall degree of economic-related inequality. The degree of horizontal inequity was estimated via indirectly standardized measures based on the "equal treatment for equal needs" concept.

Results: Our results indicate that economically affluent groups were more likely to receive reimbursements from the NCMS, and these reimbursements were also higher. Positive need-adjusted CIs for the probability of receiving reimbursements (CIs: 0.2027/0.1056 in 2008/2013) and the absolute amount of reimbursements (CIs: 0.3002/0.1660 in 2008/2013) further suggest the existence of clear pro-rich horizontal inequities in the benefits distribution under the NCMS. Encouragingly, a decreasing trend could be observed from 2008 to 2013, which suggests that horizontal inequities in NCMS benefits that favored the rich decreased over the investigated period, while the level of insurance benefits improved.

Conclusions: Our study suggests that the benefits of NCMS are concentrated toward economically affluent groups. Although any trade-off between policy feasibility and equity has become a challenge for the formulation of social health insurance funding and benefit packages in developing countries, inequality can be gradually reduced through continuous adjustment of the medical insurance scheme, thus effectively targeting economically disadvantaged enrollees.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-018-0852-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6125950PMC
September 2018