Publications by authors named "Jianguo Liu"

576 Publications

Vertical distributions of wintertime atmospheric nitrogenous compounds and the corresponding OH radicals production in Leshan, southwest China.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 Jul 14;105:44-55. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Key Lab of Environmental Optics & Technology, Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China; Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China.

Ground-based multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) observations were operated from 02 to 21 December 2018 in Leshan, southwest China, to measure HONO, NO and aerosol extinction vertical distributions, and these were the first MAX-DOAS measurement results in Sichuan Basin. During the measurement period, characteristic ranges for surface concentration were found to be 0.26-4.58 km and averaged at 0.93 km for aerosol extinction, 0.49 to 35.2 ppb and averaged at 4.57 ppb for NO and 0.03 to 7.38 ppb and averaged at 1.05 ppb for HONO. Moreover, vertical profiles of aerosol, NO and HONO were retrieved from MAX-DOAS measurements using the Heidelberg Profile (HEIPRO) algorithm. By analysing the vertical gradients of pollutants and meteorological information, we found that aerosol and HONO are strongly localised, while NO is mainly transmitted from the north direction (city center direction). Nitrogen oxides such as HONO and NO are important for the production of hydroxyl radical (OH) and oxidative capacity in the troposphere. In this study, the averaged value of OH production rate from HONO is about 0.63 ppb/hr and maximum value of ratio between OH production from HONO and from (HONO+O) is > 93% before12:00 in Leshan. In addition, combustion emission contributes to 26% for the source of HONO in Leshan, and we found that more NO being converted to HONO under the conditions with high aerosol extinction coefficient and high relative humidity is also a dominant factor for the secondary produce of HONO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2020.11.019DOI Listing
July 2021

Promote lactic acid production from food waste fermentation using biogas slurry recirculation.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jun 9;337:125393. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Tsinghua Shenzhen International Graduate School, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, China; School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

It is a promising method to recover lactic acid from food waste (FW) fermentation, but the bottleneck problem is the low yield when using mixed inoculation. In this study, laboratorial biogas slurry (LBS) and industrial biogas slurry (IBS) were used as the additive in semi-continuous FW fermentation, aiming to promote the production of lactic acid. According to the research results, the addition of LBS or IBS promoted the production of lactic acid significantly from FW, especially carbohydrate, because it increased the pH values, maintained low OPR levels, and increased microbial number and diversity in the fermentation systems. IBS performed better than LBS because of higher pH, more diverse microbial community and more functional microorganisms. The best ratio of IBS to feedstock was 0.2, and the lactic acid yield reached 0.42 g/gVS. An excessively high dose would alter the fermentation pathways, reduce the ratio of lactic acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125393DOI Listing
June 2021

FUT8 and Protein Core Fucosylation in Tumours: From Diagnosis to Treatment.

J Cancer 2021 13;12(13):4109-4120. Epub 2021 May 13.

Special Key Laboratory of Oral Disease Research, Higher Education Institution in Guizhou Province, School of Stomatology, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi 563006, China.

Glycosylation changes are key molecular events in tumorigenesis, progression and glycosyltransferases play a vital role in the this process. FUT8 belongs to the fucosyltransferase family and is the key enzyme involved in N-glycan core fucosylation. FUT8 and/or core fucosylated proteins are frequently upregulated in liver, lung, colorectal, pancreas, prostate,breast, oral cavity, oesophagus, and thyroid tumours, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, ependymoma, medulloblastoma and glioblastoma multiforme and downregulated in gastric cancer. They can be used as markers of cancer diagnosis, occurrence, progression and prognosis. Core fucosylated EGFR, TGFBR, E-cadherin, PD1/PD-L1 and α3β1 integrin are potential targets for tumour therapy. In addition, IGg1 antibody defucosylation can improve antibody affinity, which is another aspect of FUT8 that could be applied to tumour therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.58268DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176256PMC
May 2021

Is a Promising Alternative to as a Resource for Natural Esterified (3,3')-Astaxanthin Production.

Plants (Basel) 2021 May 25;10(6). Epub 2021 May 25.

CAS Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China.

Astaxanthin (AST) characteristics and pigment productivity of , one of the few AST-producing higher plants, have not yet been studied extensively. In this study, the geometrical and optical isomers of AST in different parts of the flower were determined in detail, followed by a separation of the all- AST using HPLC chromatography. AST extracted from the flower accounted for 1.31% of the dry weight (dw) and mainly existed in the di-esterified form (>86.5%). The highest concentration was found in the upper red part of the petal (3.31% dw). One optical isomer (3, 3') of AST, with five geometrical isomers (all-, 9-, 13-, 15-, and di-) were observed in all parts of the flower. All- AST was the predominant geometrical isomer accounting for 72.5% of the total content of geometric isomers in total flower, followed by the 13-, and 9- isomers. The all- AST isomer was also isolated, and then purified by HPLC from the crude oily flower extract, with a 21.5% recovery yield. The -AST extracted from the combined androecium and gynoecium gives a very strong absorption in the UVA region due to a high level of , especially di-, isomers, suggesting a prospective use in the preparation of anti-ultraviolet agents. The production cost of AST from flowers can be as low as €388-393/kg. These observations together with other factors such as the low technology requirement for plant culturing and harvesting suggest has great potential as a resource for natural esterified (3,3')-AST production when compared with culturing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10061059DOI Listing
May 2021

Development of a Laser Gas Analyzer for Fast CO and HO Flux Measurements Utilizing Derivative Absorption Spectroscopy at a 100 Hz Data Rate.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 May 13;21(10). Epub 2021 May 13.

