Publications by authors named "Jiang Jin"

385 Publications

Copper(II)-Dioxygen Facilitated Activation of Nitromethane: Nitrogen Donors for the Synthesis of Substituted 2-Hydroxyimino-2-phenylacetonitriles and Phthalimides.

Front Chem 2020 29;8:622867. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, China.

A simple and efficient method is explored for the synthesis of 2-hydroxyimino-2-phenylacetonitriles (2) and phthalimides (4), by using nitromethane as nitrogen donors. Both reactions are promoted by Cu(II) system with the participation of dioxygen as an oxidant. The scope of the method has been successfully demonstrated with a total of 51 examples. The flexible and diversified characteristics of reactions are introduced in terms of electronic effect, steric effect, position of substituted groups, and intramolecular charge transfer. Experimental studies suggest that the methyl nitrite could be a precursor in the path to the final products. A possible reaction mechanism is proposed, including the Cu(II)/O-facilitated transformation of nitromethane to methyl nitrite, the base-induced formation of 2-hydroxyimino-2-phenylacetonitriles, and the base-dioxygen-promoted formation of phthalimides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2020.622867DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7878530PMC
January 2021

Enhanced peroxymonosulfate activation via complexed Mn(II): A novel non-radical oxidation mechanism involving manganese intermediates.

Water Res 2021 Apr 19;193:116856. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Key Laboratory for City Cluster Environmental Safety and Green Development of the Ministry of Education, Institute of Environmental and Ecological Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China; Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou 511458, China.

In recent years, the activation of persulfates (peroxydisulfate (PDS) and peroxymonosulfate (PMS)) via transition metal ions for contaminants degradation has received extensive attention in water treatment. There has been growing interest on the mechanism (radical versus non-radical pathway) of activation processes. Interestingly, in contrast to copper, iron or cobalt ions regarded as effective activators for persulfates, manganese ion (Mn(II)) is inefficient for persulfates activation. Inspired by the enhanced stability of manganese species by ligands, this study for the first time systematically investigated the Mn(II)/persulfates with different ligands as a novel oxidation technology. UV-vis spectrometry, chemical probing method and mass spectrometry were used to explore the reactive intermediate (free radical versus high-valent manganese species) therein. It was surprisingly found that the oxidation efficiency of Mn(II)/ligand/persulfates system was highly dependent on the nature of persulfates and ligands. Mn(II) chelated by amino ligands such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetate (NTA) could efficiently trigger the oxidation of contaminants (e.g., recalcitrant compounds nitrophenol, benzoic acid and atrazine) by PMS, suggesting a promising Mn(II)/ligand/PMS technology for environmental decontamination especially under manganese-rich conditions. High-valent Mn species (Mn(V)) but not free radicals was demonstrated to be the dominant reactive intermediate, where Mn(III) species played a vital role in Mn(V) generation. The formation of Mn(III) species was found to be affected by the reactivity of persulfates and the type of ligands, thus influencing its further oxidation to Mn(V) species. This study presents a new oxidation process based on the combination of PMS and Mn(II) complex and broadens the knowledge of persulfates activation as well as manganese chemistry for decontamination in water treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.116856DOI Listing
April 2021

Insight into the reaction mechanism over PMoA for low temperature NH-SCR: A combined In-situ DRIFTs and DFT transition state calculations.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jan 29;412:125258. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

School of Energy and Environment, Anhui University of Technology, Ma Anshan 243002, PR China.

Phosphomolybdic acid catalyst (PMoA/TiO) is a promising catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH (NH-SCR) due to its strong acidity and excellent redox property. This work presents the NH-SCR reaction mechanism by In-situ diffuse reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (In-situ DRIFTs) and density functional theory (DFT). In-situ DRIFTs results indicated that the NH-SCR performance over PMoA/TiO followed both Eley-Rideal (E-R) and Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) mechanisms. The reaction pathway, intermediate, transition state and energy barrier over PMoA to complete NH-SCR reaction were calculated by DFT. The results showed that the catalytic cycle includes foundational reaction (NH + NO reaction) and regenerative reaction (NH + NO reaction). NH, NHNO, HNNOH and HONNH species were the key intermediates. In the foundational reactions, NO played an important role in the removal of remaining H atoms. The NH dissociation on Lewis acid site, the internal hydrogen transfer on Brønsted acid site and the formation of HONNH species were the rate-controlling steps. The catalytic cycle of NH-SCR over PMoA consists of standard SCR and fast SCR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125258DOI Listing
January 2021

Bullous prurigo pigmentosa following a ketogenic diet.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2021 Jan 5;Publish Ahead of Print. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Dermatology, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing 100044, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000001322DOI Listing
January 2021

Enhanced transformation of organic pollutants by mild oxidants in the presence of synthetic or natural redox mediators: A review.

Water Res 2021 Feb 23;189:116667. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Key Laboratory for City Cluster Environmental Safety and Green Development of the Ministry of Education, Institute of Environmental and Ecological Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, China; Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou 511458, Guangdong, China.

