Publications by authors named "Jianlin Liu"

104 Publications

Ectopic tooth in maxillary sinus compressing the nasolacrimal canal: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(18):e25514

Department of Stomatology.

Rationale: Ectopic tooth is tooth erupting out of normal anatomical position. Ectopic tooth can occur in different positions, such as maxillary sinus and nasal cavity. In this article, we present a rare case of an ectopic tooth with a dentigerous cyst in the maxillary sinus compressing the nasolacrimal canal.

Patient Concerns: An 8-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of spontaneous lacrimation in her right eye. When she wept, more tear shed from her right eye than that from the left one. Computed tomographic (CT) imaging showed a huge low-density image containing a tooth in the maxillary sinus in her right maxilla; the right nasolacrimal canal vanished due to the compression of the ectopic tooth.

Diagnoses: Ectopic tooth with dentigerous cyst of right maxilla, and obstruction of nasolacrimal duct.

Interventions: The patient underwent nasal endoscopic maxillary sinus cystectomy.

Outcomes: The patient recovered well after cystectomy and has been symptom-free.

Lessons: The unique finding is that this is the first report about ectopic tooth compressing the nasolacrimal canal and inducing spontaneous lacrimation. Treatment: aspect: surgery under endoscope is a minimally invasive approach to ectopic tooth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8104135PMC
May 2021

A Mechanics Study on the Self-Righting of Abalone from the Substrate.

Appl Bionics Biomech 2020 10;2020:8825451. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

College of Pipeline and Civil Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580, China.

In this study, we aim to probe the self-righting behavior of abalone on a substrate based on experiments and mechanistic analyses. A successful self-righting process of abalone is observed, and its critical condition in theory can be given in terms of the rotation angle. Then, according to the moment balance and potential energy minimization, the required tension force of the abalone foot for self-righting is derived with respect to the rotation angle. The experimental result also shows that in many cases the abalone cannot finish this self-righting process. Then, measurements on the tolerant strength of abalone muscle and tolerant adhesion strength of the foot on substrate are both conducted. It is judged that the abalone muscle is strong enough, which can provide enough tension force, and thus, the self-righting mainly depends on the adhesion area of the foot on substrate. These findings cast new light on engineering new types of biomaterials and devices, such as marine equipment and soft robotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8825451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7748893PMC
December 2020

Critical role of the bending stiffness of the monolayer black phosphorus in its mechanical behaviors: molecular dynamics simulation.

Nanotechnology 2021 Apr;32(14):145701

College of Energy and Mining Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, People's Republic of China.

Black phosphorus (BP) is a novel two-dimensional nanostructure with wide potential applications in such areas as nanoresonators and nanosensors. In this study, we concentrate on the role of the bending stiffness of the BP monolayer in its mechanical performances, including tension, compression, buckling and bending. Firstly, the stress-strain curve and Young's modulus of the single layer black phosphorus (SLBP) nanoribbon with different chiral structures are obtained in the tension process via the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Next, the loading behavior of the SLBP nanoribbon during compression is simulated via MD. It was found that the bending stiffness of the nanoribbon has an essential effect on its postbuckling behaviors, and an empirical formula is proposed which can accurately depict the postbuckling process. Eventually, the bending properties of chiral SLBP nanoribbons are explored via the MD simulation, and the modified expression of the bending stiffness can better predict its large deflection. These findings are beneficial for us to fully understand mechanical responses of BP, which hold implications in engineering new materials and devices at nanoscale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abd5e7DOI Listing
April 2021

Elucidating the Impact of Childhood, Adulthood, and Cumulative Lifetime Trauma Exposure on Psychiatric Symptoms in Early Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

J Trauma Stress 2021 02 23;34(1):137-148. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Research Division, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore.

Cumulative lifetime trauma has a profound impact on the development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, few studies have determined participants' most distressing (i.e., "worst") life event in childhood or adulthood or examined whether this event contributes to poorer clinical outcomes. The present study aimed to (a) determine the associations between the worst life event and demographic/clinical variables and (b) examine the associations between the worst life event and psychiatric symptoms (i.e., positive, negative, depressive, and anxiety symptoms). Participants (N = 150) were outpatients newly diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders who were assessed for lifetime trauma exposure, positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the associations between demographic and clinical variables and worst life events (none, childhood, or adulthood). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between worst life events and psychiatric symptoms. More participants reported that their worst life event occurred during adulthood (31.1%) than childhood (21.3%). Adulthood trauma was associated with male gender, older age, non-Chinese ethnicity, and psychiatric comorbidities; childhood trauma was associated with a family history of depression/anxiety. Adulthood trauma was significantly associated with more severe positive psychotic symptoms, f = 0.19, whereas childhood and adulthood trauma exposure were both significantly associated with more severe depressive and anxiety symptoms, f s = 0.19 and 0.25, respectively. Our findings underscore the importance of conducting assessments for worst life events and the associated risk factors to develop meaningful formulations and appropriate trauma-focused treatment plans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.22607DOI Listing
February 2021

Application of pigtail catheter tailing combined with long-wire swapping technique in cerebral angiography via the right radial artery.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Sep;99(39):e22309

Department of Neurology, Hubei No.3 People's Hospital of Jianghan University, Wuhan, China.

