Publications by authors named "Jianfeng Feng"

202 Publications

Resolving heterogeneity in schizophrenia through a novel systems approach to brain structure: individualized structural covariance network analysis.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Institute of Science and Technology for Brain Inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, Shanghai, P. R. China.

Reliable mapping of system-level individual differences is a critical first step toward precision medicine for complex disorders such as schizophrenia. Disrupted structural covariance indicates a system-level brain maturational disruption in schizophrenia. However, most studies examine structural covariance at the group level. This prevents subject-level inferences. Here, we introduce a Network Template Perturbation approach to construct individual differential structural covariance network (IDSCN) using regional gray-matter volume. IDSCN quantifies how structural covariance between two nodes in a patient deviates from the normative covariance in healthy subjects. We analyzed T1 images from 1287 subjects, including 107 first-episode (drug-naive) patients and 71 controls in the discovery datasets and established robustness in 213 first-episode (drug-naive), 294 chronic, 99 clinical high-risk patients, and 494 controls from the replication datasets. Patients with schizophrenia were highly variable in their altered structural covariance edges; the number of altered edges was related to severity of hallucinations. Despite this variability, a subset of covariance edges, including the left hippocampus-bilateral putamen/globus pallidus edges, clustered patients into two distinct subgroups with opposing changes in covariance compared to controls, and significant differences in their anxiety and depression scores. These subgroup differences were stable across all seven datasets with meaningful genetic associations and functional annotation for the affected edges. We conclude that the underlying physiology of affective symptoms in schizophrenia involves the hippocampus and putamen/pallidum, predates disease onset, and is sufficiently consistent to resolve morphological heterogeneity throughout the illness course. The two schizophrenia subgroups identified thus have implications for the nosology and clinical treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-021-01229-4DOI Listing
July 2021

Rapid Rule-Based Reward Reversal and the Lateral Orbitofrontal Cortex.

Cereb Cortex Commun 2020 17;1(1):tgaa087. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Institute of Science and Technology for Brain-inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, China.

Humans and other primates can reverse their choice of stimuli in one trial when the rewards delivered by the stimuli change or reverse. Rapidly changing our behavior when the rewards change is important for many types of behavior, including emotional and social behavior. It is shown in a one-trial rule-based Go-NoGo deterministic visual discrimination reversal task to obtain points, that the human right lateral orbitofrontal cortex and adjoining inferior frontal gyrus is activated on reversal trials, when an expected reward is not obtained, and the non-reward allows the human to switch choices based on a rule. This reward reversal goes beyond model-free reinforcement learning. This functionality of the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex shown here in very rapid, one-trial, rule-based changes in human behavior when a reward is not received is related to the emotional and social changes that follow orbitofrontal cortex damage, and to depression in which this non-reward system is oversensitive and over-connected.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/texcom/tgaa087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8152898PMC
November 2020

A global overview of genetically interpretable multimorbidities among common diseases in the UK Biobank.

Genome Med 2021 Jul 5;13(1):110. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Institute of Science and Technology for Brain-inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, China.

Background: Multimorbidities greatly increase the global health burdens, but the landscapes of their genetic risks have not been systematically investigated.

Methods: We used the hospital inpatient data of 385,335 patients in the UK Biobank to investigate the multimorbid relations among 439 common diseases. Post-GWAS analyses were performed to identify multimorbidity shared genetic risks at the genomic loci, network, as well as overall genetic architecture levels. We conducted network decomposition for the networks of genetically interpretable multimorbidities to detect the hub diseases and the involved molecules and functions in each module.

Results: In total, 11,285 multimorbidities among 439 common diseases were identified, and 46% of them were genetically interpretable at the loci, network, or overall genetic architecture levels. Multimorbidities affecting the same and different physiological systems displayed different patterns of the shared genetic components, with the former more likely to share loci-level genetic components while the latter more likely to share network-level genetic components. Moreover, both the loci- and network-level genetic components shared by multimorbidities converged on cell immunity, protein metabolism, and gene silencing. Furthermore, we found that the genetically interpretable multimorbidities tend to form network modules, mediated by hub diseases and featuring physiological categories. Finally, we showcased how hub diseases mediating the multimorbidity modules could help provide useful insights for the genetic contributors of multimorbidities.

Conclusions: Our results provide a systematic resource for understanding the genetic predispositions of multimorbidities and indicate that hub diseases and converged molecules and functions may be the key for treating multimorbidities. We have created an online database that facilitates researchers and physicians to browse, search, or download these multimorbidities ( https://multimorbidity.comp-sysbio.org ).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13073-021-00927-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258962PMC
July 2021

Full article title: Symptom-based profiling and multimodal neuroimaging of a large pre-teenage population identifies distinct OCD-like subtypes with neurocognitive differences.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Institute of Science and Technology for Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, PR China; Department of Psychology and Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Background: OCD is characterized by both internalizing (anxiety) and externalizing (compulsivity) symptoms. Currently little is known about their inter-relationships and their relative contributions to disease heterogeneity. Our goal is to resolve affective and cognitive symptom heterogeneity related to internalized and externalized symptom dimensions by determining subtypes of children with OCD symptoms, and to identify any corresponding neural differences.

Methods: 1269 children with OCD symptoms screened using the Child Behavior Checklist Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms scales and 3987 matched controls were obtained from ABCD study. Consensus hierarchical clustering was used to cluster children with OCD symptoms into distinct subtypes. Ten neurocognitive task scores and 20 CBCL syndrome scales were used to characterize cognitive/behavioral differences. Gray matter volume, fractional anisotropy of major white matter fiber tracts, and functional connectivity among networks were used, in case-control studies.

