Publications by authors named "Jian-Xin Zhao"

55 Publications

Oldest cave art found in Sulawesi.

Sci Adv 2021 Jan 13;7(3). Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Place, Evolution and Rock Art Heritage Unit (PERAHU), Griffith Centre for Social and Cultural Research, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.

Indonesia harbors some of the oldest known surviving cave art. Previously, the earliest dated rock art from this region was a figurative painting of a Sulawesi warty pig (). This image from Leang Bulu' Sipong 4 in the limestone karsts of Maros-Pangkep, South Sulawesi, was created at least 43,900 years ago (43.9 ka) based on Uranium-series dating. Here, we report the Uranium-series dating of two figurative cave paintings of Sulawesi warty pigs recently discovered in the same karst area. The oldest, with a minimum age of 45.5 ka, is from Leang Tedongnge. The second image, from Leang Balangajia 1, dates to at least 32 ka. To our knowledge, the animal painting from Leang Tedongnge is the earliest known representational work of art in the world. There is no reason to suppose, however, that this early rock art is a unique example in Island Southeast Asia or the wider region.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abd4648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7806210PMC
January 2021

U-Pb Dating of Calcite from the South China Antimony Metallogenic Belt.

iScience 2020 Oct 18;23(10):101575. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Guizhou Geological Survey, Bureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration and Development of Guizhou Province, Guiyang 550081, China.

Accurately determining the age of hydrothermal ore deposits is difficult, because of lack of suitable mineral chronometers and techniques. Here we present the first LA-MC-ICPMS U-Pb age of carbonates from hydrothermal Sb deposits. Three stages of hydrothermal carbonates from the giant South China Sb metallogenic belt were identified: (1) pre-ore dolomite (Dol-I), (2) syn-ore calcite (Cal-II), and (3) post-ore calcite (Cal-III). The U and Pb isotopic data show that Cal-II yielded a lower intercept age of 115.3 ± 1.5 Ma (MSWD = 2.0), suggesting a Sb mineralization that corresponds to an extension event occurred during the early Cretaceous in South China. Although Cal-III yielded an age of 60.0 ± 0.9 Ma (MSWD = 1.5), indicating a potential tectonothermal event occurred in this belt during the early Cenozoic. Hence, U-Pb dating of calcite offers a new way to determine the age of hydrothermal ore deposits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101575DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7530294PMC
October 2020

Coral Gardens Reef, Belize: A refugium in the face of Caribbean-wide Acropora spp. coral decline.

PLoS One 2020 30;15(9):e0239267. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Geosciences Department, Smith College, Northampton, MA, United States of America.

Caribbean Acropora spp. corals have undergone a decline in cover since the second half of the twentieth century. Loss of these architecturally complex and fast-growing corals has resulted in significant, cascading changes to the character, diversity, and available eco-spaces of Caribbean reefs. Few thriving Acropora spp. populations exist today in the Caribbean and western North Atlantic seas, and our limited ability to access data from reefs assessed via long-term monitoring efforts means that reef scientists are challenged to determine resilience and longevity of existing Acropora spp. reefs. Here we used multiple dating methods to measure reef longevity and determine whether Coral Gardens Reef, Belize, is a refuge for Acropora cervicornis against the backdrop of wider Caribbean decline. We used a new genetic-aging technique to identify sample sites, and radiocarbon and high-precision uranium-thorium (U-Th) dating techniques to test whether one of the largest populations of extant A. cervicornis in the western Caribbean is newly established after the 1980s, or represents a longer-lived, stable population. We did so with respect for ethical sampling of a threatened species. Our data show corals ranging in age from 1910 (14C) or 1915 (230Th) to at least November 2019. While we cannot exclude the possibility of short gaps in the residence of A. cervicornis earlier in the record, the data show consistent and sustained living coral throughout the 1980s and up to at least 2019. We suggest that Coral Gardens has served as a refuge for A. cervicornis and that identifying other, similar sites may be critical to efforts to grow, preserve, conserve, and seed besieged Caribbean reefs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0239267PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7526931PMC
November 2020

[Discussion on registry study of acupuncture-moxibustion for malignant pleural effusion].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2020 Feb;40(2):217-20

Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University of CM, Beijing 100029, China.

Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is one of the common complications of tumor. Acupuncture-moxibustion therapy has several advantages for treatment of MPE. Acupuncture is regarded as a complex individualized intervention, and its characteristics of TCM is difficult to be reflected by strict randomized controlled trials. The registry study provides more possibilities for the data collection of individualized diagnosis and treatment under the guidance of the overall concept and syndrome differentiation, and is more suitable for data management and collection of large samples and multi-center trials in the real-world study. It has become an opportunity to carry out real-world study of acupuncture for MPE. There are many challenges in the registry study of acupuncture for MPE. However, it is of great significance to collect real-world data of acupuncture for MPE to improve the clinical effect of MPE and provide a new clinical research method for acupuncture in tumors and related complications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.13703/j.0255-2930.20190221-00014DOI Listing
February 2020

Defining variation in pre-human ecosystems can guide conservation: An example from a Caribbean coral reef.

Sci Rep 2020 02 19;10(1):2922. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Box 0843-03092, Balboa, Republic of Panama.

Many Caribbean coral reefs are heavily degraded, yet their pre-human, natural states are often assumed or estimated using space-for-time substitution approaches. Here we use an 11-hectare suite of fossilised mid-Holocene (7.2-5.6 ka) fringing reefs in Caribbean Panama to define natural variation in hard coral community structure before human-impact to provide context to the states of the same reefs today. We collected bulk samples from four trenches dug into the mid-Holocene fossil reef and surficial bulk samples from 2-10 m depths on five adjacent modern reefs extending over 5 km. Analysis of the abundances of coral taxa in fossil bulk samples define the Historical Range of Variation (HRV) in community structure of the reefs. When compared to the community structure of adjacent modern reefs, we find that most coral communities today fall outside the HRV, identifying them as novel ecosystems and corroborating the well-documented transition from acroporid-dominated Caribbean reefs to reefs dominated by stress-tolerant taxa (Porites and Agaricia). We find one modern reef, however, whose community composition remains within the HRV showing that it has not transitioned to a novel state. Reef-matrix cores extracted from this reef reveal that the coral community has remained in this state for over 800 years, suggesting long-term stability and resistance to the region-wide shift to novel states. Without these data to provide historical context, this potentially robust and stable reef would be overlooked since it does not fulfil expectations of what a Caribbean coral reef should look like in the absence of humans. This example illustrates how defining past variation using the fossil record can improve our understanding of modern degradation and guide conservation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-59436-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7031243PMC
February 2020

Last appearance of Homo erectus at Ngandong, Java, 117,000-108,000 years ago.

Nature 2020 01 18;577(7790):381-385. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Department of Anthropology and Museum of Natural History, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Homo erectus is the founding early hominin species of Island Southeast Asia, and reached Java (Indonesia) more than 1.5 million years ago. Twelve H. erectus calvaria (skull caps) and two tibiae (lower leg bones) were discovered from a bone bed located about 20 m above the Solo River at Ngandong (Central Java) between 1931 and 1933, and are of the youngest, most-advanced form of H. erectus. Despite the importance of the Ngandong fossils, the relationship between the fossils, terrace fill and ages have been heavily debated. Here, to resolve the age of the Ngandong evidence, we use Bayesian modelling of 52 radiometric age estimates to establish-to our knowledge-the first robust chronology at regional, valley and local scales. We used uranium-series dating of speleothems to constrain regional landscape evolution; luminescence, argon/argon (Ar/Ar) and uranium-series dating to constrain the sequence of terrace evolution; and applied uranium-series and uranium series-electron-spin resonance (US-ESR) dating to non-human fossils to directly date our re-excavation of Ngandong. We show that at least by 500 thousand years ago (ka) the Solo River was diverted into the Kendeng Hills, and that it formed the Solo terrace sequence between 316 and 31 ka and the Ngandong terrace between about 140 and 92 ka. Non-human fossils recovered during the re-excavation of Ngandong date to between 109 and 106 ka (uranium-series minimum) and 134 and 118 ka (US-ESR), with modelled ages of 117 to 108 thousand years (kyr) for the H. erectus bone bed, which accumulated during flood conditions. These results negate the extreme ages that have been proposed for the site and solidify Ngandong as the last known occurrence of this long-lived species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1863-2DOI Listing
January 2020

Earliest hunting scene in prehistoric art.