The safety and feasibility of transradial approach for cerebral angiography has been confirmed previously. However, this approach has been limited used due to the difficulty during the procedure. This study aimed to introduce a pigtail catheter tailing and long-wire swapping technique to improve the success rate without increasing complications.From August 2015 to December 2018, 560 patients who underwent cerebral angiography via transradial approach were recruited. The data including the type of aortic arch, type of Simmon catheter were collected.The loop was successfully constructed in 553 patients using Simmon-2 or Simmon-1 catheter. Of these patients, 72 patients successfully underwent cerebral and renal angiography, while 481 patients underwent cerebral angiography. The time for angiography was 52.87 ± 11.23 minutes and 47.8 ± 11.8 minutes, respectively. There were 369 (66.7%), 135 (24.4%), and 49 (8.9%) patients with type I, type II, and type III aortic arches, respectively, and their success rates of looping using Simmon-2 catheter were 97.8%, 97.0%, and 89.8%, respectively. The success rates of angiography in the right internal carotid artery, right vertebral artery, left internal carotid artery, and left vertebral artery were 100%, 100%, 98.9%, and 98.9%, respectively. No serious complications were observed in all patients.The pigtail catheter tailing and long guidewire swapping is considered as a safe procedure with high success rate for loop construction using a Simmon-2 catheter through the right radial artery, subsequently improving the success rate as well as the efficiency of angiography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000022309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7523839PMC
September 2020

Characterization of BRCA1-deficient premalignant tissues and cancers identifies Plekha5 as a tumor metastasis suppressor.

Nat Commun 2020 09 25;11(1):4875. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Cancer Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Macau, SAR, China.

Single-cell whole-exome sequencing (scWES) is a powerful approach for deciphering intratumor heterogeneity and identifying cancer drivers. So far, however, simultaneous analysis of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and copy number variations (CNVs) of a single cell has been challenging. By analyzing SNVs and CNVs simultaneously in bulk and single cells of premalignant tissues and tumors from mouse and human BRCA1-associated breast cancers, we discover an evolution process through which the tumors initiate from cells with SNVs affecting driver genes in the premalignant stage and malignantly progress later via CNVs acquired in chromosome regions with cancer driver genes. These events occur randomly and hit many putative cancer drivers besides p53 to generate unique genetic and pathological features for each tumor. Upon this, we finally identify a tumor metastasis suppressor Plekha5, whose deficiency promotes cancer metastasis to the liver and/or lung.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18637-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7519681PMC
September 2020

Effect of vascular simulation training on practice performance in residents: a retrospective cohort study.

BMJ Open 2020 09 21;10(9):e037338. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

International Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Objective: This study aims to investigate the teaching effect of vascular simulation training (ST) in rotating vascular residents.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting And Participants: A total of 95 vascular residents were included from 2015 to 2018 in a university affiliated centre western China, and divided into an ST group and a conventional training (CT) group. The ST group received ST and CT, and the CT group only received CT.

Primary Outcome Measures: Theoretical scores were assessed, and the technique parameters, complications and radiation damage of the procedures were analysed.

Results: The mean scores (8.74±1.09 vs 8.13±1.31) and the rate of willingness for retraining (93.62% vs 79.17%) in residents were higher in the ST group than in the conventional training (CT) group (p<0.05). The success rate of arterial puncture was significantly higher in the ST group (78.72% vs 58.33%, p=0.03); however, the incidence of complications was similar between the two groups (p>0.05). The time of the puncture procedure was significantly lower (9.56±5.24 vs 12.15±6.87 min), and the comfort score of the patient (5.49±1.72 vs 4.71±1.57) was higher in the ST group than in the CT group (p<0.05). At the end of the assessment, the learning time for angiography (3.65±0.64 vs 4.07±0.77 months) and the complete procedure time (33.81±10.11 vs 41.32±12.56 min) were lower in the ST group than in the CT group (p<0.01). The fluo time for angiography (489.33±237.13 vs 631.47±243.65 s) and the cumulative air kerma (401.30±149.06 vs 461.16±134.14 mGy) were significantly decreased in ST group (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The application of a vascular simulation system can significantly improve the clinical performance of residents and reduce the radiation damage from a single intervention procedure in patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-037338DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7507846PMC
September 2020

Clinical Application of High-frequency Ultrasound in Treatment of Infantile Hemangiomas.

J Ultrasound Med 2021 Jun 12;40(6):1099-1104. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Liaocheng People's Hospital, Liaocheng, 252000, China.

Objective: To study the clinical application of high-frequency ultrasound in the treatment of infantile hemangiomas.

Methods: Ultrasonographic data before and after treatment for 1 month, 3 months and 5 months were recorded from 80 patients with infantile hemangioma. The hemangioma was monitored dynamically with relevant indexes before and after treatment, and the treatment results were divided into 2 groups: the treatment-effective group of 70 cases and the treatment-ineffective group of 10 cases. The differences of tumor size, internal echo and hemodynamic parameters (peak arterial systolic flow velocity, resistance index and venous velocity) were compared before and after treatment, and reliable ultrasound observation indexes were summarized.

