Publications by authors named "Jianjun Guo"

74 Publications

Transcriptome Analysis of Hormone-and Cuticle-Related Genes in the Development Process of Deutonymph in .

Insects 2021 Aug 17;12(8). Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management of the Mountainous Region, Institute of Entomology, Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Crop Pest in Guiyang, Ministry of Agriculture, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China.

is an important agricultural pest that feeds on more than 1100 plant species. To investigate gene expression network in development process of deutonymph, a comprehensive transcriptome analysis of different developmental time points of deutonymph in was performed. Comparing with expression profile of 7 h, 309, 876, 2736, and 3432 differential expression genes were detected at time points 14 h, 21 h, 28 h, and 35 h, respectively. The expression dynamic analysis indicated that genes in hormone- (ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone) and cuticle- (chitin and cuticle proteins) related pathways were indispensable for development process in deutonymph. Among hormone related pathway genes, the ecdysteroid biosynthesis pathway genes were highly expressed at the growth period of development process, which is opposite to the expression patterns of juvenile hormone biosynthesis pathway genes. For cuticle related pathway genes, 13 chitinase genes were identified in the genome of , and 8 chitinase genes were highly expressed in different time points of developmental process in the deutonymph of . Additionally, 59 cuticle protein genes were identified from genome, and most of the cuticle protein genes were expressed in the molting period of developmental process in deutonymph. This study reveals critical genes involved in the development process of deutonymph and also provides comprehensive development transcriptome information for finding more molecular targets to control this pest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects12080736DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8397179PMC
August 2021

Protective effects of pretreatment with Fe, Cu, and Rb on phoxim poisoning in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 Aug 14;68:126844. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

College of Biotechnology and Sericultural Research Institute, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, 212018, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Phoxim is a widely used organophosphorus pesticide in agriculture. People are paying more and more attention to its toxicity. At present, there is no appropriate way to solve the phoxim poisoning of silkworm, which severely affected the development of sericulture. Fe, Cu, Rb exerted their biological effects through various forms in vivo.

Methods: To evaluate the effect of Fe/Cu/Rb on phoxim poisoning in silkworm, Bombyx mori were treated with fresh mulberry leaves soaked in 2.5 mg/L phoxim for 2 min with 50 mg/L FeCl, 150 mg/L CuCl, or 0.5 mg/L RbCl from 5 days of the fifth-instar silkworm.

Results: Fe, Cu, and Rb pretreatments significantly inhibited the phoxim-induced reduction of survival rate and alleviated the phoxim-induced poisoning symptoms. The protective effects of Fe, Cu, and Rb on phoxim poisoning might be due to their enhancement of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and carboxylesterase (CarE) in the hemolymph and fat body of silkworm. This enhancement might reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and oxidative stress (OS) caused by phoxim poisoning. Thereby it reduced the damage to silkworm tissues and cells.

Conclusions: These results showed that Fe, Cu, and Rb treatments protected the silkworm from phoxim poisoning by directly enhancing the activity of SOD, CAT, and CarE enzymes and reducing oxidative stress, but not dependent on the high expression of CYP genes. The use of Fe, Cu, and Rb to enhance the activity of SOD, CAT, and CarE enzymes may be an underlying effective way to solve phoxim poisoning in the silkworm industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2021.126844DOI Listing
August 2021

Cell Death and Exosomes Regulation After Myocardial Infarction and Ischemia-Reperfusion.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 9;9:673677. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the global population, accounting for about one-third of all deaths each year. Notably, with CVDs, myocardial damages result from myocardial infarction (MI) or cardiac arrhythmias caused by interrupted blood flow. Significantly, in the process of MI or myocardial ischemic-reperfusion (I/R) injury, both regulated and non-regulated cell death methods are involved. The critical factor for patients' prognosis is the infarct area's size, which determines the myocardial cells' survival. Cell therapy for MI has been a research hotspot in recent years; however, exosomes secreted by cells have attracted much attention following shortcomings concerning immunogens. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles containing several biologically active substances such as lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. New evidence suggests that exosomes play a crucial role in regulating cell death after MI as exosomes of various stem cells can participate in the cell damage process after MI. Hence, in the review herein, we focused on introducing various cell-derived exosomes to reduce cell death after MI by regulating the cell death pathway to understand myocardial repair mechanisms better and provide a reference for clinical treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.673677DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8220218PMC
June 2021

Characterizing Brain Tumor Regions Using Texture Analysis in Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Front Neurosci 2021 3;15:634926. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

School of Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Purpose: To extract texture features from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of patients with brain tumors and use them to train a classification model for supporting an early diagnosis.

Methods: Two groups of regions (control and tumor) were selected from MRI scans of 40 patients with meningioma or glioma. These regions were analyzed to obtain texture features. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS (version 20.0), including the Shapiro-Wilk test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test, which were used to test significant differences in each feature between the tumor and healthy regions. T-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) was used to visualize the data distribution so as to avoid tumor selection bias. The Gini impurity index in random forests (RFs) was used to select the top five out of all features. Based on the five features, three classification models were built respectively with three machine learning classifiers: RF, support vector machine (SVM), and back propagation (BP) neural network.

Results: Sixteen of the 25 features were significantly different between the tumor and healthy areas. Through the Gini impurity index in RFs, standard deviation, first-order moment, variance, third-order absolute moment, and third-order central moment were selected to build the classification model. The classification model trained using the SVM classifier achieved the best performance, with sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of 94.04%, 92.3%, and 0.932, respectively.

