Publications by authors named "Jianfang Wang"

232 Publications

Detection of cell-surface sialic acids and photodynamic eradication of cancer cells using dye-modified polydopamine-coated gold nanobipyramids.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Chemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong, China.

A nanoprobe based on polydopamine-coated gold nanobipyramids surface modified with molecules of a phenylboronic acid-substituted distyryl boron dipyrromethene has been fabricated and characterised using various physical and spectroscopic methods. It serves as an ultrasensitive sensor for sialic acids on the surface of cancer cells based on its dual surface-enhanced Raman scattering and fluorescence response. This biomarker can also trigger the photodynamic activity of these nanobipyramids, effectively eradicating the cancer cells mainly through apoptosis as shown by various bioassays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1tb01274fDOI Listing
July 2021

How to Utilize Excited Plasmon Energy Efficiently.

ACS Nano 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Plasmonic nanoparticles can concentrate electromagnetic fields at the nanoscale and function as a powerful intermediary to enhance light-matter interactions. They have been widely employed for solar energy harvesting, photocatalysis, medicine, sensing, imaging, spectroscopy, optics, and optoelectronics. In this Perspective, we provide a brief overview of research progress in the utilization of excited plasmon energy, with emphasis on the charge- and energy-transfer processes. We discuss important factors that affect the charge- and energy-transfer efficiencies and present open questions and major challenges in the efficient utilization of excited plasmon energy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c02627DOI Listing
June 2021

Facet- and Gas-Dependent Reshaping of Au Nanoplates by Plasma Treatment.

ACS Nano 2021 Jun 11;15(6):9860-9870. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR China.

The reshaping of metal nanocrystals on substrates is usually realized by pulsed laser irradiation or ion-beam milling with complex procedures. In this work, we demonstrate a simple method for reshaping immobilized Au nanoplates through plasma treatment. Au nanoplates can be reshaped gradually with nearly periodic right pyramid arrays formed on the surface of the nanoplates. The gaseous environment in the plasma-treatment system plays a significant role in the reshaping process with only nitrogen-containing environments leading to reshaping. The reshaping phenomenon is facet-dependent, with right pyramids formed only on the exposed {111} facets of the Au nanoplates. The morphological change of the Au nanoplates induced by the plasma treatment leads to large plasmon peak redshifts. The reshaped Au nanoplates possess slightly higher refractive index sensitivities and largely increased surface-enhanced Raman scattering intensities compared to the flat, untreated nanoplates. Our results offer insights for studying the interaction mechanism between plasma and the different facets of noble metal nanocrystals and an approach for reshaping light-interacting noble metal nanocrystals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c00861DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223482PMC
June 2021

Thoracic radiotherapy and concurrent almonertinib for unresectable stage III EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase 2 study.

BMC Cancer 2021 May 7;21(1):511. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Thoracic Oncology, Key Laboratory of Clinical Cancer Pharmacology and Toxicology Research of Zhejiang Province, Affiliated Hangzhou Cancer Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310002, People's Republic of China.

Background: Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy remains the standard treatment in unresectable stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Several studies have shown a potential value of concurrent epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) with thoracic radiotherapy in EGFR-mutated population, but a high risk of radiation pneumonitis raised a major concern. This study intends to explore the safety and efficacy of concurrent almonertinib, a new third-generation EGFR-TKI, with radiotherapy in locally advanced EGFR-mutated NSCLC patients.

Methods: Locally advanced NSCLC patients harboring sensitive EGFR mutation will be included in this study. A radiotherapy plan will be made for each patient before treatment, and the lung V20 will be calculated. Patients with lung V20 ≥ 28% were enrolled in induction group (arm A), which almonertinib was given for 2 months followed by concurrent radiotherapy; patients with lung V20 < 28% were enrolled in concurrent group (arm B), which almonertinib was given concurrent with thoracic radiotherapy. The primary endpoint is the incidence of grade ≥ 3 radiation pneumonitis within 6 months post-radiotherapy, and the secondary endpoints are local control rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival.

Discussion: The safety and efficacy of third-generation EGFR-TKI concurrent with thoracic radiotherapy in locally advanced EGFR-mutated NSCLC is still unknown. We propose to conduct this phase 2 study evaluating the safety especially the radiation pneumonitis within 6 months post-radiotherapy. This trial protocol has been approved by the Ethics committee of Hangzhou cancer hospital. The ethics number is HZCH-2020-030.

Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov, NCT04636593 . Registered 19 November 2020 - Retrospectively registered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-08266-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8103745PMC
May 2021

Electrochemically controlled metasurfaces with high-contrast switching at visible frequencies.

Sci Adv 2021 May 5;7(19). Epub 2021 May 5.

2nd Physics Institute, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany.