Results: After treatment, in the treatment-effective group, the thickness of tumor was reduced in all cases, the blood flow signals decreased in 55 cases, the peak systolic velocity decreased in 55 cases, resistance index increased in 55 cases, and venous flow velocity decreased in 53 cases; the differences were statistically significant compared with those before treatment (P < 0.05). The thickness of tumors was significantly decreased after 5 months of treatment compared with 1 month and 2 month treatment (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the longitudinal and transverse diameter of tumors after treatment (P > 0.05). In the treatment-ineffective group, there was no significant difference in the above indexes before and after treatment (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: High-frequency ultrasound had primary application value in the treatment of infantile hemangiomas, where the change of tumor thickness provided the most important observational indicator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jum.15485DOI Listing
June 2021

Psychosocial concerns predict longitudinal trajectories of distress in newly diagnosed cancer patients.

Singapore Med J 2020 08 17. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Department of Psychological Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Introduction: Unmet psychosocial concerns are associated with emotional distress among cancer patients. This longitudinal study aimed to identify specific psychosocial concern profiles and trajectories of emotional distress, and examine their association among newly diagnosed adult cancer patients across the first year of diagnosis.

Methods: Adult patients aged 21-64 years were screened to determine eligibility for this study. Psychosocial concerns and psychological distress were measured with the Problem List (PL) and the Distress Thermometer (DT), respectively (n = 221). Latent transition mixture analysis was used to determine specific psychosocial concern profiles and trajectories of emotional distress, and examine associations with adjustments made for demographic and medical variables.

Results: Two classes of psychosocial concerns were identified: low (81%) and high (19%) concerns. Two trajectories of distress were identified: low stable (69%) and high stable (31%) trajectories. Patients in the high concerns class were significantly more likely to demonstrate the high stable trajectory of distress.

Conclusion: The findings highlight the importance of concurrent assessment of multiple psychosocial concerns and screening of emotional distress throughout a cancer patient's treatment journey. Such assessments can effectively guide interventions to address individual concerns and alleviate emotional distress among newly diagnosed cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2020122DOI Listing
August 2020

The clinical outcomes of endovenous microwave and laser ablation for varicose veins: A prospective study.

Surgery 2020 11 10;168(5):909-914. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Department of Vascular Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Background: This study investigates the clinical outcomes of endovenous microwave ablation and endovenous laser ablation for varicose veins.

Methods: A total of 139 patients who underwent endovenous microwave ablation and 145 patients who underwent endovenous laser ablation were included in this multicenter study. The clinical outcomes and complications were assessed at 1, 6, and 12 months after the procedure. The effect on quality of life was assessed by the Aberdeen Varicose Vein Questionnaire and the EuroQol Group 5-Dimension Self-Report Questionnaire.

Results: The endovenous microwave ablation group had a shorter procedure time than the endovenous laser ablation group (42.58 ± 15.62 minutes vs 65.46 ± 24.38 minutes, P < .01), and no significant differences were observed in the other procedure parameters. The incidences of induration (20.26% vs 31.06%) and ecchymosis (13.07% vs 22.98%, P < .05) were lower in the endovenous microwave ablation group. The rates of temporary paresthesia (9.80% vs 18.01%) and residual varicosities (8.61% vs 16.77%, P < .05) were lower in the endovenous microwave ablation group at 1 month. There were no significant differences in paresthesia or saphenous vein closure rates between the groups at 6 and 12 months. Both groups had significant improvements in their Aberdeen Varicose Vein Questionnaire and EuroQol Group 5-Dimension Self-Report Questionnaire scores post-procedure, and no significant differences in Aberdeen Varicose Vein Questionnaire and EuroQol Group 5-Dimension Self-Report Questionnaire scores were confirmed. However, local recurrence below the knee was lower in the endovenous microwave ablation group (2.34% vs 8.46%, P < .05) after 12 months.

Conclusion: Our results confirmed that the endovenous microwave ablation procedure demonstrated a shorter procedure time, lower complication, and local recurrence than the endovenous laser ablation procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2020.06.035DOI Listing
November 2020

Validation of the Needs Assessment of Family Caregivers-Cancer scale in an Asian population.

BMC Psychol 2020 Aug 12;8(1):84. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Rd, Singapore, 119074, Singapore.

Background: The Needs Assessment of Family Caregivers- Cancer (NAFC-C) scale is shown to have adequate psychometric properties in assessing family caregiver needs during the cancer journey and its psychometric properties have been studied only in Western populations. This study sought to validate the NAFC-C in an Asian population for wider applicability.

Methods: Participants (n = 363) completed questions on sociodemographics, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, the Zarit Burden Interview, the Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer scale, and the NAFC-C.

Results: Results revealed good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity of the NAFC-C. Confirmatory factor analysis did not demonstrate a good fit of the NAFC-C in our sample. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a similar factor structure in this study's population. Further reliability and validity analyses with the EFA factor structure demonstrated similar reliability and validity assessments.

Conclusions: The NAFC-C is shown to be applicable in an Asian population. It would be a useful instrument for determining family caregivers' needs and to inform future interventions to address those needs and improve or maintain quality of life in both patients and their caregivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40359-020-00445-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7424999PMC
August 2020

Growth of High-Quality Hexagonal Boron Nitride Single-Layer Films on Carburized Ni Substrates for Metal-Insulator-Metal Tunneling Devices.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Aug 22;12(31):35318-35327. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, United States.

