Publications by authors named "Jiang Du"

570 Publications

A transcranial magnetic stimulation protocol for decreasing the craving of methamphetamine-dependent patients.

STAR Protoc 2021 Dec 10;2(4):100944. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique. Many substance use disorders lack effective treatments, and TMS is expected to reduce cravings and risk of relapse by regulating brain function. Here, we introduce three alternative TMS settings and specific operations to interfere with methamphetamine use disorders. Theoretically, this protocol can also be applied to diseases with similar brain damage characteristics. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Chen et al. (2020).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xpro.2021.100944DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8603307PMC
December 2021

CRISPR-Cas9-Mediated Gene Therapy in Neurological Disorders.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Nov 23. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

School of Life Science and Technology, Henan Mental Hospital, Xinxiang Medical University, Number 601, Jinsui Road, Xinxiang, 453003, Henan, China.

Neurological disorders are primarily diseases with sophisticated etiology that are always refractory and recrudescent. The major obstruction to effective therapies for neurological disorders is the poor understanding of their pathogenic mechanisms. CRISPR-Cas9 technology, which allows precise and effective gene editing in almost any cell type and organism, is accelerating the pace of basic biological research. An increasing number of groups are focusing on uncovering the molecular mechanisms of neurological disorders and developing novel therapies using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. This review highlights the application of CRISPR-Cas9 technology in the treatment of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and/or frontotemporal dementia, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Dravet syndrome, epilepsy, Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Hopefully, it will improve our understanding of neurological disorders and give insights into future treatments for neurological disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-021-02638-wDOI Listing
November 2021

2D amorphous bi-metallic NiFe nitrides for a high-efficiency oxygen evolution reaction.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Nov 23. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, Henan, China.

Two-dimensional bi-metallic NiFe nitrides (2D NiFe-N) are successfully synthesized in the designed ternary deep eutectic solvents under the guidance of DFT calculations. Taking advantage of the unique properties of large-size, ultrathin amorphous 2D structure and modulable electronic structure, the NiFe-N exhibits extraordinary OER performance with relatively low overpotential of 238 mV at 10 mA cm and durable stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc05430aDOI Listing
November 2021

Recurrent PTPRZ1-MET fusion and a high occurrence rate of MET exon 14 skipping in brain metastases.

Cancer Sci 2021 Nov 23. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Department of Molecular Neuropathology, Department of Neuropathology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Identifying molecular features is an essential component of the management and targeted therapy of brain metastases (BMs). The molecular features are different between primary lung cancers and BMs of lung cancer. Here we report the DNA and RNA mutational profiles of 43 pathological samples of BMs. In addition to previously reported mutational events associated with targeted therapy, PTPRZ1-MET, which was previously exclusively identified in glioma, was present in two cases of BMs of lung cancer. In addition, MET exon 14 skipping may be more common (6/37 cases) in BMs of lung cancer than the frequency previously reported in lung cancer. These findings highlight the clinical significance of targeted DNA plus RNA sequencing for BMs and suggest PTPRZ1-MET and MET exon 14 skipping as critical molecular events that may serve as targets of targeted therapy in BMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.15211DOI Listing
November 2021

Emergence, Evolution, and Pathogenicity of Influenza A(H7N4) Virus in Shorebirds, China.

J Virol 2021 Nov 17:JVI0171721. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

College of Wildlife and Protected Area, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China.

A 2-year surveillance study of influenza A viruses in migratory birds was conducted to understand the subsequent risk during the migratory seasons in Dandong Yalu River Estuary Coastal Wetland National Nature Reserve, Liaoning Province, China, a major stopover site on the East Asian-Australasian flyway. Overall, we isolated 27 influenza A viruses with multiple subtypes, including H3N8 (n=2), H4N6 (n=2), H4N7 (n=2), H7N4 (n=9), H7N7 (n=1), H10N7 (n=7), and H13N6 (n=4). Particularly, a novel reassortant influenza A(H7N4) virus was first identified in a woman and her backyard poultry flock in Jiangsu Province, China, posing a serious threat to public health. Here, we describe the genetic characterization and pathogenicity of the nine influenza A(H7N4) isolates. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that complex viral gene flow occurred among Asian countries. We also demonstrated a similar evolutionary trajectory of the surface genes of the A(H7N4) isolates and Jiangsu human-related A(H7N4) viruses. Our A(H7N4) isolates exhibited differing degrees of virulence in mice, suggesting a potential risk to other mammalian species, including humans. We revealed multiple mutations that might affect viral virulence in mice. Our report highlights the importance and needs for the long-term surveillance of avian influenza virus in migratory birds, combined with domestic poultry surveillance along migratory routes and flyways, and thereby develop measures to manage potential health threats. The H7 subtype avian influenza viruses, such as H7N2, H7N3, H7N4, H7N7, and H7N9, were documented being capable of infecting humans, and the H7 subtype low pathogenic avian influenza viruses are capable of mutating into highly pathogenic avian influenza; therefore, they pose a serious threat to public health. Here, we investigated the evolutionary history, molecular characteristics, and pathogenicity of shorebird-origin influenza A(H7N4) viruses, showing a similar evolutionary trajectory with Jiangsu human A(H7N4) viruses in HA and NA genes. Moreover, our isolates exhibited variable virulence (including moderate virulence) in mice, suggesting a potential risk to other mammalian species, including humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01717-21DOI Listing
November 2021

Region-Enhancing Network for Semantic Segmentation of Remote-Sensing Imagery.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Nov 3;21(21). Epub 2021 Nov 3.

