Publications by authors named "Jianing Wang"

226 Publications

Rapamycin Modulates the Proinflammatory Memory-Like Response of Microglia Induced by BAFF.

Front Immunol 2021 12;12:639049. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Background: Recently trained immunity of microglia provided an opportunity to study the chronic effect of microglial activation and its metabolic rewiring in neuroimmunological diseases. Since elevated levels of B cell-activating factor (BAFF) have been proved to be associated with some chronic neuroimmunological disorders. Here, we used the trained innate immunity model to analyze the effect of BAFF, a vital regulator of the adaptive immune system, on long-term microglial activation and metabolic reprogramming and .

Methods And Results: In vitro, BV2 cells and mouse primary microglial cells were incubated with BAFF for 24 h (BAFF priming). After 5 days of resting, microglia were restimulated with LPS (LPS restimulation) or BAFF (BAFF restimulation). BAFF priming induced a pro-inflammatory trained immunity-phenotype of both BV2 cells and primary microglial cells, which was indicated by morphological change, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine upon LPS restimulation or BAFF restimulation. The production of lactate and NAD+/NADH ratio were elevated 5 days after BAFF priming. The activation of the Akt/mTOR/HIF-1α pathway was induced by BAFF priming and lasted for 5 days. Pretreating the BV2 cells or mouse primary microglial cells with rapamycin blocked mTOR/HIF-1α activation and cellular metabolic reprogramming induced by BAFF training. Consistently, rapamycin efficiently suppressed the trained immunity-like responses of microglia triggered by BAFF. In vivo, adult male mice were treated with BAFF by intracerebroventricular injection for priming and 7 days later with BAFF for restimulation. BAFF training activated microglia in the cortex and hippocampus. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines was elevated after BAFF training.

Conclusion: Our current data, for the first time, demonstrate that BAFF priming induces a proinflammatory memory-like response of microglia not only to LPS but also to BAFF itself. Rapamycin inhibits microglial priming triggered by BAFF through targeting the mTOR/HIF-1α signaling pathway. Our data reveal a novel role of BAFF in trained immunity and that rapamycin may be a potential therapeutic target of neuroimmunological diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.639049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8158300PMC
May 2021

Systemic Immune-Inflammation Index Predicts 3-Month Functional Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Treated with Intravenous Thrombolysis.

Clin Interv Aging 2021 20;16:877-886. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Neurology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People's Republic of China.

Background And Purpose: Systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), a novel inflammation index derived from counts of circulating platelets, neutrophils and lymphocytes, has been studied in developing incident cancer. However, the clinical value of SII in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients had not been further investigated. Therefore, we aimed to explore the association between SII and severity of stroke as well as 3-month outcome of AIS patients.

Methods: A total of 216 AIS patients receiving intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and 875 healthy controls (HCs) were retrospectively recruited. Blood samples were collected within 24h after admission. Severity of stroke was assessed by the National Institute of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) scores on admission and poor 3-month functional outcome was defined as Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) > 2.

Results: SII levels in AIS patients were higher than in HCs. The cut-off value of SII is 545.14×10/L. Patients with SII > 545.14×10/L had higher NIHSS scores (median: 5 vs 9, < 0.001), a positive correlation between SII and NIHSS was observed ( = 0.305, < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that high SII was one of the independent risk factors for poor prognosis at 3 months of AIS patients (OR = 3.953, 95% CI = 1.702-9.179, = 0.001). The addition of SII to the conventional prognostic model improved the reclassification (but not discrimination) of the functional outcome (net reclassification index 39.3%, = 0.007).

Conclusion: SII is correlated with stroke severity at admission and can be a novel prognostic biomarker for AIS patients treated with IVT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S311047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143961PMC
June 2021

Relationship between body fat, lean body mass and disease severity in AECOPD patients.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 May 22:e14384. Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Background: We tend to find out whether BMI and weight have difference in the connection with the disease severity of AECOPD patients. Besides, we aim to explore the relationships between body fat (BF) and lean body mass (LBM) with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD).

Methods: Information like weight and body mass index (BMI) were recorded at hospital admission. BF and LBM were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Logistic regression analysis, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and other statistical analyses were performed.

Results: Weight and BF + LBM showed significant linkages with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) in multivariate logistic regression analysis (Model 3: OR = 0.932, p = 0.016; OR = 0.915, p = 0.006, respectively). And BMI did not show correlation with GOLD. In Stratification analysis, BF showed the predictive value for GOLD (AUC = 0.709, p = 0.004) while LBM showed the predictive ability for modified Medical Research Council scale (mMRC) (AUC = 0.761, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: BF + LBM and weight were better than BMI in the connection with the disease severity of AECOPD patients represtented by GOLD. BF and LBM may have different or even opposite effects on patients with AECOPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.14384DOI Listing
May 2021

Brain Metastases from Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Clinical Characteristics and Prognosis.

Front Oncol 2021 29;11:652509. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Purpose: Due to the low incidence of intracranial disease among patients with esophageal cancer (EC), optimal management for these patients has not been established. The aim of this real-world study is to describe the clinical characteristics, treatment approaches, and outcomes for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients with brain metastases in order to provide a reference for treatment and associated outcomes of these patients.