Two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) plays a significant role in nanoscale electrical and optical devices because of its superior properties. However, the difficulties in the controllable growth of high-quality films hinder its applications. One of the crucial factors that influence the quality of the films obtained via epitaxy is the substrate property. Here, we report a study of 2D h-BN growth on carburized Ni substrates using molecular beam epitaxy. It was found that the carburization of Ni substrates with different surface orientations leads to different kinetics of h-BN growth. While the carburization of Ni(100) enhances the h-BN growth, the speed of the h-BN growth on carburized Ni(111) reduces. As-grown continuous single-layer h-BN films are used to fabricate Ni/h-BN/Ni metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices, which demonstrate a high breakdown electric field of 12.9 MV/cm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c07201DOI Listing
August 2020

Hemodynamic changes between different anatomically designed stents after carotid stenting: a prospective multicenter study.

J Neurol 2020 Nov 29;267(11):3392-3399. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Vascular Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710061, China.

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate differences in the dynamic changes and risk factors of hemodynamic depression (HD) between straight and tapered carotid stenting (SCS and TCS, respectively).

Methods: A total of 148 and 167 patients were included in TCS and SCS groups in this study, respectively. All clinical data were collected and analyzed for differences in HD and primary endpoint events at 12 months.

Results: The SCS procedure had a lower predilation rate and a higher incidence of intra- and postprocedure HD; furthermore, the decline in heart rate in the SCS procedure was higher in patients with intra- and postprocedure HD (P < 0.05). Right stenosis [odds ratio (OR) 1.67] and stent type (ev3) (OR 2.31) were confirmed as risk factors, and older age (> 70 years) was accompanied by a lower risk (OR 0.58; P < 0.05). The SCS procedure had a higher incidence of bradycardia and hypotension after 24 h and a longer duration of hypotension (P < 0.05). Stenosis (> 80%) (OR 1.68), the SCS procedure (OR 1.72), and alcohol intake (OR 2.38) were defined as risk factors. There was no difference in the complications or clinical endpoint events in either procedure, and the restenosis rate was lower in the TCS procedure (1.35% vs 5.42%).

Conclusion: Our results reveal that TCS has a lower incidence of HD and that intra- and postprocedure HD have different manifestations and risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-020-10032-0DOI Listing
November 2020

Effect of slip on the contact-line instability of a thin liquid film flowing down a cylinder.

Phys Rev E 2020 May;101(5-1):053108

College of Pipeline and Civil Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580, China.

Liquid coating films on solid surfaces exist widely in a plethora of industrial processes. In this study, we focus on the falling of a liquid film on the side surface of a vertical cylinder, where the surface is viewed as slippery, such as a liquid-infused surface. The evolution profiles and flow instability of the advancing contact line are comprehensively analyzed. The governing equation of the thin film flow is derived according to the lubrication model, and the traveling-wave solutions are numerically obtained. The results show that the wave speed increases with the increase of a larger slippery length. A linear stability analysis (LSA) is carried out to verify the traveling solutions and time responses. Although previous studies tell us that the wall slippage always promotes the surface flow instability of the thin film flow, the linear stability analysis, numerical simulations, and nonlinear traveling-wave solutions in the current study present a different conclusion. The analysis show that for a thin film flow with a dynamic contact line the wall slippage in different directions plays much more complex roles. The streamwise slippery effect always impedes the instability of the flow and suppresses the wave height of traveling wave, while the transverse slippery effect has a dual effect on the surface instability. The transverse slippery effect significantly improves the instability while the wave number of the perturbation is small, and simultaneously it reduces the cutoff wave number. The transverse slippery effect will change its role if the wave number of the perturbation exceeds a critical value, which can stabilize the contact line.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.101.053108DOI Listing
May 2020

Seed ejection mechanism in an Oxalis species.

Sci Rep 2020 06 1;10(1):8855. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

College of Pipeline and Civil Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao, 266580, China.

With millions of years' evolution, plants and fungi have developed a variety of ballistic dispersal structures for seeds or spores. One typical example is the catapult of an Oxalis sp., which can realize a consecutive seed ejection by triggering only one seed. If the protrusion on an aril, a specialized outgrowth covering a seed, is disturbed, cracks would occur and cause the opening of the aril. Subsequently, the whole aril snaps and transforms its stored strain energy to eject the inside seed with an optimal launching angle. Once the first seed is triggered, its curly aril will contact the next seed's protrusion and induce its firing. This chain effect will further trigger the remaining seeds in turns, within 0.1 s. Inspired by this phenomenon, we invented a bionic ejection device to launch projectiles with high efficiency. This exploration is promising for a number of applications, such as drug delivery and oil displacement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65885-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7264325PMC
June 2020

Global emotion dysregulation and maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies mediate the effects of severe trauma on depressive and positive symptoms in early non-affective psychosis.

Schizophr Res 2020 08 27;222:251-257. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Psychological Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; Academic Development Department, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore.

Background: Previous research has shown that childhood trauma contributes to the onset and maintenance of psychosis. However, few studies have accounted for the effects of lifetime trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and none have examined the mediating role of emotion dysregulation in symptom maintenance after severe trauma. The purpose of this study is to determine whether maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies (CERS) and global emotion dysregulation mediate the effects of probable PTSD on depressive symptoms, and whether this pathway extends to influence positive symptoms in patients with early non-affective psychotic disorders.