Results: We identified two subgroups with contrasting patterns in internalized and externalized dimensions. G1 showed compulsive thoughts and repeated acts, but relatively low anxiety symptoms whereas G2 exhibited higher anxiety and perfectionism, and relatively low repetitive behavior. Only G1 had significant cognitive impairments and gray matter volume reductions in bilateral inferior parietal lobe, precentral gyrus, and precuneus gyrus, and white matter tract FA reductions in cortico-striatal fasciculus.

Conclusions: Children with OCD symptoms are heterogeneous at the level of symptom clustering and its underlying neural basis. Two subgroups represent distinct patterns of externalizing and internalizing symptoms, suggesting anxiety is not its major predisposing factor. These results may have implications for the nosology and treatment of pre-teenage OCD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2021.06.011DOI Listing
July 2021

Orbitofrontal Cortex Connectivity is Associated With Food Reward and Body Weight in Humans.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Computer Science, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK.

The aim was to investigate with very large scale analyses whether there are underlying functional connectivity differences between humans that relate to food reward; and whether these in turn are associated with being overweight. In 37,286 humans from the UK Biobank resting state functional connectivities of the orbitofrontal cortex, especially with the anterior cingulate cortex, were positively correlated with the liking for sweet foods (FDR p < 0.05). They were also positively correlated with the body mass index (BMI) (FDR p < 0.05). Moreover, in a sample of 502,492 people, the 'liking for sweet foods' was correlated with their BMI (r=0.06, p<10-125). In a cross-validation with 545 participants from the Human Connectome Project, higher functional connectivity involving the orbitofrontal cortex relative to other brain areas was associated with high BMI (≥30) compared to a mid-BMI group (22-25; p=6x10-5); and low orbitofrontal cortex functional connectivity was associated with low BMI (≤20.5; p<0.024). It is proposed that high BMI relates to increased efficacy of orbitofrontal cortex food reward systems, and low BMI to decreased efficacy. This was found with no stimulation by food, so may be an underlying individual difference in brain connectivity that is related to food reward and BMI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsab083DOI Listing
June 2021

Brain structure is linked to the association between family environment and behavioral problems in children in the ABCD study.

Nat Commun 2021 06 18;12(1):3769. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Institute of Science and Technology for Brain-inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Children's behavioral problems have been associated with their family environments. Here, we investigate whether specific features of brain structures could relate to this link. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging of 8756 children aged 9-11 from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Developmental study, we show that high family conflict and low parental monitoring scores are associated with children's behavioral problems, as well as with smaller cortical areas of the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and middle temporal gyrus. A longitudinal analysis indicates that psychiatric problems scores are associated with increased family conflict and decreased parental monitoring 1 year later, and mediate associations between the reduced cortical areas and family conflict, and parental monitoring scores. These results emphasize the relationships between the brain structure of children, their family environments, and their behavioral problems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23994-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213719PMC
June 2021

Role of Toxicokinetic and Toxicodynamic Parameters in Explaining the Sensitivity of Zebrafish Larvae to Four Metals.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 07 15;55(13):8965-8976. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Key Laboratory of Pollution Process and Environmental Criteria of Ministry of Education and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, P. R. China.

Given the persistence and toxic potencies of metal contaminants in ecosystems, animals, and human beings, they are considered to be hazardous global pollutants. While the lethality of metal toxicities (e.g., LC) can significantly vary, even within the same species, the underlying mechanisms are less well-understood. In this study, we developed a subcellular two-compartment toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TK-TD) model for zebrafish larvae when exposed to four metals (cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc) to reveal whether differences in metal toxicity (LC values) were dominated by the TK or TD processes. Results showed that the subcellular TK and TD parameters of the four metals were significantly different, and the bioconcentration factor (BCF) value of copper was higher than those of the other metals. We also found that the TD parameter internal threshold concentration () was significantly positively correlated to the LC values ( = 0.7), suggesting a dominant role of TD processes in metal toxicity. Furthermore, the combined parameter /BCF for a metal-sensitive fraction (BCF), which linked exposure to effects through the TK-TD approach, explained up to 89% of the variation in toxicity to the four metals. The present study suggests that the observed variation in toxicity of these four metals was mainly determined by TD processes but that TK processes should not be ignored, especially for copper.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c08725DOI Listing
July 2021

Mindfulness practice for protecting mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 05 28;11(1):329. Epub 2021 May 28.

Institute of Science and Technology for Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Emerging evidence shows that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is negatively affecting mental health around the globe. Interventions to alleviate the psychological impact of the pandemic are urgently needed. Whether mindfulness practice may protect against the harmful emotional effects of a pandemic crisis remains hitherto unknown. We investigated the influence of mindfulness training on mental health during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. We hypothesized that mindfulness practitioners might manifest less pandemic-related distress, depression, anxiety, and stress than non-practitioners and that more frequent practice would be associated with an improvement in mental health during the pandemic. Therefore, we assessed pandemic-related distress and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress, as well as the frequency of meditation practice at the peak of new infections (Feb 4-5; N = 673) and three weeks later (Feb 29-30; N = 521) in mindfulness practitioners via online questionnaires. Self-reported symptoms were also collected from non-practitioners at peak time only (N = 1550). We found lower scores of pandemic-related distress in mindfulness practitioners compared to non-practitioners. In general, older participants showed fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety. In younger practitioners, pandemic-related distress decreased from peak to follow-up. Importantly, increased mindfulness training during the preceding two weeks was associated with lower scores of depression and anxiety at both assessments. Likewise, practice frequency predicted individual improvement in scores of depression, anxiety, and stress at follow-up. Our results indicate that mindfulness meditation might be a viable low-cost intervention to mitigate the psychological impact of the COVID-19 crisis and future pandemics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01459-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8160402PMC
May 2021