Methods: Patients with ESCC treated at the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University between January 1, 2009 and May 31,2020 were identified in an institutional tumor registry. Patients with brain metastases were included for further analysis and categorized by treatment received. Survival was evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: Among 19,225 patients with ESCC, 66 (0.34%) were diagnosed with brain metastases. Five patients were treated with surgery, 40 patients were treated with radiotherapy, 10 with systemic therapy alone, and 15 with supportive care alone. The median follow-up time was 7.3 months (95% CI 7.4-11.4). At last follow-up, 59 patients are deceased and 7 patients are alive. Median overall survival (OS) from time of brain metastases diagnosis was 7.6 months (95% CI 5.3-9.9) for all cases. For patients who received locoregional treatment, median OS was 10.9 months (95% CI 7.4-14.3), and survival rates at 6 and 12 months were 75.6% and 37.2%, respectively. For patients without locoregional treatment, median OS was 3.0 months (95% CI 2.5-3.5), and survival rates at 6 and 12 months were 32% and 24%, respectively. OS was significantly improved for patients who received locoregional treatment compared to those treated with systematic treatment alone or supportive care (HR: 2.761, 95% CI 1.509-5.053, P=0.001). The median OS of patients with diagnosis-specific graded prognostic assessment (DS-GPA) score 0-2 was 6.4 months, compared to median OS of 12.3 months for patients with DS-GPA >2 (HR: 0.507, 95% CI 0.283-0.911).

Conclusion: Brain metastases are rare in patients with ESCC. DS-GPA score maybe a useful prognostic tool for ESCC patients with brain metastases. Receipt of locoregional treatment including brain surgery and radiotherapy was associated with improved survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.652509DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8117143PMC
April 2021

Influence of electrical fields enhanced phytoremediation of multi-metal contaminated soil on soil parameters and plants uptake in different soil sections.

Environ Res 2021 07 7;198:111290. Epub 2021 May 7.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Ecology Institute, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan, 250103, China.

The influence of electrical fields on phytoremediation of multi-metal (Cd, Cu, and Zn) naturally contaminated soils has been investigated based on different soil sections. After ryegrass and hybrid penisetum were sowed for 30 d, electrical fields were applied during 30 days with the switching polarity every 30 min and continuing for 16 h d. After electrokinetic (EK) assisted phytoremediation process, soil electrical conductivity (EC) in anode section and available soil potassium (K) in cathode section were obviously elevated. Plants biomass in middle and cathode sections were increased in both plants, especially in middle section the overall biomass of hybrid penisetum increased by 68.8%. The influence of electrical field on the contents of heavy metals in plants was different depending on the species of plants, kind of heavy metals and soil section. For Cd, Cu, and Zn co-contaminated soils, shoot metals accumulation in middle section in both plants were improved at least about 20% (with the exception of Zn in ryegrass). Electrical fields had the most significant effect on copper absorption by ryegrass and shoot Cu accumulation were elevated 32.5% in all the section. The soil EC maybe an important factor that affected electrical fields enhanced plants growth, plant metals concentrations and remediation efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111290DOI Listing
July 2021

ENB-guided microwave ablation combined with uniportal VATS for multiple ground glass opacities.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Electronic address:

Background: An increasing number of patients are being diagnosed with multiple ground glass opacities (GGOs), but a consensus on the treatment of these patients is still lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and feasibility of a novel technique, electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB)-guided microwave ablation combined with uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (Uni-VATS), in patients with multiple GGOs.

Methods: The clinical, radiographic, surgical, and pathological data of patients with multiple GGOs who underwent ENB-guided microwave ablation combined with Uni-VATS from October 2018 to December 2019 were reviewed.

Results: Eleven patients with multiple GGOs underwent ENB-guided microwave ablation combined with Uni-VATS, including 6 males and 5 females with a mean age of 61.3±5.1 (53-68) years. Thirty-seven lesions were observed in the 11 patients, 21 of which were microwave ablated and 16 of which were surgically resected. Only one patient developed postoperative pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema and was successfully discharged from the hospital after symptomatic treatment. The success rate and efficiency of microwave ablation under ENB guidance were 100%, with no other serious complications or procedure-related deaths occurring. No local metastasis or recurrence occurred in any patients during the follow-up period.

Conclusions: ENB-guided microwave ablation combined with Uni-VATS is safe and feasible in patients with multiple GGOs suspected of having multiple primary lung cancers, and may represent an alternative approach for more patients, particularly patients who cannot tolerate the simultaneous resection of multiple tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2021.04.061DOI Listing
May 2021

The dual roles of A20 in cancer.

Cancer Lett 2021 Jul 29;511:26-35. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Immunology and Shandong Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250012, China.

A20 is a prototypical anti-inflammatory molecule that is linked to multiple human diseases, including cancers. The role of A20 as a tumor suppressor was first discovered in B cell lymphomas. Subsequent studies revealed the dual roles of A20 in solid cancers. This review focuses on the roles of A20 in different cancer types to demonstrate that the effects of A20 are cancer type-dependent. A20 plays antitumor roles in colorectal carcinomas and hepatocellular carcinomas, whereas A20 acts as an oncogene in breast cancers, gastric cancers and melanomas. Moreover, the roles of A20 in the setting of glioma therapy are context-dependent. The action mechanisms of A20 in different types of cancer are summarized. Additionally, the role of A20 in antitumor immunity is discussed. Furthermore, some open questions in this rapidly advancing field are proposed. Exploration of the actions and molecular mechanisms of A20 in cancer paves the way for the application of A20-targeting approaches in future cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2021.04.017DOI Listing
July 2021

Experimental study on alleviating atherosclerosis through intervention of mitochondrial calcium transport and calcium-induced membrane permeability transition.