Methods: A total of 150 outpatients with early non-affective psychosis were assessed for trauma exposure, DSM-5 PTSD symptoms, CERS, global emotion dysregulation, and current depressive and positive symptoms. Parallel and serial mediation analyses based on ordinary least squares regressions were used to test the hypothesized models.

Results: Mediation analyses controlling for gender, psychiatric comorbidities, antipsychotic medication dosage, duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), family history of mental illness, and cumulative trauma revealed that maladaptive CERS (rumination, catastrophic thinking, and self-blame) and global emotion dysregulation mediated the effects of probable PTSD on depressive symptoms (R = 41%), while maladaptive CERS, global emotion dysregulation, and depressive symptoms mediated the effects of probable PTSD on positive symptoms (R = 30%).

Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the indirect effects of maladaptive CERS and global emotion dysregulation on maintaining depressive and positive symptoms. Emotion dysregulation may be a potential transdiagnostic treatment target to alleviate depressive and positive symptoms in traumatized patients with early non-affective psychosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2020.05.040DOI Listing
August 2020

Quality of life and emotional distress among caregivers of patients newly diagnosed with cancer: Understanding trajectories across the first year post-diagnosis.

J Psychosoc Oncol 2020 Sep-Oct;38(5):557-572. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Psychological Medicine, National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore.

Purpose: The cancer caregiving experience is multifaceted and dynamic across different phases of the cancer care continuum. This longitudinal study examined the trajectories of CQOL and caregiver emotional distress across the first year post-diagnosis.

Methods: Participants were 111 caregivers of newly diagnosed patients who completed baseline, 6-month, and 12-month follow-ups. Trajectories of CQOL, CQOL domains, caregiver depression, anxiety, and stress, were estimated using linear and quadratic mixed models.

Results: The trajectory of overall CQOL followed an inverse U-shape trend, while caregiver depression, anxiety, and stress remained stable. For CQOL domains, physical/practical needs followed a gradual trend of improvement, while social support followed an inverse U-shape trend; caregiver burden, emotional reactivity, and responsibility/duty remained stable.

Conclusions: The multidimensional needs of caregivers of newly diagnosed patients appeared to follow different trajectories across the first year post-diagnosis. While most CQOL domains remained stable, caregivers may experience adjustment difficulties in terms of relational concerns and social support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07347332.2020.1760994DOI Listing
June 2021

Maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies and positive symptoms in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: The mediating role of global emotion dysregulation.

Clin Psychol Psychother 2020 Nov 18;27(6):826-836. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Psychological Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Previous studies have identified a positive association between maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies and positive symptoms (e.g., hallucinations and delusions) among patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, translating this finding to clinical practice is challenging. Some patients are reported to experience difficulties in correcting the use of maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies in psychological therapy, which may be due to an underlying effect of global emotion dysregulation. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the mediating or moderating role of global emotion dysregulation in the relationship between maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies and positive symptoms. A total of 123 newly diagnosed patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders completed self-report measures of maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies (rumination, catastrophic thinking, self-blame, other-blame) and global emotion dysregulation. The severity of positive symptoms was rated on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale-Expanded. Mediation and moderation analyses were performed to test the hypothesized models. Mediation analysis revealed that global emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies and positive symptoms after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, duration of untreated psychosis, medication dosage, psychiatric comorbidities, and family history of mental illness (R = 23.3%, moderate effect size = 0.30). There was no moderating effect of global emotion dysregulation. The present study presents preliminary evidence on the mediating role of global emotion dysregulation in the relationship between maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies and positive symptoms in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. This finding adds to our current understanding on emotion regulation phenomena in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpp.2466DOI Listing
November 2020

Identification and Validation of a Potent Multi-miRNA Signature for Prediction of Prognosis of Osteosarcoma Patients.

Med Sci Monit 2020 Feb 26;26:e919272. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Trauma and Joint Orthopedics, The People's Hospital of Longhua, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Osteosarcoma, the most common solid malignancy, has high incidence and mortality rates. We constructed a miRNA-based signature that can be used to assess the prognosis of osteosarcoma patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS The miRNA profile was derived from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) website, with matched clinical records. The miRNA-based overall survival (OS)-predicting signature was established by LASSO Cox regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Kaplan-Meier (K-M) analyses were performed to examine the stability and discriminatory ability of the OS-predicting signatures. Pathway enrichment analyses were performed to uncover potential mechanisms. RESULTS Three miRNAs (miR-153, miR-212, and miR-591) independently related to the OS were extracted to build a risk score formula. The ROC curve and K-M analyses revealed good discrimination ability of the OS signature for osteosarcoma patients in both the training cohort (P=0.00015, AUC=0.962) and the validation cohort (P=0.0065, AUC=0.793). As shown in multivariate analysis, the classifier showed favorable predictive accuracy similar to the recurrence status to be an independent risk factor for osteosarcoma. Furthermore, the nomogram showed a synergistic effect by combining the clinicopathological features with our classifier. Also, the enrichment analyses of the target genes may contribute to improved treatment of osteosarcoma. CONCLUSIONS The 3-miRNA-based classifier serves as an effective prognosis-predicting signature for osteosarcoma patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.919272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7060510PMC
February 2020