Neural Biomarkers Distinguish Severe From Mild Autism Spectrum Disorder Among High-Functioning Individuals.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 6;15:657857. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute of Science and Technology for Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Several previous studies have reported atypicality in resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet the relatively small effect sizes prevent us from using these characteristics for diagnostic purposes. Here, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and hierarchical clustering were used to partition the high-functioning ASD group (i.e., the ASD discovery group) into subgroups. A support vector machine (SVM) model was trained through the 10-fold strategy to predict Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) scores within the ASD discovery group ( = 0.30, < 0.001, = 260), which was further validated in an independent sample (i.e., the ASD validation group) ( = 0.35, = 0.031, = 29). The neuroimage-based partition derived two subgroups representing severe versus mild autistic patients. We identified FCs that show graded changes in strength from ASD-severe, through ASD-mild, to controls, while the same pattern cannot be observed in partitions based on ADOS score. We also identified FCs that are specific for ASD-mild, similar to a partition based on ADOS score. The current study provided multiple pieces of evidence with replication to show that resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) FCs could serve as neural biomarkers in partitioning high-functioning autistic individuals based on their symptom severity and showing advantages over traditional partition based on ADOS score. Our results also indicate a compensatory role for a frontocortical network in patients with mild ASD, indicating potential targets for future clinical treatments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2021.657857DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8134539PMC
May 2021

Sensory, somatomotor and internal mentation networks emerge dynamically in the resting brain with internal mentation predominating in older age.

Neuroimage 2021 08 18;237:118188. Epub 2021 May 18.

Institute of Science and Technology for Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China; Shanghai Center for Mathematical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Oxford Centre for Computational Neuroscience, Oxford, United Kingdom; Department of Computer Science, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Age-related changes in the brain are associated with a decline in functional flexibility. Intrinsic functional flexibility is evident in the brain's dynamic ability to switch between alternative spatiotemporal states during resting state. However, the relationship between brain connectivity states, associated psychological functions during resting state, and the changes in normal aging remain poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP; N = 812) and the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 6,716). Using signed community clustering to identify distinct states of dynamic functional connectivity, and text-mining of a large existing literature for functional annotation of each state, our findings from the HCP dataset indicated that the resting brain spontaneously transitions between three functionally specialized states: sensory, somatomotor, and internal mentation networks. The occurrence, transition-rate, and persistence-time parameters for each state were correlated with behavioural scores using canonical correlation analysis. We estimated the same brain states and parameters in the UKB dataset, subdivided into three distinct age ranges: 50-55, 56-67, and 68-78 years. We found that the internal mentation network was more frequently expressed in people aged 71 and older, whereas people younger than 55 more frequently expressed sensory and somatomotor networks. Furthermore, analysis of the functional entropy - a measure of uncertainty of functional connectivity - also supported this finding across the three age ranges. Our study demonstrates that dynamic functional connectivity analysis can expose the time-varying patterns of transition between functionally specialized brain states, which are strongly tied to increasing age.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118188DOI Listing
August 2021

Extensive Cortical Connectivity of the Human Hippocampal Memory System: Beyond the "What" and "Where" Dual Stream Model.

Cereb Cortex 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Institute of Science and Technology for Brain Inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.

The human hippocampus is involved in forming new memories: damage impairs memory. The dual stream model suggests that object "what" representations from ventral stream temporal cortex project to the hippocampus via the perirhinal and then lateral entorhinal cortex, and spatial "where" representations from the dorsal parietal stream via the parahippocampal gyrus and then medial entorhinal cortex. The hippocampus can then associate these inputs to form episodic memories of what happened where. Diffusion tractography was used to reveal the direct connections of hippocampal system areas in humans. This provides evidence that the human hippocampus has extensive direct cortical connections, with connections that bypass the entorhinal cortex to connect with the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortex, with the temporal pole, with the posterior and retrosplenial cingulate cortex, and even with early sensory cortical areas. The connections are less hierarchical and segregated than in the dual stream model. This provides a foundation for a conceptualization for how the hippocampal memory system connects with the cerebral cortex and operates in humans. One implication is that prehippocampal cortical areas such as the parahippocampal TF and TH subregions and perirhinal cortices may implement specialized computations that can benefit from inputs from the dorsal and ventral streams.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhab113DOI Listing
May 2021

ENIGMA-Sleep: Challenges, opportunities, and the road map.