State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Aerospace Information Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

Semantic segmentation for high-resolution remote-sensing imagery (HRRSI) has become increasingly popular in machine vision in recent years. Most of the state-of-the-art methods for semantic segmentation of HRRSI usually emphasize the strong learning ability of deep convolutional neural network to model the contextual relationship in the image, which takes too much consideration on every pixel in images and subsequently causes the problem of overlearning. Annotation errors and easily confused features can also lead to the confusion problem while using the pixel-based methods. Therefore, we propose a new semantic segmentation network-the region-enhancing network (RE-Net)-to emphasize the regional information instead of pixels to solve the above problems. RE-Net introduces the regional information into the base network, to enhance the regional integrity of images and thus reduce misclassification. Specifically, the regional context learning procedure (RCLP) can learn the context relationship from the perspective of regions. The region correcting procedure (RCP) uses the pixel aggregation feature to recalibrate the pixel features in each region. In addition, another simple intra-network multi-scale attention module is introduced to select features at different scales by the size of the region. A large number of comparative experiments on four different public datasets demonstrate that the proposed RE-Net performs better than most of the state-of-the-art ones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21217316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8587896PMC
November 2021

Layer-by-layer coated hybrid nanoparticles with pH-sensitivity for drug delivery to treat acute lung infection.

Drug Deliv 2021 Dec;28(1):2460-2468

Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Bacteria-induced acute lung infection (ALI) is a severe burden to human health, which could cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and kill the patient rapidly. Therefore, it is of great significance to develop effective nanomedicine and therapeutic approach to eliminate the invading bacteria in the lung and manage ALI. In this study, we design a layer-by-layer (LbL) liposome-polymer hybrid nanoparticle (HNP) with a pH-triggered drug release profile to deliver antibiotics for the eradication of bacteria to treat ALI. The liposome is prepared by the lipid film hydration method with a homogenous hydrodynamic diameter and low polydispersity index (PDI). The antibiotic spectinomycin is efficiently loaded into the liposomal core through the pH-gradient method. The pH-sensitive polycationic polymer poly(-amino ester) (PBAE) and polyanionic sodium alginate (NaAIg) layers are decorated on the surface of liposome in sequence electrostatic interaction, resulting in spectinomycin-loaded layer-by-layer hybrid nanoparticles (denoted as [email protected]) which have reasonable particle size, high stability, prolonged circulation time, and pH-triggered drug release profile. The results demonstrate that [email protected] can efficiently induce the death of bacteria with low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against () and drug-resistant MRSA BAA40 strains. The results reveal that [email protected] can eradicate the invading MRSA BAA40 with improved antimicrobial efficacy and low side-effect for ALI treatment. This study not only reports a promising nanomedicine but also provides an effective method to prepare nanoplatforms for drug delivery and controlled release.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10717544.2021.2000676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8592614PMC
December 2021

Prognostic Value of lncRNA DRAIC and miR-3940-3p in Lung Adenocarcinoma and Their Effect on Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell Progression.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 5;13:8367-8376. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, 110001, Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is a most common malignant tumor, even worse for diseases with relatively poor prognosis. Non-coding RNAs have the potential to be biomarkers for the prognosis of various cancers. LncRNA DRAIC and miR-3940-3p have been screened as dysregulated RNAs in LUAD. The clinical significance and biological function of lncRNA DRAIC and miR-3940-3p in LUAD were assessed in this study.

Patients And Methods: A total of 122 cases of LUAD patients with complete clinical information were enrolled. The expression levels of lncRNA DRAIC and miR-3940-3p were determined via RT-qPCR in LUAD tissues and cells. The relationship between lncRNA DRAIC or miR-3940-3p expression and the clinicopathological features of patients was analyzed based on the Pearson Chi-square test. For the prognostic value, the Kaplan-Meier plot and multi-variate Cox proportional regression analysis were introduced. Finally, the effect of lnc DRAIC and miR-3940-3p on the LUAD cellular function was investigated by CCK-8 and Transwell assay.

Results: lnc DRAIC was upregulated in LUAD tissues and cells, but miR-3940-3p was downregulated. Both of them showed significant associations with and TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, and a poor prognosis. Lnc-DRAIC and miR-3940-3p have the potential as independent prognostic factors for LUAD. Furthermore, the inhibition of lnc DRAIC can inhibit cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of LUAD partly as a ceRNA of miR-3940-3p.