The clinical characteristics and outcomes of carotid body tumors in Chinese patients: A STROBE-compliant observational study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jan;99(3):e18824

Department of Vascular Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

This study aims to investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of carotid body tumors in Chinese patients in the last decade. A systematic search was conducted without limits and included studies published between January 2006 and December 2016 according to PubMed, the Chinese Science Citation Database, the China Science Periodical Database and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure. Relevant synonyms for the search terms "paraganglioma" and "carotid body tumor" were applied, and the clinical data were evaluated and analyzed. There were 1810 cases of CBTs reported in the last decade, of which females accounted for 60.22%, and the mean age was 40.60 years, with most cases being sporadic (98.51%). Surgical resection was performed in 1791 cases: vessel repair occurred in 38.88% of the cases, carotid ligation occurred in 1.42% of the cases, and 1.05% of the patients refused treatment. Some patients underwent selective embolization, and the results showed that embolization could decrease procedure time and blood loss (P < .01). Stroke and death occurred in 1.95% and 0.39% of patients, respectively. Malignant CBTs accounted for 4.30% of cases, and the metastatic sites involved were local metastasis (46.88%), lung (31.25%), bone (21.88%), liver (12.50%), and brain (9.38%). The overall survival rate was 98.87% 36 months after the procedure, and the survival rate of metastatic cases was 56.25% 6 months after recurrence; however, only 21.88% of metastatic cases received radiotherapy. The CBTs of Chinese patients showed some clinical features that were different from those of Western patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000018824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7220344PMC
January 2020

Validation of the English and simplified Mandarin versions of the Fear of Progression Questionnaire - Short Form in Chinese cancer survivors.

BMC Psychol 2020 Jan 31;8(1):10. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, 59 Nanyang Drive, Experimental Medicine Building, Singapore, 636921, Singapore.

Background: The fear of illness progression is common amongst those with chronic illnesses including cancers, and contributes to high psychological morbidity. Research in Asia on such fears however, is limited by a paucity of validated measurement instruments. Amongst the many available instruments, the Fear of Progression Questionnaire has a high quality rating, an important consideration in its selection. This study developed a simplified Mandarin version of the Fear of Progression Questionnaire - Short Form (FoP-Q-SF), and validated the English and Mandarin versions for use in Chinese populations.

Methods: The translation to a simplified Mandarin version was through a forward-backward translation with emphasis on conceptual and cultural equivalence. Cancer survivors (N = 341) completed a self-report questionnaire, the Fear of Progression Questionnaire - Short Form, other measures of fear of progression, depression, anxiety, and quality of life. Reliability and criterion validity were assessed, and the factor-structure was replicated with a confirmatory factor analysis.

Results: The Fear of Progression Questionnaire - Short Form demonstrated high internal and test-retest reliability. Criterion validity was also demonstrated through convergent, concurrent and discriminant validity. The factor structure was supported and replicated. The goodness-of-fit indices of the original model indicated some misfit, which could be adequately addressed by freeing five parameters in the error covariance matrix, without changing the one-factor structure.

Conclusions: The Fear of Progression Questionnaire - Short Form is a reliable and valid measure of fear of progression applicable to a mixed-cancer survivor population in Singapore. The simplified Mandarin version of the questionnaire will be useful in other parts of Asia and for Chinese migrants in the West, further extending the use of this questionnaire.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40359-020-0374-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6995061PMC
January 2020

Fear of cancer recurrence among cancer survivors in Singapore.

Singapore Med J 2020 Jan 28. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Department of Health Psychology and Behavioural Medicine, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

Introduction: Fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) among cancer survivors is a persistent and distressing psychosocial concern that affects recovery and quality of life. The prevalence of FCR in Singapore is unknown. This cross-sectional study was designed to examine FCR and identify factors associated with FCR in mixed-cancer survivors locally.

Methods: Cancer survivors in remission (n = 404) were assessed for: FCR using the Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory (FCRI); emotional distress using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; and quality of life using the World Health Organisation Quality of Life-BREF. Clinical and severe/pathological FCR was determined based on the severity scale of FCRI, known as FCRI-Short Form. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to examine factors associated with FCR.

Results: The mean scores on the FCRI was 59.5 ± 30.4. 43.6% of cancer survivors had clinical FCR and 32.1% had severe/pathological FCR. Younger age (odds ratio [OR] 0.952, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.911-0.995, p < 0.05), higher educational status (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.15-5.65, p < 0.05) and higher levels of emotional distress (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.10-1.24, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with severe/pathological levels of FCR.

Conclusion: The present study is the first to determine levels of FCR among cancer survivors in Singapore. While the total FCR scores were similar to those of international studies, severe/pathological levels of FCR were found to be four times higher. These findings highlight a problem that is not widely recognised or acknowledged, but which deserves greater attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2020007DOI Listing
January 2020

The impact of emotion dysregulation on positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A systematic review.

J Clin Psychol 2020 04 7;76(4):612-624. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Department of Psychological Medicine, National University Hospital, Singapore.