J Sleep Res 2021 Apr 28:e13347. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Sleep and Cognition, Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience (NIN), an Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Neuroimaging and genetics studies have advanced our understanding of the neurobiology of sleep and its disorders. However, individual studies usually have limitations to identifying consistent and reproducible effects, including modest sample sizes, heterogeneous clinical characteristics and varied methodologies. These issues call for a large-scale multi-centre effort in sleep research, in order to increase the number of samples, and harmonize the methods of data collection, preprocessing and analysis using pre-registered well-established protocols. The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) consortium provides a powerful collaborative framework for combining datasets across individual sites. Recently, we have launched the ENIGMA-Sleep working group with the collaboration of several institutes from 15 countries to perform large-scale worldwide neuroimaging and genetics studies for better understanding the neurobiology of impaired sleep quality in population-based healthy individuals, the neural consequences of sleep deprivation, pathophysiology of sleep disorders, as well as neural correlates of sleep disturbances across various neuropsychiatric disorders. In this introductory review, we describe the details of our currently available datasets and our ongoing projects in the ENIGMA-Sleep group, and discuss both the potential challenges and opportunities of a collaborative initiative in sleep medicine.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsr.13347DOI Listing
April 2021

Functional Connectome Prediction of Anxiety Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Am J Psychiatry 2021 06 26;178(6):530-540. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality of Ministry of Education, Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China (He, Wei, W. Yang, Zhuang, Q. Chen, Ren, Y. Li, Wang, Mao, Z. Chen, Q. He, Lei, T. Feng, H. Chen, Qiu); Guangdong Mental Health Center, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China (F. Yang); Institute of Science and Technology for Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, Shanghai, China (Zhang, Cheng, J. Feng); Department of Psychiatry, the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China (Liao, Su, L. Li,); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China (Cui, C. Li); Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China (Xie); Oxford Center for Computational Neuroscience, Oxford, U.K. (Rolls); Department of Computer Science, University of Warwick, Coventry, U.K. (Rolls); and Southwest University Branch, Collaborative Innovation Center of Assessment Toward Basic Education Quality, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China (Qiu).

Objective: Increased anxiety in response to the COVID-19 pandemic has been widely noted. The purpose of this study was to test whether the prepandemic functional connectome predicted individual anxiety induced by the pandemic.

Methods: Anxiety scores from healthy undergraduate students were collected during the severe and remission periods of the pandemic (first survey, February 22-28, 2020, N=589; second survey, April 24 to May 1, 2020, N=486). Brain imaging data and baseline (daily) anxiety ratings were acquired before the pandemic. The predictive performance of the functional connectome on individual anxiety was examined using machine learning and was validated in two external undergraduate student samples (N=149 and N=474). The clinical relevance of the findings was further explored by applying the connectome-based neuromarkers of pandemic-related anxiety to distinguish between individuals with specific mental disorders and matched healthy control subjects (generalized anxiety disorder, N=43; major depression, N=536; schizophrenia, N=72).

Results: Anxiety scores increased from the prepandemic baseline to the severe stage of the pandemic and remained high in the remission stage. The prepandemic functional connectome predicted pandemic-related anxiety and generalized to the external sample but showed poor performance for predicting daily anxiety. The connectome-based neuromarkers of pandemic-related anxiety further distinguished between participants with generalized anxiety and healthy control subjects but were not useful for diagnostic classification in major depression and schizophrenia.

Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using the functional connectome to predict individual anxiety induced by major stressful events (e.g., the current global health crisis), which advances our understanding of the neurobiological basis of anxiety susceptibility and may have implications for developing targeted psychological and clinical interventions that promote the reduction of stress and anxiety.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.20070979DOI Listing
June 2021

Optimal Organization of Functional Connectivity Networks for Segregation and Integration With Large-Scale Critical Dynamics in Human Brains.

Front Comput Neurosci 2021 31;15:641335. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

School of Mathematical Sciences and Centre for Computational Systems Biology, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

The optimal organization for functional segregation and integration in brain is made evident by the "small-world" feature of functional connectivity (FC) networks and is further supported by the loss of this feature that has been described in many types of brain disease. However, it remains unknown how such optimally organized FC networks arise from the brain's structural constrains. On the other hand, an emerging literature suggests that brain function may be supported by critical neural dynamics, which is believed to facilitate information processing in brain. Though previous investigations have shown that the critical dynamics plays an important role in understanding the relation between whole brain structural connectivity and functional connectivity, it is not clear if the critical dynamics could be responsible for the optimal FC network configuration in human brains. Here, we show that the long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs) in the resting state fMRI blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals are significantly correlated with the topological matrices of the FC brain network. Using structure-dynamics-function modeling approach that incorporates diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data and simple cellular automata dynamics, we showed that the critical dynamics could optimize the whole brain FC network organization by, e.g., maximizing the clustering coefficient while minimizing the characteristic path length. We also demonstrated with a more detailed excitation-inhibition neuronal network model that loss of local excitation-inhibition (/) balance causes failure of critical dynamics, therefore disrupting the optimal FC network organization. The results highlighted the crucial role of the critical dynamics in forming an optimal organization of FC networks in the brain and have potential application to the understanding and modeling of abnormal FC configurations in neuropsychiatric disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncom.2021.641335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044315PMC
March 2021

Multiscale 'whole-cell' models to study neural information processing - New insights from fly photoreceptor studies.

J Neurosci Methods 2021 06 26;357:109156. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Biomedical Science, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK; State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China. Electronic address:

Understanding a neuron's input-output relationship is a longstanding challenge. Arguably, these signalling dynamics can be better understood if studied at three levels of analysis: computational, algorithmic and implementational (Marr, 1982). But it is difficult to integrate such analyses into a single platform that can realistically simulate neural information processing. Multiscale dynamical "whole-cell" modelling, a recent systems biology approach, makes this possible. Dynamical "whole-cell" models are computational models that aim to account for the integrated function of numerous genes or molecules to behave like virtual cells in silico. However, because constructing such models is laborious, only a couple of examples have emerged since the first one, built for Mycoplasma genitalium bacterium, was reported in 2012. Here, we review dynamic "whole-cell" neuron models for fly photoreceptors and how these have been used to study neural information processing. Specifically, we review how the models have helped uncover the mechanisms and evolutionary rules of quantal light information sampling and integration, which underlie light adaptation and further improve our understanding of insect vision.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2021.109156DOI Listing
June 2021

Trophic transfer of heavy metals in the marine food web based on tissue residuals.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 4;772:145064. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Key Laboratory of Pollution Process and Environmental Criteria of Ministry of Education and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China.