Conclusion: Texture analysis with an SVM classifier can help differentiate between brain tumor and healthy areas with high speed and accuracy, which would facilitate its clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.634926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8209330PMC
June 2021

Comparison of Percutaneous Transluminal Angiography With or Without Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis for Chronic Femoropopliteal Occlusive Disease.

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2021 Jan-Dec;27:10760296211005025

Department of Interventional Radiology, 571884the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Background: Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is seldom used for chronic femoropopliteal occlusive disease.

Methods: Patients with chronic femoropopliteal occlusive disease enrolled between January, 2011 and April, 2017. Hospitalization expense, limb salvage rate and survival rate were calculated.

Results: Twenty-nine patients were treated with CDT (CDT group) and 31 patients without CDT (Non-CDT group).The mean hospitalization expense (5.2 ± 0.5), balloon catheter (1.0 ± 0.2) and stents number (0.8 ± 0.2) in CDT group were significantly less compared to Non-CDT group ( 0.05). The short-term and long-term effect scales showed similar in both groups. The incidences of perioperative complications (10.3% vs. 19.4%), primary patency and second patency rate, limb salvage rate (14.8% vs. 16.1%) and survival rate were also similar ( 0.05). Six patients died in each group and only 2 disease related deaths were found in Non-CDT group.

Conclusion: CDT is a safe and economic strategy for patients with chronic femoropopliteal occlusive disease, and should be served as blanket treatment for every patient without thrombolytic contradictions or a remedy for failure PTA to achieve a comparable clinical effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10760296211005025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8013675PMC
March 2021

Cropland connectivity affects genetic divergence of Colorado potato beetle along an invasion front.

Evol Appl 2021 Feb 8;14(2):553-565. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution Institute of Zoology Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing China.

The population genetic structure of invasive species can be strongly affected by environmental and landscape barriers to dispersal. Disentangling the relative contributions of these factors to genetic divergence among invading populations is a fundamental goal of landscape genetics with important implications for invasion management. Here, we relate patterns of genetic divergence in a global invasive agricultural pest, Colorado potato beetle (CPB; ), to environmental and landscape factors along an invasion front in Northwestern China. We first used microsatellite markers and spatial-temporal samples to assess broad patterns of genetic diversity as well as fine-scale changes in patterns of genetic divergence. We then distinguished the relative contributions of five factors to genetic divergence among front populations: geographic distance (isolation by distance), climate dissimilarity (isolation by environment), and least-cost distances (isolation by resistance) modeled with three factors: climate suitability, cropland cover, and road networks. Genetic diversity broadly decreased from West to East, with the exception being Eastern China. Low levels of genetic diversity and varying degrees of divergence were observed in Northwestern China, reflecting the potential effect of landscape heterogeneity. Least-cost distance across cropland cover was most positively correlated with genetic divergence, suggesting a role of croplands in facilitating gene flow. The contribution of climate to genetic divergence was secondary, whether modeled in terms of local adaptability or connectivity of the climatic landscape, suggesting that constraints to CPB gene flow imposed by a harsh climate may be ameliorated in agricultural landscapes. No evidence was found for an obvious effect of road networks on genetic divergence and population structuring. Our study provides an example of how agricultural landscape connectivity can facilitate the spread of invasive pests, even across a broad climatic gradient. More broadly, our findings can guide decisions about future land management for mitigating further spread.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eva.13140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7896701PMC
February 2021

Association between Intake of Energy and Macronutrients and Memory Impairment Severity in US Older Adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014.

Nutrients 2020 Nov 20;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Program in Physical Therapy, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Without a cure, dementia affects about 50 million people worldwide. Understanding the effects of dietary habits, a key lifestyle behavior, on memory impairment is critical to inform early behavioral modification to delay further memory loss and progression to dementia. We examined the associations of total energy intake and energy intake from macronutrients with memory impairment among older US adults using data from the nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey study 2011-2014. A total of 3623 participants aged ≥60 years were analyzed. Comparing to those with low total energy intake, individuals with high intake were more likely to have severe memory impairment (OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.15 to 2.02; = 0.005). Specifically, higher energy intake from carbohydrate (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.12 to 2.26) and sugar (OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.11 to 2.16) were both significantly associated with the presence of memory impairment. Additionally, higher energy intake from fat, carbohydrate and sugar were significantly associated with more server memory impairment (fat: = 0.04; carbohydrate: = 0.03; sugar: = 0.02). High energy intake, either total or from carbohydrates, fat or sugar, is associated with memory impairment severity in the older US population. No such association was found in energy intake from protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12113559DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7699759PMC
November 2020

Four new species of Torrenticola (Acari, Hydrachnidia, Torrenticolidae) from Northeastern China.

Zootaxa 2020 May 19;4779(2):zootaxa.4779.2.6. Epub 2020 May 19.

1Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Plant Pest Management of the Mountainous Region, the Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Crop Pest in Guiyang, Ministry of Agriculture, P. R. China, Guiyang 550025, P. R. China..

Four new species of Torrenticola i.e. Torrenticola triextensio sp. nov., T. songhuaensis sp. nov., T. changbaiensis sp. nov., T. acrisarostrum sp. nov. are described from Jilin Province, P. R. China, bringing the total number of Chinese Torrenticola species to 36. This is the second report of water mites from Northeastern China in the last two decades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4779.2.6DOI Listing
May 2020

Low-expressed GAS5 injure myocardial cells and progression of chronic heart failure via regulation of miR-223-3P.