Nature 2019 12 11;576(7787):442-445. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Australian Research Centre for Human Evolution, Environmental Futures Research Institute, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Humans seem to have an adaptive predisposition for inventing, telling and consuming stories. Prehistoric cave art provides the most direct insight that we have into the earliest storytelling, in the form of narrative compositions or 'scenes' that feature clear figurative depictions of sets of figures in spatial proximity to each other, and from which one can infer actions taking place among the figures. The Upper Palaeolithic cave art of Europe hosts the oldest previously known images of humans and animals interacting in recognizable scenes, and of therianthropes-abstract beings that combine qualities of both people and animals, and which arguably communicated narrative fiction of some kind (folklore, religious myths, spiritual beliefs and so on). In this record of creative expression (spanning from about 40 thousand years ago (ka) until the beginning of the Holocene epoch at around 10 ka), scenes in cave art are generally rare and chronologically late (dating to about 21-14 ka), and clear representations of therianthropes are uncommon-the oldest such image is a carved figurine from Germany of a human with a feline head (dated to about 40-39 ka). Here we describe an elaborate rock art panel from the limestone cave of Leang Bulu' Sipong 4 (Sulawesi, Indonesia) that portrays several figures that appear to represent therianthropes hunting wild pigs and dwarf bovids; this painting has been dated to at least 43.9 ka on the basis of uranium-series analysis of overlying speleothems. This hunting scene is-to our knowledge-currently the oldest pictorial record of storytelling and the earliest figurative artwork in the world.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1806-yDOI Listing
December 2019

Seasonal to decadal scale influence of environmental drivers on Ba/Ca and Y/Ca in coral aragonite from the southern Great Barrier Reef.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Oct 26;639:1099-1109. Epub 2018 May 26.

School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Queensland, QLD 4072, Australia.

Extensive catchment modification since European settlement on the eastern coast of Australia results in poor coastal water quality, which poses a major threat for near shore coral communities in the iconic Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Long lived inshore corals have the potential to provide long-term temporal records of changing water quality both pre- and post-anthropogenic modification. However, water quality proxies require more study and validation of the robustness of coral-hosted geochemical proxies for a specific site is critical. This study investigated the long-term (1958-2010) influence of environmental drivers on high-resolution Ba/Ca and Y/Ca proxies obtained from Porites sp. coral from Great Keppel Island, southern GBR, Australia. Geochemical proxy records were influenced by environmental change on a seasonal to decadal scale. Although seasonal oscillations of Ba/Ca and Y/Ca were related to rainfall and discharge from the Fitzroy River catchment, some uncorrelated anomalous peaks were evident throughout the time series. Regardless, the behaviour of these proxies was significantly consistent over the longer time scale. Most long-term drought-breaking floods, including one that occurred in winter, resulted in significant increase in the targeted elemental ratios owing to higher terrigenous sediment flux to the near shore marine environment from a catchment with reduced groundcover. Following this intense flushing event, elemental ratios were reduced in subsequent wet periods as a result of less sediment being available for transport to coastal seawater. Ba/Ca and Y/Ca proxies can be valuable tools in reconstructing multiyear variations in terrestrial runoff and associated inshore water quality. As these proxies and their regional and local controls are better understood they will aid our understanding of how reefs have responded and may respond to changing water conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.05.156DOI Listing
October 2018

Rare Late Pleistocene-early Holocene human mandibles from the Niah Caves (Sarawak, Borneo).

PLoS One 2018 6;13(6):e0196633. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

PERAHU, Griffith Centre for Social and Cultural Research, School of Humanities, Languages and Social Science, Griffith University, Gold Coast campus, Queensland, Australia.

The skeletal remains of Late Pleistocene-early Holocene humans are exceptionally rare in island Southeast Asia. As a result, the identity and physical adaptations of the early inhabitants of the region are poorly known. One archaeological locality that has historically been important for understanding the peopling of island Southeast Asia is the Niah Caves in the northeast of Borneo. Here we present the results of direct Uranium-series dating and the first published descriptions of three partial human mandibles from the West Mouth of the Niah Caves recovered during excavations by the Harrissons in 1957. One of them (mandible E/B1 100") is somewhat younger than the 'Deep Skull' with a best dating estimate of c30-28 ka (at 2σ), while the other two mandibles (D/N5 42-48" and E/W 33 24-36") are dated to a minimum of c11.0-10.5 ka (at 2σ) and c10.0-9.0 ka (at 2σ). Jaw E/B1 100" is unusually small and robust compared with other Late Pleistocene mandibles suggesting that it may have been ontogenetically altered through masticatory strain under a model of phenotypic plasticity. Possible dietary causes could include the consumption of tough or dried meats or palm plants, behaviours which have been documented previously in the archaeological record of the Niah Caves. Our work suggests a long history back to before the LGM of economic strategies involving the exploitation of raw plant foods or perhaps dried and stored meat resources. This offers new insights into the economic strategies of Late Pleistocene-early Holocene hunter-gatherers living in, or adjacent to, tropical rainforests.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0196633PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5991356PMC
November 2018

A methanotrophic archaeon couples anaerobic oxidation of methane to Fe(III) reduction.