State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China.

We report the development of a laser gas analyzer that measures gas concentrations at a data rate of 100 Hz. This fast data rate helps eddy covariance calculations for gas fluxes in turbulent high wind speed environments. The laser gas analyzer is based on derivative laser absorption spectroscopy and set for measurements of water vapor (HO, at wavelength ~1392 nm) and carbon dioxide (CO, at ~2004 nm). This instrument, in combination with an ultrasonic anemometer, has been tested experimentally in both marine and terrestrial environments. First, we compared the accuracy of results between the laser gas analyzer and a high-quality commercial instrument with a max data rate of 20 Hz. We then analyzed and compared the correlation of HO flux results at data rates of 100 Hz and 20 Hz in both high and low wind speeds to verify the contribution of high frequency components. The measurement results show that the contribution of 100 Hz data rate to flux calculations is about 11% compared to that measured with 20 Hz data rate, in an environment with wind speed of ~10 m/s. Therefore, it shows that the laser gas analyzer with high detection frequency is more suitable for measurements in high wind speed environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21103392DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8152477PMC
May 2021

Optimal resilience of modular interacting networks.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jun;118(22)

Department of Physics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel.

Coupling between networks is widely prevalent in real systems and has dramatic effects on their resilience and functional properties. However, current theoretical models tend to assume homogeneous coupling where all the various subcomponents interact with one another, whereas real-world systems tend to have various different coupling patterns. We develop two frameworks to explore the resilience of such modular networks, including specific deterministic coupling patterns and coupling patterns where specific subnetworks are connected randomly. We find both analytically and numerically that the location of the percolation phase transition varies nonmonotonically with the fraction of interconnected nodes when the total number of interconnecting links remains fixed. Furthermore, there exists an optimal fraction [Formula: see text] of interconnected nodes where the system becomes optimally resilient and is able to withstand more damage. Our results suggest that, although the exact location of the optimal [Formula: see text] varies based on the coupling patterns, for all coupling patterns, there exists such an optimal point. Our findings provide a deeper understanding of network resilience and show how networks can be optimized based on their specific coupling patterns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1922831118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179239PMC
June 2021

Facile Synthesis of Rh Anchored Uniform Spherical COF for One-Pot Tandem Reductive Amination of Aldehydes to Secondary Imines.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 19;13(21):24966-24975. Epub 2021 May 19.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, P. R. China.

The development of transition metal-based heterogeneous catalysts for economical and efficient synthesis of secondary imines remains both desirable and challenging. Herein, for the first time, we present two kinds of Rh nanoparticle anchored uniform spherical COF heterogeneous catalysts with well-defined crystalline structures for the effective one-pot tandem reductive amination of aldehydes on a gram scale. This reaction is carried out using ammonia as a nitrogen source and hydrogen gas as the source of hydrogen, which is not only an atom-economical but also an environmentally friendly process for the selective production of secondary imines. In particular, in the presence of the better-designed Rh nanoparticles anchored COF2 catalyst, the starting material aldehydes could be fully converted (99% conversion), and 95% selectivity of -benzylidene(phenyl)methanamine is obtained under mild reaction conditions (2 MPa of H and 90 °C). Additionally, the Rh/COF2 catalyst is also applied to a variety of substituted aromatic aldehyde compounds, manifesting good yields in corresponding secondary imines. This work not only expands the COF family but also offers economical and effective access to acquire various aromatic amine targets, especially secondary imines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c05732DOI Listing
June 2021

Distribution and Emission Estimation of Short- and Medium-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins in Chinese Products through Detection-Based Mass Balancing.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jun 14;55(11):7335-7343. Epub 2021 May 14.

State Key Joint Laboratory for Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