Exp Mol Pathol 2020 12 12;117:104529. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Xian Children's Hospital, No. 69 Xijuyuan Land, Xian 710003, Shannxi Province, China. Electronic address:

Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a common disease in clinical practice, and its incidence has been increasing in recent years. Understanding the pathogenesis of CHF is the key to its future clinical diagnosis and treatment. Molecular research is a hot topic in modern hospitals, and long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) has been gradually understood and applied in many diseases. The situation of LncRNA GAS5 in CHF is still unclear, so this experiment will investigate the situation of GAS5 in CHF and its effect on myocardial cells, aiming to gain a preliminary understanding of the mechanism of GAS5's effect on CHF. In this study, the expression of GAS5 and miR-223-3p in peripheral blood of CHF patients and healthy subjects was first detected, GAS5 was low in CHF while miR-223-3p was high (P < 0.05). Subsequently, ROC curve analysis showed that GAS5 and miR-223-3p had good predictive value for the occurrence and recurrence of CHF. Secondly, through in vitro experiments, we found that inhibition of GAS5 with elevated expression of miR-223-3p decreased the proliferative capacity of cardiomyocytes and increased apoptotic capacity and inflammatory factors (P < 0.050). Through dual luciferase reporter and RNA immunoprecipitation experiment, we found that miR-223-3p was regulated by GAS5 in a targeted manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexmp.2020.104529DOI Listing
December 2020

Inflammatory potential of diet and risk of incident knee osteoarthritis: a prospective cohort study.

Arthritis Res Ther 2020 09 10;22(1):209. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit St., Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

Background: To examine the relation between inflammatory potential of diet and incident knee osteoarthritis (OA) and the role of BMI in the association of interest.

Methods: In the Osteoarthritis Initiative, the energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DII™) scores were calculated based on the Block Brief 2000 Food Frequency Questionnaire and categorized into sex-specific quartiles. Outcomes were incident (1) radiographic knee OA (ROA) (i.e., a KL grade ≥ 2) and (2) symptomatic knee OA (SxOA) (i.e., a combination of frequent knee pain and ROA). We fitted generalized estimating equation models to examine the association between E-DII scores and incident knee OA. We performed mediation analyses to assess the potential mediation by BMI in the DII-OA relation.

Results: Over a 48-month follow-up period, 232 and 978 knees developed ROA and SxOA, respectively. Compared with the lowest (most anti-inflammatory) E-DII quartile, the odds ratio (OR) of incident ROA for the highest (most pro-inflammatory) E-DII quartile was 1.73 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15 to 2.62, P = 0.007). The corresponding OR for SxOA was 1.43 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.76, P = 0.001). The DII-OA association was significantly mediated via BMI with an indirect effect of 1.08 (95% CI 1.04, 1.13) for ROA and 1.13 (95% CI 1.09, 1.16) for SxOA, accounting for 20.4% and 44.5% of the total effect, respectively.

Conclusions: A higher inflammatory potential of diet increased the risk of knee OA. The association was significantly mediated via BMI. Targeting the inflammatory potential of diet may be beneficial to reduce the risk of knee OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13075-020-02302-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7488131PMC
September 2020

Automated detection of cardiovascular disease by electrocardiogram signal analysis: a deep learning system.

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2020 Apr;10(2):227-235

Department of Medical Informatics, School of Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, China.

Automated electrocardiogram (ECG) diagnosis could be a useful aid for clinical use. We applied a deep learning method to build a system for automated detection and classification of ECG signals. We first trained a convolutional neural network (CNN) to detect cardiovascular disease in ECG signals using a training data set of 259,789 ECG signals collected from the cardiac function rooms of a tertiary care hospital. The CNN classification was validated using an independent test data set of 18,018 ECG signals. The labels used covered >90% of clinical diagnoses. The system grouped ECGs into 18 classifications-17 different types of abnormalities and normal ECG. The overall accuracy of the model was tested and found to be close to 95%; the accuracy for diagnosis of normal rhythm/atrial fibrillation was 99.15%. The proposed CNN model could help reduce misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis in primary care settings and also improve efficiency and save manpower cost for large general hospitals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/cdt.2019.12.10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225435PMC
April 2020

Functional study of C-terminal domain of the thermoacidophilic raw starch-hydrolyzing α-amylase Gt-amy.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2020 Mar 26;29(3):409-418. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

1Institute of Microbiology, Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, No. 7777 Changdong Avenue, Nanchang, 330096 Jiangxi Province China.

Since the thermoacidophilic raw-starch hydrolyzing -amylase Gt-amy can effectively hydrolyze corn starch under starch liquefaction conditions, it has potential for many industrial applications. To identify the raw starch-binding domain of Gt-amy, a C-terminal domain (CTD)-truncated mutant (Gt-amy-T) was constructed, and its enzymatic properties were compared with Gt-amy. In comparison to CTD of Gt-amy, which could effectively bind corn starch, the Gt-amy-T could not bind to and hydrolyze corn starch under similar conditions. In addition, Gt-amy-T showed significantly lower thermal activity and thermal stability. Using soluble starch as the substrate, the of Gt-amy-T at 80 °C was approximately 77.9% of that of Gt-amy. The half-life of Gt-amy at 80 °C was 3 h, while that of Gt-amy-T was 2 h. These results reveal that the CTD plays a vital role in raw starch binding and degradation by Gt-amy and helps Gt-amy maintain thermal activity and stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-019-00673-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7105561PMC
March 2020

A UPLC-MS/MS method for quantification of perindopril and perindoprilat and applied in a bioequivalence study for their pharmacokinetic parameter measurement
.

Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2020 Feb;58(2):103-111

Objectives: To investigate the pharmacokinetic parameters of perindopril and perindoprilat in healthy volunteers, a simple and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method with isotope-labeled internal standards of perindopril-d4 and perindoprilat-d4 was established and further applied in a bioequivalence study.

Materials And Methods: A simple and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method with isotope-labeled internal standards of perindopril-d4 and perindoprilat-d4 was validated and applied in a single-center, randomized, cross-over, and two-period bioequivalence study. 20 healthy Chinese subjects (16 males and 4 females) were enrolled and had their plasma concentrations of perindopril and perindoprilat quantified and calculated for the pharmacokinetic parameters. After acetonitrile precipitation, the analytes and internal standards were gradient eluted with methanol-acetonitrile-ammonium acetate on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.7 µm) column. Detection was carried out in a multireaction monitoring mode using positive ionization electrospray mass spectrometry.

Results: The total chromatographic run time was 4 minutes with retention time for perindopril and perindopril-d4 of ~ 1.86 minutes, whereas perindoprilat and perindoprilat-d4 was ~ 1.79 minutes. The calibration curves of perindopril and perindoprilat were linear over 0.4 - 80 ng/mL and 0.2 - 40 ng/mL, respectively. The method was fully validated to meet the requirement for bioassay in accuracy (89.6 - 112.4%), precision (coefficient of variation (CV) ≤ 13.8%), recovery (79.65 - 97.83%), matrix effect (CV ≤ 5.9%), and stability (CV ≤ 10.0%). The 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the geometric mean ratios of C, AUC, and AUC of perindopril and perindoprilat all fell within the bioequivalence acceptance criteria (80 - 125%). There were no significant differences between the two formulations in terms of t and T of perindopril and perindoprilat. There was no adverse event in this clinical study. Interestingly, it was found that the pharmacokinetics of perindoprilat in 1 subject were significantly different from that of the others which may be associated with genetic diversity.

Conclusion: This method was successfully applied to the bioequivalence test of two perindopril tert-butylamine tablets. The two one-sided t-tests showed that these two products were bioequivalent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5414/CP203593DOI Listing
February 2020

AAV-Mediated Gene Transfer Restores a Normal Muscle Transcriptome in a Canine Model of X-Linked Myotubular Myopathy.

Mol Ther 2020 02 11;28(2):382-393. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109, USA; Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. Electronic address:

Multiple clinical trials employing recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors have been initiated for neuromuscular disorders, including Duchenne and limb-girdle muscular dystrophies, spinal muscular atrophy, and recently X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM). Our previous work on a canine model of XLMTM showed that a single rAAV8-cMTM1 systemic infusion corrected structural abnormalities within the muscle and restored contractile function, with affected dogs surviving more than 4 years post injection. This remarkable therapeutic efficacy presents a unique opportunity to identify the downstream molecular drivers of XLMTM pathology and to what extent the whole muscle transcriptome is restored to normal after gene transfer. Herein, RNA-sequencing was used to examine the transcriptomes of the Biceps femoris and Vastus lateralis in a previously described canine cohort that showed dose-dependent clinical improvements after rAAV8-cMTM1 gene transfer. Our analysis confirmed several dysregulated genes previously observed in XLMTM mice but also identified transcripts linked to XLMTM pathology. We demonstrated XLMTM transcriptome remodeling and dose-dependent normalization of gene expression after gene transfer and created metrics to pinpoint potential biomarkers of disease progression and correction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2019.10.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7000997PMC
February 2020

Exercise training prevented endothelium dysfunction from particulate matter instillation in Wistar rats.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Dec 30;694:133674. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Peking University School of Public Health, and Peking University Institute of Environmental Medicine, Beijing, China; Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences of Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) can result in adverse cardiovascular responses including vascular endothelial dysfunction, whereas exercise training can promote cardiovascular health. However, whether exercise training can mitigate adverse vascular response to PM has been less studied. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the preventive effect of exercise training on vascular endothelial dysfunction induced by PM instillation. Six-week old male Wistar rats (n = 32) were divided into four groups (8 rats per group) by exercise status (sedentary vs. exercised) and PM exposure (instilled vs. non-instilled). Rats received treadmill training with moderate-intensity intervals in week 1 to 6, followed by three repeated PM instillation on every other day in week 7. Body weight and blood pressure were measured for each rat regularly during exercise training and before sacrifice. At sacrifice, thoracic aortas were isolated for functional response measurement to agonists. Nitric oxide bioavailability and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function were also assessed. We observed that exercise training significantly reduced the body weight of rats, while PM instillation had little effect. Neither exercise training nor PM instillation had significant effects on blood pressure changes. However, exercise training effectively prevented endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation dysfunction and nitric oxide bioavailability reduction from subsequent PM instillation. In addition, exercise training promoted HDL function which were characterized as increased HDL cholesterol level, cholesterol efflux capacity, and reduced oxidization index; whereas PM instillation showed limited adverse impact on HDL function. Collectively, our results indicated that exercise training could promote HDL function and protect against endothelium dysfunction from PM instillation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.133674DOI Listing
December 2019

Contributions to the knowledge of Torrenticolid water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) in Doupengshan, China.

Zootaxa 2019 Nov 7;4695(2):zootaxa.4695.2.1. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management of the Mountainous Region, Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Crop Pest in Guiyang, Ministry of Agriculture, P. R. China, Guiyang 550025, P. R. China..