ISME J 2018 08 16;12(8):1929-1939. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Advanced Water Management Centre, Faculty of Engineering, Architecture and Information Technology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Microbially mediated anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is a key process in the regulation of methane emissions to the atmosphere. Iron can serve as an electron acceptor for AOM, and it has been suggested that Fe(III)-dependent AOM potentially comprises a major global methane sink. Although it has been proposed that anaerobic methanotrophic (ANME) archaea can facilitate this process, their active metabolic pathways have not been confirmed. Here we report the enrichment and characterisation of a novel archaeon in a laboratory-scale bioreactor fed with Fe(III) oxide (ferrihydrite) and methane. Long-term performance data, in conjunction with the C- and Fe-labelling batch experiments, demonstrated that AOM was coupled to Fe(III) reduction to Fe(II) in this bioreactor. Metagenomic analysis showed that this archaeon belongs to a novel genus within family Candidatus Methanoperedenaceae, and possesses genes encoding the "reverse methanogenesis" pathway, as well as multi-heme c-type cytochromes which are hypothesised to facilitate dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction. Metatranscriptomic analysis revealed upregulation of these genes, supporting that this archaeon can independently mediate AOM using Fe(III) as the terminal electron acceptor. We propose the name Candidatus "Methanoperedens ferrireducens" for this microorganism. The potential role of "M. ferrireducens" in linking the carbon and iron cycles in environments rich in methane and iron should be investigated in future research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41396-018-0109-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6052012PMC
August 2018

A reassessment of the early archaeological record at Leang Burung 2, a Late Pleistocene rock-shelter site on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi.

PLoS One 2018 11;13(4):e0193025. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

Centre for Archaeological Science, School of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.

This paper presents a reassessment of the archaeological record at Leang Burung 2, a key early human occupation site in the Late Pleistocene of Southeast Asia. Excavated originally by Ian Glover in 1975, this limestone rock-shelter in the Maros karsts of Sulawesi, Indonesia, has long held significance in our understanding of early human dispersals into 'Wallacea', the vast zone of oceanic islands between continental Asia and Australia. We present new stratigraphic information and dating evidence from Leang Burung 2 collected during the course of our excavations at this site in 2007 and 2011-13. Our findings suggest that the classic Late Pleistocene modern human occupation sequence identified previously at Leang Burung 2, and proposed to span around 31,000 to 19,000 conventional 14C years BP (~35-24 ka cal BP), may actually represent an amalgam of reworked archaeological materials. Sources for cultural materials of mixed ages comprise breccias from the rear wall of the rock-shelter-remnants of older, eroded deposits dated to 35-23 ka cal BP-and cultural remains of early Holocene antiquity. Below the upper levels affected by the mass loss of Late Pleistocene deposits, our deep-trench excavations uncovered evidence for an earlier hominin presence at the site. These findings include fossils of now-extinct proboscideans and other 'megafauna' in stratified context, as well as a cobble-based stone artifact technology comparable to that produced by late Middle Pleistocene hominins elsewhere on Sulawesi.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0193025PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5894965PMC
July 2018

Global warming in the context of 2000 years of Australian alpine temperature and snow cover.

Sci Rep 2018 03 13;8(1):4394. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

Radiogenic Isotope Facility, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Queensland, St, Brisbane, 4072, Australia.

Annual resolution reconstructions of alpine temperatures are rare, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere, while no snow cover reconstructions exist. These records are essential to place in context the impact of anthropogenic global warming against historical major natural climate events such as the Roman Warm Period (RWP), Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA). Here we show for a marginal alpine region of Australia using a carbon isotope speleothem reconstruction, warming over the past five decades has experienced equivalent magnitude of temperature change and snow cover decline to the RWP and MCA. The current rate of warming is unmatched for the past 2000 years and seasonal snow cover is at a minimum. On scales of several decades, mean maximum temperatures have undergone considerable change ≈ ± 0.8 °C highlighting local scale susceptibility to rapid temperature change, evidence of which is often masked in regional to hemisphere scale temperature reconstructions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-22766-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5849736PMC
March 2018

Seasonal migration of marsupial megafauna in Pleistocene Sahul (Australia-New Guinea).

Proc Biol Sci 2017 Sep;284(1863)

Research Centre for Human Evolution, Environmental Futures Research Institute, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland 4111, Australia.