Short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs, respectively) have raised environmental concern due to their potential for persistence, long-range transport, bioaccumulation, and toxicity. However, little is known about the production, use, and environmental emissions of SCCPs and MCCPs in China, the world's largest producer and consumer. In this study, we estimated the amounts of SCCPs and MCCPs produced and used in China in 2018-2019 based on a nationwide survey and measurements of concentrations in products, from which we estimated the environmental emissions of SCCPs and MCCPs in China. Our results show that 225.2 and 236.4 metric kilotons (kt) of SCCPs and 428.5 and 450.2 kt of MCCPs were used in China in 2018 and 2019, respectively, with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) products dominating SCCP and MCCP usage. Moreover, a total of 3.9 and 4.2 kt SCCPs and 3.8 and 4.1 kt MCCPs were emitted into China's environment in 2018 and 2019, respectively. Although less MCCPs are released into the air relative to SCCPs, their level exceeds the emission of SCCPs into soil. Finally, detailed mass balance calculation indicates that, although emissions from the use of PVC products dominate SCCP and MCCP inputs into the air, emissions from the use of polyurethane foam adhesives are more closely related to input into surface waters for SCCPs and MCCPs. For input into soil, the main emission sources are the use of polyurethane foam adhesives (for SCCPs) and rubber products (for MCCPs). This study provides a preliminary overview of the distributions of SCCPs and MCCPs in products and insight into the mass balance of SCCPs and MCCPs from their production and use to emission in China. This assessment also provides an important foundation for better understanding the environmental risks and fates associated with SCCPs and MCCPs in China and around the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c07058DOI Listing
June 2021

Photo-assisted self-interference cancellation for in-band full-duplex radio-over-fiber system.

Appl Opt 2021 Apr;60(11):3021-3030

An optical approach to cancel the radio frequency self-interference for an in-band full-duplex radio-over-fiber system is proposed and experimentally demonstrated based on two Mach-Zehnder modulators and a balanced photodetector (BPD). The cancellation depth is larger than 50 dB and 24 dB for the single frequency and for a wideband signal, respectively. The application of the BPD eliminates the common mode noise and reduces no system flexibility because signal transmission is in one optical fiber by polarization multiplexing technology, instead of two fibers in the traditional self-interference cancellation system with a BPD. In addition, with no electrical delay and attenuation applied, the operational frequency band and cancellation depth are not confined by electronic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.419023DOI Listing
April 2021

Synthesis of zero-valent iron/biochar by carbothermal reduction from wood waste and iron mud for removing rhodamine B.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

This study proposes a new process to synthesize zero-valent iron/biochar (Fe-BC) by carbothermal reduction using wood waste and iron mud as raw materials under different temperature. The characterization results showed that the Fe-BC synthesized at 1200 °C (Fe-BC-1200) possessed favorable adsorption capacity with the specific surface area of 103.18 m/g and that the zero-valent iron (Fe) particles were uniformly dispersed on the biochar surface. The removal efficiency of rhodamine B (RB) was determined to evaluate the performance of the prepared Fe-BC. Fe-BC-1200 presented the best performance on RB removal, which mainly ascribes to that more Fe particles generated at higher temperature. The equilibrium adsorption capacity reached 49.93 mg/g when the initial RB concentration and the Fe-BC-1200 dosage were 100 mg/L and 2 g/L, respectively, and the pseudo-second-order model was suitable to fit the removal experimental data. LCMC and XRD analyses revealed that the removal mechanism included the physical adsorption of biochar and the redox reaction of Fe. Moreover, copper existing in the iron mud was also reduced to Cu, which was beneficial to catalyze the oxidation of iron; the degradation of RB was promoted at the same time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13962-yDOI Listing
April 2021

Ecological Barrier Deterioration Driven by Human Activities Poses Fatal Threats to Public Health due to Emerging Infectious Diseases.

Engineering (Beijing) 2021 Jan 5. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and concerns about several other pandemics in the 21st century have attracted extensive global attention. These emerging infectious diseases threaten global public health and raise urgent studies on unraveling the underlying mechanisms of their transmission from animals to humans. Although numerous works have intensively discussed the cross-species and endemic barriers to the occurrence and spread of emerging infectious diseases, both types of barriers play synergistic roles in wildlife habitats. Thus far, there is still a lack of a complete understanding of viral diffusion, migration, and transmission in ecosystems from a macro perspective. In this review, we conceptualize the ecological barrier that represents the combined effects of cross-species and endemic barriers for either the natural or intermediate hosts of viruses. We comprehensively discuss the key influential factors affecting the ecological barrier against viral transmission from virus hosts in their natural habitats into human society, including transmission routes, contact probability, contact frequency, and viral characteristics. Considering the significant impacts of human activities and global industrialization on the strength of the ecological barrier, ecological barrier deterioration driven by human activities is critically analyzed for potential mechanisms. Global climate change can trigger and expand the range of emerging infectious diseases, and human disturbances promote higher contact frequency and greater transmission possibility. In addition, globalization drives more transmission routes and produces new high-risk regions in city areas. This review aims to provide a new concept for and comprehensive evidence of the ecological barrier blocking the transmission and spread of emerging infectious diseases. It also offers new insights into potential strategies to protect the ecological barrier and reduce the wide-ranging risks of emerging infectious diseases to public health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eng.2020.11.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8060651PMC
January 2021

First observation of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide from the Environmental Trace Gases Monitoring Instrument onboard the GaoFen-5 satellite.

Light Sci Appl 2020 Apr 20;9(1):66. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Optics and Technology, Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031, China.