Synthetic or natural mediators (Med) can enhance the transformation of different types of organic pollutants by mild oxidants, which has been extensively studied in literature. This enhancing effect is attributed to the following two steps: (i) mild oxidants react with Med forming Med with higher reactivity, and then (ii) these organic pollutants are more readily transformed by Med. The present work reviews the latest findings on the formation of Med from the reactions of synthetic (i.e., 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonate (ABTS) and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT)) or natural mediators (i.e., syringaldehyde (SA), acetosyringone (AS), p-coumaric acid, and catechol) with mild oxidants such as laccase, manganese oxidants including permanganate (Mn(VII)) and MnO, and ferrate (Fe(VI)), as well as the transformation of organic pollutants including phenols, amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic dyes, pulp, and perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) by Med. First, reaction kinetics and mechanisms of the oxidation of synthetic or natural mediators by these mild oxidants were summarized. Reactivity and pathways of synthetic Med including ABTS, ABTS, HBT or natural Med including phenoxy radicals and quinone-type compounds reacting with different organic pollutants were then discussed. Finally, the possibilities of engineering applications and new perspectives were assessed on the combinations of different types of mild oxidants with synthetic or natural mediators for the treatment of various organic pollutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116667DOI Listing
February 2021

A comparison study of levofloxacin degradation by peroxymonosulfate and permanganate: Kinetics, products and effect of quinone group.

J Hazard Mater 2021 02 6;403:123834. Epub 2020 Sep 6.

Key Laboratory for City Cluster Environmental Safety and Green Development of the Ministry of Education, Institute of Environmental and Ecological Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China; Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou 511458, China.

Permanganate (Mn(VII)) as a selective oxidant has been widely used in water treatment process. Recently, peroxymonosulfate (PMS) was recognized as an emerging selective oxidant, which showed appreciable reactivity toward organic compounds containing electron-rich functional groups. In this study, the oxidation of a model fluoroquinolone antibiotic levofloxacin (LEV) by Mn(VII) and PMS was comparatively investigated. Degradation of LEV by PMS followed second-order kinetics and showed strong pH dependency with apparent second-order rate constants (k) of 0.15-26.52 M s at pH 5.0-10.0. Oxidation of LEV by Mn(VII) showed autocatalysis at pH 5.0-7.0, while no autocatalysis was observed at pH 8.0-10.0 (k = 2.23-4.16 M s). Such unusual oxidation kinetics was attributed to the in-situ formed MnO from Mn(VII) consumption. The performance of PMS and Mn(VII) for the degradation of LEV was also examined in real waters. PMS primarily react with the aliphatic N4 amine on the piperazine ring of LEV, and Mn(VII) reacted with both the aliphatic N4 amine and aromatic N1 amine. Both PMS and Mn(VII) could efficiently eliminate the antibiotic activity of LEV. Benzoquinone showed activating effect on both PMS and Mn(VII) oxidation, but their activation mechanisms were totally different.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123834DOI Listing
February 2021

Zinc-α2-glycoprotein relieved seizure-Induced neuronal glucose uptake impairment via insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor-regulated glucose transporter 3 expression.

J Neurochem 2020 Nov 30. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Glucose hypometabolism is observed in epilepsy and promotes epileptogenesis. Glucose hypometabolism in epilepsy may be attributed to decreased neuronal glucose uptake, but its molecular mechanism remains unclear. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) is related to glucose metabolism and is reported to suppress seizures. The anti-epileptic effect of ZAG may be attributed to its regulation of neuronal glucose metabolism. This study explored the effect of ZAG on neuronal glucose uptake and its molecular mechanism via insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R)-regulated glucose transporter 3 (GLUT-3) expression. The ZAG level was modulated by lentivirus in primary culture neurons. Neuronal seizure models were induced by Mg -free artificial cerebrospinal fluid. We assessed neuronal glucose uptake by the 2-NBDG method and Glucose Uptake Colorimetric Assay Kit. IGF1R was activated by IGF1 and blocked by AXL1717. The expression and distribution of IGF1R and GLUT-3, together with IGF1R phosphorylation, were measured by western blot. The binding between ZAG and IGF1R was determined by coimmunoprecipitation. Neuronal glucose uptake and GLUT-3 expression were significantly decreased by seizure or ZAG knockdown, whereas ZAG over-expression or IGF1 treatment reversed this decrease. The effect of ZAG on neuronal glucose uptake and GLUT-3 expression was blocked by AXL1717. ZAG increased IGF1R distribution and phosphorylation possibly by binding. Additionally, IGF1R increased GLUT-3 activity by increasing GLUT-3 expression. In epilepsy/seizure, neuronal glucose uptake suppression may be attributed to a decrease in ZAG, which suppresses neuronal GLUT-3 expression by regulating the activity of IGF1R. ZAG, IGF1R, and GLUT-3 may be novel potential therapeutic targets of glucose hypometabolism in epilepsy and seizures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnc.15254DOI Listing
November 2020

Mn effect on manganese oxides (MnO) nanoparticles aggregation in solution: Chemical adsorption and cation bridging.

Environ Pollut 2020 Dec 31;267:115561. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150090, China. Electronic address:

Manganese oxides (MnO) and Mn usually co-exist in the natural environment, as well as in water treatments for Mn removal. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the influence of Mn on the stability of MnO nanoparticles, as it is vital to their fate and reactivity. In this study, we used the time-resolved dynamic light scattering technique to study the influence of Mn on the initial aggregation kinetics of MnO nanoparticles. The results show that Mn was highly efficient in destabilizing MnO nanoparticles. The critical coagulation concentration ratio of Mn (0.3 mM) to Na (30 mM) was 2, which is beyond the ratio range indicated by the Schulze-Hardy rule. This is due to the coordination bond formed between Mn and the surface O of MnO, which could efficiently decrease the negative surface charge of MnO. As a result, in the co-presence of Mn and Na, a small amount of Mn (5 μM) could efficiently neutralize the negative charge of MnO, thereby decreasing the amount of Na, which mainly destabilized nanoparticles through electric double-layer compression, required to initiate aggregation. Further, Mn behaved as a cation bridge linking both the negatively charged MnO and humic acid, thereby increasing the stability of the MnO nanoparticles as a result of the steric repulsion of the adsorbed humic acid. The results of this study enhance the understanding of the stability of the MnO nanoparticles in the natural environment, as well as in water treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115561DOI Listing
December 2020

Sulfite enhanced transformation of iopamidol by UV photolysis in the presence of oxygen: Role of oxysulfur radicals.