J Investig Med 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Cardiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China

To investigate the effort of mitochondrial calcium transport and calcium-induced membrane permeability transition in alleviating atherosclerosis. The experimental mice were divided into three groups: the control group (C57BL/6 mice with normal diet), the atherosclerosis group (apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice with high-fat diet) and the mitochondrial targeting agent group (ApoE-/- mouse with high-fat diet). The mean fluorescence intensity of Ca in the atherosclerosis group is significantly higher than control group and mitochondrial targeting agent group. But the mean fluorescence intensity of Ca-ATPase is lower than other groups. The macrophage recruitment (F4/80 positive area) and the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, pyrin domain containing protein 3, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and Jun kinase 1/2 phosphorylation in the atherosclerosis group are higher that other groups. Treatment with mitochondrial targeting agents reduced the levels of elevated cyt C and cleaved caspase-3 in atherosclerotic mice (p<0.05). Mitochondrial targeting agents interfere with mitochondrial calcium transport and calcium-induced membrane permeability transition, inhibit MAPK/JNK pathway activation, inhibit foam cell formation and alleviate the process of atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jim-2020-001765DOI Listing
April 2021

The association between smoking during pregnancy and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Smoking is a major public health problem. However, its association with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) is inconclusive.

Objective: To find the association between smoking during pregnancy and HDP.

Search Strategy: We searched PubMed, Ovid and Cochrane Library up to March, 2021, using terms including "smoking" and "HDP".

Selection Criteria: Observational studies that assessed the relationship between smoking during pregnancy and HDP were included.

Data Collection And Analysis: Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), and other necessary data were extracted. Stata16.0 MP was used to analyze statistics.

Main Results: A total of 13 studies were included. Meta-analysis revealed that smoking during pregnancy was a protective factor for HDP (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.67-0.92), gestational hypertension (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.69-0.79), and pre-eclampsia (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.58-0.73). Subgroup analysis showed that smoking during pregnancy was a risk factor for HDP in Asia but a protective factor in Europe and North America. Neither quitting smoking before pregnancy nor during pregnancy had a statistically significant association with HDP.

Conclusion: This meta-analysis revealed that smoking during pregnancy might prevent HDP, gestational hypertension, and pre-eclampsia. Smoking during pregnancy was a risk factor for HDP in Asia but a protective factor in Europe and North America.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.13709DOI Listing
April 2021

Decoding allosteric regulation by the acyl carrier protein.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(16)

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0358;

Enzymes in multistep metabolic pathways utilize an array of regulatory mechanisms to maintain a delicate homeostasis [K. Magnuson, S. Jackowski, C. O. Rock, J. E. Cronan, Jr, 57, 522-542 (1993)]. Carrier proteins in particular play an essential role in shuttling substrates between appropriate enzymes in metabolic pathways. Although hypothesized [E. Płoskoń et al., 17, 776-785 (2010)], allosteric regulation of substrate delivery has never before been demonstrated for any acyl carrier protein (ACP)-dependent pathway. Studying these mechanisms has remained challenging due to the transient and dynamic nature of protein-protein interactions, the vast diversity of substrates, and substrate instability [K. Finzel, D. J. Lee, M. D. Burkart, 16, 528-547 (2015)]. Here we demonstrate a unique communication mechanism between the ACP and partner enzymes using solution NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics to elucidate allostery that is dependent on fatty acid chain length. We demonstrate that partner enzymes can allosterically distinguish between chain lengths via protein-protein interactions as structural features of substrate sequestration are translated from within the ACP four-helical bundle to the protein surface, without the need for stochastic chain flipping. These results illuminate details of cargo communication by the ACP that can serve as a foundation for engineering carrier protein-dependent pathways for specific, desired products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2025597118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072227PMC
April 2021

Relationship of Red Cell Index with the Severity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2021;16:825-834. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People's Republic of China.

Background: We aimed to investigate the association between red cell index (RCI) and the severity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and compare predictive value of RCI, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) for the severity of COPD.

Methods: A total of 207 participants were recruited (100 COPD patients and 107 healthy controls). COPD patients were divided into two groups according to the optimal cut-off value of RCI determined by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Pearson's correlation test, logistic regression analysis and other tests were performed.

Results: Compared with low RCI group, the forced expiration volume in 1 second (FEV) and FEV in percent of the predicted value (FEV%) in high RCI group were lower ( = 0.016, = 0.001). There was a negative correlation between RCI and FEV% ( = -0.302, = 0.004), while no correlation between FEV% and NLR as well as PLR were found. RCI showed higher predictive value than NLR and PLR for predicting Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease classification (GOLD), with a cut-off value of 1.75 and area under the curve (AUC) of 0.729 ( = 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis proved that RCI was an independent factor for lung function in COPD patients (odds ratio [OR] = 4.27, 95% CI: 1.57-11.63, = 0.004).