Conclusion: lncRNA DRAIC/miR-3940-3p axis may be involved in the progression of LUAD and can be developed to promising prognostic factors, which may provide new insights into the treatment of LUAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S320616DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8577463PMC
November 2021

Deciphering intratumoral heterogeneity using integrated clonal tracking and single-cell transcriptome analyses.

Nat Commun 2021 11 11;12(1):6522. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Department of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Eli and Edythe Broad Center for Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, USA.

Cellular heterogeneity is a major cause of treatment resistance in cancer. Despite recent advances in single-cell genomic and transcriptomic sequencing, it remains difficult to relate measured molecular profiles to the cellular activities underlying cancer. Here, we present an integrated experimental system that connects single cell gene expression to heterogeneous cancer cell growth, metastasis, and treatment response. Our system integrates single cell transcriptome profiling with DNA barcode based clonal tracking in patient-derived xenograft models. We show that leukemia cells exhibiting unique gene expression respond to different chemotherapies in distinct but consistent manners across multiple mice. In addition, we uncover a form of leukemia expansion that is spatially confined to the bone marrow of single anatomical sites and driven by cells with distinct gene expression. Our integrated experimental system can interrogate the molecular and cellular basis of the intratumoral heterogeneity underlying disease progression and treatment resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-26771-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8586369PMC
November 2021

Dynamic Gesture Recognition Using Surface EMG Signals Based on Multi-Stream Residual Network.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 22;9:779353. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Research Center for Biomimetic Robot and Intelligent Measurement and Control, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Gesture recognition technology is widely used in the flexible and precise control of manipulators in the assisted medical field. Our MResLSTM algorithm can effectively perform dynamic gesture recognition. The result of surface EMG signal decoding is applied to the controller, which can improve the fluency of artificial hand control. Much current gesture recognition research using sEMG has focused on static gestures. In addition, the accuracy of recognition depends on the extraction and selection of features. However, Static gesture research cannot meet the requirements of natural human-computer interaction and dexterous control of manipulators. Therefore, a multi-stream residual network (MResLSTM) is proposed for dynamic hand movement recognition. This study aims to improve the accuracy and stability of dynamic gesture recognition. Simultaneously, it can also advance the research on the smooth control of the Manipulator. We combine the residual model and the convolutional short-term memory model into a unified framework. The architecture extracts spatiotemporal features from two aspects: global and deep, and combines feature fusion to retain essential information. The strategy of pointwise group convolution and channel shuffle is used to reduce the number of network calculations. A dataset is constructed containing six dynamic gestures for model training. The experimental results show that on the same recognition model, the gesture recognition effect of fusion of sEMG signal and acceleration signal is better than that of only using sEMG signal. The proposed approach obtains competitive performance on our dataset with the recognition accuracies of 93.52%, achieving state-of-the-art performance with 89.65% precision on the Ninapro DB1 dataset. Our bionic calculation method is applied to the controller, which can realize the continuity of human-computer interaction and the flexibility of manipulator control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2021.779353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8569623PMC
October 2021

Comparative Study of the Gut Microbiota Among Four Different Marine Mammals in an Aquarium.

Front Microbiol 2021 21;12:769012. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Marine Mammal and Marine Bioacoustics Laboratory, Institute of Deep-sea Science and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sanya, China.

Despite an increasing appreciation in the importance of host-microbe interactions in ecological and evolutionary processes, information on the gut microbial communities of some marine mammals is still lacking. Moreover, whether diet, environment, or host phylogeny has the greatest impact on microbial community structure is still unknown. To fill part of this knowledge gap, we exploited a natural experiment provided by an aquarium with belugas () affiliated with family Monodontidae, Pacific white-sided dolphins () and common bottlenose dolphin () affiliated with family Delphinidae, and Cape fur seals () affiliated with family Otariidae. Results show significant differences in microbial community composition of whales, dolphins, and fur seals and indicate that host phylogeny (family level) plays the most important role in shaping the microbial communities, rather than food and environment. In general, the gut microbial communities of dolphins had significantly lower diversity compared to that of whales and fur seals. Overall, the gut microbial communities were mainly composed of Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria, together with some from Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, and Epsilonbacteraeota. However, specific bacterial lineages were differentially distributed among the marine mammal groups. For instance, , , and were the dominant bacterial lineages in the gut of belugas, while for Cape fur seals, and were the main bacterial lineages. Moreover, gut microbial communities in both Pacific white-sided dolphins and common bottlenose dolphins were dominated by a number of pathogenic bacteria, including , , and , reflecting the poor health condition of these animals. Although there is a growing recognition of the role microorganisms play in the gut of marine mammals, current knowledge about these microbial communities is still severely lacking. Large-scale research studies should be undertaken to reveal the roles played by the gut microbiota of different marine mammal species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.769012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8567075PMC
October 2021

Aberrant expression of might serve as a candidate target for cocaine-induced psychosis: insights from bioinformatics analysis and microarray validation.