Recently in nanophotonics, a rigorous evolution from passive to active metasurfaces has been witnessed. This advancement not only brings forward interesting physical phenomena but also elicits opportunities for practical applications. However, active metasurfaces operating at visible frequencies often exhibit low performance due to design and fabrication restrictions at the nanoscale. In this work, we demonstrate electrochemically controlled metasurfaces with high intensity contrast, fast switching rate, and excellent reversibility at visible frequencies. We use a conducting polymer, polyaniline (PANI), that can be locally conjugated on preselected gold nanorods to actively control the phase profiles of the metasurfaces. The optical responses of the metasurfaces can be in situ monitored and optimized by controlling the PANI growth of subwavelength dimension during the electrochemical process. We showcase electrochemically controlled anomalous transmission and holography with good switching performance. Such electrochemically powered optical metasurfaces lay a solid basis to develop metasurface devices for real-world optical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abd9450DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8099187PMC
May 2021

Selective Deposition of Catalytic Metals on Plasmonic Au Nanocups for Room-Light-Active Photooxidation of -Phenylenediamine.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Plasmonic hotspots can enhance hot charge carrier generation, offering new opportunities for improving the photocatalytic activity. In this work, eight types of heteronanostructures are synthesized by selectively depositing catalytic metals at the different sites of highly asymmetric Au nanocups for the photocatalytic oxidation of -phenylenediamine. The oxidation of this molecule has so far mainly relied on the use of HO as an oxidizing agent in the presence of an appropriate catalyst. The photocatalytic oxidation under visible light has not been reported before. The Au nanocups with AgPt nanoparticles grown at the opening edge and bottom exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity. The generated hot electrons and holes both participate in the reaction. The hot carriers from the interband and intraband transitions are both utilized. The optimal catalyst shows a favorable activity even under room light. Simulations reveal that the profound electric field enhancement at the hotspots boosts the hot-carrier density in the catalytic nanoparticles, explaining the overwhelming photocatalytic activity of the optimal catalyst.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c03806DOI Listing
April 2021

Prognostic value of lactate dehydrogenase for melanoma patients receiving anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy: A meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(14):e25318

Department of Oncology Radiotherapy, Shaoxing People's Hospital, Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province, China.

Background: Several studies indicate the level of pretreatment lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) may be associated with the prognosis of patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) which had been reported to dramatically improve the survival of patients with advanced or metastatic melanoma; however, no consensus has been reached because the presence of controversial conclusions. This study was to perform a meta-analysis to comprehensively explore the prognostic values of LDH for melanoma patients receiving anti-PD1/PD-L1 monotherapy.

Methods: A systematic electronic search in the databases of PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library was performed to identify all related articles up to April, 2020. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained to assess the prognostic values of pretreatment LDH in blood for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS).

Results: A total of 22 eligible studies involving 2745 patients were included. Of them, 19 studies with 20 results assessed the OS and the pooled analysis showed that an elevated pretreatment LDH level was significantly associated with a worse OS (HR = 2.44; 95% CI: 1.95-3.04, P < .001). Thirteen studies reported PFS and meta-analysis also revealed that a higher pretreatment LDH level predicted a significantly shorter PFS (HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.34-1.92; P < .001). Although heterogeneity existed among these studies, the same results were acquired in subgroup analyses based on sample size, country, study design, cut-off of LDH, type of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors and statistics for HRs (all HRs > 1 and P < .05).

Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests LDH may serve as a potential biomarker to identify patients who can benefit from anti-PD-1/PD-L1 and then schedule treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025318DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036123PMC
April 2021

The Association Between Metformin Treatment and Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients With Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction: A Retrospective Study.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 12;8:648212. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Metformin is the first-line antidiabetic medication for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the association between metformin and outcomes in T2DM patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is still unknown. We aimed to explore the association between metformin and adverse outcome in T2DM patients with HFpEF. A total of 372 T2DM patients with HFpEF hospitalized from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2017, were included in this retrospective cohort study. There were 113 and 259 subjects in metformin and non-metformin group, respectively. Subjects were followed up for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular death, all-cause hospitalization, and heart failure hospitalization. The median follow-up period was 47 months. Eleven patients (2.49% per patient-year) in the metformin group and 56 patients (5.52% per patient-year) in the non-metformin group deceased during follow-up ( = 0.031). However, a multivariable Cox regression failed to show that metformin was an independent factor of all-cause mortality [HR (95% CI) = 0.682 (0.346-1.345); = 0.269]. A subgroup analysis revealed a significant association between metformin and all-cause mortality in patients with a higher hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level (HbA1c ≥7%) [HR (95% CI) = 0.339 (0.117-0.997); = 0.045]. The 4-year estimated number needed to treat (NNT) with metformin compared with non-metformin for all-cause mortality was 12 in all populations and 8 in the HbA1c ≥7% subgroup. Metformin was not independently associated with clinical outcomes in patients with T2DM and HFpEF, but was associated with lower all-cause mortality in the subgroup of patients with poor glycemic control. Prospective, randomized controlled trials are needed to further verify these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.648212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994337PMC
March 2021

Metal-free g-CN nanosheets as a highly visible-light-active photocatalyst for thiol-ene reactions.