Conclusion: RCI is a novel biomarker that can better assess pulmonary function and severity of COPD than NLR and PLR. Higher RCI is related to deterioration of pulmonary function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S292666DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010121PMC
March 2021

Mass Spectrometry-Based Shotgun Lipidomics for Cancer Research.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1280:39-55

Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Shotgun lipidomics is an analytical approach for large-scale and systematic analysis of the composition, structure, and quantity of cellular lipids directly from lipid extracts of biological samples by mass spectrometry. This approach possesses advantages of high throughput and quantitative accuracy, especially in absolute quantification. As cancer research deepens at the level of quantitative biology and metabolomics, the demand for lipidomics approaches such as shotgun lipidomics is becoming greater. In this chapter, the principles, approaches, and some applications of shotgun lipidomics for cancer research are overviewed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51652-9_3DOI Listing
April 2021

Comparative population genomic analyses of transporters within the Asgard archaeal superphylum.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(3):e0247806. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Division of Biological Sciences, Department of Molecular Biology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States of America.

Upon discovery of the first archaeal species in the 1970s, life has been subdivided into three domains: Eukarya, Archaea, and Bacteria. However, the organization of the three-domain tree of life has been challenged following the discovery of archaeal lineages such as the TACK and Asgard superphyla. The Asgard Superphylum has emerged as the closest archaeal ancestor to eukaryotes, potentially improving our understanding of the evolution of life forms. We characterized the transportomes and their substrates within four metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), that is, Odin-, Thor-, Heimdall- and Loki-archaeota as well as the fully sequenced genome of Candidatus Prometheoarchaeum syntrophicum strain MK-D1 that belongs to the Loki phylum. Using the Transporter Classification Database (TCDB) as reference, candidate transporters encoded within the proteomes were identified based on sequence similarity, alignment coverage, compatibility of hydropathy profiles, TMS topologies and shared domains. Identified transport systems were compared within the Asgard superphylum as well as within dissimilar eukaryotic, archaeal and bacterial organisms. From these analyses, we infer that Asgard organisms rely mostly on the transport of substrates driven by the proton motive force (pmf), the proton electrochemical gradient which then can be used for ATP production and to drive the activities of secondary carriers. The results indicate that Asgard archaea depend heavily on the uptake of organic molecules such as lipid precursors, amino acids and their derivatives, and sugars and their derivatives. Overall, the majority of the transporters identified are more similar to prokaryotic transporters than eukaryotic systems although several instances of the reverse were documented. Taken together, the results support the previous suggestions that the Asgard superphylum includes organisms that are largely mixotrophic and anaerobic but more clearly define their metabolic potential while providing evidence regarding their relatedness to eukaryotes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0247806PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7997004PMC
March 2021

Assembly processes and source tracking of planktonic and benthic bacterial communities in the Yellow River estuary.

Environ Microbiol 2021 May 2;23(5):2578-2591. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Institute of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, Qingdao, 266237, China.

Estuaries connect rivers with the ocean and are considered transition regions due to the continuous inputs from rivers. Microbiota from different sources converge and undergo succession in these transition regions, but their assembly mechanisms along environmental gradients remain unclear. Here, we found that salinity had a stronger effect on planktonic than on benthic microbial communities, and the dominant planktonic bacteria changed more distinctly than the dominant benthic bacteria with changes in salinity. The planktonic bacteria in the brackish water came mainly from seawater, which was confirmed in the laboratory, whereas the benthic bacteria were weakly affected by salinity, which appeared to be a mixture of the bacteria from riverine and oceanic sediments. Benthic bacterial community assembly in the sediments was mainly controlled by homogeneous selection and almost unaffected by changes in salinity, the dominant assemblage processes for planktonic bacteria changed dramatically along the salinity gradient, from homogeneous selection in freshwater to drift in seawater. Our results highlight that salinity is the key driver of estuarine microbial succession and that salinity is more important in shaping planktonic than benthic bacterial communities in the Yellow River estuary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.15480DOI Listing
May 2021

IL-37bΔ1-45 suppresses the migration and invasion of endometrial cancer cells by targeting the Rac1/NF-κB/MMP2 signal pathway.

Lab Invest 2021 Jun 22;101(6):760-774. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, PR China.

Endometrial carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies in the female reproductive system. Interleukin-37 (IL-37) is a newly discovered anti-inflammatory factor belonging to the IL-1 family. IL-37 has five different isoforms, and IL-37b is the most biologically functional subtype. In recent years, the protective roles of IL-37 in different cancers, including lung and liver cancers, have been successively reported. IL-37 also plays an important role in some gynecological diseases such as endometriosis, adenomyosis, and cervical cancer. However, the role and mechanism of IL-37b, especially the mature form of IL-37b, in endometrial carcinoma have not been elucidated. The present study demonstrated that IL-37 protein was downregulated in endometrial carcinoma cells compared with the control endometrium. IL-37b did not affect the proliferation and colony-forming ability of endometrial cancer cells. A mature form of IL-37b (IL-37bΔ1-45) effectively suppressed the migration and invasion of endometrial cancer cells by decreasing the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) via Rac1/NF-κB signal pathway. However, it did not affect epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) or filamentous actin (F-actin) depolymerization of endometrial cancer cells. IL-37bΔ1-45 attenuated tumor metastasis in a peritoneal metastatic xenograft model of endometrial cancer. To sum up, these results suggested IL-37b could be involved in the pathogenesis of endometrial carcinoma and provide a novel target for the diagnosis and treatment of endometrial carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41374-021-00544-2DOI Listing
June 2021

HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis and Buprenorphine at a Drug Detoxification Center During the Opioid Epidemic: Opportunities and Challenges.