Water Res 2021 Feb 12;189:116625. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Key Laboratory of Songliao Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Jilin Jianzhu University, Changchun, 130118, China.

UV/sulfite process in the absence of oxygen was previously applied as an advanced reduction process for the removal of many halogenated organics and inorganics in water and wastewater. Here, it was found that UV/sulfite process in the presence of oxygen could act as an advanced oxidation process. Specifically, the oxysulfur radicals (including sulfate radical (SO) and sulfite/peroxomonosulfate radicals (SO/SO)) played important roles on the degradation of iopamidol (IPM) as a typical iodinated contrast media (ICM). Furthermore, the contribution of SO on IPM removal gradually increased as pH increased from 5 to 7 and that of SO/SO decreased. Besides, all water quality parameters (i.e., chloride (Cl), iodide (I) and natural organic matter (NOM)) investigated here exhibited inhibitory effect on IPM removal. Three inorganic iodine species (i.e., I, reactive iodine species and iodate (IO)) were detected in UV/sulfite process in the presence of oxygen, while only I was detected in that without oxygen. During UV/sulfite/ethanol, UV photolysis and UV/peroxydisulfate (PDS)/tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) processes, thirteen transformation products including eleven deiodinated products of IPM were identified by ultra HPLC quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Besides, these products generated by direct UV photolysis, SO and SO/SO were further distinguished. The acute toxicity assay of Vibrio fischeri indicated that transformation products by UV/sulfite under aerobic conditions were less toxic than that by direct UV photolysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116625DOI Listing
February 2021

Hydroxylamine driven advanced oxidation processes for water treatment: A review.

Chemosphere 2021 Jan 21;262:128390. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Institute of Environmental and Ecological Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, China.

Hydroxylamine (HA) driven advanced oxidation processes (HAOPs) for water treatment have attracted extensive attention due to the acceleration of reactive intermediates generation and the improvement on the elimination effectiveness of target contaminants. In this review, HAOPs were categorized into three parts: (1) direct reaction of HA with oxidants (e.g., hydrogen peroxide (HO), peroxymonosulfate (PMS), ozone (O), ferrate (Fe(VI)), periodate (IO)); (2) HA driven homogeneous Fenton/Fenton-like system (Fe(II)/peroxide/HA system, Cu(II)/O/HA system, Cu(II)/peroxide/HA system, Ce(IV)/HO/HA system); (3) HA driven heterogeneous Fe/Cu-Fenton/Fenton-like system (iron-bearing material/peroxide/HA system, copper-bearing material/peroxide/HA system, bimetallic composite/peroxide/HA system). Degradation efficiency of the target pollutant, reactive intermediates, and effective pH range of various HAOPs were summarized. Further, corresponding reaction mechanism was elaborated. For the direct reaction of HA with oxidants, improvement of pollutants degradation was achieved through the generation of secondary reactive intermediates which had higher reactivity compared with the parent oxidant. For HA driven homogeneous and heterogeneous Fe/Cu-Fenton/Fenton-like system, improvement of pollutants degradation was achieved mainly via the acceleration of redox cycle of Fe(III)/Fe(II) or Cu(II)/Cu(I) and subsequent generation of reactive intermediates, which avoided the drawbacks of classical Fenton/Fenton-like system. In addition, HA driven homogeneous Fe/Cu-Fenton/Fenton-like system with heterogeneous counterpart were compared. Further, formation of oxidation products from HA in various HAOPs was summarized. Finally, the challenges and prospects in this field were discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128390DOI Listing
January 2021

[Review of cognitive enhancement techniques based on the combination of cognitive training and transcranial direct current stimulation].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2020 Oct;37(5):903-909

Key Laboratory of Human Factors Engineering, China Astronaut Research and Training Centre, Beijing 100094, P.R.China.

Cognitive enhancement refers to the technology of enhancing or expanding the cognitive and emotional abilities of people without psychosis based on relevant knowledge of neurobiology. The common methods of cognitive enhancement include transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and cognitive training (CT). tDCS takes effect quickly, with a short effective time, while CT takes longer to work, requiring several weeks of training, with a longer effective time. In recent years, some researchers have begun to use the method of tDCS combined with CT to regulate the cognitive function. This paper will sort out and summarize this topic from five aspects: perception, attention, working memory, decision-making and other cognitive abilities. Finally, the application prospect and challenges of technology are prospected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1001-5515.201911079DOI Listing
October 2020

Nonradical Oxidation of Pollutants with Single-Atom-Fe(III)-Activated Persulfate: Fe(V) Being the Possible Intermediate Oxidant.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 11 23;54(21):14057-14065. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