Objectives: Accumulating research evidence supports the role of emotion dysregulation in the etiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The present systematic review synthesized the extant literature and aimed to determine the effects of cognitive emotion regulation strategies and global emotion dysregulation on positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

Method: A comprehensive systematic review was conducted to identify quantitative studies published between 2000 and 2019. A total of 22 studies were included in this review.

Results: Overall, maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies of rumination, worry, and suppression were generally related to more positive symptoms, while global emotion dysregulation was related to more positive and negative symptoms.

Conclusions: Our results provide preliminary and conceptual evidence on the role of emotion dysregulation in understanding schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Psychological treatment should further determine the therapeutic value of addressing emotion dysregulation to improve positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22915DOI Listing
April 2020

Wrinkling number and force of a particle raft in compression.

Eur Phys J E Soft Matter 2019 Nov 22;42(11):147. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Department of Engineering Mechanics, College of Pipeline and Civil Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), 266580, Qingdao, China.

A particle raft is formed by a layer of small particles floating on a water surface, which has a higher load bearing capacity than pure water. In the present work, we have made a comprehensive study on the wrinkling number and force of the particle raft in planar compression. The wrinkling number during the whole loading process is measured, accompanied with snapshots on the morphologies of the particle raft. The force-displacement curve is given based on the loading system, which has been validated by the numerical simulation. Moreover, the experiment and theoretical results both show that the equivalent Young's modulus is dependent upon the loading displacement. Finally, the maximum wrinkling number of the raft has been analyzed by the scaling law, which agrees well with the experimental result. These findings have deepen our understandings on the mechanical properties of soft materials, which also hold implications on drug delivery, chemical engineering, micro-fluidics, environment protection, petroleum exploitation, mineral flotation, etc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epje/i2019-11913-9DOI Listing
November 2019

A systematic examination of cognitive emotion regulation strategies, global emotion dysregulation, and cognitive insight in relation to posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among trauma exposed patients with early nonaffective psychosis.

Psychol Trauma 2019 Nov 11. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Department of Psychological Medicine, National University of Singapore.

Objective: Previous research has shown that emotion dysregulation after trauma is associated with increased posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity. However, it remains unclear how different dimensions of emotion dysregulation and cognitive insight may interact to predict , fifth edition () PTSD symptoms in early psychosis. The present study systematically examines cognitive emotion regulation strategies, global emotion dysregulation, and cognitive insight in relation to PTSD symptoms among trauma-exposed patients with early nonaffective psychosis.

Method: A total of 150 outpatients with early nonaffective psychosis were screened for trauma exposure on the Stressful Life Events Questionnaire. Participants ( = 79; 52.6%) who met the Criterion A subsequently completed the PTSD Checklist for , Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Difficulties With Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, and Beck Cognitive Insight Scale. Severity of psychotic and depressive symptoms were rated on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale.

Results: Multivariate regression models adjusting for age, gender, psychotic and depressive symptoms revealed that PTSD symptom clusters were associated with more maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies (catastrophic thinking, rumination, and other blame) and less adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal and planning; Cohen's f² = 1.50-3.17). Further moderation analyses revealed a negative interaction between global emotion dysregulation and self-reflection on intrusive symptoms such that for patients with low self-reflectivity, global emotion dysregulation was associated with increased severity of intrusive symptoms (f² = 0.96).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that addressing emotion dysregulation and cognitive insight may improve intrusive symptoms, and this may prevent the development of full PTSD in patients with early nonaffective psychosis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/tra0000531DOI Listing
November 2019

Impact of emotion dysregulation and cognitive insight on psychotic and depressive symptoms during the early course of schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

Early Interv Psychiatry 2020 12 6;14(6):691-697. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Department of Psychological Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Objective: Emotion dysregulation is relevant to the aetiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). While most studies have focused on the chronic phase of SSD, little is known about the effects of emotion dysregulation and associated cognitive risk factors during the early phase of the illness, with negative implications for early intervention. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies, global emotion dysregulation, and cognitive insight on psychotic and comorbid depressive symptoms in patients with early SSD.

Method: Participants included 150 newly diagnosed outpatients with SSD who were seeking treatment at the Early Psychosis Intervention Program. All participants completed the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale, and Beck Cognitive Insight Scale. Severity of psychotic and depressive symptoms were rated on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale.

Results: Multivariate regression adjusting for gender and psychiatric comorbidity revealed that global emotion dysregulation was associated with more severe positive and depressive symptoms. Further moderation analyses revealed a significant interaction between global emotion dysregulation and cognitive insight (self-certainty) on depression such that for patients with high self-certainty, greater global emotion dysregulation was associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. There was no interaction between global emotion dysregulation and cognitive insight on positive symptoms.

Conclusions: Our findings provide preliminary support for the associations between emotion dysregulation and psychopathology in early SSD. Further research is needed to examine the transdiagnostic role of emotion dysregulation in the aetiology and treatment of a wider range of psychotic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eip.12895DOI Listing
December 2020

CBN-VAE: A Data Compression Model with Efficient Convolutional Structure for Wireless Sensor Networks.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Aug 7;19(16). Epub 2019 Aug 7.

School of Mechanical Engineering and Electronic Information, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China.