Trophic transfer of metals has been well researched in aquatic food webs; however, most studies have examined the presence of metal residuals in the entire body of marine organisms and but not in specific tissues. In this study, we determined the concentrations of Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Ni in various organs of 17 marine species, including crustaceans, gastropods, bivalves, and fishes, with different trophic levels (TLs), which were collected from the Liaodong Bay, China, in July 2019. Results showed that the liver, gill, and muscle tissues of marine species are ideal indicators for analyzing Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Ni contamination in marine environments. When the entire bodies of these marine species were considered, a bio-dilution in Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Ni was observed in the studied food web. In contrast, the metal tissue-specific bio-magnification in the entire studied food web showed different results. In the liver and gill tissues, negative correlations were found between the concentrations of cadmium and TLs, while copper bio-dilution was also observed in gill tissue. In the muscle tissues, Cu, Pb, and Ni showed bio-dilution and trophic magnification factors of Cu, Pb, and Ni ranged from 0.44 to 0.73. This study highlights the importance of tissue-specific considerations to obtain further accurate information on metal trophodynamics and trophic transfers in marine food webs, thereby enhancing the risk assessment of many elements in wildlife and human health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145064DOI Listing
June 2021

Brain dynamics: Synchronous peaks, functional connectivity, and its temporal variability.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Jun 20;42(9):2790-2801. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Institute of Science and Technology for Brain-inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

We describe advances in the understanding of brain dynamics that are important for understanding the operation of the cerebral cortex in health and disease. Peaks in the resting state fMRI BOLD signal in many different brain areas can become synchronized. In data from 1,017 participants from the Human Connectome Project, we show that early visual and connected areas have the highest probability of synchronized peaks. We show that these cortical areas also have low temporal variability of their functional connectivity. We show that there is an approximately reciprocal relation between the probability that a brain region will be involved in synchronized peaks and the temporal variability of the connectivity of a brain region. We show that a high probability of synchronized peaks and a low temporal variability of the connectivity of cortical areas are related to high mean functional connectivity, and provide an account of how these dynamics with some of the properties of avalanches arise. These discoveries help to advance our understanding of cortical operation in health, and in some mental disorders including schizophrenia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8127146PMC
June 2021

The genetic determinants of language network dysconnectivity in drug-naïve early stage schizophrenia.

NPJ Schizophr 2021 Mar 3;7(1):18. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Institute of Science and Technology for Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Schizophrenia is a neurocognitive illness of synaptic and brain network-level dysconnectivity that often reaches a persistent chronic stage in many patients. Subtle language deficits are a core feature even in the early stages of schizophrenia. However, the primacy of language network dysconnectivity and language-related genetic variants in the observed phenotype in early stages of illness remains unclear. This study used two independent schizophrenia dataset consisting of 138 and 53 drug-naïve first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients, and 112 and 56 healthy controls, respectively. A brain-wide voxel-level functional connectivity analysis was conducted to investigate functional dysconnectivity and its relationship with illness duration. We also explored the association between critical language-related genetic (such as FOXP2) mutations and the altered functional connectivity in patients. We found elevated functional connectivity involving Broca's area, thalamus and temporal cortex that were replicated in two FES datasets. In particular, Broca's area - anterior cingulate cortex dysconnectivity was more pronounced for patients with shorter illness duration, while thalamic dysconnectivity was predominant in those with longer illness duration. Polygenic risk scores obtained from FOXP2-related genes were strongly associated with functional dysconnectivity identified in patients with shorter illness duration. Our results highlight the criticality of language network dysconnectivity, involving the Broca's area in early stages of schizophrenia, and the role of language-related genes in this aberration, providing both imaging and genetic evidence for the association between schizophrenia and the determinants of language.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41537-021-00141-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7930279PMC
March 2021

A 12-genus bacterial signature identifies a group of severe autistic children with differential sensory behavior and brain structures.

Clin Transl Med 2021 02;11(2):e314

Department of Developmental and Behavioural Pediatric & Child Primary Care, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ctm2.314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7893807PMC
February 2021

GaitSet: Cross-view Gait Recognition through Utilizing Gait as a Deep Set.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 Feb 9;PP. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Gait is a unique biometric feature recognized at a distance and has broad applications in crime prevention, forensic identification and social security. To portray a gait, existing gait recognition methods utilize either a gait template, which makes it difficult to preserve temporal information, or a gait sequence, which maintain unnecessary sequential constraints and loses the flexibility of gait recognition. In this paper we present a novel perspective that utilizes gait as a deep set, meaning that a set of gait frames are integrated by a global-local fused deep network inspired by the way our left- and right-hemisphere processes information to learn information that can be used in identification. Based on this deep set perspective, our method is immune to frame permutations, and naturally integrate frames from different videos that have been acquired under different scenarios, such as diverse viewing angles, different clothes, or different item-carrying conditions. Experiments show that under normal walking conditions, our single-model method achieves an average rank-1 accuracy of 96.1\% on the CASIA-B gait dataset and an accuracy of 87.9\% on the OU-MVLP gait dataset. Moreover, the proposed method maintains a satisfactory accuracy even when only small numbers of frames are available in the test samples.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2021.3057879DOI Listing
February 2021

Assessment of the transfer of heavy metals in seawater, sediment, biota samples and determination the baseline tissue concentrations of metals in marine organisms.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 6;28(22):28764-28776. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Key laboratory of Pollution process and Environmental Criteria of Ministry of Education and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, China.