When applied for the remediation of polluted water/soil, peroxydisulfate (PDS) usually needs to be effectively activated to generate sulfate radical as the working oxidant. However, a significant part of the oxidation capacity of PDS is lost in this way because sulfate radical unselectively reacts with most of the substances in water/soil. PDS activation without generating radicals is preferred to maximize its oxidation capacity for targeted pollutants. Here, we report that single-atom Fe(III)- and nitrogen-doped carbon (Fe-N-C) can efficiently activate PDS to selectively remove some organic pollutants following an unreported nonradical pathway. The single-atom Fe(III) coordinated with pyridinic N atoms was confirmed to be the active site for the catalytic decomposition of PDS. However, the PDS decomposition did not produce radicals or reactive oxygen species. It is very likely that the coordinated Fe(III) is readily converted to Fe(V) through two-electron abstraction by PDS, and Fe(V) is responsible for the selective degradation of organic pollutants. The PDS/Fe-N-C-coupled process utilizes more oxidation capacity of PDS than both radical oxidation and other reported nonradical oxidation like PDS/CuO under the same experimental conditions. This process provides a new approach to selectively degrade some organic pollutants through PDS activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c04867DOI Listing
November 2020

Review on UV/sulfite process for water and wastewater treatments in the presence or absence of O.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 5;765:142762. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Key Laboratory of Songliao Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Jilin Jianzhu University, Changchun 130118, China.

Based on previous reports, UV/sulfite process is generally used as an advanced reduction process (ARP) since e and/or ∙H, both with strong reduction potential, could be substantially generated herein. Very recently, the combination of UV and sulfite as an advanced oxidation process (AOP) or an oxidation-reduction coupling process has attracted increasing interest due to the yield of SO and/or HO∙. Herein, the application of UV/sulfite as an ARP and AOP (or oxidation-reduction coupling process) during water and wastewater treatments is reviewed respectively. (1) In the absence of O, UV/sulfite works as an ARP. The generation mechanism of reactive reduction species and various contaminants removal (including degradation kinetics and efficiency, decomposition mechanisms, effects of some factors, etc.) is summarized in detail and systematically. Moreover, both the application of different types of UV lights and the economic evaluation are summarized systematically. (2) In the presence of O, UV/sulfite could be used as an AOP or oxidation-reduction coupling process. The generation mechanism of reactive oxidation species and influencing factors is also presented in detail. Moreover, two ways (including homogeneous and heterogeneous activation) used to enhance the UV/sulfite oxidation potential are summarized respectively. Moreover, several knowledge gaps and research needs for further research are proposed. Overall, this review provides an overview for in-depth understanding of UV/sulfite as an ARP or AOP (oxidation-reduction coupling process) during water and wastewater treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142762DOI Listing
April 2021

Corrigendum to"MicroRNA-185 inhibits the growth and proliferation of osteoblasts in fracture healing by targeting PTH gene through down-regulating" [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 501(1) (2018) 55-63].

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020 Dec 16;533(3):620-622. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Orthopaedics Key Laboratory of Gansu Province, Lanzhou, 730000, PR China; Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, PR China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.10.001DOI Listing
December 2020

Corrigendum to"MicroRNA-185 inhibits the growth and proliferation of osteoblasts in fracture healing by targeting PTH gene through down-regulating" [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 501(1) (2018) 55-63].

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020 Dec 16;533(3):620-622. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Orthopaedics Key Laboratory of Gansu Province, Lanzhou, 730000, PR China; Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, PR China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.10.001DOI Listing
December 2020

Chlorination and bromination of olefins: Kinetic and mechanistic aspects.

Water Res 2020 Dec 19;187:116424. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering (ENAC), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015, Lausanne, Switzerland; Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, 8600, Duebendorf, Switzerland; Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is typically assumed to be the primary reactive species in free available chlorine (FAC) solutions. Lately, it has been shown that less abundant chlorine species such as chlorine monoxide (ClO) and chlorine (Cl) can also influence the kinetics of the abatement of certain organic compounds during chlorination. In this study, the chlorination as well as bromination kinetics and mechanisms of 12 olefins (including 3 aliphatic and 9 aromatic olefins) with different structures were explored. HOCl shows a low reactivity towards the selected olefins with species-specific second-order rate constants <1.0 Ms, about 4-6 orders of magnitude lower than those of ClO and Cl. HOCl is the dominant chlorine species during chlorination of olefins under typical drinking water conditions, while ClO and Cl are likely to play important roles at high FAC concentration near circum-neutral pH (for ClO) or at high Cl concentration under acidic conditions (for Cl). Bromination of the 12 olefins suggests that HOBr and BrO are the major reactive species at pH 7.5 with species-specific second-order rate constants of BrO nearly 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than of HOBr (ranging from <0.01 to >10 Ms). The reactivities of chlorine and bromine species towards olefins follow the order of HOCl < HOBr < BrO < ClO ≈ Cl. Generally, electron-donating groups (e.g., CHOH- and CH-) enhances the reactivities of olefins towards chlorine and bromine species by a factor of 3-10, while electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., Cl-, Br-, NO-, COOH-, CHO-, -COOR, and CN-) reduce the reactivities by a factor of 3-10. A reasonable linear free energy relationship (LFER) between the species-specific second-order rate constants of BrO or ClO reactions with aromatic olefins and their Hammett σ was established with a more negative ρ value for BrO than for ClO, indicating that BrO is more sensitive to substitution effects. Chlorinated products including HOCl-adducts and decarboxylated Cl-adduct were identified during chlorination of cinnamic acid by high-performance liquid chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC/HRMS).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116424DOI Listing
December 2020

Exploring gene-gene interaction in family-based data with an unsupervised machine learning method: EPISFA.