Seasonal two-way migration is an ecological phenomenon observed in a wide range of large-bodied placental mammals, but is conspicuously absent in all modern marsupials. Most extant marsupials are typically smaller in body size in comparison to their migratory placental cousins, possibly limiting their potential to undertake long-distance seasonal migrations. But what about earlier, now-extinct giant marsupial megafauna? Here we present new geochemical analyses which show that the largest of the extinct marsupial herbivores, the enormous wombat-like , undertook seasonal, two-way latitudinal migration in eastern Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea). Our data infer that this giant marsupial had the potential to perform round-trip journeys of as much as 200 km annually, which is reminiscent of modern East African mammal migrations. These findings provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence for repetitive seasonal migration in any metatherian (including marsupials), living or extinct, and point to an ecological phenomenon absent from the continent since the Late Pleistocene.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2017.0785DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5627191PMC
September 2017

U-Th dating reveals regional-scale decline of branching corals on the Great Barrier Reef over the past century.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 09 11;114(39):10350-10355. Epub 2017 Sep 11.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia.

Hard coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is on a trajectory of decline. However, little is known about past coral mortality before the advent of long-term monitoring (circa 1980s). Using paleoecological analysis and high-precision uranium-thorium (U-Th) dating, we reveal an extensive loss of branching corals and changes in coral community structure in the Palm Islands region of the central GBR over the past century. In 2008, dead coral assemblages were dominated by large, branching and living coral assemblages by genera typically found in turbid inshore environments. The timing of mortality was found to be occasionally synchronous among reefs and frequently linked to discrete disturbance events, occurring in the 1920s to 1960s and again in the 1980s to 1990s. Surveys conducted in 2014 revealed low cover (<5%) across all sites, with very little evidence of change for up to 60 y at some sites. Collectively, our results suggest a loss of resilience of this formerly dominant key framework builder at a regional scale, with recovery severely lagging behind predictions. Our study implies that the management of these reefs may be predicated on a shifted baseline.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1705351114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5625907PMC
September 2017

Coral trace metal of natural and anthropogenic influences in the northern South China Sea.

Sci Total Environ 2017 Dec 27;607-608:195-203. Epub 2017 Jul 27.

Guangxi Laboratory on the Study of Coral Reefs in the South China Sea, Coral Reef Research Centre of China, School of Marine Sciences, Guangxi University, Nanning, China.

The composition and concentrations of trace metals in coastal seawater have changed in parallel with variations in geochemical processes, climate and anthropogenic activities. To evaluate the response of trace metals in coastal seawater to climatic changes and human disturbances, we report annual-resolution trace element data for a Porites coral core covering ~100years of continuous growth from a fringing reef in Xiaodonghai Bay in the northern South China Sea. The results suggested that the trace metal contents in the coral skeleton demonstrated decadal to interdecadal fluctuations with several large or small peaks in certain years with remarkable environmental significances. All of the trace metals in coastal surface seawater, especially Cr and Pb (related to industrial or traffic emissions), were impacted by terrestrial inputs, except for Sr and U, which were impacted by the surface seawater temperature (SST). Moreover, Mn, Ni, Fe and Co were also contributed by weapons and military supplies during wars, and Cu, Cd and Zn were further impacted by upwelling associated with their biogeochemical cycles. Ba and rare earth element (REE) in coastal surface seawater were dominated by runoff and groundwater discharge associated with precipitation. This study provided the potential for some trace metals (e.g., REE, Ba, Cu, Cd, and Zn) in coral skeletons to be used as proxies of natural (e.g., upwelling and precipitation) and anthropogenic (e.g., war and coastal construction) variability of seawater chemistry to enable the reconstruction of environmental and climatic changes through time.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.06.105DOI Listing
December 2017

Early human symbolic behavior in the Late Pleistocene of Wallacea.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 04 3;114(16):4105-4110. Epub 2017 Apr 3.

Australian Research Centre for Human Evolution, Environmental Futures Research Institute, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia 4111.

Wallacea, the zone of oceanic islands separating the continental regions of Southeast Asia and Australia, has yielded sparse evidence for the symbolic culture of early modern humans. Here we report evidence for symbolic activity 30,000-22,000 y ago at Leang Bulu Bettue, a cave and rock-shelter site on the Wallacean island of Sulawesi. We describe hitherto undocumented practices of personal ornamentation and portable art, alongside evidence for pigment processing and use in deposits that are the same age as dated rock art in the surrounding karst region. Previously, assemblages of multiple and diverse types of Pleistocene "symbolic" artifacts were entirely unknown from this region. The Leang Bulu Bettue assemblage provides insight into the complexity and diversification of modern human culture during a key period in the global dispersal of our species. It also shows that early inhabitants of Sulawesi fashioned ornaments from body parts of endemic animals, suggesting modern humans integrated exotic faunas and other novel resources into their symbolic world as they colonized the biogeographically unique regions southeast of continental Eurasia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1619013114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5402422PMC
April 2017

Prehistorical and historical declines in Caribbean coral reef accretion rates driven by loss of parrotfish.