AIDS Behav 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, 801 Massachusetts Ave., Crosstown Center, 2nd Floor, Boston, MA, 02118, USA.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and buprenorphine decrease HIV acquisition. Between November, 2016 and July, 2017, we surveyed persons (N = 200) at a drug detoxification center to assess their interest in PrEP and in buprenorphine, and to examine factors associated with such interests. Over the previous 6 months, 58% (117/200) injected drugs, 87% (173/200) used opioids, 50% (85/171) had condomless sex. Only 22% (26/117) of persons who injected drugs were aware of PrEP, yet 74% (86/116) and 72% (84/116) were interested in oral or injectable PrEP, respectively. Thirty-eight percent (47/125) of persons not receiving buprenorphine or methadone expressed interest in buprenorphine. After multivariable adjustment, Latinx ethnicity was associated with interest in PrEP (aOR 3.80; 95% CI 1.37-10.53), while male gender (aOR 2.76; 95% CI 1.21-6.34) was associated with interest in buprenorphine. Opportunities exist to implement PrEP and buprenorphine within drug detoxification centers.Clinical trial registration NCT02869776. Clinicaltrials.gov https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02869776?term=Sabrina+Assoumou&cond=HIV+HCV&rank=1 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-021-03220-0DOI Listing
March 2021

Pituitrin local injection versus uterine artery embolization in the management of cesarean scar pregnancy: A retrospective cohort study.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2021 May 21;47(5):1711-1718. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Gynecology, Suzhou Ninth People's Hospital, Suzhou, China.

Aim: To compare the effect of pituitrin local injection (PIT) and uterine artery embolization (UAE) as pretreatment before surgery during the management of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP).

Methods: Forty-nine CSP patients diagnosed in our department of Suzhou Ninth People's Hospital from October 2017 to October 2019. All patients underwent hysteroscopy and negative pressure aspiration (for type I CSP) or laparoscopic wedge-resection (for type II and III CSP) following one of the preoperative treatments: PIT group (n = 26) and UAE group (n = 23). The baseline clinical data, intraoperative blood loss, blood transfusion rate, postoperative hospital stay, hospitalization expenses, postoperative pain, postoperative fever, postoperative serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) level, and pregnancy outcome were reviewed and analyzed.

Results: There was no significant difference (p ≥ 0.05) between two groups in baseline characteristics including age, gravidity, previous cesarean section times, interval since last cesarean delivery, menolipsis time, maximum diameter of gestational sac or mass under ultrasound, fetal cardiac activity and preoperative β-hCG level. There was no significant difference in blood loss, transfusion rate, and postoperative β-hCG reduction percentage (p ≥ 0.05) either. The postoperative hospital stay, hospitalization expenses, postoperative pain, and postoperative fever rate in PIT group were significantly lower than those in UAE group (p < 0.05). Moreover, β-hCG level of all patients turned negative 1 month after surgery successfully.

Conclusions: PIT pretreatment seems to be a same effective, more economical, and with fewer side effects pretreatment method compared to traditional UAE pretreatment in the management of CSP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jog.14720DOI Listing
May 2021

Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio as an Initial Screening Biomarker for Differential Diagnosis of Cushing's Syndrome from Nonfunctional Adenoma in Patients with an Adrenal Mass.

Biomed Res Int 2021 15;2021:6635594. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Endocrinology, Peking University First Hospital, No. 8 Xishiku Street, Beijing 100034, China.

Objective: Assessing excess adrenal hormones is important in patients with adrenal mass. Current screening tests for excess cortisol hormones are complex, so it cannot be done sometimes due to the limited medical resources. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) can be used as an initial screening biomarker for Cushing's syndrome (CS) in patients with an adrenal mass.

Methods: This retrospective study included a total of 185 patients with CS and 185 patients with nonfunctional adrenal adenoma (matched 1 : 1 by sex, body mass index, and discharge date). The NLR was compared between the two groups. The association between NLR and serum and urinary cortisol concentrations was analyzed, and an NLR cut-off value for CS screening was calculated.

Results: NLR (3.38 (2.33, 5.45) vs. 2.13 (1.74, 3.00), < 0.001) was significantly higher in the CS group than in the nonfunctional adenoma group. In CS patients, the NLR was positively associated with serum cortisol concentrations at 8 am, with 24-hour urine free cortisol and with serum cortisol after a 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test ( < 0.001 each). An NLR cut-off of 2.2 had a sensitivity of 80.0% and a specificity of 54.05%. The weighted Youden index for the NLR was similar to that of the 24-hour urine free cortisol and late-night serum cortisol tests, which are recommended initial tests for CS diagnosis.