The Environmental Trace Gases Monitoring Instrument (EMI) is the first Chinese satellite-borne UV-Vis spectrometer aiming to measure the distribution of atmospheric trace gases on a global scale. The EMI instrument onboard the GaoFen-5 satellite was launched on 9 May 2018. In this paper, we present the tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO) vertical column density (VCD) retrieval algorithm dedicated to EMI measurement. We report the first successful retrieval of tropospheric NO VCD from the EMI instrument. Our retrieval improved the original EMI NO prototype algorithm by modifying the settings of the spectral fit and air mass factor calculations to account for the on-orbit instrumental performance changes. The retrieved EMI NO VCDs generally show good spatiotemporal agreement with the satellite-borne Ozone Monitoring Instrument and TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (correlation coefficient R of ~0.9, bias < 50%). A comparison with ground-based MAX-DOAS (Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) observations also shows good correlation with an R of 0.82. The results indicate that the EMI NO retrieval algorithm derives reliable and precise results, and this algorithm can feasibly produce stable operational products that can contribute to global air pollution monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41377-020-0306-zDOI Listing
April 2020

Effect of cotton residues incorporation on soil properties, organic nitrogen fractions, and nitrogen-mineralizing enzyme activity under long-term continuous cotton cropping.

PeerJ 2021 7;9:e11053. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

The Key Laboratory of Oasis Ecology Agriculture of Xinjiang Bingtuan, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang, China.

The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of cotton residues incorporation on soil properties, soil organic nitrogen (N) fractions, and N-mineralizing enzyme (protease, and urease) activity in the 0-40 cm soil layer in the long-term continuous cotton field. In this experiment, seven treatments, including cotton residues incorporation for 5, 10, 15 and 20 years (marked as 5a, 10a, 15a, and 20a) and continuous cropping for 5, 10 and 20 years (marked as CK5, CK10 and CK20) were conducted. The results showed that the soil organic carbon (C) and N increased gradually with the increase in the duration of continuous cropping with cotton residues incorporation. Compared with CK20, the 20a treatments reduced the content of amino acid N (AAN), ammonium N (AN), amino sugar N (ASN), hydrolysable unidentified N (HUN), and acid insoluble N (AIN) significantly by 48.6, 32.2, 96.9, 48.3, and 38.7%, respectively ( < 0.05). The activity of protease and urease in 20a treatments significantly increased by 53.4 and 53.1% respectively as compared to CK20 ( < 0.05). Soil organic C and N-mineralizing enzyme activity decreased with the increase in cropping duration in the absence of cotton residues incorporation, while the organic N increased slightly. In conclusion, cotton residues returning can increase the storage of soil organic C and N in long-term continuous cropping cotton field, and improve the soil quality and soil fertility of continuous cropping cotton field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8035904PMC
April 2021

Author Correction: Assessing progress towards sustainable development over space and time.

Nature 2021 Apr;592(7856):E28

Center for Systems Integration and Sustainability, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03479-2DOI Listing
April 2021

Tumor-derived IL-6 and trans-signaling among tumor, fat, and muscle mediate pancreatic cancer cachexia.

J Exp Med 2021 Jun;218(6)

Department of Biochemistry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.

Most patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) suffer cachexia; some do not. To model heterogeneity, we used patient-derived orthotopic xenografts. These phenocopied donor weight loss. Furthermore, muscle wasting correlated with mortality and murine IL-6, and human IL-6 associated with the greatest murine cachexia. In cell culture and mice, PDAC cells elicited adipocyte IL-6 expression and IL-6 plus IL-6 receptor (IL6R) in myocytes and blood. PDAC induced adipocyte lipolysis and muscle steatosis, dysmetabolism, and wasting. Depletion of IL-6 from malignant cells halved adipose wasting and abolished myosteatosis, dysmetabolism, and atrophy. In culture, adipocyte lipolysis required soluble (s)IL6R, while IL-6, sIL6R, or palmitate induced myotube atrophy. PDAC cells activated adipocytes to induce myotube wasting and activated myotubes to induce adipocyte lipolysis. Thus, PDAC cachexia results from tissue crosstalk via a feed-forward, IL-6 trans-signaling loop. Malignant cells signal via IL-6 to muscle and fat, muscle to fat via sIL6R, and fat to muscle via lipids and IL-6, all targetable mechanisms for treatment of cachexia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20190450DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8185651PMC
June 2021

Aging-associated skeletal muscle defects in HER2/Neu transgenic mammary tumor model.

JCSM Rapid Commun 2021 Jan-Jun;4(1):24-39. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.

Background: Loss of skeletal muscle volume and resulting in functional limitations are poor prognostic markers in breast cancer patients. Several molecular defects in skeletal muscle including reduced MyoD levels and increased protein turn over due to enhanced proteosomal activity have been suggested as causes of skeletal muscle loss in cancer patients. However, it is unknown whether molecular defects in skeletal muscle are dependent on tumor etiology.