Six species of Torrenticolidae Piersig, 1902 (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from Doupengshan are presented, including four species of the genus Torrenticola Piersig, 1896 (T. trigona Gu Guo, sp. nov., T. siamis Pešić Smit, 2009, T. tenuichelicera Gu Guo, 2018 and T. tetraporella Cook, 1967), and two species of the genus Monatractides K. Viets, 1926 (M. hamatapodemus Gu Guo, sp. nov. and M. oxystoma (Viets, 1935)), of which T. siamis is recorded for the Chinese fauna for the first time. Detailed descriptions for the new and newly recorded species and a key to all species of Torrenticolidae so far known from China are provided. Furthermore, the first description is given for the female of T. tenuichelicera.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4695.2.1DOI Listing
November 2019

Three new species of the subgenus Unionicola Haldeman, 1842 (Acari, Hydrachnidia, Unionicolidae) from Guizhou, China.

Zootaxa 2019 Aug 21;4658(1):zootaxa.4658.1.6. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management of the Mountainous Region, Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Crop Pest in Guiyang, Ministry of Agriculture, P. R. China, Guiyang 550025, P. R. China..

By investigating watermite collections from Guizhou province, China in 2006, three new Unionicola species are described: Unionicola (Unionicola) maolanensis sp. nov., Unionicola (Unionicola) xishuiensis sp. nov. and Unionicola (Unionicola) suiyangensis sp. nov.. A key is presented for the hitherto known five Chinese Unionicola species of the subgenus based on males and females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4658.1.6DOI Listing
August 2019

Chemical Composition and Antiproliferative Effects of a Methanol Extract of Dallas.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2019 30;2019:2607086. Epub 2019 May 30.

Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management of Mountainous Region, Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550025, China.

Natural products from insects can be potent sources for developing a variety of pharmaceutical products. Dallas has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine and there are several clinical evidences to support its anticancer activity. However, the anticancer active ingredients present in remain unidentified. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer effects of a methanol extract of (AME). Gas chromatography mass spectrometry was used to analyse the chemical composition of AME. The cell viability of MDA-MB-453 and HCC-1937 cells treated with different concentrations of AME was detected by MTT assay and the ratio of cells in different cell cycle phases was analysed by flow cytometry. The expression of genes associated with cell cycle was analysed by real-time PCR assay. The results showed that oleic acid (25.39%) and palmitic acid (21.798%) are the main anticancer compounds present in AME. There was a concentration-dependent decrease in the proliferation of MDA-MB-453 and HCC-1937 cells. Moreover, treatment with AME induced a S-phase arrest in the cells. Real-time PCR assay demonstrated that AME could significantly downregulate the expression of , , , , and mRNAs and upregulate the expression of mRNA. We demonstrate that the methanol extract of could be a potential natural alternative or complementary therapy for breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/2607086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582901PMC
May 2019

Doubles trouble-85 cases of ocular trauma in badminton: clinical features and prevention.

Br J Sports Med 2020 Jan 15;54(1):23-26. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objectives: To describe ocular injuries caused by badminton and to explore the implications for future prevention strategies.

Methods: We enrolled 85 patients with ocular trauma caused by badminton. Information collected from patients included type of game, instigator, instrument of injury and lessons in badminton from a professional, and ocular trauma information such as type of injury, treatment and final outcomes.

Results: The 85 patients (52 men, 33 women) were aged 15-65 years with an average age of 42.9 (±10.7) years. In 60 cases the player was hit by a shuttlecock and in 25 the player was hit by a racquet. 73 cases occurred in doubles matches and 10 in singles matches. In 31 cases the trauma was caused by an opponent and in 52 cases by a partner; 2 cases involved bystanders, not players. About 70% (43/61) of the injured and 82% (40/49) of the instigators had not received badminton lessons from a professional. 80 injuries were non-penetrating and 5 were penetrating. There were 58 cases with hyphaema, 36 with secondary glaucoma, 23 with lens subluxation and 2 with retinal detachment. Surgery comprised phacoemulsification or lensectomy and vitrectomy in 16 cases, silicone oil tamponade in 2 cases, trabeculectomy in 3 cases and direct cyclopexy in 5 cases.

Conclusion: The vast majority of the badminton related eye injuries occurred among doubles players and were instigated by the injured person's partner. Non-penetrating injury was more frequent; penetrating injury was usually more serious. We recommend that badminton players use protective eyewear and receive safety education and professional coaching/instruction on techniques to protect against serious eye injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2018-099496DOI Listing
January 2020

Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Effects of a Protein Component Purified from Dallas on Cancer Cells and .

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2019 3;2019:8934794. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management of Mountainous Region, Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550025, China.

Dallas is used as a traditional Chinese medicine. In China, clinical evidence suggests that it has anticancer activity. However, the anticancer active components are not fully elucidated. In the present study, we purified an anticancer active component (named CHP) from To gain a comprehensive insight into the protein components, shotgun proteomic analysis was conducted. The anticancer active protein band was cut from the sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel and digested with trypsin to generate peptide mixture. The peptide fragments were then analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry; 18 proteins were identified. In addition, we evaluated the effects of CHP on the proliferation and apoptosis of two human gastric cancer cell lines (SGC-7901 and BGC-823). The cultured cells were treated with CHP at concentrations of 20, 30, and 40 g/mL. Inhibition of cell growth was determined by the MTT assay. Hoechst 33258 staining was adopted to detect apoptosis morphologically. Apoptotic cells were quantified by Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. Tumour growth was assessed by subcutaneous inoculation of 4T1 cells into BALB/c mice. There was a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in the proliferation of both cell lines at CHP concentrations of 20-40 g/mL. Apoptotic characteristics, such as karyopyknotic pyknic hyperfluorescence bolus and nuclear fragmentation, were observed in both the cell lines by Hoechst 33258 staining. Flow cytometry showed that CHP induced significant ( < 0.01) concentration-dependent apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells. assay showed that CHP can partially inhibit tumour growth derived from 4T1 cells . The present study is the first to report that CHP in inhibits the proliferation of cancer cell lines via the suppression of cancer cell proliferation and acceleration of apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/8934794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6335791PMC
January 2019

Long non-coding RNA MALAT1 regulates BLCAP mRNA expression through binding to miR-339-5p and promotes poor prognosis in breast cancer.