Gen Psychiatr 2021 11;34(5):e100587. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Shanghai Drug Abuse Treatment Center, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Cocaine use disorder (CUD) and associated psychosis are major public health issues worldwide, along with high relapse outcome and limited treatment options. Exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying cocaine-induced psychosis (CIP) could supply integrated insights for understanding the pathogenic mechanism and potential novel therapeutic targets.

Aims: The aim of the study was to explore common alterations of CUD-schizophrenia-target genes and identify core risk genes contributing to CIP through data mining and network pharmacology approach.

Methods: Target genes of CUD were obtained from GeneCards, Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, Swiss Target Prediction platform and PubChem. Schizophrenia-related target genes were derived from DisGeNET, GeneCards, MalaCards and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man databases. Then, the overlap genes of these two sets were regarded as risk genes contributing to CIP. Based on these CUD-schizophrenia-target genes, functional annotation and pathway analysis were performed using the clusterProfiler package in R. Protein-protein interaction network construction and module detection were performed based on the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING) database and Cytoscape software. Gene expression datasets GSE54839 and GSE93577 were applied for data validation and diagnostic capacity evaluation of interested hub genes.

Results: A total of 165 CUD-schizophrenia-target genes were obtained. These genes were mainly contributing to chemical synaptic transmission, neuropeptide hormone activity, postsynaptic membrane and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway. Network analysis and validation analysis indicated that might serve as an important risk gene in mediating CIP.

Conclusions: This study generates a holistic view of CIP and provides a basis for the identification of potential CUD-schizophrenia-target genes involved in the development of CIP. The abnormal expression of would be a candidate therapeutic target underlying the pathogenesis of CUD and associated CIP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gpsych-2021-100587DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8506846PMC
October 2021

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV)-host interactome screen identifies viral nucleoprotein-associated host factors as potential antiviral targets.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2021 1;19:5568-5577. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is an emerging tick-borne virus that causes severe infection in humans characterized by an acute febrile illness with thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic complications, and a mortality rate of up to 30%. Understanding on virus-host protein interactions may facilitate the identification of druggable antiviral targets. Herein, we utilized liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to characterize the SFTSV interactome in human embryonic kidney-derived permanent culture (HEK-293T) cells. We identified 445 host proteins that co-precipitated with the viral glycoprotein N, glycoprotein C, nucleoprotein, or nonstructural protein. A network of SFTSV-host protein interactions based on reduced viral fitness affected upon host factor down-regulation was then generated. Screening of the DrugBank database revealed numerous drug compounds that inhibited the prioritized host factors in this SFTSV interactome. Among these drug compounds, the clinically approved artenimol (an antimalarial) and omacetaxine mepesuccinate (a cephalotaxine) were found to exhibit anti-SFTSV activity . The higher selectivity of artenimol (71.83) than omacetaxine mepesuccinate (8.00) highlights artenimol's potential for further antiviral development. Mechanistic evaluation showed that artenimol interfered with the interaction between the SFTSV nucleoprotein and the host glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI), and that omacetaxine mepesuccinate interfered with the interaction between the viral nucleoprotein with the host ribosomal protein L3 (RPL3). In summary, the novel interactomic data in this study revealed the virus-host protein interactions in SFTSV infection and facilitated the discovery of potential anti-SFTSV treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2021.09.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8523828PMC
October 2021

Identification and genome analysis of a novel picornavirus from captive belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) in China.

Sci Rep 2021 Oct 25;11(1):21018. Epub 2021 Oct 25.

Key Laboratory of Tropical Translational Medicine of Ministry of Education, Hainan Medical University, Haikou, 571199, China.

The discovery of new viruses is important for predicting their potential threats to the health of humans and other animals. A novel picornavirus was identified from oral, throat, and anal swab samples collected from belugas (Delphinapterus leucas), from Dalian Sun Asia Tourism Holding Co., China, between January and December 2018, using a metagenomics approach. The genome of this novel PicoV-HMU-1 strain was 8197 nucleotides (nt) in length, with a open reading frame (from 1091 to 8074 nt) that encoded a polyprotein precursor of 2328 amino acids. Moreover, the genomic length and GC content of PicoV-HMU-1 were within the ranges found in other picornaviruses, and the genome organization was also similar. Nevertheless, PicoV-HMU-1 had a lower amino acid identity and distinct host species compared with other members of the Picornaviridae family. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on the P1 and 3D amino acid sequences of PicoV-HMU-1 along with representative members of the Picornaviridae family, which showed that PicoV-HMU-1 was related to unclassified bat picornaviruses groups. These findings suggest that the PicoV-HMU-1 strain represents a potentially novel genus of picornavirus. These data can enhance our understanding of the picornavirus genetic diversity and evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-00605-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8549006PMC
October 2021

In Silico Structure-Based Design of Antiviral Peptides Targeting the Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Glycoprotein Gn.

Viruses 2021 Oct 11;13(10). Epub 2021 Oct 11.