Genet Epidemiol 2020 Nov 1;44(8):811-824. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Gene-gene interaction (G × G) is thought to fill the gap between the estimated heritability of complex diseases and the limited genetic proportion explained by identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The current tools for exploring G × G were often developed for case-control designs with less considerations for their applications in families. Family-based studies are robust against bias led from population stratification in genetic studies and helpful in understanding G × G. We proposed a new algorithm epistasis sparse factor analysis (EPISFA) and epistasis sparse factor analysis for linkage disequilibrium (EPISFA-LD) based on unsupervised machine learning to screen G × G. Extensive simulations were performed to compare EPISFA/EPISFA-LD with a classical family-based algorithm FAM-MDR (family-based multifactor dimensionality reduction). The results showed that EPISFA/EPISFA-LD is a tool of both high power and computational efficiency that could be applied in family designs and is applicable within high-dimensionality datasets. Finally, we applied EPISFA/EPISFA-LD to a real dataset drawn from the Fangshan/family-based Ischemic Stroke Study in China. Five pairs of G × G were discovered by EPISFA/EPISFA-LD, including three pairs verified by other algorithms (FAM-MDR and logistic), and an additional two pairs uniquely identified by EPISFA/EPISFA-LD only. The results from EPISFA might offer new insights for understanding the genetic etiology of complex diseases. EPISFA/EPISFA-LD was implemented in R. All relevant source code as well as simulated data could be freely downloaded from https://github.com/doublexism/episfa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gepi.22342DOI Listing
November 2020

Apelin/Apelin receptor: A new therapeutic target in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Life Sci 2020 Nov 21;260:118310. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

School of Medicine, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory for Synthetic Biology of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hunan University of Medicine, Huaihua 418000, Hunan, China; Institute of Basic Medical Science, Center for Diabetic Systems Medicine, Guangxi Key Laboratory of Excellence, Guilin Medical University, Guilin 541199, Guangxi, China. Electronic address:

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrinopathy, and it accounts for 75% of non-ovulatory infertile in women of childbearing age. It is clear that obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia coexist in PCOS. Apelin, as an endogenous ligand of the previously orphan receptor, is an adipokine that secreted by adipose tissue. Apelin and apelin receptors are expressed in many tissues and organ to regulate their physiological functions. Studies have shown that Apelin/apelin-receptor also expressed in ovary such as follicles, granulosa cells. Furthermore, Apelin/apelin-receptor play roles in vascular establishment and hormone metabolism in ovary. These indicate that the Apelin/apelin-receptor play an important role in the development of follicle. Apelin/apelin-receptor are increased in ovary of PCOS, which are associated with abnormal ovarian hormones and function. These are important causes of menstrual cycle disorders and anovulation. Moreover, apelin now appears clearly as a new player in energy metabolism. Apelin can regulate glucose and lipid metabolism but also modulate insulin secretion. And plasma apelin concentrations are elevated in obesity and type 2 diabetes patients. Interestedly, obesity and type 2 diabetes are also companied with polycystic ovary syndrome patients. We speculate apelin/apelin-receptor may play a vital role in pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome, but the underlying mechanisms remain under exploration. Here, we review apelin/apelin-receptor, as a new therapeutic target, have effects on ovarian function and energy metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118310DOI Listing
November 2020

Mex3a interacts with LAMA2 to promote lung adenocarcinoma metastasis via PI3K/AKT pathway.

Cell Death Dis 2020 08 13;11(8):614. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, 250012, Jinan, Shandong, China.

Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the main subtype of lung cancer. In this study, we found that RBP Mex3a was significantly upregulated in LUAD tissues and elevated Mex3a expression was associated with poor LUAD prognosis and metastasis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Mex3a knockdown significantly inhibited LUAD cell migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in nude mice. Transcriptome sequencing indicated that Mex3a affected gene expression linked to ECM-receptor interactions, including laminin subunit alpha 2(LAMA2). RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay revealed Mex3a directly bound to LAMA2 mRNA and Mex3a increased the instability of LAMA2 mRNA in LUAD cells. Furthermore, we discovered that LAMA2 was surprisingly downregulated in LUAD and inhibited LUAD metastasis. LAMA2 knockdown partially reverse the decrease of cell migration and invasion caused by Mex3a knockdown. In addition, we found that both Mex3a and LAMA2 could influence PI3K-AKT pathway, which are downstream effectors of the ECM-receptor pathway. Moreover, the reduced activation of PI3K-AKT pathway in caused by Mex3a depletion was rescued by LAMA2 knockdown. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Mex3a downregulates LAMA2 expression to exert a prometastatic role in LUAD. Our study revealed the prognostic and prometastatic effects of Mex3a in LUAD, suggesting that Mex3a can serve as a prognostic biomarker and a target for metastatic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-02858-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7427100PMC
August 2020

Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel HDAC inhibitors with improved pharmacokinetic profile in breast cancer.

Eur J Med Chem 2020 Nov 26;205:112648. Epub 2020 Jul 26.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shenzhen Technology University, Shenzhen, 518060, China; West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, Chengdu, 610041, China. Electronic address:

The dysfunction of histone deacetylase (HDACs) is closely related to tumorigenesis and development, which has been emerged as an attractive drug design target for cancer therapy. In the present study, we designed and synthesized a series of novel HDAC inhibitors using a substituted quinazoline as the capping group and attaching 3, 5-dimethylbenyl as a potential metabolic site protector. 23g and 23h were demonstrated potent HDAC inhibitory activities and anti-proliferative effects against MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, 23g and 23h both could significantly increase the acetylation level of intracellular proteins, especially in α-Tubulin and HSP90. 23g and 23h displayed a slight different anti-tumor mechanism, 23g mainly induced apoptosis while 23h induced obviously ER-Stress. Furthermore, 23g and 23h both induced autophagy and migration inhibition. In pharmacokinetics assay, 23g showed a significant improvement of pharmacokinetic profile for oral administration. Additionally, 23g presented more potent anti-proliferation and anti-migration activity than SAHA in zebrafish MDA-MB-231 cell line-derived xenograft model. Together, these results demonstrate that 23g is a novel oral HDAC inhibitor with a potential capacity of treating breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2020.112648DOI Listing
November 2020

The aggregation kinetics of manganese oxides nanoparticles in Al(III) electrolyte solutions: Roles of distinct Al(III) species and natural organic matters.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Nov 8;744:140814. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China.