Biosci Rep 2019 02 15;39(2). Epub 2019 Feb 15.

College of Life Sciences and Medicine, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang, China

The human genome transcribes a large amount of non-coding RNAs, including long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs. LncRNAs and microRNAs have been shown to play a critical regulatory role in tumorigenesis and progression. Competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) affect other RNAs transcription through competitively binding to common microRNAs (miRNAs). MALAT1 is a typical lncRNA that is markedly up-regulated in breast cancer. However, current understanding of the involvement of MALAT1 in breast cancer development and prognosis remains unclear. In the present study, the expression of MALAT1 in clinical samples of breast cancer tissues was found to be significantly up-regulated that was consistent with the result based on the dataset of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) at cBioportal. A negative correlation between overall survival and the expression of MALAT1 was statistically significant in the group of diagnosis age below 60 or in the group of infiltrating ductal carcinoma analyzed by TCGA database, which declared that MALAT1 might be a potentially useful prognostic factor. Furthermore, the combination of bioinformatics prediction with experimental verifications indicated that lncRNA MALAT1 can regulate BLCAP mRNA expression through binding to miR-339-5p.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20181284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6379223PMC
February 2019

Analysis of treatment pathways for three chronic diseases using OMOP CDM.

J Med Syst 2018 Nov 13;42(12):260. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Information, the First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, No.300 Guang Zhou Road, Nanjing, 210029, Jiangsu, China.

The present study examined treatment pathways (the ordered sequence of medications that a patient is prescribed) for three chronic diseases (hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and depression), compared the pathways with recommendations from guidelines, discussed differences and standardization of medications in different medical institutions, explored population diversification and changes of clinical treatment, and provided clinical big data analysis-based data support for the development and study of drugs in China. In order to run the "Treatment Pathways in Chronic Disease" protocol in Chinese data sources,we have built a large data research and analysis platform for Chinese clinical medical data. Data sourced from the Clinical Data Repository (CDR) of the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University was extracted, transformed, and loaded into an observational medical outcomes partnership common data model (OMOP CDM) Ver. 5.0. Diagnosis and medication information for patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and depression from 2005 to 2015 were extracted for observational research to obtain treatment pathways for the three diseases. The most common medications used to treat diabetes and hypertension were metformin and acarbose, respectively, at 28.5 and 20.9% as first-line medication. New drugs were emerging for depression; therefore, the favorite medication changed accordingly. Most patients with these three diseases had different treatment pathways from other patients with the same diseases. The proportions of monotherapy increased for the three diseases, especially in recent years. The recommendations presented in guidelines show some predominance. High-quality, effective guidelines incorporating domestic facts should be established to further guide medication and improve therapy at local hospitals. Medical institutions at all levels could improve the quality of medical services, and further standardize medications in the future. This research is the first application of the CDM model and OHDSI software in China, which were used to study, treatment pathways for three chronic diseases (hypertension, type 2 diabetes and depression), compare the pathways with recommendations from guidelines, discuss differences and standardization of medications in different medical institutions, demonstrate the urgent need for quality national guidelines, explores population diversification and changes of clinical treatment, and provide clinical big data analysis-based data support for the development and study of drugs in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10916-018-1076-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6244882PMC
November 2018

Effects of fermented Chinese herbal medicines on milk performance and immune function in late-lactation cows under heat stress conditions.

J Anim Sci 2018 Sep;96(10):4444-4457

College of Animal Science and Technology, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, Hebei Province, PR China.

Heat stress (HS) causes significant economic losses and has become a continual challenge in the dairy industry worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a dietary supplement on milk performance and immune function in late-lactation cows under HS conditions. The supplement was a fermented Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) mixture consisting of 18 herbs. Forty lactating Holstein cows (560 ± 51.0 kg of initial BW, 230 ± 10.0 DIM, 16 ± 3.0 kg of milk per day) were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups (10 cows per group). Each group was fed a dietary supplemented with 0, 25, 50, or 100 g CHMs per cow per day. Cows were housed at high ambient temperature-humidity index (average 74.5) for an experimental period of 42 d during the summer months. Milk yield, composition, immune responses involving blood lymphocyte apoptosis rate, serum biochemical parameters, and genes expression in lymphocytes were evaluated on days 14, 28, and 42, respectively. Results showed that milk yield, milk fat, and protein content were greater (all P < 0.05) for 50 or 100 g/d CHMs compared with the group without CHMs supplements throughout the experimental period. On the other hand, increasing CHMs dose demonstrated a greater lymphocyte or leukocyte count (P < 0.01). By flow cytometry analysis, early or late apoptosis rate of the lymphocytes was decreased (P < 0.05) by CHMs supplements. The immunity-related biochemistry and genes transcript responses involving cytokines (IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-12), apoptosis (Bak, Mcl-1, Bax, Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and P53), and immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, and IgM) were investigated. Compared with the unsupplemented group, the serum IL-2 and IL-6 levels, as well as IL-2 mRNA expression, increased (P < 0.05) for 100 g/d. However, the serum IL-1 level tended to decrease (P = 0.08) with increasing CHMs dose, and IL-1 mRNA expression was down-regulated (P = 0.02) by up to 24% for 100 g/d. Additionally, the serum Bax level decreased (P < 0.01) and Bcl-2 level increased (P = 0.01) for 100 g/d. Bax and Bak mRNA expressions were down-regulated (P < 0.05), and Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl expression were up-regulated (P < 0.05) for 50 or 100 g/d. The mRNA expressions of P53 and Mcl-1 were not affected by CHMs (P > 0.10). Besides, serum IgG levels were greater (P < 0.01) for 50 or 100 g/d, compared with unsupplemented group. In conclusion, CHMs supplements may improve milk performance and immune function in dairy cows under HS conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/sky270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6162570PMC
September 2018