State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China.

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is an emerging tick-borne bunyavirus in Asia that causes severe disease. Despite its clinical importance, treatment options for SFTSV infection remains limited. The SFTSV glycoprotein Gn plays a major role in mediating virus entry into host cells and is therefore a potential antiviral target. In this study, we employed an in silico structure-based strategy to design novel cyclic antiviral peptides that target the SFTSV glycoprotein Gn. Among the cyclic peptides, HKU-P1 potently neutralizes the SFTSV virion. Combinatorial treatment with HKU-P1 and the broad-spectrum viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor favipiravir exhibited synergistic antiviral effects in vitro. The in silico peptide design platform in this study may facilitate the generation of novel antiviral peptides for other emerging viruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13102047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8539749PMC
October 2021

2D Material Nanofiltration Membranes: From Fundamental Understandings to Rational Design.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Oct 19:e2102493. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450001, P. R. China.

Since the discovery of 2D materials, 2D material nanofiltration (NF) membranes have attracted great attention and are being developed with a tremendously fast pace, due to their energy efficiency and cost effectiveness for water purification. The most attractive aspect for 2D material NF membranes is that, anomalous water and ion permeation phenomena have been constantly observed because of the presence of the severely confined nanocapillaries (<2 nm) in the membrane, leading to its great potential in achieving superior overall performance, e.g., high water flux, high rejection rates of ions, and high resistance to swelling. Hence, fundamental understandings of such water and ion transport behaviors are of great significance for the continuous development of 2D material NF membranes. In this work, the microscopic understandings developed up to date on 2D material NF membranes regarding the abnormal transport phenomena are reviewed, including ultrafast water and ion permeation rates with the magnitude several orders higher than that predicted by conventional diffusion behavior, ion dehydration, ionic Coulomb blockade, ion-ion correlations, etc. The state-of-the-art structural designs for 2D material NF membranes are also reviewed. Discussion and future perspectives are provided highlighting the rational design of 2D material membrane structures in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202102493DOI Listing
October 2021

Optimizing Diffusion-weighted MRI of Peripheral Nerves.

Radiology 2021 Oct 19:211907. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

From the Department of Radiology, University of California, 9500 Gilman Dr, San Diego, CA 92093.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2021211907DOI Listing
October 2021

Effectiveness of E-SBIRT intervention in community healthcare institution in China: study proposal for a randomised controlled trial.

Gen Psychiatr 2021 24;34(5):e100486. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Many studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) in addressing substance use problem. However, owing to the shortage of counsellors, it has not been widely used in China. With the development of smart medicine, we developed a web-based electronic SBIRT (E-SBIRT) program and explored the effectiveness of E-SBIRT in reducing substance use in China.

Methods: A randomised controlled trial will be conducted in primary healthcare institutions. Four primary healthcare institutions will be selected and randomly divided into an intervention group and a control group (each institution will recruit 60 participants, and in total, 240 participants will be recruited). The control group will get a pamphlet of drug abuse prevention, and the intervention group will get the E-SBIRT intervention and the pamphlet. Both groups will receive baseline and follow-up assessment at 1 and 3 months after the intervention. The primary outcome is the change in scores on the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Use Involvement Screening Test, and the secondary outcomes include changes in motivation, depression, anxiety, positive/negative emotion, self-esteem, addiction knowledge and addiction severity index.

Conclusions: If the 'E-SBIRT' program is found to be effective, it will be an accessible, affordable and widely implementable intervention to help participants at moderate risk of substance use to reduce their consumption. The potential benefit is to provide early intervention to high-risk patients in time and reduce the harmful consequences to individuals and society.

Trial Registration Number: NCT03452241.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gpsych-2021-100486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8475130PMC
September 2021

Using a reactive emulsifier to construct simple and convenient nanocapsules loaded with lambda-cyhalothrin to achieve efficient foliar delivery and insecticidal synergies.

Nanoscale 2021 Oct 1;13(37):15647-15658. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, Shandong 271018, P. R. China.

Nanocapsules are a promising controlled release formulation for foliar pest control. However, the complicated process and high cost limit widespread use in agriculture, so a simpler and more convenient preparation system is urgently needed. Meanwhile, under complex field conditions, the advantageous mechanism of the nanosize effect and sustained release have no quantitative and detailed study. In this study, a reactive emulsifier (OP-10) is used to participate in the interfacial polymerization of the nanoemulsion, and polymer nanocapsules loaded with lambda-cyhalothrin ([email protected]) are quickly and easily prepared to study the efficacy and synergistic mechanism of foliar pest control. As a result, the nanocapsule is about 150 nm with a stable core-shell structure. The nanoscale state increases the distribution and adhesion of the particles on the leaf surface, which increases the contact efficiency of pesticides under the different physiological stages and behavioral activities of the target organism. The shell structure provides sustained release characteristics and increases the UV resistance by about 2.5 times for pesticides. Compared with microcapsules loaded with lambda-cyhalothrin ([email protected]), [email protected] not only shows rapid and synergistic insecticidal efficacy but also provides sustained insecticidal efficacy. The mortality of NCS is 3.4 times that of the nanosized emulsion in water (NEW) at the lowest concentration (0.5 mg L), and the control efficacy remained 77.3% after 7 days. Compared with NEW, [email protected] provides excellent field efficacy, while LC for zebrafish is only 0.68 times without increasing the aquatic toxicity risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr04381aDOI Listing
October 2021