Nanoscale 2021 Feb 5;13(6):3493-3499. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Thiol-ene click reactions are important for the construction of carbon-sulfur bonds. The use of visible-light photoredox catalysis for the formation of C-S bonds has attracted much attention. In this work, two-dimensional metal-free graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) nanosheets are prepared through a simple thermal polymerization method and used to catalyze the thiol-ene click reaction under visible light-illumination. This green, atom-economic, and inexpensive approach for the hydrothiolation of alkenes is applicable for structurally different substrates and exhibits superior yields. In air or nitrogen atmosphere, the reaction yield decreases when a hole scavenging agent, CHOH, is introduced, which indicates that photogenerated holes in the g-CN nanosheets play an important role in the formation of thiyl radicals. The g-CN nanosheets still show a good stability and favorable photocatalytic activity after five cycles of the reaction. Moreover, this approach can be scaled up to the gram-scale synthesis of benzyl(phenethyl)sulfane with a yield up to 93%. Our study suggests a good potential of semiconducting g-CN nanosheets as a metal-free, efficient photocatalyst for various thiol-ene click reactions and even for other organic reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr00453kDOI Listing
February 2021

Identification of Key Pathways and Genes Related to the Development of Hair Follicle Cycle in Cashmere Goats.

Genes (Basel) 2021 01 27;12(2). Epub 2021 Jan 27.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China.

The development of hair follicle in cashmere goats shows significant periodic change, as with mice and humans. However, for cashmere goat with double-coat, the periodic change may be due to other regulatory molecules and signal pathways. To understand the mechanism of periodic development of hair follicle, we performed a weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) to mine key genes and establish an interaction network by utilizing the NCBI public dataset. Ten coexpression modules, including 7689 protein-coding genes, were constructed by WGCNA, six of which are considered to be significantly related to the development of the hair follicle cycle. A functional enrichment analysis for each model showed that they are closely related to ECM- receptor interaction, focal adhesion, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, estrogen signaling pathway, and so on. Combined with the analysis of differential expressed genes, 12 hub genes from coexpression modules were selected as candidate markers, i.e., , , , , , , , , , , and , which might be applied to improve cashmere production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12020180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911279PMC
January 2021

Dissecting human embryonic skeletal stem cell ontogeny by single-cell transcriptomic and functional analyses.

Cell Res 2021 Jul 20;31(7):742-757. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Shanghai East Hospital, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Signaling and Disease Research, Frontier Science Center for Stem Cell Research, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Human skeletal stem cells (SSCs) have been discovered in fetal and adult long bones. However, the spatiotemporal ontogeny of human embryonic SSCs during early skeletogenesis remains elusive. Here we map the transcriptional landscape of human limb buds and embryonic long bones at single-cell resolution to address this fundamental question. We found remarkable heterogeneity within human limb bud mesenchyme and epithelium, and aligned them along the proximal-distal and anterior-posterior axes using known marker genes. Osteo-chondrogenic progenitors first appeared in the core limb bud mesenchyme, which give rise to multiple populations of stem/progenitor cells in embryonic long bones undergoing endochondral ossification. Importantly, a perichondrial embryonic skeletal stem/progenitor cell (eSSPC) subset was identified, which could self-renew and generate the osteochondral lineage cells, but not adipocytes or hematopoietic stroma. eSSPCs are marked by the adhesion molecule CADM1 and highly enriched with FOXP1/2 transcriptional network. Interestingly, neural crest-derived cells with similar phenotypic markers and transcriptional networks were also found in the sagittal suture of human embryonic calvaria. Taken together, this study revealed the cellular heterogeneity and lineage hierarchy during human embryonic skeletogenesis, and identified distinct skeletal stem/progenitor cells that orchestrate endochondral and intramembranous ossification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41422-021-00467-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8249634PMC
July 2021

Conversion of full nitritation to partial nitritation/anammox in a continuous granular reactor for low-strength ammonium wastewater treatment at 20 °C.

Biodegradation 2021 Feb 15;32(1):87-98. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, No. 1 Kerui Road, Suzhou, 215009, People's Republic of China.

The feasibility of converting full nitritation to partial nitritation/anammox (PN/A) at ambient temperature (20 °C) was investigated in a continuous granular reactor. The process was conducted without anammox bacteria inoculation for the treatment of 70 mg L of low-strength ammonium nitrogen wastewater. Following the stepwise increase of the nitrogen loading rate from 0.84 to 1.30 kg N m d in 320 days of operation, the removal efficiency of total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) exceeded 80% under oxygen-limiting conditions. The mature PN/A granules, which had a compact structure and abundant biomass, exhibited a specific TIN removal rate of 0.11 g N g VSS d and a settling velocity of 70.2 m h. This was comparable with that obtained at above 30 °C in previous reports. High-throughput pyrosequencing results revealed that the co-enrichment of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria identified as genera Nitrosomonas and Candidatus Kuenenia, which prompted a hybrid competition for oxygen and nitrite with nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). However, the overgrowth of novel NOB Candidatus Nitrotoga adapted to low temperatures and low nitrite concentration could potentially deteriorate the one-stage PN/A process by exhausting residual bulk ammonium under long-term excessive aeration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10532-020-09923-wDOI Listing
February 2021

Bta-miR-376a Targeting Interferes with Adipogenesis Signaling Pathway to Promote Differentiation of Qinchuan Beef Cattle Preadipocytes.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Dec 10;10(12). Epub 2020 Dec 10.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