This study explored the aggregation kinetics of manganese oxides (MnO) nanoparticles in Al(III) electrolyte solutions. This is a common process in both water treatments and the natural environment. The results show that aggregation kinetics are Al(III) species-dependent. Without natural organic matters (NOM), ferron Al (monomeric Al(III)) and ferron Al (polymeric Al(III)) are the main species controlling the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) type aggregation behavior of MnO at pH 5.0 and 7.2, respectively. Al and Al can neutralize and reverse the negative charge of MnO. Correspondingly, the attachment efficiency as a function of Al(III) concentrations contains three stages: destabilization, diffusion-limited, and re-stabilization stage. Interestingly, due to the tiny size of Al nanoclusters, they behave similar to free ions and do not induce heteroaggregation at pH 7.2. The influence of some model NOM (i.e., bovine serum albumin (BSA), Sigma humic acid (HA), and alginate) was also studied. At pH 5.0, alginate polymers, while Sigma HA and BSA cannot be, are linked by Al(III) to form alginate gel clusters which bridge MnO nanoparticles, and thus induce bridging flocculation. At pH 7.2, NOM induce the aggregation of Al nanoclusters to form NOM-Al(III) aggregates through charge neutralization effects. Consequently, highly enhanced aggregation rate, due to the heteroaggregation between these aggregates and MnO, was observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140814DOI Listing
November 2020

Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 2-indolinone derivatives as PAK1 inhibitors in MDA-MB-231 cells.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2020 09 20;30(17):127355. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Medicine Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University, Baojian Road 157, Nangang District, Harbin 150081, PR China. Electronic address:

P21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) plays a vital role in the proliferation, survival and migration of cancer cells, which has emerged as a promising drug target for cancer therapy. In this study, a series of 2-indolinone derivatives were designed and synthesized through a structure-based strategy. A potent PAK1 inhibitor (ZMF-005) was discovered, which presented an IC value of 0.22 μM against PAK1 with potent antiproliferative activity. Furthermore, we predicted the binding mode of ZMF-005 and PAK1 by molecule docking and dynamic (MD) simulation. In addition, ZMF-005 was documented to induce significant apoptosis and suppress migration in MDA-MB-231 cells. Collectively, these findings revealed that ZMF-005 is a novel potent PAK1 inhibitor for breast cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2020.127355DOI Listing
September 2020

Transformation of X-ray contrast media by conventional and advanced oxidation processes during water treatment: Efficiency, oxidation intermediates, and formation of iodinated byproducts.

Water Res 2020 Oct 25;185:116234. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin150090, China.

X-ray contrast media (ICM), as the most widely used intravascular pharmaceuticals, have been frequently detected in various environmental compartments. ICM have attracted increasingly scientific interest owing to their role as an iodine contributor, resulting in the high risk of forming toxic iodinated byproducts (I-BPs) during water treatment. In this review, we present the state-of-the-art findings relating to the removal efficiency as well as oxidation intermediates of ICM by conventional and advanced oxidation processes. Moreover, formation of specific small-molecular I-BPs (e.g., iodoacetic acid and iodoform) during these processes is also summarized. Conventional oxidants and disinfectants including chlorine (HOCl) and chloramine (NHCl) have low reactivities towards ICM with HOCl being more reactive. Iodinated/deiodinated intermediates are generated from reactions of HOCl/NHCl with ICM, and they can be further transformed into small-molecular I-BPs. Types of disinfectants and ICM as well as solution conditions (e.g., presence of bromide (Br) and natural organic matters (NOM)) display significant impact on formation of I-BPs during chlor(am)ination of ICM. Uncatalyzed advanced oxidation process (AOPs) involving ozone (O) and ferrate (Fe(VI)) exhibit slow to mild reactivities towards ICM, usually leading to their incomplete removal under typical water treatment conditions. In contrast, UV photolysis and catalyzed AOPs including hydroxyl radical (HO) and/or sulfate radical (SO) based AOPs (e.g., UV/hydrogen peroxide, UV/persulfate, UV/peroxymonosulfate (PMS), and CuO/PMS) and reactive chlorine species (RCS) involved AOPs (e.g., UV/HOCl and UV/NHCl) can effectively eliminate ICM under various conditions. Components of water matrix (e.g., chloride (Cl), Br, bicarbonate (HCO), and NOM) have great impact on oxidation efficiency of ICM by catalyzed AOPs. Generally, similar intermediates are formed from ICM oxidation by UV photolysis and AOPs, mainly resulting from a series reactions of the side chain and/or C-I groups (e.g. cleavage, dealkylation, oxidation, and rearrange). Further oxidation or disinfection of these intermediates leads to formation of small-molecular I-BPs. Pre-oxidation of ICM-containing waters by AOPs tends to increase formation of I-BPs during post-disinfection process, while this trend also depends on the oxidation processes applied and solution conditions. This review summarizes the latest research findings relating to ICM transformation and (by)products formation during disinfection and AOPs in water treatment, which has great implications for the practical applications of these technologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116234DOI Listing
October 2020

The relationship between maternal vitamin D deficiency and glycolipid metabolism and adverse pregnancy outcome.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2020 Dec 2;93(6):713-720. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Third Clinical Institute Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou People's Hospital, Wenzhou Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital, Wenzhou, China.