Myoglobin and troponin as prognostic factors in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

Med Clin (Engl Ed) 2021 Aug 20;157(4):164-171. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai General Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Background: The outbreak of novel coronavirus pneumonia 2019 (COVID-19) has caused millions of deaths worldwide. It is well documented that troponin predicts the prognosis of patients. Myoglobin is not only an important marker of myocardial injury, but it indicates systemic muscle damage. However, its relationship with COVID-19 was rarely reported. The present study compared the predictive value of troponin and myoglobin on the final prognosis of COVID-19 patients by analyzing the clinical characteristics and serum levels of myoglobin and troponin in severe/critical COVID-19 patients.

Methods: We enrolled 499 consecutive eligible hospitalized patients with severe/critical COVID-19 from February 14 to March 24, 2020 at Leishenshan Hospital, Wuhan, China. Clinical characteristics and laboratory data were collected and compared between the patients who died and survived. We analyzed the receiver operating characteristic curves of myoglobin and troponin. Then, the patients were divided into myo group, myo group, tro group, and tro group, and survival curves were analyzed. The prognostic predictable values of myoglobin and troponin were further analyzed using Cox multifactorial analysis.

Results: Myoglobin and troponin were significantly elevated in the death group (134.4 [interquartile range (IQR) 24.80, 605] vs 38.02 [IQR 3.87, 11.73] ng/ml,  < 0.001), and troponin was also significantly elevated in the death group (0.01 [IQR 0.01, 0.01] vs 0.04 [IQR 0.02, 0.15] ng/ml,  < 0.001). The ROC curves demonstrated that the area under the curve when using myoglobin to predict patient death was 0.911, with a threshold of 1.17, which was equivalent to troponin. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed a significantly lower survival curve in the myo group than the myo group. Multifactor Cox survival analysis showed that troponin was no longer significant (HR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.92-1.03,  = 0.507), but elevated myoglobin was an independent predictor of death in COVID-19 patients (HR = 1.001, 95% CI 1.001-1.002,  < 0.001). The analysis of the Cox model for predicting patient death and plotting decision curves suggested that the single factor myoglobin model was superior to troponin, and the predictive value of the multifactor model was superior to the single-factor analyses.

Conclusions: In severe/critical COVID-19 patients, myoglobin and troponin were predictors of mortality and the probability of conversion to critical illness, and myoglobin may be superior to troponin for predictive value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medcle.2021.01.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8378829PMC
August 2021

Dynamic Gesture Recognition Algorithm Based on 3D Convolutional Neural Network.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2021 16;2021:4828102. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Hydroelectric Machinery Design & Maintenance, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002, China.

Gesture recognition is one of the important ways of human-computer interaction, which is mainly detected by visual technology. The temporal and spatial features are extracted by convolution of the video containing gesture. However, compared with the convolution calculation of a single image, multiframe image of dynamic gestures has more computation, more complex feature extraction, and more network parameters, which affects the recognition efficiency and real-time performance of the model. To solve above problems, a dynamic gesture recognition model based on CBAM-C3D is proposed. Key frame extraction technology, multimodal joint training, and network optimization with BN layer are used for making the network performance better. The experiments show that the recognition accuracy of the proposed 3D convolutional neural network combined with attention mechanism reaches 72.4% on EgoGesture dataset, which is improved greatly compared with the current main dynamic gesture recognition methods, and the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/4828102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8384521PMC
August 2021

Modulation of Methamphetamine-Related Attention Bias by Intermittent Theta-Burst Stimulation on Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 3;9:667476. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Previous studies have identified the treatment effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on cravings of patients with methamphetamine use disorder (MUD). However, the mechanism underlying the treatment effect remains largely unknown. A potential candidate mechanism could be that rTMS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) modulates the attention bias to methamphetamine-related cues. The purpose of this study is therefore to determine the modulation of rTMS on methamphetamine-related attention bias and the corresponding electrophysiological changes.

Methods: Forty-nine patients with severe MUD were included for analysis. The subjects were randomized to receive the active intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) or sham iTBS targeting DLPFC for 20 sessions. Participants performed the Addiction Stroop Task before and after the treatment while being recorded by a 64-channel electroencephalogram. Baseline characteristics were collected through the Addiction Severity Index.