Data compression is a useful method to reduce the communication energy consumption in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Most existing neural network compression methods focus on improving the compression and reconstruction accuracy (i.e., increasing parameters and layers), ignoring the computation consumption of the network and its application ability in WSNs. In contrast, we pay attention to the computation consumption and application of neural networks, and propose an extremely simple and efficient neural network data compression model. The model combines the feature extraction advantages of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) with the data generation ability of Variational Autoencoder (VAE) and Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM), we call it CBN-VAE. In particular, we propose a new efficient convolutional structure: Downsampling-Convolutional RBM (D-CRBM), and use it to replace the standard convolution to reduce parameters and computational consumption. Specifically, we use the VAE model composed of multiple D-CRBM layers to learn the hidden mathematical features of the sensing data, and use this feature to compress and reconstruct the sensing data. We test the performance of the model by using various real-world WSN datasets. Under the same network size, compared with the CNN, the parameters of CBN-VAE model are reduced by 73.88% and the floating-point operations (FLOPs) are reduced by 96.43% with negligible accuracy loss. Compared with the traditional neural networks, the proposed model is more suitable for application on nodes in WSNs. For the Intel Lab temperature data, the average Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) value of the model can reach 32.51 dB, the average reconstruction error value is 0.0678 °C. The node communication energy consumption can be reduced by 95.83%. Compared with the traditional compression methods, the proposed model has better compression and reconstruction accuracy. At the same time, the experimental results show that the model has good fault detection performance and anti-noise ability. When reconstructing data, the model can effectively avoid fault and noise data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19163445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6721250PMC
August 2019

Clinical effectiveness and speed of response of electroconvulsive therapy in treatment-resistant schizophrenia.

Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2019 Jul 1;73(7):416-422. Epub 2019 Jun 1.

Department of General Psychiatry, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore.

Aim: Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been shown to be efficacious for patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia, there has been limited evidence on the rate of response, cognition, and quality-of-life outcomes. The primary aims of the present study were thus to examine the effectiveness and speed of response to ECT in a naturalistic retrospective cohort in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia.

Methods: We performed a retrospective database analysis. The primary effectiveness outcome was defined as an improvement of ≥40% from pretreatment scores based on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) Psychotic Symptom subscale. Data were included for analysis for all patients with a primary DSM-5 diagnosis of schizophrenia that was treatment-resistant and who had had an acute course of ECT initiated for the treatment of schizophrenia between 1 July 2016 and 1 December 2016.

Results: A total of 50 inpatients were included for analysis. The present study revealed that 50% of patients showed at least a 40% reduction in BPRS Psychotic Symptom subscale scores after completion of ECT and that 16.7% of patients responded after the first three sessions, 39.3% after six sessions, 46.4% after nine sessions, and 50% after 12 sessions. The greatest improvement in BPRS scores was between the third and sixth ECT sessions. BPRS scores, Clinical Global Impression, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Global Assessment of Functioning showed significant improvement. There was no significant difference in quality-of-life outcomes.

Conclusion: Utilizing modern techniques in treatment-resistant schizophrenia, this study demonstrates the real-world effectiveness and rate of response of patients receiving ECT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pcn.12855DOI Listing
July 2019

A comparison of the reliability and validity of SF-6D, EQ-5D and HUI3 utility measures in patients with schizophrenia and patients with depression in Singapore.

Psychiatry Res 2019 04 1;274:400-408. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Research Division, Institute of Mental Health, Buangkok Green Medical Park, 10 Buangkok View, 539747, Singapore.

There is limited evidence of a direct comparison of the psychometric performance of generic preference-based measures in patients with mental illness in an Asian patient population. The current study aimed to compare the test-retest reliability, convergent and known-group validity and magnitude of change in scores of the EuroQol Five-Dimension, Health Utility Index Mark 3 (HUI3) and Short-Form Six-Dimension (SF-6D) measures in patients with depression and patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder. 500 patients were recruited from a tertiary psychiatric institution in Singapore. The Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (SQLS), 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire, Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were also included. In the schizophrenia sample, the SF-6D was found to have higher test-retest validity, convergent validity with SQLS domain scores, known-group validity and magnitude of change in scores over 6-month follow up than other measures. In the depression sample, the HUI3 was found to have higher test-retest reliability, convergent validity with Q-LES-Q, known group validity and magnitude of change in scores than other measures. Results suggest that the SF-6D and HUI3 to be more suitable as a utility measure for patients with schizophrenia and depression in an Asian patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2019.02.077DOI Listing
April 2019

The mechanics of abalone crawling on sharp objects without injury.

Sci Rep 2019 03 7;9(1):3881. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Engineering Mechanics, College of Pipeline and Civil Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao, 266580, China.

Despite the soft appearance of their feet, abalones can crawl quickly on sharp objects. Tests using rough substrates aligned with blades or posts found that the animal has two adaptations to guarantee its safety on these surfaces. Mechanical compression tests showed that the abalone foot muscle is inherently robust and can resist penetration by sharp objects. A finite element simulation indicated that to avoid being pierced, abalone controls the shape of its foot to wrap it around sharp objects, thereby greatly reducing the stress concentration. These analyses may aid the engineering of new materials and devices for fields including soft robotics and aircraft.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-40505-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405851PMC
March 2019