The majority of tissue-specific environmental quality standards (EQSs) considering metal tolerance are prior to the chemical-specific EQSs in aquatic organisms. However, metal baseline levels in marine organisms were very scarce. We explored the correlation between Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn concentrations in water or sediments and those metal concentrations in marine organisms (crustacean, mollusc, and fish) by generalized additive models (GAMs) and executed a meta-analysis of Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn contents in those three organisms by implementing cumulative frequency distribution analysis of individual metal distribution in a heavy metal-contaminated semi-enclosed Bay, China. Results showed that the average contents of Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn were 0.042±0.01, 0.38±0.22, 1.72±0.65, 3.61±1.01, and 16.08±6.33 μg/L in water; 0.064±0.02, 0.42±0.04, 20.54±7.76, 28.97±3.90, and 96.74±35.11 μg/g dw in sediment; and 0.0049±0.0028, 0.52±0.28, 0.24±0.15, 11.05±6.95, and 21.12±4.47 μg/g dw in crustacean, 0.015±0.0087, 0.24±0.17, 0.08±0.02, 0.37±0.35, and 10.62±6.79 μg/g dw in mollusc; and 0.0038±0.0028, 0.065±0.05, 0.32±0.19, 2.01±0.59, and 16.04±4.97 μg/g dw in fish. The mercury content in mollusc presented a negative correlation with mercury content in sediment, while the content of other metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn) in organisms showed positive correlations with the content of those metals in water or sediment. We further obtained tissue-baseline-C5% in crustacean, mollusc, and fish which were 1.191, 3.341, and 0.014 μg/g dw for Cu; 0.013, 0.072, and 0.033 μg/g dw for Cd, 0.015, 0.027, and 0.052 μg/g dw for Pb; 9.515, 14.422, and 0.056 μg/g dw for Zn; and 0.0009, 0.004, and 0.0035 μg/g dw for Hg, respectively. However, there were no obvious relationships of the 4d-NOEC in laboratory toxicity tests with C5%, as well as C50% and 4d-LC50 or tolerance index a for Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Hg in organisms. Our results pointed out the controversy of laboratory sensitive species toxicity results for deriving chemical-specific EQSs with field studies. We advocated to set up the metal concentration baselines in aquatic organisms and further served the tissue-specific EQSs, which are essential basis for geochemical recordings, bio-monitoring, and semi-enclosed bay management in the world.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12650-1DOI Listing
June 2021

Neural network involving medial orbitofrontal cortex and dorsal periaqueductal gray regulation in human alcohol abuse.

Sci Adv 2021 Feb 3;7(6). Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Institute of Science and Technology for Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Prompted by recent evidence of neural circuitry in rodent models, functional magnetic resonance imaging and functional connectivity analyses were conducted for a large adolescent population at two ages, together with alcohol abuse measures, to characterize a neural network that may underlie the onset of alcoholism. A network centered on the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), as well as including the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG), central nucleus of the amygdala, and nucleus accumbens, was identified, consistent with the rodent models, with evidence of both inhibitory and excitatory coregulation by the mOFC over the dPAG. Furthermore, significant relationships were detected between raised baseline excitatory coregulation in this network and impulsivity measures, supporting a role for negative urgency in alcohol dependence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abd4074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7857680PMC
February 2021

Brain dynamics: the temporal variability of connectivity, and differences in schizophrenia and ADHD.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 01 21;11(1):70. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Institute of Science and Technology for Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, 200433, Shanghai, PR China.

We describe advances in the understanding of brain dynamics that are important for understanding the operation of the cerebral cortex in health and disease. In data from 1017 participants from the Human Connectome Project, we show that early visual and connected areas have low temporal variability of their functional connectivity. We show that a low temporal variability of the connectivity of cortical areas is related to high mean functional connectivity between those areas, and provide an account of how these dynamics arise. We then investigate how these concepts help to understand brain dynamics in mental disorders. We find that in both first episode and long-term schizophrenia, reduced functional connectivity of early visual and related temporal cortex areas is associated with increased temporal variability of the functional connectivity, consistent with decreased stability of attractor networks related to sensory processing. In ADHD, we find these functional connectivities are increased and their temporal variability is decreased, and relate this to increased engagement with visual sensory input as manifest in high screen time usage in ADHD. We further show that these differences in the dynamics of the cortex in schizophrenia, and ADHD can be related to differences in the functional connectivity of the specific sensory vs. association thalamic nuclei. These discoveries help to advance our understanding of cortical operation in health, and in some mental disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01197-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820440PMC
January 2021

The Human Brain Is Best Described as Being on a Female/Male Continuum: Evidence from a Neuroimaging Connectivity Study.

Cereb Cortex 2021 May;31(6):3021-3033

Institute of Science and Technology for Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Ministry of Education-Key Laboratory of Computational Neuroscience and Brain-Inspired Intelligence and Research and Research Institute of Intelligent Complex Systems, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, China.