Conclusion: The NLR may be useful for initial screening for CS among patients with an adrenal mass as an easy and convenient marker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6635594DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7899776PMC
June 2021

Two PAAR Proteins with Different C-Terminal Extended Domains Have Distinct Ecological Functions in Myxococcus xanthus.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 04 13;87(9). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Institute of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, Qingdao, People's Republic of China

Bacterial proline-alanine-alanine-arginine (PAAR) proteins are located at the top of the type VI secretion system (T6SS) nanomachine and carry and deliver effectors into neighboring cells. Many PAAR proteins are fused with a variable C-terminal extended domain (CTD). Here, we report that two genes ( and ) located in two homologous operons are involved in different ecological functions of inhibited the growth of plant-pathogenic fungi, while was associated with the colony-merger incompatibility of cells. These two PAAR-CTD proteins were both toxic to cells, while MXAN_RS08765, but not MXAN_RS36995, was also toxic to cells. Their downstream adjacent genes, i.e., and , protected against the toxicities. The MXAN_RS36995 protein was demonstrated to have nuclease activity, and the activity was inhibited by the presence of MXAN_RS24590. Our results highlight that the PAAR proteins diversify the CTDs to play divergent roles in The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a bacterial cell contact-dependent weapon capable of delivering protein effectors into neighboring cells. The PAAR protein is located at the top of the nanomachine and carries an effector for delivery. Many PAAR proteins are extended with a diverse C-terminal sequence with an unknown structure and function. Here, we report two genes located in two homologous operons involved in different ecological functions of ; one has antifungal activity, and the other is associated with the kin discrimination phenotype. The PAAR-CTD proteins and the proteins encoded by their downstream genes form two toxin-immunity protein pairs. We demonstrated that the C-terminal diversification of the PAAR-CTD proteins enriches the ecological functions of bacterial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00080-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8091009PMC
April 2021

Projected Estimates of Opioid Mortality After Community-Level Interventions.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 02 1;4(2):e2037259. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Section of Infectious Diseases, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: The United States is experiencing a crisis of opioid overdose. In response, the US Department of Health and Human Services has defined a goal to reduce overdose mortality by 40% by 2022.

Objective: To identify specific combinations of 3 interventions (initiating more people to medications for opioid use disorder [MOUD], increasing 6-month retention with MOUD, and increasing naloxone distribution) associated with at least a 40% reduction in opioid overdose in simulated populations.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This decision analytical model used a dynamic population-level state-transition model to project outcomes over a 2-year horizon. Each intervention scenario was compared with the counterfactual of no intervention in simulated urban and rural communities in Massachusetts. Simulation modeling was used to determine the associations of community-level interventions with opioid overdose rates. The 3 examined interventions were initiation of more people to MOUD, increasing individuals' retention with MOUD, and increasing distribution of naloxone. Data were analyzed from July to November 2020.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Reduction in overdose mortality, medication treatment capacity needs, and naloxone needs.

Results: No single intervention was associated with a 40% reduction in overdose mortality in the simulated communities. Reaching this goal required use of MOUD and naloxone. Achieving a 40% reduction required that 10% to 15% of the estimated OUD population not already receiving MOUD initiate MOUD every month, with 45% to 60%% retention for at least 6 months, and increased naloxone distribution. In all feasible settings and scenarios, attaining a 40% reduction in overdose mortality required that in every month, at least 10% of the population with OUD who were not currently receiving treatment initiate an MOUD.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this modeling study, only communities with increased capacity for treating with MOUD and increased MOUD retention experienced a 40% decrease in overdose mortality. These findings could provide a framework for developing community-level interventions to reduce opioid overdose death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.37259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7885041PMC
February 2021

Mitophagy receptor FUNDC1 is regulated by PGC-1α/NRF1 to fine tune mitochondrial homeostasis.

EMBO Rep 2021 03 8;22(3):e50629. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.

Mitophagy is an essential cellular autophagic process that selectively removes superfluous and damaged mitochondria, and it is coordinated with mitochondrial biogenesis to fine tune the quantity and quality of mitochondria. Coordination between these two opposing processes to maintain the functional mitochondrial network is of paramount importance for normal cellular and organismal metabolism. However, the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. Here we report that PGC-1α and nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1), master regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolic adaptation, also transcriptionally upregulate the gene encoding FUNDC1, a previously characterized mitophagy receptor, in response to cold stress in brown fat tissue. NRF1 binds to the classic consensus site in the promoter of Fundc1 to upregulate its expression and to enhance mitophagy through its interaction with LC3. Specific knockout of Fundc1 in BAT results in reduced mitochondrial turnover and accumulation of functionally compromised mitochondria, leading to impaired adaptive thermogenesis. Our results demonstrate that FUNDC1-dependent mitophagy is directly coupled with mitochondrial biogenesis through the PGC-1α/NRF1 pathway, which dictates mitochondrial quantity, quality, and turnover and contributes to adaptive thermogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/embr.202050629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7926232PMC
March 2021

Biochemical mechanisms of rhizospheric Bacillus subtilis-facilitated phytoextraction by alfalfa under cadmium stress - Microbial diversity and metabolomics analyses.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Apr 4;212:112016. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Ecology Institute, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan 250013, China. Electronic address:

The effects of Bacillus subtilis inoculation on the growth and Cd uptake of alfalfa were evaluated in this research using pot experiments, and the relevant biochemical mechanisms were first investigated by combined microbial diversity and nontarget metabolomics analyses. The results indicated that inoculation with alfalfa significantly decreased the amount of plant malondialdehyde (MDA) and improved the activities of plant antioxidant enzymes and soil nutrient cycling-involved enzymes, thereby promoting biomass by 29.4%. Inoculation also increased Cd bioavailability in rhizosphere soil by 12.0% and Cd removal efficiency by 139.3%. The biochemical mechanisms included enhanced bacterial diversity, transformed microbial community composition, regulated amounts of amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, flavonoids and phenols in rhizosphere soil metabolites, and modulations of the corresponding Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. These responses were beneficial to microbial activity, nutrient cycling, and Cd mobilization, detoxification, and decontamination by alfalfa in soil. This study, especially the newly identified differential metabolites and metabolic pathways, provides new insights into mechanism revelation and strategy development in microbe-assisted phytomanagement of heavy metal-contaminated soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112016DOI Listing
April 2021

Effect of nutritional risk on cognitive function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

J Int Med Res 2021 Feb;49(2):300060521990127

Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Objective: We aimed to clarify the cognitive function of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and different nutritional status.