Intramuscular fat (IMF) is a quality index associated with the taste and juiciness of meat. The deposition of IMF is affected by genetic and non-genetic factors, such as age, slaughter location, gender of the animal, and diet. Micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNA) are transcriptional regulators involved in adipogenesis, but the specific role of miR-376a in regulation of bovine adipocytes remains unknown. Our findings indicated that miR-376a was a potential negative regulator of bovine adipocyte differentiation. A bta-miR-376a mimic inhibited mRNA and protein expression of the marker genes, , , , , , and , and significantly reduced ratios (%) of S-phase cells, the number of cells stained with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine, and adipocyte proliferation. Oil red O staining and triglyceride content analysis also confirmed that bta-miR-376a was involved in adipocyte differentiation. Luciferase activities confirmed that Krüppel-like transcription factor 15 (KLF15) was a direct target gene of bta-miR-376a, and that KLF15 was a key transcription factor in adipogenesis. Therefore, bta-miR-376a might be a target for increasing beef IMF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10122362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7763857PMC
December 2020

Fabrication of pH-sensitive graphene oxide-Benazepril carrier as biosafety controlled release systems.

J Appl Biomater Funct Mater 2020 Jan-Dec;18:2280800020963471

College of Liberal Arts and Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, China.

A novel graphene oxide (GO)-based carrier was fabricated for the controlled release of Benazepril (BENA). Freeze dried samples of GO-BENA carrier were prepared for controlled drug release at different pHs (pH = 2, 7, and 10) and release kinetics indicate BENA desorption from GO is by Fickian diffusion. The BENA yield from the carrier amounted to ~55% of the adsorbed material in a strongly acidic medium after 50 h. Binding fractions of BENA to 10 mg/L GO was determined for different solution concentrations of the drug. In vitro assays of cell proliferation (WST-1 kit), cell structural integrity (LDH kit) and flow cytometric indicators of necrosis in three different cell lines (CACO-2, SGC-7901, and primary mouse hepatic fibroblast) all demonstrated that the GO carrier had a good biocompatibility. The pH-dependent release sensitivity of the GO-based carrier suggests that it is a potential candidate for use in the controlled release of drugs in the acidic environment of the stomach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2280800020963471DOI Listing
December 2020

Electrochemical coating of different conductive polymers on diverse plasmonic metal nanocrystals.

Nanoscale 2020 Nov;12(42):21617-21623

Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Conductive polymers are attracting much attention for realizing active plasmonics on conventional static plasmonic nanostructures because of their variable dielectric functions. Combining organic conductive polymers with inorganic plasmonic nanostructures allows for the creation of active devices, such as active metasurfaces, reconfigurable metalenses and dynamic plasmonic holography. However, the complexity of such a combination, together with the poor control in polymer thickness and morphology, has limited the advancement of active plasmonics. Herein we report on the electrochemical coating of conductive polymers on pre-grown metal nanocrystals. Robust control of the polymer thickness and morphology is accomplished through the variation of the applied electrochemical potential. Various types of conductive polymers are coated on different metal nanocrystals, including Au, Pd and Pt. Active plasmonic color switching and H2O2 sensing are demonstrated with polyaniline-coated Au nanorods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr05715kDOI Listing
November 2020

Insight into how high dissolved oxygen favors the startup of nitritation with aerobic granules.

Chemosphere 2021 May 16;270:128643. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

National & Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Municipal Sewage Resource Utilization Technology, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou, 215009, China; School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou, 215009, China. Electronic address:

To elucidate how high dissolved oxygen (DO) favors the startup of nitritation with aerobic granular sludge, two granular reactors were operated under low (1-2 mg O·L) and high DO (3-5 mg O·L) conditions with similar effluent ammonium concentrations (>20 mg N·L). The results showed that though nitritation with an average nitrite accumulation ratio of above 95% was finally achieved in both reactors, a five-fold start-up time (eleven weeks) was required for the low DO reactor compared to the high DO reactor. Moreover, the nitritation performance was positively correlated with the extent of nitrifiers stratification in granules. The faster startup of nitritation under high DO conditions mainly resulted from the faster formation of well-stratified nitrifiers, with ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) dominating granule surface. High DO operation combined with sufficient ammonium supply ensured the faster growth of AOB, which should provide a competitive advantage to AOB in competing for habitable space (i.e., granule surface). Besides, the lower porosity, larger size, and more active extracellular polymeric substances (particularly proteins) production of granules was observed under the high DO condition. Overall, these findings supported the proposition that the switch from mixed to stratified distribution of nitrifiers in granule was primarily driven by their competition for habitable space rather than by oxygen-limitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128643DOI Listing
May 2021

(Gold nanorod core)/(poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene) shell) nanostructures and their monolayer arrays for plasmonic switching.

Nanoscale 2020 Oct;12(40):20684-20692

College of Chemical Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021, China. and Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Biochemical Technology, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021, China.