Psychological androgyny has long been associated with greater cognitive flexibility, adaptive behavior, and better mental health, but whether a similar concept can be defined using neural features remains unknown. Using the neuroimaging data from 9620 participants, we found that global functional connectivity was stronger in the male brain before middle age but became weaker after that, when compared with the female brain, after systematic testing of potentially confounding effects. We defined a brain gender continuum by estimating the likelihood of an observed functional connectivity matrix to represent a male brain. We found that participants mapped at the center of this continuum had fewer internalizing symptoms compared with those at the 2 extreme ends. These findings suggest a novel hypothesis proposing that there exists a neuroimaging concept of androgyny using the brain gender continuum, which may be associated with better mental health in a similar way to psychological androgyny.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa408DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107794PMC
May 2021

Identifying age-specific gene signatures of the human cerebral cortex with joint analysis of transcriptomes and functional connectomes.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Jul;22(4)

ISTBI, RIICS, Fudan University, and MOE Key Laboratory of Computational Neuroscience and Brain-Inspired Intelligence, and Frontiers Center for Brain Science, China.

The human cerebral cortex undergoes profound structural and functional dynamic variations across the lifespan, whereas the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, with a novel method transcriptome-connectome correlation analysis (TCA), which integrates the brain functional magnetic resonance images and region-specific transcriptomes, we identify age-specific cortex (ASC) gene signatures for adolescence, early adulthood and late adulthood. The ASC gene signatures are significantly correlated with the cortical thickness (P-value <2.00e-3) and myelination (P-value <1.00e-3), two key brain structural features that vary in accordance with brain development. In addition to the molecular underpinning of age-related brain functions, the ASC gene signatures allow delineation of the molecular mechanisms of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as the regulation between ARNT2 and its target gene ETF1 involved in Schizophrenia. We further validate the ASC gene signatures with published gene sets associated with the adult cortex, and confirm the robustness of TCA on other brain image datasets. Availability: All scripts are written in R. Scripts for the TCA method and related statistics result can be freely accessed at https://github.com/Soulnature/TCA. Additional data related to this paper may be requested from the authors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbaa388DOI Listing
July 2021

The orbitofrontal cortex: reward, emotion and depression.

Brain Commun 2020 16;2(2):fcaa196. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Computer Science, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK.

The orbitofrontal cortex in primates including humans is the key brain area in emotion, and in the representation of reward value and in non-reward, that is not obtaining an expected reward. Cortical processing before the orbitofrontal cortex is about the identity of stimuli, i.e. 'what' is present, and not about reward value. There is evidence that this holds for taste, visual, somatosensory and olfactory stimuli. The human medial orbitofrontal cortex represents many different types of reward, and the lateral orbitofrontal cortex represents non-reward and punishment. Not obtaining an expected reward can lead to sadness, and feeling depressed. The concept is advanced that an important brain region in depression is the orbitofrontal cortex, with depression related to over-responsiveness and over-connectedness of the non-reward-related lateral orbitofrontal cortex, and to under-responsiveness and under-connectivity of the reward-related medial orbitofrontal cortex. Evidence from large-scale voxel-level studies and supported by an activation study is described that provides support for this hypothesis. Increased functional connectivity of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex with brain areas that include the precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex and angular gyrus is found in patients with depression and is reduced towards the levels in controls when treated with medication. Decreased functional connectivity of the medial orbitofrontal cortex with medial temporal lobe areas involved in memory is found in patients with depression. Some treatments for depression may act by reducing activity or connectivity of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex. New treatments that increase the activity or connectivity of the medial orbitofrontal cortex may be useful for depression. These concepts, and that of increased activity in non-reward attractor networks, have potential for advancing our understanding and treatment of depression. The focus is on the orbitofrontal cortex in primates including humans, because of differences of operation of the orbitofrontal cortex, and indeed of reward systems, in rodents. Finally, the hypothesis is developed that the orbitofrontal cortex has a special role in emotion and decision-making in part because as a cortical area it can implement attractor networks useful in maintaining reward and emotional states online, and in decision-making.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/braincomms/fcaa196DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7749795PMC
November 2020

Understanding the effects of metal pre-exposure on the sensitivity of zebrafish larvae to metal toxicity: A toxicokinetics-toxicodynamics approach.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Feb 13;209:111788. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Key laboratory of Pollution process and Environmental Criteria of Ministry of Education and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China. Electronic address:

Organisms are increasingly tolerant to metal toxicity in the natural ecosystems, which did not match the results of the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of metals based on toxicity data from organisms in the laboratory. Studies have described the effects of pre-exposure to metals on metal toxicity tolerance in terms of the toxicokinetic (TK) process; however, the toxicodynamic (TD) process may be more susceptible to metal pre-exposure. Therefore, to determine whether pre-exposure to low concentrations of silver (Ag) or cadmium (Cd) affects the metal TK and TD processes of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae, we investigated four TK-TD model parameters that control tolerance and sensitivity to metal toxicity on the survival. Our results showed that the killing rate (k) of larvae exposed to high Cd concentrations was significantly lower following pre-exposure to 10 μg/L Cd than that of larvaenot pre-exposed. However, the k for high Ag concentrations was significantly higher in zebrafish larvae following pre-exposure to 2 μg/L Ag than in larvae not pre-exposed. In other words, a one-day pre-exposure to 2 µg/L Ag rendered the larvae more sensitive to Ag during a subsequent 4-day exposure to higher Ag concentrations, whereas a one-day pre-exposure to 10 µg/L Cd rendered the larvae more tolerance to Cd during a subsequent 4-day exposure to higher Cd concentrations. Our results further the current understanding of toxic metal tolerance mechanisms, both in TK and TD processes, and they will guide future laboratory studies to assess actual pre-exposure scenarios that occur in natural environments. Thus, our study can help reduce uncertainty in testing and improve ecological management concerning metal risk assessments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111788DOI Listing
February 2021

Reward Versus Nonreward Sensitivity of the Medial Versus Lateral Orbitofrontal Cortex Relates to the Severity of Depressive Symptoms.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2021 03 10;6(3):259-269. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Centre Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

Background: The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is implicated in depression. The hypothesis investigated was whether the OFC sensitivity to reward and nonreward is related to the severity of depressive symptoms.