Results: Post-treatment evaluations showed a reduced error rate in discriminating the color of methamphetamine words in the active iTBS group compared with the sham iTBS group. Following rTMS treatment, we found the significant time-by-group effect for the N1 amplitude (methamphetamine words > neutral words) and P3 latency (methamphetamine words > neutral words). The change of N1 amplitude was positively correlated with cravings in the active group. Moreover, reduced power of neural oscillation in the beta band, manifesting at frontal central areas, was also found in the active group.

Conclusion: This study suggests that attention bias and the beta oscillation during the attentional processing of methamphetamine words in patients with MUD could be modulated by iTBS applied to left DLPFC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.667476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8370756PMC
August 2021

MRI chemical shift artifact produced by center-out radial sampling of k-space: a potential pitfall in clinical diagnosis.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Aug;11(8):3677-3683

Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.

Background: Center-out radial sampling of k-space in magnetic resonance imaging employs a different direction for each readout. Off-resonance artifacts (including those produced by chemical shift between water and fat) found with this type of sampling are usually described as blurring, however more specific characterization of these artifacts can be ascertained from the fact that their point spread function is ring-shaped. This produces effects that differ from those seen with Cartesian sampling of k-space. Experiments were designed to demonstrate the origin of these artifacts and a volunteer was imaged to show them.

Methods: Two phantoms containing oil in a syringe and an annulus of oil surrounded by water were scanned with a range of bandwidths from 62.5 down to 4 kHz. In a human volunteer, head, pelvis and spine images were obtained with bandwidths of 62.5 and 4 kHz.

Results: The two phantoms showed displacement of the oil signal away from the center into the region of the surrounding water. The effect increased as the bandwidth was decreased. In the head of the volunteer, signal from fat in red bone marrow in the skull was displaced centrally and peripherally relative to water within the marrow, and appeared in the region between the skull and the brain, as well as in the surrounding scalp. Displacements of the former type simulated subdural hematomas. Displacement of perivesical fat signal centrally over the wall of the bladder simulated bladder tumor, and displacement of fat signal from red bone marrow in the lumbar spine to the intervertebral discs simulated their cartilaginous endplates.

Conclusions: Center-out radial artifacts are important to recognize on clinical images since they may mimic anatomy and simulate pathology. The article shows how these artifacts originate, includes examples, and describes how the artifacts differ from Cartesian chemical shift artifacts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-21-115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245944PMC
August 2021

Serum concentrations of neonicotinoids and their characteristic metabolites in elderly population from South China: Association with osteoporosis.

Environ Res 2022 Jan 27;203:111772. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

The Fifth Affiliated Hospital (Heyuan Shenhe People's Hospital) Jinan University, Heyuan, 517000, China; Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China. Electronic address:

Neonicotinoids (NEOs) are extensively applied in global agricultural production for pest control but have adverse effects on human health. In this study, the concentrations of six NEOs and three characteristic metabolites were investigated by collecting 200 serum samples from an elderly population in China. Results showed that the NEOs and their metabolites were widely detected (89%-98 %) in the serum samples from the osteoporosis (OP) (n = 120) and non-OP (n = 80) population, and their median concentrations ranged from 0.04 ng/mL to 5.99 ng/mL and 0.01 ng/mL to 2.02 ng/mL, respectively. N-desmethyl-acetamiprid (ACE-dm) was the most abundant NEOs in the serum samples. Gender-related differences were found in concentrations of most NEOs and their metabolites in serum, with males having higher target analytes than females. Significantly (p < 0.05) positive correlations were observed among most NEO concentrations, suggesting that exposure source of these substances is common or related. However, associations between the concentrations of characteristic metabolites and their corresponding NEOs were insignificant, probably because the exogenous intake are the primary sources of metabolites of NEOs instead of the internal biotransformation. The associations between NEO concentrations (i.e., ACE-dm, dinotefuran, and olefin-imidacloprid) and OP (OR = 2.33-6.92, 95 % CI = 0.37-16.9, p-trend < 0.05) indicate that NEO exposure is correlated with increased odds of prevalent OP. This study is the first to document the profiles of NEOs and their metabolites in serum samples collected from an elderly population in South China and examine the relationships between NEO exposure and OP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111772DOI Listing
January 2022

Nature of glutamate alterations in substance dependence: A systematic review and meta-analysis of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2021 09 7;315:111329. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 600 Wan Ping Nan Road, Shanghai 200030, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai, PR China; Institute of Psychological and Behavioral Science, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology (CEBSIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Animal studies have reported the brain glutamatergic dysfunction in substance dependence. However, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) studies of glutamate in substance-dependent patients published contradicting results. In order to investigate the characteristics of brain glutamatergic alterations in substance-dependent patients, we conducted systematic reviews and meta-analyses of H-MRS studies that have investigated the glutamate, glutamine, and Glx (glutamate + glutamine) concentration in substance-dependent patients. Multiple databases were searched until Sep 10, 2020. Twenty-nine studies comprising 982 patients and 787 controls were included. There was significantly decreased glutamate level in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in patients compared with controls. Higher glutamate levels in medial prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia region were also demonstrated in patients compared with controls. Subgroup analyses based on the substance type and abstinence period (short vs medium-term abstinence period) were performed. The results revealed Glx and glutamate concentrations in all investigated brain regions were not different in patients with any types of substance dependence compared with controls. The abstinence period had no effect on the glutamate levels. In summary, substance dependence is associated with glutamatergic dysfunction of prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia. Present findings partially support the hypothesis that addiction is associated with abnormal brain glutamatergic neurotransmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2021.111329DOI Listing
September 2021

Hollow structures as drug carriers: Recognition, response, and release.