(Gold nanorod core)/(poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) shell) nanostructures are prepared by the surfactant-assisted oxidative polymerization of 3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene on the surface of gold nanorods (NRs). The PEDOT shell exhibits distinct dielectric properties at doped and undoped states, which allows the manipulation of plasmonic responses of the Au nanorod core. The shift in plasmon resonance induced by the dedoping of PEDOT is found to be associated with the overlap between the plasmon resonance band of the core/shell nanostructure and the spectral region where the largest refractive index variation of PEDOT occurs, as well as with the type of the dedopant. Macroscopic two-dimensional (2D) monolayer arrays of core/shell nanostructures with controlled particle number densities are fabricated on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates by electrophoretic deposition. A reversible plasmonic shift of about 70 nm is obtained on the core/shell nanostructure monolayer array with a number density of around 18 particles per μm2. Our design of colloidal (Au nanorod core)/(PEDOT shell) nanostructures and their 2D monolayer arrays paves the way for the fabrication of high-performance plasmonic switches in large-scale practical usages as well as for the preparation of advanced, programmable chromic materials for a broad range of applications, such as smart windows, anti-counterfeiting tags, and medical and environmental sensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr05502fDOI Listing
October 2020

Photodriven Disproportionation of Nitrogen and Its Change to Reductive Nitrogen Photofixation.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jan 5;60(2):927-936. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Chemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Nitrogen fixation is an essential process for sustaining life. Tremendous efforts have been made on the photodriven fixation of nitrogen into ammonia. However, the disproportionation of dinitrogen to ammonia and nitrate under ambient conditions has remained a grand challenge. In this work, the photodriven disproportionation of nitrogen is realized in water under visible light and ambient conditions using Fe-doped TiO microspheres. The oxygen vacancies associated with the Fe dopants activate chemisorbed N molecules, which can then be fixed into NH with H O as the oxidation product. The generated H O thereafter oxidizes NH into nitrate. This disproportionation reaction can be turned to the reductive one by loading plasmonic Au nanoparticles in the doped TiO microspheres. The generated H O can be effectively decomposed by the Au nanoparticles, resulting in the transformation of the disproportionation reaction to the completely reductive nitrogen photofixation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202010192DOI Listing
January 2021

Does Quicker Mean Better? Comparison of Rapid Deployment Versus Conventional Aortic Valve Replacement.

Int Heart J 2020 Sep 2;61(5):951-960. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine.

The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the clinical outcomes in patients who underwent rapid deployment aortic valve replacement (RDAVR) and conventional bio prosthetic aortic valve replacement (CAVR).We performed a literature search by August 2018. The primary outcomes were hospital and 1-year mortality, and the secondary endpoints included the aortic cross-clamp (ACC), cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time, and postoperative and valve-related complications.Two randomized controlled trials and 13 propensity score-matched studies were included. There was no difference between RDAVR and CAVR in hospital mortality (2.5% versus 2.1%; risk ratio (RR) 1.16 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-1.68]) or 1-year mortality (2.9% versus 4.1%; RR 0.69 [95% CI 0.34-1.34]). RDAVR significantly reduced the ACC time ( (mean difference (MD) -24.33 [95% CI -28.35 to -20.32]) and CPB time (MD -21.51 [95% CI -22.83 to -20.20]). The pooled analysis showed that RDAVR doubled the occurrence of permanent pacemaker implantation (8.6% versus 4.3%; RR 2.05 [95% CI 1.62-2.60]). Meanwhile, the blood transfusion amount (MD -1.54 [95% CI -2.22 to -0.86]) and postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) occurrence (RR 0.83 [95% CI 0.69-0.99]) was reduced. The difference of paravalvular leakage frequency between RDAVR and CAVR was marginal (RR 1.77 [95% CI 1.00-3.17]; P = 0.05). Furthermore, RDAVR was related to larger valves (MD 0.70 cm [95% CI 0.33-1.07]) and lower mean pressure gradients (MD -1.93 mmHg [95% CI -3.58 to -0.28]).The hospital and 1-year survival rates between RDAVR and CAVR are comparable. RDAVR reduces POAF occurrence and blood transfusion but is associated with a higher occurrence of pacemaker implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1536/ihj.19-717DOI Listing
September 2020

Synthesis of a novel Tc labeled GE11 peptide for EGFR SPECT imaging.

Int J Radiat Biol 2020 11 1;96(11):1443-1451. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Purpose: This study investigated a novel SPECT agent for the noninvasive imaging of EGFR-overexpressing tumors.

Methods: The EGFR-targeting peptide GE11 was synthesized with the introduction of four amino acids (GGGC) to its C-terminal to act as a strong chelator and radiolabeled using Tc. The radiochemical yield of the Tc-peptide-GE11 were evaluated using RP-HPLC. Cellular assays of the probe were performed on two NSCLC cell lines: A549 (high expression) and H23 (low expression). Biodistribution and SPECT imaging were performed in BALB/c nude mice bearing A549 and H23 NSCLC xenografts.

Results: The Tc-peptide-GE11 was prepared at high efficiency with radiochemical yield of 98.40 ± 1.00 % and it showed favorable stability. The cellular uptake was significantly higher in A549 than in H23 at all time points (especially at 1 h, which was 10.34 ± 0.72 and 2.04 ± 0.18, respectively). A nearly 56% reduction in probe uptake was observed after pretreatment with excess unlabeled peptides. The performance of SPECT imaging and biodistribution demonstrated higher uptake of the Tc-peptide-GE11 in A549 xenograft than in H23 xenografts.