Nat Commun 2017 01 23;8:14160. Epub 2017 Jan 23.

Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.

Caribbean coral reefs have transformed into algal-dominated habitats over recent decades, but the mechanisms of change are unresolved due to a lack of quantitative ecological data before large-scale human impacts. To understand the role of reduced herbivory in recent coral declines, we produce a high-resolution 3,000 year record of reef accretion rate and herbivore (parrotfish and urchin) abundance from the analysis of sediments and fish, coral and urchin subfossils within cores from Caribbean Panama. At each site, declines in accretion rates and parrotfish abundance were initiated in the prehistorical or historical period. Statistical tests of direct cause and effect relationships using convergent cross mapping reveal that accretion rates are driven by parrotfish abundance (but not vice versa) but are not affected by total urchin abundance. These results confirm the critical role of parrotfish in maintaining coral-dominated reef habitat and the urgent need for restoration of parrotfish populations to enable reef persistence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms14160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5267576PMC
January 2017

The influence of metal ions on the dielectric enhancement and radical generation of rice starch during microwave processing.

Int J Biol Macromol 2017 Jan 3;94(Pt A):266-270. Epub 2016 Oct 3.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China. Electronic address:

In this study, the effect of the enrichment of rice starch with metal ions on its capability to generate free radicals during microwave processing was investigated. The underlying mechanism was explored from two aspects: dielectric and thermal properties. Rice starch was modified with ions of iron, copper, manganese and calcium. The modified starches were analyzed in terms of dielectric properties, activation energy (Ea) and thermodynamic characteristics of gelatinization. The quantity and character of the free radicals were analyzed using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The results showed that the metal ions could change the dielectric property and inter structure of rice starch, thus influencing the ability of rice starch to generate radicals under microwave irradiation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.09.107DOI Listing
January 2017

The earliest modern Homo sapiens in China?

J Hum Evol 2016 12 30;101:101-104. Epub 2016 Aug 30.

Department of Anthropology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, USA. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2016.07.008DOI Listing
December 2016

Cook Island artifact geochemistry demonstrates spatial and temporal extent of pre-European interarchipelago voyaging in East Polynesia.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016 07 5;113(29):8150-5. Epub 2016 Jul 5.

Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720

The Cook Islands are considered the "gateway" for human colonization of East Polynesia, the final chapter of Oceanic settlement and the last major region occupied on Earth. Indeed, East Polynesia witnessed the culmination of the greatest maritime migration in human history. Perennial debates have critiqued whether Oceanic settlement was purposeful or accidental, the timing and pathways of colonization, and the nature and extent of postcolonization voyaging-essential for small founding groups securing a lifeline between parent and daughter communities. Centering on the well-dated Tangatatau rockshelter, Mangaia, Southern Cook Islands, we charted the temporal duration and geographic spread of exotic stone adze materials-essential woodworking tools found throughout Polynesia- imported for more than 300 y beginning in the early AD 1300s. Using a technique requiring only 200 mg of sample for the geochemical analysis of trace elements and isotopes of fine-grained basalt adzes, we assigned all artifacts to an island or archipelago of origin. Adze material was identified from the chiefly complex on the Austral Islands, from the major adze quarry complex on Tutuila (Samoa), and from the Marquesas Islands more than 2,400 km distant. This interaction is the only dated example of down-the-line exchange in central East Polynesia where intermediate groups transferred commodities attesting to the interconnectedness and complexity of social relations fostered during postsettlement voyaging. For the Cook Islands, this exchange may have lasted into the 1600s, at least a century later than other East Polynesian archipelagos, suggesting that interarchipelago interaction contributed to the later development of social hierarchies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1608130113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4961153PMC
July 2016

Western Pacific hydroclimate linked to global climate variability over the past two millennia.

Nat Commun 2016 06 8;7:11719. Epub 2016 Jun 8.

Research Center for Geotechnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Bandung 40135, Indonesia.

Interdecadal modes of tropical Pacific ocean-atmosphere circulation have a strong influence on global temperature, yet the extent to which these phenomena influence global climate on multicentury timescales is still poorly known. Here we present a 2,000-year, multiproxy reconstruction of western Pacific hydroclimate from two speleothem records for southeastern Indonesia. The composite record shows pronounced shifts in monsoon rainfall that are antiphased with precipitation records for East Asia and the central-eastern equatorial Pacific. These meridional and zonal patterns are best explained by a poleward expansion of the Australasian Intertropical Convergence Zone and weakening of the Pacific Walker circulation (PWC) between ∼1000 and 1500 CE Conversely, an equatorward contraction of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and strengthened PWC occurred between ∼1500 and 1900 CE. Our findings, together with climate model simulations, highlight the likelihood that century-scale variations in tropical Pacific climate modes can significantly modulate radiatively forced shifts in global temperature.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms11719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4899856PMC
June 2016

Coral skeletal geochemistry as a monitor of inshore water quality.