Methods: Among 95 patients with COPD in this retrospective study, we administered the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We recorded patients' clinical characteristics, comorbidities, and laboratory measurements. According to NRS 2002 scores, patients were divided into two groups: no nutritional risk with NRS 2002 < 3 ( = 54) and nutritional risk, with NRS 2002 ≥ 3 ( = 41).

Results: We found a negative correlation between NRS 2002 and MMSE scores in participants with COPD ( = -0.313). Patients with nutritional risk were more likely to be cognitively impaired than those with no nutritional risk. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that malnutrition was an independent risk factor for cognitive impairment, after adjusting for confounders (odds ratio [OR] = 4.120, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.072-15.837). We found a similar association between NRS 2002 and MMSE scores at 90-day follow-up using a Pearson's correlation test ( = -0.493) and logistic regression analysis (OR = 7.333, 95% CI: 1.114-48.264).

Conclusions: Patients with COPD at nutritional risk are more likely to have cognitive impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060521990127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7869158PMC
February 2021

Metagenomics analysis identifies nitrogen metabolic pathway in bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil.

Chemosphere 2021 May 7;271:129566. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Global Centre for Environmental Remediation, Faculty of Science, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, 2308, Australia; Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Australia. Electronic address:

Nitrogen amendment is known to effectively enhance the bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, but the nitrogen metabolism in this process is not well understood. To unravel the nitrogen metabolic pathway(s) of diesel contaminated soil, six types of nitrogen sources were added to the diesel contaminated soil. Changes in microbial community and soil enzyme genes were investigated by metagenomics analysis and chemical analysis through a 30-day incubation study. The results showed that ammonium based nitrogen sources significantly accelerated the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) (79-81%) compared to the control treatment (38%) and other non-ammonium based nitrogen amendments (43-57%). Different types of nitrogen sources could dramatically change the microbial community structure and soil enzyme gene abundance. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were identified as the two dominant phyla in the remediation of diesel contaminated soil. Metagenomics analysis revealed that the preferred metabolic pathway of nitrogen was from ammonium to glutamate via glutamine, and the enzymes governing this transformation were glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthetase; while in nitrate based amendment, the conversion from nitrite to ammonium was restrained by the low abundance of nitrite reductase enzyme and therefore retarded the TPH degradation rate. It is concluded that during the process of nitrogen enhanced bioremediation, the most efficient nitrogen cycling direction was from ammonium to glutamine, then to glutamate, and finally joined with carbon metabolism after transforming to 2-oxoglutarate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129566DOI Listing
May 2021

Pinning and rotation of a skyrmion in Co nanodisk with nanoengineered point and ring defects.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Jan 11. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Physics Department, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA, Lanzhou, 730000, CHINA.

Magnetic skyrmions have been proposed as promising information carriers in the application of spintronics, while the material imperfections are inevitable, thus an understanding of pinning effects on skyrmions in confined geometry is crucial for both fundamental research and development of spintronic devices. Here, we present the interactions of a skyrmion with a point and an extended ring defect, in a Co nanodisk which can be applied in skyrmion oscillator, based on micromagnetic simulations. By comparing with the skyrmion preferred position which is in the nanodisk center without defects, we identify the pinning strength and skyrmion preferred positions with a point defect as a function of skyrmion-defect distance and different local parameters of defect region being considered. The pinning centers range from skyrmion center, domain wall and off-center regions. We find a confinement effect on the skyrmion size with a ring defect. Moreover, we also show the rotation of the skyrmion in the presence of a ring defect, that can lead to a variation of oscillation frequency in a large range. These findings provide a complete understanding of the interaction between skyrmion and defects in a nanodisk and may provide a guidance for the design of skyrmion oscillators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/abda7eDOI Listing
January 2021

Whole exome sequencing identifies a novel homozygous MECR mutation in a Chinese patient with childhood-onset dystonia and basal ganglia abnormalities, without optic atrophy.

Mitochondrion 2021 03 2;57:222-229. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Neurology, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing 100045, China. Electronic address:

Childhood-onset dystonia with optic atrophy and basal ganglia abnormalities is an extremely rare autosomal recessive mitochondrial disease caused by biallelic mutations in MECR. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a novel homozygous MECR mutation (c.910G > T, p.Asp304Tyr) in a Chinese patient with childhood-onset dystonia and basal ganglia abnormalities, without optic atrophy. With lipoic acid treatment, the disease progression was under control, and neither visual impairment nor optic atrophy was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first study about MECR-related mitochondrial disease in a Chinese patient and the first to report that supplementation with lipoic acid is a possible effective therapeutic strategy for this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mito.2020.12.014DOI Listing
March 2021

Assessment of the human health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from areas of crude oil exploitation.