Methods: We characterized functional and molecular defects of skeletal muscle in MMTV-Neu (Neu+) mice (n= 6-12), an animal model that represents HER2+ human breast cancer, and compared the results with well-characterized luminal B breast cancer model MMTV-PyMT (PyMT+). Functional studies such as grip strength, rotarod performance, and ex vivo muscle contraction were performed to measure the effects of cancer on skeletal muscle. Expression of muscle-enriched genes and microRNAs as well as circulating cytokines/chemokines were measured. Since NF-κB pathway plays a significant role in skeletal muscle defects, the ability of NF-κB inhibitor dimethylaminoparthenolide (DMAPT) to reverse skeletal muscle defects was examined.

Results: Neu+ mice showed skeletal muscle defects similar to accelerated aging. Compared to age and sex-matched wild type mice, Neu+ tumor-bearing mice had lower grip strength (202±6.9 vs. 179±6.8 g grip force, p=0.0069) and impaired rotarod performance (108±12.1 vs. 30±3.9 seconds, P<0.0001), which was consistent with reduced muscle contractibility (p<0.0001). Skeletal muscle of Neu+ mice (n=6) contained lower levels of CD82+ (16.2±2.9 vs 9.0±1.6) and CD54+ (3.8±0.5 vs 2.4±0.4) muscle stem and progenitor cells (p<0.05), suggesting impaired capacity of muscle regeneration, which was accompanied by decreased MyoD, p53 and miR-486 expression in muscles (p<0.05). Unlike PyMT+ mice, which showed skeletal muscle mitochondrial defects including reduced mitochondria levels and Pgc1β, Neu+ mice displayed accelerated aging-associated changes including muscle fiber shrinkage and increased extracellular matrix deposition. Circulating "aging factor" and cachexia and fibromyalgia-associated chemokine Ccl11 was elevated in Neu+ mice (1439.56±514 vs. 1950±345 pg/ml, p<0.05). Treatment of Neu+ mice with DMAPT significantly restored grip strength (205±6 g force), rotarod performance (74±8.5 seconds), reversed molecular alterations associated with skeletal muscle aging, reduced circulating Ccl11 (1083.26 ±478 pg/ml), and improved animal survival.

Conclusions: These results suggest that breast cancer subtype has a specific impact on the type of molecular and structure changes in skeletal muscle, which needs to be taken into consideration while designing therapies to reduce breast cancer-induced skeletal muscle loss and functional limitations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rco2.23DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8028024PMC
July 2020

Cloning and characterization of a novel thermostable amidase, Xam, from Xinfangfangia sp. DLY26.

Biotechnol Lett 2021 Jul 3;43(7):1395-1402. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Centre for Bioengineering and Biotechnology, College of Chemical Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao, 266580, China.

Objective: Identification and characterization of a novel thermostable amidase (Xam) with wide pH tolerance and broad-spectrum substrate specificity.

Results: Xam was identified from non-thermophilic Xinfangfangia sp. DLY26 and its acyl transfer activity was investigated. Recombinant Xam was optimally active at 60 °C and pH 9.0. The enzyme had a half life of 18 h at 55 °C and maintained more than 60 % of its maximum activity in the range of pH 3.0-11.0. Additionally, Xam exhibited broad substrate specificity towards aliphatic, aromatic, and heterocyclic amides.

Conclusions: These unique properties make Xam a promising biocatalyst for production of important hydroxamic acids at elevated temperatures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10529-021-03124-yDOI Listing
July 2021

Ozone profile retrievals from TROPOMI: Implication for the variation of tropospheric ozone during the outbreak of COVID-19 in China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 13;764:142886. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Key Lab of Environmental Optics & Technology, Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China.

During the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China in January and February 2020, production and living activities were drastically reduced to impede the spread of the virus, which also caused a strong reduction of the emission of primary pollutants. However, as a major species of secondary air pollutant, tropospheric ozone did not reduce synchronously, but instead rose in some region. Furthermore, higher concentrations of ozone may potentially promote the rates of COVID-19 infections, causing extra risk to human health. Thus, the variation of ozone should be evaluated widely. This paper presents ozone profiles and tropospheric ozone columns from ultraviolet radiances detected by TROPOospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) onboard Sentinel 5 Precursor (S5P) satellite based on the principle of optimal estimation method. We compare our TROPOMI retrievals with global ozonesonde observations, Fourier Transform Spectrometry (FTS) observation at Hefei (117.17°E, 31.7°N) and Global Positioning System (GPS) ozonesonde sensor (GPSO) ozonesonde profiles at Beijing (116.46°E, 39.80°N). The integrated Tropospheric Ozone Column (TOC) and Stratospheric Ozone Column (SOC) show excellent agreement with validation data. We use the retrieved TOC combining with tropospheric vertical column density (TVCD) of NO and HCHO from TROPOMI to assess the changes of tropospheric ozone during the outbreak of COVID-19 in China. Although NO TVCD decreased by 63%, the retrieved TOC over east China increase by 10% from the 20-day averaged before the lockdown on January 23, 2020 to 20-day averaged after it. Because the production of ozone in winter is controlled by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) indicated by monitored HCHO, which did not present evident change during the lockdown, the production of ozone did not decrease significantly. Besides, the decrease of NO emission weakened the titration of ozone, causing an increase of ozone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142886DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7550903PMC
April 2021

Vertical distributions of tropospheric SO based on MAX-DOAS observations: Investigating the impacts of regional transport at different heights in the boundary layer.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 May 6;103:119-134. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China; Key Lab of Environmental Optics & Technology, Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China.