Nano Res 2021 Jul 8:1-19. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 China.

Hollow structures have demonstrated great potential in drug delivery owing to their privileged structure, such as high surface-to-volume ratio, low density, large cavities, and hierarchical pores. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of hollow structured materials applied in targeting recognition, smart response, and drug release, and we have addressed the possible chemical factors and reactions in these three processes. The advantages of hollow nanostructures are summarized as follows: hollow cavity contributes to large loading capacity; a tailored structure helps controllable drug release; variable compounds adapt to flexible application; surface modification facilitates smart responsive release. Especially, because the multiple physical barriers and chemical interactions can be induced by multishells, hollow multishelled structure is considered as a promising material with unique loading and releasing properties. Finally, we conclude this review with some perspectives on the future research and development of the hollow structures as drug carriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12274-021-3595-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8262765PMC
July 2021

High contrast cartilaginous endplate imaging using a 3D adiabatic inversion-recovery-prepared fat-saturated ultrashort echo time (3D IR-FS-UTE) sequence.

NMR Biomed 2021 10 5;34(10):e4579. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, USA.

Ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequences can image tissues with transverse T  /T  * relaxations too short to be efficiently observed on routine clinical MRI sequences, such as the vertebral body cartilaginous endplate (CEP). Here, we describe a 3D adiabatic inversion-recovery-prepared fat-saturated ultrashort echo time (3D IR-FS-UTE) sequence to highlight the CEP of vertebral bodies in comparison to the intervertebral disc (IVD) and bone marrow fat (BF) at 3 T. The IR-FS-UTE sequence used a 3D UTE sequence combined with an adiabatic IR preparation pulse centered in the middle of the water and fat peaks, while a fat saturation module was used to suppress the signal from fat. A slab-selective half pulse was used for signal excitation, and a 3D center-out cones trajectory was used for more efficient data sampling. The 3D IR-FS-UTE sequence was applied to an ex vivo human spine sample, as well as the spines of six healthy volunteers and of three patients with back pain. Bright continuous lines representing signal from CEP were found in healthy IVDs. The measured contrast-to-noise ratio was 18.5 ± 4.9 between the CEP and BF, and 20.3 ± 4.15 between the CEP and IVD for the six volunteers. Abnormal IVDs showed CEP discontinuity or irregularity in the sample and patient studies. In conclusion, the proposed 3D IR-FS-UTE sequence is feasible for imaging the vertebral body's CEP in vivo with high contrast.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nbm.4579DOI Listing
October 2021

Knowledge and prevalence of energy drinks consumption in Shanghai, China: a cross-sectional survey of adolescents.

Gen Psychiatr 2021 25;34(3):e100389. Epub 2021 May 25.

Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai, China.

Background: In recent years, energy drinks (EDs) have been widely used among young people around the world. The extensive use of EDs also affects the sleep and exercise of adolescents.

Aims: This study aimed to investigate the consumption of EDs, the knowledge, attitude towards EDs and associated factors of EDs consumption among adolescents in Shanghai, China.

Methods: A total of 4608 adolescents completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing EDs use history, knowledge and attitude towards EDs. Adolescent Self-rating Life Events Checklist (ASLEC) was used to assess their life events. All participants were divided into two groups based on whether they used them or not. t-test and χ test were used to compare the differences between the two groups, and binary logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the related factors for EDs consumption.

Results: 70.5% of the participants reported having ever used EDs. The main avenues to getting information on EDs were from advertisements. 67.56% of them believed that EDs had adverse effects on health. 22.09% of the participants and 31.55% of their parents took a negative attitude towards EDs. Compared with the non-consumption group, participants in the consumption group were likely to be male, with older age, identified EDs more correctly and did not believe EDs had adverse effects, with more positive attitude and higher ASLEC score. Logistic regression results showed that gender, age, attitude of parents and themselves, knowledge of EDs and ASLEC score significantly predicted EDs consumption.

Conclusion: EDs consumption was popular among adolescents in Shanghai, and the tailored intervention programmes need to be developed based on the characteristics of adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gpsych-2020-100389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8154921PMC
May 2021

Editorial for "Association Between T2* Relaxation Times Derived from Ultrashort Echo Time MRI and Symptoms During Exercise Therapy for Patellar Tendinopathy: A Large Prospective Study".

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 11 30;54(5):1606-1607. Epub 2021 May 30.

Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.27753DOI Listing
November 2021
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