Conclusion: The new SPECT tracer c-peptide-GE11 showed EGFR specificity, favorable pharmacokinetics and great potential for EGFR-targeted imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09553002.2020.1811419DOI Listing
November 2020

Porcine circovirus type 2 upregulates endothelial-derived IL-8 production in porcine iliac artery endothelial cells via the RIG-I/MDA-5/MAVS/JNK signaling pathway.

BMC Vet Res 2020 Jul 29;16(1):265. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Beijing University of Agriculture, No. 7 Beinong Road, Beijing, 102206, Changping District, China.

Background: Dysfunction of endothelial cells and vascular system is one of the most important pathological changes of porcine circovirus disease (PCVD) caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). PCV2-infected endothelial cells can upregulate the production of endothelial-derived IL-8, which can inhibit the maturation of dendritic cells. Endothelial-derived IL-8 has different structural and biological characteristics compared with monocyte-derived IL-8. However, the mechanism of endothelial-derived IL-8 production is still unclear.

Results: Key molecules of RIG-I-like signaling pathway RIG-I, MDA-5, MAVS and a key molecule of JNK signaling pathway c-Jun in PCV2-infected porcine iliac artery endothelial cells (PIECs) were upregulated significantly detected with quantitative PCR, Western blot and fluorescence confocal microscopy, while no significant changes were found in NF-κB signaling pathway. Meanwhile, the expression of endothelial-derived IL-8 was downregulated after RIG-I, MDA-5, or MAVS genes in PIECs were knocked down and PIECs were treated by JNK inhibitor.

Conclusions: PCV2 can activate RIG-I/MDA-5/MAVS/JNK signaling pathway to induce the production of endothelial-derived IL-8 in PIECs, which provides an insight into the further study of endothelial dysfunction and vascular system disorder caused by PCV2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-020-02486-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7392700PMC
July 2020

Gold nanonails for surface-enhanced infrared absorption.

Nanoscale Horiz 2020 07;5(8):1200-1212

Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Nanocomposites and Applications, Institute of Nanostructured Functional Materials, Huanghe Science and Technology College, Zhengzhou, Henan 450006, China.

Surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) can dramatically enhance the vibrational signals of analyte molecules owing to the interaction between plasmons and molecular vibrations. It has huge potential for applications in various detection and diagnostic fields. High-aspect-ratio rod-like metal nanostructures have been the most widely studied nanomaterials for SEIRA. However, nearly all of the rod-like nanostructures reported previously are fabricated using physical methods. They suffer from damping and low areal number densities. In this work, high-aspect-ratio Au nanorods are synthesized, and Au nanonails are prepared through Au overgrowth on the as-prepared Au nanorods. The aspect ratios of the Au nanorods and nanonails can be varied in the range of ∼10 to ∼60, and their longitudinal dipolar plasmon resonance wavelengths can be correspondingly tailored from ∼1.6 to ∼8.3 μm. The Au nanonails exhibit superior SEIRA performance with 4-aminothiophenol used as the probe molecules. They are further used to detect the common biomolecule l-cysteine. Numerical simulations are further performed to understand the experimental results. They match well with the experimental observations, revealing the mechanism of the SEIRA enhancement. Our study demonstrates that colloidal high-aspect-ratio Au nanonails and nanorods can function as SEIRA nanoantennas for highly sensitive molecular detection in various situations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nh00244eDOI Listing
July 2020

Comparing nitrite-limited and ammonium-limited anammox processes treating low-strength wastewater: Functional and population heterogeneity.

Chemosphere 2020 Nov 5;258:127290. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Biomass segregation between granules/biofilm and flocs is widespread in anammox-based processes. The segregation of biomass allows for easy control of processes stability. The goal of this study is to understand the biomass segregation in two anoxic anammox reactors respectively operated in nitrite-limited (R) and ammonium-limited (R) modes treating low-strength wastewater at 20 °C. Results showed that size-based biomass segregation was developed in both reactors. But the functional and population heterogeneity was more significant in the ammonium-limited anammox reactor. The activity and abundance of anammox bacteria in large granules were significantly higher than that in flocs under the ammonium-limited conditions. The large granules played a major role in nitrogen removal in R. By contrast, both large granules and small flocs contributed significantly to the nitrogen loss in the nitrite-limited anammox reactor, since a large number of anammox bacteria existed in both granules and flocs. Besides, a number of Nitrospira-like NOB were also detected in both anoxic anammox reactors, which primarily inhabited in flocs seemingly droved by the availability of oxygen. But the abundance of Nitrospira in R was much higher than that in R. All these results suggested that selective flocs removal would be necessary for R to improve its anammox performance but non-essential for R. The two anammox reactors shared the predominant anammox species with the closest relative to Ca. Brocadia sp. 40 (98%). Unexpectedly, the anammox species grew faster in R. But the microbial diversity and evenness was much greater in R, suggesting its higher functional stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127290DOI Listing
November 2020

Importance of substrates for the visibility of "dark" plasmonic modes.