Information on the vertical distribution of air pollutants is essential for understanding their spatiotemporal evolution underlying urban atmospheric environment. This paper presents the SO profiles based on ground-based Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements from March 2018 to February 2019 in Hefei, East China. SO decrease rapidly with increasing heights in the warm season, while lifted layers were observed in the cold season, indicating accumulation or long-range transport of SO in different seasons might occur at different heights. The diurnal variations of SO were roughly consistent for all four seasons, exhibiting the minimum at noon and higher values in the morning and late afternoon. Lifted layers of SO were observed in the morning for fall and winter, implying the accumulation or transport of SO in the morning mainly occurred at the top of the boundary layer. The bivariate polar plots showed that weighted SO concentrations in the lower altitude were weakly dependent on wind, but in the middle and upper altitudes, higher weighted SO concentrations were observed under conditions of middle-high wind speed. Concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis suggested that potential sources of SO in spring and summer were local and transported mainly occurred in the lower altitude from southern and eastern areas; while in fall and winter, SO concentrations were deeply affected by long-range transport from northwestern and northern polluted regions in the middle and upper altitudes. Our findings provide new insight into the impacts of regional transport at different heights in the boundary layer on SO pollution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2020.09.036DOI Listing
May 2021

Spatial variation and influencing factors of the effectiveness of afforestation in China's Loess Plateau.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 29;771:144904. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Center for Systems Integration and Sustainability, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823, USA.

Payment for ecosystem services (PES) has become a widely accepted strategy for combining environmental conservation or restoration with socioeconomic development. Understanding the spatial heterogeneity of the effects of PES programs and their influencing factors is necessary for the design and implementation of effective programs. However, few researchers have both distinguished the effects of PES and analyzed their spatial variation simultaneously. Here, we analyzed the spatial differences in the effectiveness of afforestation under China's Grain-to-Green Program (GTGP), a well-known PES program, in the Loess Plateau. The approach is based on remote sensing data and county-level statistical data, which reflects the basic implementation unit of the GTGP. We identified several local and non-local influencing factors: the aridity index, rural non-farm employment, and rural migration improved afforestation effectiveness, whereas the total afforestation degree (the cumulative area of afforestation divided by the total area), vegetation conditions before afforestation, grain production, and investment in fixed assets decreased its effectiveness. Based on our results, we propose several suggestions for improvement: preferring afforestation in humid counties with low vegetation cover, identifying an optimal degree of afforestation, and promoting the transformation of rural livelihoods. Our study provides a general approach to analyze the effectiveness of PES and its spatial variation, thereby providing insights into future PES programs both within China and around the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144904DOI Listing
June 2021

Ultra-wideband tunable metamaterial perfect absorber based on vanadium dioxide.

Opt Express 2021 Jan;29(2):2703-2711

A dynamically adjustable ultra-wideband metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA) is proposed which consists of three resonance rings based on vanadium dioxide (VO) and a metal ground layer separated by a dielectric spacer. The simulation results show that the terahertz (THz) absorption bandwidth of more than 90% absorptance reaches 3.30 THz, which covers from 2.34 to 5.64 THz, under different incident polarization angles. The range is better than that of previous VO-based reports. Moreover, when the conductivity of VO changes from 200 S/m to 2×10 S/m, the absorption peak intensity can be adjusted continuously from 4% to 100%. The key is to optimize the geometric structure through interference cancellation and impedance matching theory, to achieve better absorption bandwidth and efficiency. Besides, the terahertz absorber has a wide-angle absorption effect both in TE and TM waves. Thus, the designed absorber may have many potential applications in modulating, sensing and imaging technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.416227DOI Listing
January 2021

Development of a laser heterodyne spectroradiometer for high-resolution measurements of CO, CH, HO and O in the atmospheric column.

Opt Express 2021 Jan;29(2):2003-2013

We have developed a portable near-infrared laser heterodyne radiometer (LHR) for quasi-simultaneous measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO), methane (CH), water vapor (HO) and oxygen (O) column absorption by using three distributed-feedback diode lasers as the local oscillators of the heterodyne detection. The developed system shows good performance in terms of its high spectral resolution of 0.066 cm and a low solar power detection noise which was about 2 times the theoretical quantum limit. Its measurement precision of the column-averaged mole fraction for CO and CH is within 1.1%, based on the standard deviation from the mean value of the retrieved results for a clean sky. The column abundance information of the O is used to correct for the variations and uncertainties of atmosphere pressure, the solar altitude angle, and the prior profiles of pressure and temperature. Comparison measurements of daily column-averaged atmospheric mole fractions of CO, CH and HO, between our developed LHR and a greenhouse gas observing satellite, show a good agreement, which proves the reliability of our developed system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.413035DOI Listing
January 2021