Sci Total Environ 2016 Oct 27;566-567:652-684. Epub 2016 May 27.

School of Earth Sciences, The University of Queensland, QLD 4072, Australia.

Coral reefs maintain extraordinary biodiversity and provide protection from tsunamis and storm surge, but inshore coral reef health is degrading in many regions due to deteriorating water quality. Deconvolving natural and anthropogenic changes to water quality is hampered by the lack of long term, dated water quality data but such records are required for forward modelling of reef health to aid their management. Reef corals provide an excellent archive of high resolution geochemical (trace element) proxies that can span hundreds of years and potentially provide records used through the Holocene. Hence, geochemical proxies in corals hold great promise for understanding changes in ancient water quality that can inform broader oceanographic and climatic changes in a given region. This article reviews and highlights the use of coral-based trace metal archives, including metal transported from rivers to the ocean, incorporation of trace metals into coral skeletons and the current 'state of the art' in utilizing coral trace metal proxies as tools for monitoring various types of local and regional source-specific pollution (river discharge, land use changes, dredging and dumping, mining, oil spills, antifouling paints, atmospheric sources, sewage). The three most commonly used coral trace element proxies (i.e., Ba/Ca, Mn/Ca, and Y/Ca) are closely associated with river runoff in the Great Barrier Reef, but considerable uncertainty remains regarding their complex biogeochemical cycling and controlling mechanisms. However, coral-based water quality reconstructions have suffered from a lack of understanding of so-called vital effects and early marine diagenesis. The main challenge is to identify and eliminate the influence of extraneous local factors in order to allow accurate water quality reconstructions and to develop alternate proxies to monitor water pollution. Rare earth elements have great potential as they are self-referencing and reflect basic terrestrial input.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.05.066DOI Listing
October 2016

Revised stratigraphy and chronology for Homo floresiensis at Liang Bua in Indonesia.

Nature 2016 Apr 30;532(7599):366-9. Epub 2016 Mar 30.

Centre for Archaeological Science, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia.

Homo floresiensis, a primitive hominin species discovered in Late Pleistocene sediments at Liang Bua (Flores, Indonesia), has generated wide interest and scientific debate. A major reason this taxon is controversial is because the H. floresiensis-bearing deposits, which include associated stone artefacts and remains of other extinct endemic fauna, were dated to between about 95 and 12 thousand calendar years (kyr) ago. These ages suggested that H. floresiensis survived until long after modern humans reached Australia by ~50 kyr ago. Here we report new stratigraphic and chronological evidence from Liang Bua that does not support the ages inferred previously for the H. floresiensis holotype (LB1), ~18 thousand calibrated radiocarbon years before present (kyr cal. BP), or the time of last appearance of this species (about 17 or 13-11 kyr cal. BP). Instead, the skeletal remains of H. floresiensis and the deposits containing them are dated to between about 100 and 60 kyr ago, whereas stone artefacts attributable to this species range from about 190 to 50 kyr in age. Whether H. floresiensis survived after 50 kyr ago--potentially encountering modern humans on Flores or other hominins dispersing through southeast Asia, such as Denisovans--is an open question.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature17179DOI Listing
April 2016

Historical photographs revisited: A case study for dating and characterizing recent loss of coral cover on the inshore Great Barrier Reef.

Sci Rep 2016 Jan 27;6:19285. Epub 2016 Jan 27.

ARC Centre of Excellence in Coral Reef Studies, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072 Australia.

Long-term data with high-precision chronology are essential to elucidate past ecological changes on coral reefs beyond the period of modern-day monitoring programs. In 2012 we revisited two inshore reefs within the central Great Barrier Reef, where a series of historical photographs document a loss of hard coral cover between c.1890-1994 AD. Here we use an integrated approach that includes high-precision U-Th dating specifically tailored for determining the age of extremely young corals to provide a robust, objective characterisation of ecological transition. The timing of mortality for most of the dead in situ corals sampled from the historical photograph locations was found to coincide with major flood events in 1990-1991 at Bramston Reef and 1970 and 2008 at Stone Island. Evidence of some recovery was found at Bramston Reef with living coral genera similar to what was described in c.1890 present in 2012. In contrast, very little sign of coral re-establishment was found at Stone Island suggesting delayed recovery. These results provide a valuable reference point for managers to continue monitoring the recovery (or lack thereof) of coral communities at these reefs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep19285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4728430PMC
January 2016

An 80 kyr-long continuous speleothem record from Dim Cave, SW Turkey with paleoclimatic implications for the Eastern Mediterranean.