A Variable Polyglutamine Repeat Affects Subcellular Localization and Regulatory Activity of a ANGUSTIFOLIA Protein.

G3 (Bethesda) 2018 07 31;8(8):2631-2641. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Biosciences Division and BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831

Polyglutamine (polyQ) stretches have been reported to occur in proteins across many organisms including animals, fungi and plants. Expansion of these repeats has attracted much attention due their associations with numerous human diseases including Huntington's and other neurological maladies. This suggests that the relative length of polyQ stretches is an important modulator of their function. Here, we report the identification of a C-terminus binding protein (CtBP) ANGUSTIFOLIA () which contains a polyQ stretch whose functional relevance had not been established. Analysis of 917 resequenced genotypes revealed three allelic variants at this locus encoding 11-, 13- and 15-glutamine residues. Transient expression assays using leaf mesophyll protoplasts revealed that the 11Q variant exhibited strong nuclear localization whereas the 15Q variant was only found in the cytosol, with the 13Q variant exhibiting localization in both subcellular compartments. We assessed functional implications by evaluating expression changes of putative targets in response to overexpression of the three allelic variants and observed allele-specific differences in expression levels of putative targets. Our results provide evidence that variation in polyQ length modulates AN1 function by altering subcellular localization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/g3.118.200188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6071607PMC
July 2018

Dynamic "Scanning-Mode" Meniscus Confined Electrodepositing and Micropatterning of Individually Addressable Ultraconductive Copper Line Arrays.

J Phys Chem Lett 2018 May 24;9(9):2380-2387. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Additive Manufacturing Materials, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering , Chinese Academy of Sciences , Ningbo , 315201 , People's Republic of China.

Micro- and nanopatterning of cost-effective addressable metallic nanostructures has been a long endeavor in terms of both scientific understanding and industrial needs. Herein, a simple and efficient dynamic meniscus-confined electrodeposition (MCED) technique for precisely positioned copper line micropatterns with superior electrical conductivity (greater than 1.57 × 10 S/cm) on glass, silicon, and gold substrates is reported. An unexpected higher printing speed in the evaporative regime is realized for precisely positioned copper lines patterns with uniform width and height under horizontal scanning-mode. The final line height and width depend on the typical behavior of traditional flow coating process, while the surface morphologies and roughness are mainly governed by evaporation-driven electrocrystallization dynamics near the receding moving contact line. Integrated 3D structures and a rapid prototyping of 3D hot-wire anemometer are further demonstrated, which is very important for the freedom integration applications in advanced conceptual devices, such as miniaturized electronics and biomedical sensors and actuators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.8b00636DOI Listing
May 2018

Intravenous Thrombolysis for Stroke Patients with G6PD Deficiency.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2018 Jul 10;27(7):2026-2031. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Department of Neurology, Zengcheng District People's Hospital of Guangzhou, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China; Department of Neurology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: No reports regarding the safety of thrombolysis in acute stroke patients with a G6PD deficiency have been published to date. Here we aimed to evaluate the safety of intravenous thrombolysis for G6PD-deficient stroke patients.

Methods: We enrolled each patient with acute ischemic stroke who arrived in our stroke unit within the therapeutic window and received systemic thrombolysis using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), between January 2015 and March 2016. The primary clinical outcome was measured 3 months after treatment, and defined as a "good" outcome by a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0-2. Major safety outcomes were incidences of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) or mortality at 90 days.

Results: A total of 96 individuals were analyzed, of which 20 patients were G6PD deficient. The rates of ICH after rt-PA treatment were 12% the in G6PD-deficient group versus 15% in G6PD non-deficient group, and the incidences of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage were also similar between the G6PD-deficient and non-deficient cohorts. No hemolysis crisis occurred, and no significant difference in mortality rate was found between the 2 groups. The overall rate of a good outcome at 3 months after stroke in the whole cohort was 60%, whereas 50% of patients achieved an excellent outcome (mRS 0-1) in the G6PD-deficient cohort, and 42% in the G6PD non-deficient group.

Conclusions: Thrombolytic therapy for patients with G6PD deficiency seems to pose a similar risk of ICH and clinical outcome to those with G6PD non-deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2018.02.060DOI Listing
July 2018

Retrospective analysis of prognosis and risk factors of patients with stroke by TOAST.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Apr;97(15):e0412

Department of Neurology Department of Emergency, The Zengcheng People's Hospital (Boji-Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University), Guangzhou The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangdong, China.