Phase distribution of PCDD/Fs in flue gas from municipal solid waste incinerator with ultra-low emission control in China.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 4;276:130166. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Tsinghua Shenzhen International Graduate School, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, 518055, China; School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China. Electronic address:

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) are the key pollutants of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). In this study, the characteristics of 17 toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners in flue gas along six air pollution control devices (APCDs) were investigated in a 400 t/d moving grate furnace located in a typical megacity of Shenzhen, China. The phase distribution and removal efficiency of the different APCDs were analyzed, especially the effect of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) device. The results showed that PCDD/F TEQs were 59.5%, 67.1%, and 72.5% partitioned into the gas phase (XAD-2 and condensed water) at the economizer outlet, fabric filter outlet, and stack, respectively. Furthermore, the three-year-old catalyst in the SCR tended to remove PCDDs, especially those in the solid phase (filter thimble). More importantly, the PCDF TEQs at the SCR inlet and outlet were 1.045 × 10 and 1.568 × 10 ng I-TEQ/Nm, respectively, which meant that the SCR might be ineffective for PCDF TEQ removal. A continuous chlorination of lower chlorinated PCDD/Fs increased the ratio of PCDFs and PCDDs from 0.73 at the SCR inlet to 1.76 at the SCR outlet. This work indicated the asynchronized inefficient removal of PCDD/Fs and nitrogen oxide for this three-year-old catalyst. The obtained results provide suggestions for the entire process of curbing PCDD/F emissions and obtaining ultra-low emission from MSWI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130166DOI Listing
August 2021

A global assessment of the impact of individual protected areas on preventing forest loss.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 20;777:145995. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Center for Systems Integration and Sustainability, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823, USA; Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823, USA. Electronic address:

Globally, the number and extent of terrestrial protected areas (PAs) are expanding rapidly. Nonetheless, their impacts on preventing forest loss and the factors influencing the impacts are not well understood, despite the critical roles of forests in biodiversity conservation, provision of ecosystem services, and achievement of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. To address this important knowledge gap, we quantified the impacts of 54,792 PAs worldwide on preventing forest loss from 2000 to 2015, and assessed important landscape and management factors affecting the impacts of PAs. Although the majority (71.4%) of the PAs contributed to preventing forest loss, only 30.5% of forest loss in the PAs have been prevented. PAs with higher rates of forest loss in their surrounding regions, located at lower elevations, within a few hours of travel from the nearest city, with higher agricultural productivity, and permission for fewer human uses were better able to prevent forest loss. Impacts on preventing forest loss were similar regardless of whether the PAs were privately or publicly owned. Our findings highlight the potential benefits of strict protections, involving private entities in the establishment of PAs, and situating PAs in areas exposed to high risks of forest loss to enhance the capacity to combat global forest loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145995DOI Listing
July 2021

Associations Between Regional Environment and Cornea-Related Morphology of the Eye in Young Adults: A Large-Scale Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 Feb;62(2):35

Gansu Provincial Hospital, Lanzhou, China.

Purpose: To investigate environmental factors associated with corneal morphologic changes.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, which enrolled adults of the Han ethnicity aged 18 to 44 years from 20 cities. The cornea-related morphology was measured using an ocular anterior segment analysis system. The geographic indexes of each city and meteorological indexes of daily city-level data from the past 40 years (1980-2019) were obtained. Correlation analyses at the city level and multilevel model analyses at the eye level were performed.

Results: In total, 114,067 eyes were used for analysis. In the correlation analyses at the city level, the corneal thickness was positively correlated with the mean values of precipitation (highest r [correlation coefficient]: >0.700), temperature, and relative humidity (RH), as well as the amount of annual variation in precipitation (r: 0.548 to 0.721), and negatively correlated with the mean daily difference in the temperature (DIF T), duration of sunshine, and variance in RH (r: -0.694 to 0.495). In contrast, the anterior chamber (AC) volume was negatively correlated with the mean values of precipitation, temperature, RH, and the amount of annual variation in precipitation (r: -0.672 to -0.448), and positively associated with the mean DIF T (r = 0.570) and variance in temperature (r = 0.507). In total 19,988 eyes were analyzed at the eye level. After adjusting for age, precipitation was the major explanatory factor among the environmental factors for the variability in corneal thickness and AC volume.

Conclusions: Individuals who were raised in warm and wet environments had thicker corneas and smaller AC volumes than those from cold and dry ambient environments. Our findings demonstrate the role of local environmental factors in corneal-related morphology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.62.2.35DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910644PMC
February 2021

Establishing healthy seedlings of Enhalus acoroides for the tropical seagrass restoration.

J Environ Manage 2021 May 19;286:112200. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

CAS Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Nanhai Road, Qingdao, 266071, China; Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, 1 Wenhai Road, Aoshanwei Town, Jimo, Qingdao, 266237, China.