Methods: Activations in the monetary incentive delay task were measured in the IMAGEN cohort at ages 14 years (n = 1877) and 19 years (n = 1140) with a longitudinal design. Clinically relevant subgroups were compared at ages 19 (high-severity group: n = 116; low-severity group: n = 206) and 14.

Results: The medial OFC exhibited graded activation increases to reward, and the lateral OFC had graded activation increases to nonreward. In this general population, the medial and lateral OFC activations were associated with concurrent depressive symptoms at both ages 14 and 19 years. In a stratified high-severity depressive symptom group versus control group comparison, the lateral OFC showed greater sensitivity for the magnitudes of activations related to nonreward in the high-severity group at age 19 (p = .027), and the medial OFC showed decreased sensitivity to the reward magnitudes in the high-severity group at both ages 14 (p = .002) and 19 (p = .002). In a longitudinal design, there was greater sensitivity to nonreward of the lateral OFC at age 14 for those who exhibited high depressive symptom severity later at age 19 (p = .003).

Conclusions: Activations in the lateral OFC relate to sensitivity to not winning, were associated with high depressive symptom scores, and at age 14 predicted the depressive symptoms at ages 16 and 19. Activations in the medial OFC were related to sensitivity to winning, and reduced reward sensitivity was associated with concurrent high depressive symptom scores.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.08.017DOI Listing
March 2021

Hypertension is associated with reduced hippocampal connectivity and impaired memory.

EBioMedicine 2020 Nov 22;61:103082. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Computer Science, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, United Kingdom; Institute of Science and Technology for Brain-inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, China; Key Laboratory of Computational Neuroscience and Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, 200433, China.

Background: The objective was a large-scale analysis of the relation between hypertension, memory problems, and brain function.

Methods: The study design was to measure the association between a history of hypertension, and the functional connectivity between 94 brain regions, and prospective and numeric memory, in 19,507 participants from the UK Biobank, with cross-validation in 1,002 participants in the Human Connectome Project, and 13,441 individuals in the second release of the UK Biobank. A history of hypertension was measured by whether individuals were admitted to hospital for the treatment of hypertension, with the control group admissions for other reasons.

Findings: A history of hypertension was associated with reduced functional connectivity of the hippocampus, and with reduced prospective memory score (FDR correction p<0.01). The reduced functional connectivity mediated the association between the hypertension history and the prospective memory score. A graded linear relation between both the hippocampal functional connectivity and memory impairment, was found across a wide range of blood pressure (r=-0.04). In 502,537 participants from the UK Biobank, a history of hypertension was associated with impaired prospective memory (p = 9.1 × 10, Cohen's d=-0.08) and numeric memory (p = 4.7 × 10, Cohen's d=-0.10). The association between hypertension, functional connectivity, and impaired memory was cross-validated with 1,002 participants from the Human Connectome Project; and for functional connectivity in 13,441 individuals in the second release of the UK Biobank imaging dataset.

Interpretation: The reduced functional connectivity of the hippocampus, and the memory impairments, both related to hypertension across a wide range of blood pressure, are important for clinical practice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2020.103082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7585137PMC
November 2020

Association between childhood trauma and risk for obesity: a putative neurocognitive developmental pathway.

BMC Med 2020 10 15;18(1):278. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Institute of Science and Technology for Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Computational Neuroscience and Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, People's Republic of China.

Background: Childhood trauma increases the risk for adult obesity through multiple complex pathways, and the neural substrates are yet to be determined.

Methods: Participants from three population-based neuroimaging cohorts, including the IMAGEN cohort, the UK Biobank (UKB), and the Human Connectome Project (HCP), were recruited. Voxel-based morphometry analysis of both childhood trauma and body mass index (BMI) was performed in the longitudinal IMAGEN cohort; validation of the findings was performed in the UKB. White-matter connectivity analysis was conducted to study the structural connectivity between the identified brain region and subdivisions of the hypothalamus in the HCP.

Results: In IMAGEN, a smaller frontopolar cortex (FPC) was associated with both childhood abuse (CA) (β = - .568, 95%CI - .942 to - .194; p = .003) and higher BMI (β = - .086, 95%CI - .128 to - .043; p < .001) in male participants, and these findings were validated in UKB. Across seven data collection sites, a stronger negative CA-FPC association was correlated with a higher positive CA-BMI association (β = - 1.033, 95%CI - 1.762 to - .305; p = .015). Using 7-T diffusion tensor imaging data (n = 156), we found that FPC was the third most connected cortical area with the hypothalamus, especially the lateral hypothalamus. A smaller FPC at age 14 contributed to higher BMI at age 19 in those male participants with a history of CA, and the CA-FPC interaction enabled a model at age 14 to account for some future weight gain during a 5-year follow-up (variance explained 5.8%).

Conclusions: The findings highlight that a malfunctioning, top-down cognitive or behavioral control system, independent of genetic predisposition, putatively contributes to excessive weight gain in a particularly vulnerable population, and may inform treatment approaches.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01743-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7559717PMC
October 2020
-->