To determine differences in 90-day mortality and identify risk factors among different etiological classifications of ischemic stroke using the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification.Our retrospective analysis included 538 ischemic stroke patients. The cause of stroke was categorized according to the TOAST criteria, and 90-day mortality rates were obtained through the patient follow-up. Age, sex, previous medical history, and clinical features were used in the analysis of potential risk factors.There were 38 deaths during the 90-day follow-up period. Patients in the undetermined cause subgroups experienced significantly higher mortality rate than those in subgroups with small artery occlusion and large artery atherosclerosis. Factors independently associated with 90-day mortality for patients with the large artery atherosclerosis stroke subtype were age (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.010-1.192, P = .028), history of hypertension (95% CI, 3.030-99.136, P = .001), high blood glucose (95% CI, 1.273-2.354, P < .001), high cholesterol (95% CI, 0.017-0.462, P = .004), high uric acid (95% CI, 2.360-64.389, P = .003), and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale(95% CI, 1.076-1.312, P = .001). Age (95% CI, 1.012-1.358, P = .034) and high cholesterol (95% CI, 0.011-0.496, P = .007) were independently associated with 90-day mortality for patients with the small artery occlusion subtype of stroke.Our analysis identified that certain risk factors and 90-day mortality differ significantly among different stroke subtypes, as classified by the TOAST criteria. These risk factors must be considered carefully to provide the best clinical management of these patients and thus reduce mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000010412DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5908632PMC
April 2018

Associations of Muscle Mass and Strength with All-Cause Mortality among US Older Adults.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2018 03;50(3):458-467

Sports Health and Rehabilitation Research Center, China Institute of Sport Science, Beijing, PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA.

Introduction: Recent studies suggested that muscle mass and muscle strength may independently or synergistically affect aging-related health outcomes in older adults; however, prospective data on mortality in the general population are sparse.

Methods: We aimed to prospectively examine individual and joint associations of low muscle mass and low muscle strength with all-cause mortality in a nationally representative sample. This study included 4449 participants age 50 yr and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2002 with public use 2011 linked mortality files. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, race, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol use, education, leisure time physical activity, sedentary time, and comorbid diseases.

Results: Overall, the prevalence of low muscle mass was 23.1% defined by appendicular lean mass (ALM) and 17.0% defined by ALM/BMI, and the prevalence of low muscle strength was 19.4%. In the joint analyses, all-cause mortality was significantly higher among individuals with low muscle strength, whether they had low muscle mass (odds ratio [OR], 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-3.24 for ALM; OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.64-3.88 for ALM/BMI) or not (OR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.53-4.62 for ALM; OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.29-3.64 for ALM/BMI). In addition, the significant associations between low muscle strength and all-cause mortality persisted across different levels of metabolic syndrome, sedentary time, and LTPA.

Conclusions: Low muscle strength was independently associated with elevated risk of all-cause mortality, regardless of muscle mass, metabolic syndrome, sedentary time, or LTPA among US older adults, indicating the importance of muscle strength in predicting aging-related health outcomes in older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001448DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5820209PMC
March 2018

Ultralow flexural properties of copper microhelices fabricated via electrodeposition-based three-dimensional direct-writing technology.

Nanoscale 2017 Aug;9(34):12524-12532

Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Additive Manufacturing Materials, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201, China.

Helical metallic micro/nanostructures as functional components have considerable potential for future miniaturized devices, based on their unique mechanical and electrical properties. Thus, understanding and controlling the mechanical properties of metallic helices is desirable for their practical application. Herein, we implemented a direct-writing technique based on the electrodeposition method to grow copper microhelices with well-defined and programmable three-dimensional (3D) features. The mechanical properties of the 3D helical structures were studied by the electrically induced quasistatic and dynamic electromechanical resonance technique. These methods mainly explored the static pull-in process and the dynamic electromechanical response, respectively. It was found that the center-symmetric and vertical double copper microhelix structure with 1.2 μm wire diameter has a flexural rigidity of 0.9 × 10 N m and the single vertical copper microhelix structure with 1.1 μm wire diameter has a flexural rigidity of 0.5989 × 10 N m. By comparing with microwires and other reported micro/nanohelices, we found that the copper microhelices reported here had an ultralow stiffness (about 0.13 ± 0.01 N m). It is found that the experimental results agree well with the finite element calculations. The proposed method can be used to fabricate and measure the flexural properties of three-dimensional complex micro/nanowire structures, and may have a profound effect on the application of microhelices in various useful microdevices such as helix-based microelectromechanical switches, sensors and actuators based on their unique mechanical properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7nr03803hDOI Listing
August 2017

Biocapacity optimization in regional planning.

Sci Rep 2017 01 23;7:41150. Epub 2017 Jan 23.

Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Matieland 7602, South Africa.

Ecological overshoot has been accelerating across the globe. Optimizing biocapacity has become a key to resolve the overshoot of ecological demand in regional sustainable development. However, most literature has focused on reducing ecological footprint but ignores the potential of spatial optimization of biocapacity through regional planning of land use. Here we develop a spatial probability model and present four scenarios for optimizing biocapacity of a river basin in Northwest China. The potential of enhanced biocapacity and its effects on ecological overshoot and water consumption in the region were explored. Two scenarios with no restrictions on croplands and water use reduced the overshoot by 29 to 53%, and another two scenarios which do not allow croplands and water use to increase worsened the overshoot by 11 to 15%. More spatially flexible transition rules of land use led to higher magnitude of change after optimization. However, biocapacity optimization required a large amount of additional water resources, casting considerable pressure on the already water-scarce socio-ecological system. Our results highlight the potential for policy makers to manage/optimize regional land use which addresses ecological overshoot. Investigation on the feasibility of such spatial optimization complies with the forward-looking policies for sustainable development and deserves further attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep41150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5253737PMC
January 2017
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