Objective: Maternal vitamin D deficiency is associated with glucose and lipid metabolism in the mother and offspring. Meanwhile, it can also lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this case-control study was to document maternal, umbilical arterial glucose and lipid metabolic levels and correlations in pregnancies with or without vitamin D deficiency, while also investigating adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Design/participants/measurements: A total of 425 pregnant women who received antenatal care and delivered at Wenzhou People's Hospital were enrolled. According to their serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level, the pregnant women were divided into the vitamin D deficiency group [25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL, 185 participants] and the control group [25(OH)D ≥ 20 ng/mL, 240 participants]. Maternal blood samples were collected at 24-28 weeks of gestation and delivery for 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and measurements of glucose and lipid metabolite levels and 25(OH)D levels. Umbilical arterial samples were collected during delivery (33.57-41.43 gestational weeks).

Results: Compared with control participants, vitamin D deficiency women had significantly higher concentrations of fasting blood-glucose (P < .01), 1-h OGTT plasma glucose (P < .01), 2-h OGTT plasma glucose (P < .01), insulin (P < .01), HOMA-IR (P < .01), LDL (P < .01) and triglycerides (P = .02) and lower concentrations of HOMA-S (P < .01). Compared with the control group, vitamin D deficiency women had higher concentrations of triglycerides (P < .01) and lower concentrations of HDL-C (P < .01) and HOMA-β (P = .01) in infant umbilical arterial blood. Pearson's correlation analysis demonstrated that the maternal 25(OH)D level was negatively correlated with maternal plasma glucose, insulin, LDL-C, cholesterol, triglyceride and HOMA-IR (r = -.38, -.27, -.2, -.11, -.11, -.33 and .11; P < .01, <.01, <.01, <.05, <.05 and <.01, respectively), while there was a positive correlation between maternal serum 25(OH)D and HOMA-S (r = .11, P < .05). The triglyceride level in the umbilical artery was negatively correlated with maternal serum 25(OH)D concentration (r = -.286, P < .01), while the HDL-C and HOMA-β in umbilical artery were positively related (r = .154, .103, P < .01). Compared with the control group, the incidences of pre-eclampsia [4.8% (9/185) vs 1.25% (3/240), P = .03], gestational diabetes mellitus [19.45% (36/185) vs 12.08% (29/240), P = .04] and premature rupture of membranes [15.68% (29/185) vs 5.42% (13/240), P < .01] were higher in the vitamin D deficiency group.

Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with maternal glucose and lipid metabolism and pregnancy outcomes. Therefore, it is worth recommending to maintain vitamin D status at an optimal level in pregnant women to prevent metabolic disorders and pregnancy complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cen.14298DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7754337PMC
December 2020

Acquired reactive perforating collagenosis.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2020 Sep;133(17):2119-2120

Department of Dermatology, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing 100044, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000000906DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7478800PMC
September 2020

Effect of Ultrasonic Surface Impact on the Fatigue Properties of Ti3Zr2Sn3Mo25Nb.

Materials (Basel) 2020 May 2;13(9). Epub 2020 May 2.

School of Transportation & Civil engineering, Nantong University, Nantong 226019, China.

The effect of nano grain surface layer generated by ultrasonic impact on the fatigue behaviors of a titanium alloy Ti3Zr2Sn3Mo25Nb (TLM) was investigated. Three vibration strike-numbers of 24,000 times, 36,000 times and 48,000 times per unit are chosen to treat the surface of TLM specimens. Nanocrystals with an average size of 30 nm are generated. The dislocation motion plays an important role in the transformation of nanograins. Ultrasonic surface impact improves the mechanical properties of TLM, such as hardness, surface residual stress, tensile strength and fatigue strength. More vibration strike numbers will cause a higher enhancement. With a vibration strike number of 48,000 times per square millimeter the rotating-bending fatigue strength of TLM at 10 cycles is improved by 23.7%. All the fatigue cracks initiate from the surface of untreated specimens, while inner cracks appear after the fatigue life of 10 cycles with the ultrasonic surface impact. The crystal slip in the crack initiation zone is the main way of growth for microcracks. Crack cores are usually formed at the junction of crystals. The stress intensity factor of TLM titanium alloy is approximately 7.0 MPa·m.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13092107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7254257PMC
May 2020