Enhalus acoroides, the dominant species in tropical seagrass meadows, is experiencing declines worldwide for complicated reasons and the restoration of these meadows is extremely urgent. Nursery stock grown from the initial seedlings could be used to enhance success of E. acoroides meadow restoration. In this study, the effects of different cultivation methods on the seedling development and longer-term cultivation of E. acoroides were compared using various artificial culture substrates (culturing with sea mud substrate, agar substrate, without a matrix, and using a submerged foam substrate). Results suggested that none of the seedlings showed any sign of root gemination when cultured with sea mud substrate. Though the seedlings cultured with an agar substrate grew faster than those cultured with sea mud, those seedlings could not be cultured further as the agar substrate softened and became rotten after 3 weeks. The initial seedlings cultured in matrix-free seawater germinated with normal leaf growth but no roots developed. In contrast, the initial seedlings planted in holes of a submerged foam substrate grew successfully, developing into healthy seedlings with green leaves and long roots. These seedlings could be cultured for up to 23 weeks. Based on these results, a new, low-cost and labor-efficient method for E. acoroides seedling development was established, which might have a great application potential for efficient E. acoroides seagrass meadows restoration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112200DOI Listing
May 2021

LINC00667 Sponges miR-4319 to Promote the Development of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma by Increasing FOXQ1 Expression.

Front Oncol 2020 25;10:632813. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Accumulating evidence has indicated that lncRNAs regulate various biological and pathological processes in diverse malignant tumors. The roles of LINC00667 in cancer development have been explored in glioma, hepatocellular carcinoma and non-small cell lung cancer, but not in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In the present study, we characterize the role and molecular mechanism of LINC00667 in NPC progression. It was found that LINC00667 was overexpressed in NPC cells compared to normal cells. Silencing LINC00667 suppressed the proliferation, migration, invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in NPC cells. In addition, bioinformatics analysis revealed that LINC00667 acted as a ceRNA to absorb miR-4319. Further investigations illustrated that miR-4319 had low expression in NPC cells and functioned as a tumor suppressor in the progression of NPC. Mechanistic study identified forkhead box Q1 (FOXQ1) as a functional target of miR-4319. The effect of LINC00667 in NPC development was mediated by the miR-4319/FOXQ1 axis. Analysis on tumorxenograft mouse model demonstrated that knockdown of LINC00667 repressed NPC tumor growth and confirmed the results. Our present study suggested that LINC00667 promoted the malignant phenotypes of NPC cells by competitively binding to miR-4319 to up-regulate FOXQ1 expression. Our results reveled that LINC00667 could be a diagnostic and therapeutic target for NPC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.632813DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7868543PMC
January 2021

Structural changes in the oral microbiome of the adolescent patients with moderate or severe dental fluorosis.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 3;11(1):2897. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Special Key Laboratory of Oral Disease Research, Life Sciences Institute, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, China.

Dental fluorosis is a very prevalent endemic disease. Although oral microbiome has been reported to correlate with different oral diseases, there appears to be an absence of research recognizing any relationship between the severity of dental fluorosis and the oral microbiome. To this end, we investigated the changes in oral microbial community structure and identified bacterial species associated with moderate and severe dental fluorosis. Salivary samples of 42 individuals, assigned into Healthy (N = 9), Mild (N = 14) and Moderate/Severe (M&S, N = 19), were investigated using the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene. The oral microbial community structure based on Bray Curtis and Weighted Unifrac were significantly changed in the M&S group compared with both of Healthy and Mild. As the predominant phyla, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes showed variation in the relative abundance among groups. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio was significantly higher in the M&S group. LEfSe analysis was used to identify differentially represented taxa at the species level. Several genera such as Streptococcus mitis, Gemella parahaemolysans, Lactococcus lactis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum, were significantly more abundant in patients with moderate/severe dental fluorosis, while Prevotella melaninogenica and Schaalia odontolytica were enriched in the Healthy group. In conclusion, our study indicates oral microbiome shift in patients with moderate/severe dental fluorosis. We identified several differentially represented bacterial species enriched in moderate and severe fluorosis. Findings from this study suggests that the roles of these bacteria in oral health and related diseases warrant more consideration in patients with moderate and severe fluorosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82709-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7859183PMC
February 2021

Changes in Protein Glycosylation in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

J Cancer 2021 1;12(5):1455-1466. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Oral Disease Research Key Laboratory of Guizhou Tertiary Institution, School of Stomatology, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi 563006, China.

Glycosylation is an important posttranslational modification of proteins, and it has a profound influence on diverse life processes. An abnormal polysaccharide structure and mutation of the glycosylation pathway are closely correlated with human cancer progression. Glycoproteins such as EGFR, E-cadherin, CD44, PD-1/PD-L1, B7-H3 and Muc1 play important roles in the progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and their levels of glycosylation and changes in glycosyl structure are closely linked to HNSCC progression and malignant transformation. The regulation of protein glycosylation in HNSCC provides potential strategies to control cancer stem cell (CSC) subgroup expansion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tumor-related immunity escape and autophagy. Glycoproteins with altered glycosylation can be used as biomarkers for the early diagnosis, monitoring and prognostication of HNSCC. However, the glycobiology of cancer is still a new field that needs to be deeply studied, especially in HNSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.51604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847636PMC
January 2021