Environ Res 2021 02 11;193:110617. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Ecology Institute, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, China.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutants. Areas where crude oil has been exploited are at risk due to PAHs from both natural and anthropogenic sources. The Shengli Oilfield in China was used to assess the health risk posed by PAHs in areas with different population densities. A risk assessment showed that in the areas with low, median, and high population densities, the probabilities of the total carcinogenic risk (TCR) exceeding 10 for adults were 9.9%, 9.3%, and 13.4%, respectively, whereas these were 7.8%, 7.1%, and 10.1%, respectively, for children. Crude oil, traffic, and residential emissions were the major sources of PAHs based on a factor analysis with a nonnegative constraint analysis. Crude oil sources accounted for 96.1% of the TCR in the low population area, whereas traffic accounted for 94.4% of the TCR in the high population area. Based on the national action plan, guidelines, and new standard for soil pollution control promulgated by the Chinese government, we assumed a reduced rate of soil PAHs from different sources, and the carcinogenic risk from PAHs in the area of crude oil exploitation could be forecast. The average probabilities of the TCR exceeding 10 for adults and children could be reduced by 45.8% and 49.4%, respectively, in 2040 relative to current values under a pollution control scenario. These findings highlight that the risks associated with soil contamination could be effectively controlled by implementing control policies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.110617DOI Listing
February 2021

The Relationship of Lymphocyte to High-Density Lipoprotein Ratio with Pulmonary Function in COPD.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2020 1;15:3159-3169. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: This study aimed to explore the relation between lymphocyte to high-density lipoprotein ratio (LHR) and pulmonary function of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients compared with neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR).

Patients And Methods: In total, 154 participants (n = 77 with COPD and n = 77 without COPD) were recruited. LHR, NLR, PLR, lung function and other data were collected and compared. Pearson's correlation test and the receiver operating characteristics curves were used to compare the utility of LHR, NLR and PLR. Besides, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted.

Results: COPD patients with poorer lung function had a lower LHR level ( < 0.001). In low LHR group, more patients underwent greater airflow limitation than the other group ( = 0.006). LHR positively correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second in percent of the predicted value (FEV%) ( = 0.333, = 0.003). At a cut-off value of 2.08, the sensitivity and specificity of LHR in predicting FEV% < 50 were 93.2% and 55.6%, respectively, with an AUC of 0.770 ( = 0.001) better than NLR and PLR. Based on logistic regression analyses, it was proved that LHR was associated with decreased risk of FEV <50% predicted in COPD patients (odds ratio = 0.198, 95% CI: 0.048-0.811, = 0.024).

Conclusion: In contrast with NLR and PLR, LHR has higher accuracy for predicting pulmonary function in COPD; lower LHR level is independently associated with poorer pulmonary function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S276372DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7718883PMC
December 2020

Spatial ecological risk assessment for contaminated soil in oiled fields.

J Hazard Mater 2021 02 16;403:123984. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Ecology Institute, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353, PR China.

Soil total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) pollution in oil fields is a worldwide environmental problem. In particular, the dense distribution of oil wells in low-permeability oil reservoirs has caused regional pollution superposition. We proposed a feasible method for the spatial ecological assessment for soil pollution in oil fields. Typical TPH-contaminated soil in the Shengli oil field was examined according to the classification of oil well properties, including the spatial structure, distribution density, and exploitation history. Soil TPH concentrations of each oil filed site was calculated by Monte Carlo simulation. The risks were assessed according to multiple receptors and risk sources. The results indicated that the average TPH concentration was greater than 2100 mg·kg. The differences of TPH concentrations were mainly correlated to the exploitation period. The soil TPH content demonstrated a spatial cluster pattern according to the Anselin Local Moran's Index (p < 0.01). The risk for wheat and earthworms showed that more than 98% of the study area was under a low risk level. However, high risk accounted for only 0.9% when bacteria was used as a bioindicator, and the composition of different risk levels was similar to that of the ecological risk assessed based on the soil quality index.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123984DOI Listing
February 2021

The Transporter Classification Database (TCDB): 2021 update.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 01;49(D1):D461-D467

Department of Molecular Biology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0116, USA.

The Transporter Classification Database (TCDB; tcdb.org) is a freely accessible reference resource, which provides functional, structural, mechanistic, medical and biotechnological information about transporters from organisms of all types. TCDB is the only transport protein classification database adopted by the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB) and now (October 1, 2020) consists of 20 653 proteins classified in 15 528 non-redundant transport systems with 1567 tabulated 3D structures, 18 336 reference citations describing 1536 transporter families, of which 26% are members of 82 recognized superfamilies. Overall, this is an increase of over 50% since the last published update of the database in 2016. This comprehensive update of the database contents and features include (i) adoption of a chemical ontology for substrates of transporters, (ii) inclusion of new superfamilies, (iii) a domain-based characterization of transporter families for the identification of new members as well as functional and evolutionary relationships between families, (iv) development of novel software to facilitate curation and use of the database, (v) addition of new subclasses of transport systems including 11 novel types of channels and 3 types of group translocators and (vi) the inclusion of many man-made (artificial) transmembrane pores/channels and carriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkaa1004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7778945PMC
January 2021