Seizure-induced impairment in neuronal ketogenesis: Role of zinc-α2-glycoprotein in mitochondria.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 06 27;24(12):6833-6845. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Ketone bodies (KBs) were known to suppress seizure. Untraditionally, neurons were recently reported to utilize fatty acids and produce KBs, but the effect of seizure on neuronal ketogenesis has not been researched. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) was reported to suppress seizure via unclear mechanism. Interestingly, ZAG was involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and thus may exert anti-epileptic effect by promoting ketogenesis. However, this promotive effect of ZAG on neuronal ketogenesis has not been clarified. In this study, we performed immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to identify potential interaction partners with ZAG. The mechanisms of how ZAG translocated into mitochondria were determined by quantitative coimmunoprecipitation after treatment with apoptozole, a heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70) inhibitor. ZAG level was modulated by lentivirus in neurons or adeno-associated virus in rat brains. Seizure models were induced by magnesium (Mg )-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid in neurons or intraperitoneal injection of pentylenetetrazole kindling in rats. Ketogenesis was determined by cyclic thio-NADH method in supernatant of neurons or brain homogenate. The effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) on ZAG expression was examined by Western blot, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and chromatin immunoprecipitation qRT-PCR. We found that seizure induced ketogenesis deficiency via a ZAG-dependent mechanism. ZAG entered mitochondria through a HSC70-dependent mechanism, promoted ketogenesis by binding to four β-subunits of long-chain L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HADHB) and alleviated ketogenesis impairment in a neuronal seizure model and pentylenetetrazole-kindled epileptic rats. Additionally, PPARγ activation up-regulated ZAG expression by binding to promoter region of AZGP1 gene and promoted ketogenesis through a ZAG-dependent mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.15337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7299723PMC
June 2020

Gilgamesh (Gish)/CK1γ regulates tissue homeostasis and aging in adult Drosophila midgut.

J Cell Biol 2020 04;219(4)

Department of Developmental Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX.

Adult tissues and organs rely on resident stem cells to generate new cells that replenish damaged cells. To maintain homeostasis, stem cell activity needs to be tightly controlled throughout the adult life. Here, we show that the membrane-associated kinase Gilgamesh (Gish)/CK1γ maintains Drosophila adult midgut homeostasis by restricting JNK pathway activity and that Gish is essential for intestinal stem cell (ISC) maintenance under stress conditions. Inactivation of Gish resulted in aberrant JNK pathway activation and excessive production of multiple cytokines and growth factors that drive ISC overproliferation. Mechanistically, Gish restricts JNK activation by phosphorylating and destabilizing a small GTPase, Rho1. Interestingly, we find that Gish expression is down-regulated in aging guts and that increasing Gish activity in aging guts can restore tissue homeostasis. Hence, our study identifies Gish/CK1γ as a novel regulator of Rho1 and gatekeeper of tissue homeostasis whose activity is compromised in aging guts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201909103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7147094PMC
April 2020

The Paradox Association between Smoking and Blood Pressure among Half Million Chinese People.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 04 20;17(8). Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Environmental Research Center, Duke Kunshan University, Kunshan 215316, China.

: The association between smoking and blood pressure (BP) has been explored extensively, yet the results remain inconclusive. Using real-world evidence of a large Chinese population, we examine the effect of smoking on BP levels. : We utilize half a million adults from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study with baseline sampling collected between 2004 and 2008. Multivariable linear regression analyses are used to estimate linear regression coefficients of smoking for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). 459,815 participants (180,236 males and 279,579 females) are included in the analysis. Regular smoking is significantly associated with lower SBP (-0.57 mm Hg, < 0.001) and DBP (-0.35 mm Hg, < 0.001) when compared with non-smoking in men. Additionally, SBP and DBP decrease significantly among all groups of different smoking status in women ( < 0.001). Additionally, pack-years show negative associations with SBP and DBP in both men and women. Further analysis shows the interaction of smoking and alcohol consumption is associated with an increase of SBP and DBP (men: 2.38 mm Hg and 0.89 mm Hg; women: 5.21 mm Hg and 2.62 mm Hg) among co-regular smokers and regular drinkers when compared with regular smokers who are not exposed to alcohol consumption. A negative association between smoking and BP is observed. However, the interaction between smoking and alcohol consumption is associated with BP increase. The findings suggest the importance of considering smoking and alcohol consumption in BP control in addition to antihypertensive treatment in clinical and public health practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7215755PMC
April 2020

[Down-regulated expression of Sall1 and enhanced expression of inflammatory factors in dorsal horn of spinal cord of mice with sciatic nerve branch selective injury].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2020 Feb;36(2):111-116

Institute of Immunology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212000, China. *Corresponding authors, E-mail:

Objective To investigate the expression and distribution of spalt-like transcription factor 1 (Sall1) in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn of mice with sciatic nerve branch selective injury. Methods BALB/c mice aged 6~8 weeks old were randomly divided into a control group, a sham operation group and a sciatic nerve branch selective injury group. The mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) was measured on the 1st day before the establishment of the model and on the 3rd, 7th, 10th and 14th day after operation. On the 3rd, 7th, 10th and 14th day after operation, the dorsal horn was collected from the L4-6 segments of the affected spinal cord. The expression of Sall1 and the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) on the 7th day after operation were detected by real-time quantitative PCR. The expression of Sall1 protein was determined by Western blot analysis at the above four time points. Immunohistochemical staining and semi-quantitative analysis were performed to analyze the expression and distribution of Sall1 in the spinal cord on the 3rd, 7th, 10th and 14th day after operation. Results Compared with the control group and the sham operation group, MWT of the SNI group decreased on the 3rd, 7th, 10th and 14th day after operation. Compared with the control group, the mRNA and protein levels of Sall1 in SNI group decreased on the 7th, 10th and 14th day after operation. The mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α increased at 7th day after operation. Sall1 in the control group and SNI group was mainly distributed in the spinal dorsal horn, and the expression in the SNI group was significantly lower than that in the control group at all time points except for the 3th day after operation. Conclusion Sall1 is distributed in the dorsal horn of spinal cord. Sciatic nerve branch selective injury could decrease the expression of Sall1 and increase the expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA in the dorsal horn of lumbar spinal cord.
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February 2020