Opt Express 2020 Apr;28(9):13938-13948

Dark plasmonic modes have interesting properties, including longer lifetimes and narrower linewidths than their radiative counterpart, and little to no radiative losses. However, they have not been extensively studied yet due to their optical inaccessibility. In this work, we systematically investigated the dark radial breathing modes (RBMs) in monocrystalline gold nanodisks, specifically their outcoupling behavior into the far-field by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. Increasing the substrate thickness resulted in an up to 4-fold enhanced visibility. This is attributed to breaking the mirror symmetry by the high-index substrate, creating an effective dipole moment. Furthermore, the resonance energy of the dark RMBs can be easily tuned by varying the nanodisk diameter, making them promising candidates for nanophotonic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.393056DOI Listing
April 2020

The effectiveness of delivery ball use versus conventional nursing care during delivery of primiparae.

Pak J Med Sci 2020 Mar-Apr;36(3):550-554

Xuemei Li Department of Cardiovascular, Binzhou Shili Hospital, Binzhou, 256617, China.

Objective: To analyze the clinical effect of delivery ball and free position delivery nursing in primipara delivery.

Methods: Total 110 primipara who were admitted to the department of gynecology and obstetrics of our hospital from August 2017 to August 2018 were included in the study. They were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 55 each group. The control group adopted conventional nursing measures, while the observation group adopted delivery ball combined with free position midwifery nursing on the basis of conventional nursing. The pain degree, comfort degree, pregnancy outcome and sense of delivery control were compared between the two groups.

Results: The number of puerperae with grade 0 and 3 labor pain in the two groups had no statistically significant difference (P>0.05). The number of puerperae with grade 1 and 2 had significant difference (P<0.05). As to the comparison of the delivery mode between the two groups, there were 9 cases of cesarean delivery and 46 cases of vaginal delivery in the observation group; there were 19 cases of cesarean delivery and 36 cases of vaginal delivery in the control group; the differences had statistical significance (P<0.05). In the comparison of the birth process time of the vaginal delivery puerperae, the time of the first and second stages of labor in the observation group was shorter than that in the control group, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05); there was no difference in the time of the third stage of labor between the two groups (P>0.05). The amount of hemorrhage of the observation group 2 hours after labor was 172.50±40.60 mL and that of the control group was 224.45±32.80 mL; the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). The sense of delivery control of the puerperae who suffered vaginal delivery was compared between the two groups using Labor Agentry Scale (LAS); the sense of delivery control of the observation group was stronger than that of the control group, and the differences had statistical significance (P<0.05).

Conclusion: In the delivery of primipara, delivery ball combined with free position delivery can help the primipara relieve pain, improve comfort degree, reduce the amount of postpartum hemorrhage, shorten the duration of various stages of labor, and improve the delivery outcome. It has a high clinical promotion value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12669/pjms.36.3.1440DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7150382PMC
April 2020

Efficient Ammonia Electrosynthesis from Nitrate on Strained Ruthenium Nanoclusters.

J Am Chem Soc 2020 Apr 6;142(15):7036-7046. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Key Laboratory of Pesticide & Chemical Biology of Ministry of Education, Institute of Environmental & Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Central China Normal University, 152 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079, China.

The limitations of the Haber-Bosch reaction, particularly high-temperature operation, have ignited new interests in low-temperature ammonia-synthesis scenarios. Ambient N electroreduction is a compelling alternative but is impeded by a low ammonia production rate (mostly <10 mmol g h), a small partial current density (<1 mA cm), and a high-selectivity hydrogen-evolving side reaction. Herein, we report that room-temperature nitrate electroreduction catalyzed by strained ruthenium nanoclusters generates ammonia at a higher rate (5.56 mol g h) than the Haber-Bosch process. The primary contributor to such performance is hydrogen radicals, which are generated by suppressing hydrogen-hydrogen dimerization during water splitting enabled by the tensile lattice strains. The radicals expedite nitrate-to-ammonia conversion by hydrogenating intermediates of the rate-limiting steps at lower kinetic barriers. The strained nanostructures can maintain nearly 100% ammonia-evolving selectivity at >120 mA cm current densities for 100 h due to the robust subsurface Ru-O coordination. These findings highlight the potential of nitrate electroreduction in real-world, low-temperature ammonia synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c00418DOI Listing
April 2020

Electrochemical Switching of Plasmonic Colors Based on Polyaniline-Coated Plasmonic Nanocrystals.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Apr 31;12(15):17733-17744. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Plasmonic color generation has attracted much research interest because of the unique optical properties of plasmonic nanocrystals that are promising for chromatic applications, such as flat-panel displays, smart windows, and wearable devices. Low-cost, monodisperse plasmonic nanocrystals supporting strong localized surface plasmon resonances are favorable for the generation of plasmonic colors. However, many implementations so far have either a single static state or complexities in the particle alignment and switching mechanism for generating multiple displaying states. Herein, we report on a facile and robust approach for realizing the electrochemical switching of plasmonic colors out of colloidal plasmonic nanocrystals. The metal nanocrystals are coated with a layer of polyaniline, whose refractive index and optical absorption are reversibly switched through the variation of an applied electrochemical potential. The change in refractive index and optical absorption results in the modulation of the plasmonic scattering intensity with a depth of 11 dB. The electrochemical switching process is fast (∼5 ms) and stable (over 1000 switching cycles). A device configuration is further demonstrated for switching plasmonic color patterns in a transparent electrochemical device, which is made from indium tin oxide electrodes and a polyvinyl alcohol solid electrolyte. Our control of plasmonic colors provides a favorable platform for engineering low-cost and high-performance miniaturized optical devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c01562DOI Listing
April 2020

Gold nanobipyramid-loaded black phosphorus nanosheets for plasmon-enhanced photodynamic and photothermal therapy of deep-seated orthotopic lung tumors.

Acta Biomater 2020 04 5;107:260-271. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800, PR China; Center of Materials Science and Optoelectronics Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, PR China. Electronic address:

Various types of photodynamic agents have been explored for photodynamic therapy (PDT) to destroy cancers located in deep tissues. However, these agents are generally limited by low singlet oxygen (O) yields owing to weak absorption in the optical transparent window of biological tissues. Accordingly, in this work, we developed a nanocomposite through the assembly of gold nanobipyramids (GNBPs) on black phosphorus nanosheets (BPNSs). This nanocomposite could simultaneously enhance O generation and hyperthermia by localized surface plasmon resonance in cancer therapy. As two-dimensional inorganic photosensitizers, BPNSs were hybridized with GNBPs to form BPNS-GNBP hybrid nanosheets. The hybridization markedly increased O production by the BPNSs through plasmon-enhanced light absorption. The nanocomposite exhibited a higher photothermal conversion efficiency than the BPNSs alone. In vitro and in vivo assays indicated that the BPNS-GNBP hybrid nanocomposite exhibited good tumor inhibition efficacy owing to simultaneous dual-modality phototherapy. In vivo, the nanocomposite suppressed deep-seated tumor growth with minimal adverse effects in mice bearing orthotopic A549 human lung tumors. Taken together, these results demonstrated that our BPNS-GNBP nanocomposite could function as a promising dual-modality phototherapeutic agent for enhanced cancer therapy in future cancer treatments. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, we established a new nanocomposite by assembly of gold nanobipyramids (GNBPs) on black phosphorus nanosheets (BPNSs). Characterization of this nanocomposite showed that BPNS-GNBP enhanced O generation and hyperthermia. BPNS-GNBP exhibited good tumor inhibition efficacy in vivo and in vitro owing to simultaneous dual-modal phototherapy functions. Moreover, BPNS-GNBP suppressed deep-seated tumor growth in vivo and did not show adverse effects in mice bearing orthotopic A549 human lung tumors. Overall, these results showed that BPNS-GNBP may be used as a promising dual-modal phototherapeutic agent for enhanced cancer therapy in future clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2020.03.001DOI Listing
April 2020

Gold nanobipyramid-embedded ultrathin metal nanoframes for monitoring catalytic reactions.

Chem Sci 2020 Feb 26;11(12):3198-3207. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong Shatin Hong Kong SAR China

Metal nanoframes, especially ultrathin ones, with excellent plasmonic properties are synthetically interesting and highly attractive. Herein we report on the synthesis of Au nanobipyramid-embedded ultrathin metal nanoframes with one of the plasmon modes very similar to that of the Au nanobipyramids. The synthesis is mediated by silver coating on Au nanobipyramids. The excellent plasmonic properties of the Au nanobipyramid-embedded ultrathin metal nanoframes are ascribed to the little influence of the ultrathin metal nanoframes on the Au nanobipyramids, as verified by electrodynamic simulations. The increase in the amount of the added metal atoms changes the nanostructure from the nanoframe to a nanocage shape. The method has also been successfully applied to (Au nanobipyramid)@Ag nanorods with different lengths and Au nanobipyramids with different longitudinal dipolar plasmon wavelengths, suggesting the generality of our approach. We have further shown that the Au nanobipyramid-embedded ultrathin metal nanoframes possess an excellent surface-enhanced Raman scattering and outstanding reaction probing performance. Our study opens up a route for the construction of plasmonic ultrathin metal nanoframes based on Au nanobipyramids for plasmon-enabled applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9sc06475cDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8157342PMC
February 2020

Plasmonically enabled two-dimensional material-based optoelectronic devices.

Nanoscale 2020 Apr 24;12(15):8095-8108. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Shenzhen JL Computational Science and Applied Research Institute, Shenzhen 518109, China.

Two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, black phosphorus and hexagonal boron nitride, have been intensively investigated as building blocks for optoelectronic devices in the past few years. Very recently, significant efforts have been devoted to the improvement of the optoelectronic performances of 2D materials, which are restricted by their intrinsically low light absorption due to the ultrathin thickness. Making use of the plasmonic effects of metal nanostructures and intrinsic plasmon excitation in graphene has been shown to be one of the promising strategies. In this minireview, recent progress in 2D material-based optoelectronics enabled by the plasmonic effects is highlighted. A perspective on more possibilities in plasmon-assisted 2D material-based optoelectronic applications will also be provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9nr10755jDOI Listing
April 2020
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