Sci Rep 2015 Sep 4;5:13560. Epub 2015 Sep 4.

Department of Geological Engineering, Hacettepe University, TR 06800, Turkey.

Speleothem-based stable isotope records are valuable in sub-humid and semi-arid settings where many other terrestrial climate proxies are fragmentary. The Eastern Mediterranean is one such region. Here we present an 80-kyr-long precisely-dated (by U-series) and high-resolution oxygen (δ(18)O) and carbon (δ(13)C) records from Dim Cave (~36°N) in SW Turkey. The glacial-interglacial δ(18)O variations in the Dim Cave speleothem are best explained in terms of changes in the trajectories of winter westerly air masses. These are along a northerly (European) track (isotopically less depleted) during the early last glaciation but are gradually depressed southward closer to the modern westerly track along the North African coast (more depleted) after c.50 kyr and remain in the southern track through the Last Glacial Maximum. The southward displacement of the westerly track reflects growth of the Fennoscandian ice sheet and its impact on westerly wind fields. Changes in δ(13)C are interpreted as reflecting soil organic matter composition and/or thickness. δ(13)C values are significantly more negative in interglacials reflecting active carbonic acid production in the soil and less negative in glacial times reflecting carbonate rock values. Several Heinrich events are recorded in the Dim record indicating intensification of westerly flow across this part of the EM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep13560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4559661PMC
September 2015

Decadal-scale rates of reef erosion following El Niño-related mass coral mortality.

Glob Chang Biol 2015 Dec 1;21(12):4415-24. Epub 2015 Oct 1.

Marine Spatial Ecology Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.

As the frequency and intensity of coral mortality events increase under climate change, understanding how declines in coral cover may affect the bioerosion of reef frameworks is of increasing importance. Here, we explore decadal-scale rates of bioerosion of the framework building coral Orbicella annularis by grazing parrotfish following the 1997/1998 El Niño-related mass mortality event at Long Cay, Belize. Using high-precision U-Th dating and CT scan analysis, we quantified in situ rates of external bioerosion over a 13-year period (1998-2011). Based upon the error-weighted average U-Th age of dead O. annularis skeletons, we estimate the average external bioerosion between 1998 and 2011 as 0.92 ± 0.55 cm depth. Empirical observations of herbivore foraging, and a nonlinear numerical response of parrotfish to an increase in food availability, were used to create a model of external bioerosion at Long Cay. Model estimates of external bioerosion were in close agreement with U-Th estimates (0.85 ± 0.09 cm). The model was then used to quantify how rates of external bioerosion changed across a gradient of coral mortality (i.e., from few corals experiencing mortality following coral bleaching to complete mortality). Our results indicate that external bioerosion is remarkably robust to declines in coral cover, with no significant relationship predicted between the rate of external bioerosion and the proportion of O. annularis that died in the 1998 bleaching event. The outcome was robust because the reduction in grazing intensity that follows coral mortality was compensated for by a positive numerical response of parrotfish to an increase in food availability. Our model estimates further indicate that for an O. annularis-dominated reef to maintain a positive state of reef accretion, a necessity for sustained ecosystem function, live cover of O. annularis must not drop below a ~5-10% threshold of cover.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13006DOI Listing
December 2015

Early modern humans and morphological variation in Southeast Asia: fossil evidence from Tam Pa Ling, Laos.

PLoS One 2015 7;10(4):e0121193. Epub 2015 Apr 7.

Unité Mixte de Recherche 5288 Anthropobiologie et Imagerie Anatomique, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France; Evolutionary Studies Institute and Kromdraai Research Project, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Little is known about the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in Eastern Eurasia. However a rapid migration out of Africa into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka is supported by archaeological, paleogenetic and paleoanthropological data. Recent discoveries in Laos, a modern human cranium (TPL1) from Tam Pa Ling's cave, provided the first evidence for the presence of early modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia by 63-46 ka. In the current study, a complete human mandible representing a second individual, TPL 2, is described using discrete traits and geometric morphometrics with an emphasis on determining its population affinity. The TPL2 mandible has a chin and other discrete traits consistent with early modern humans, but it retains a robust lateral corpus and internal corporal morphology typical of archaic humans across the Old World. The mosaic morphology of TPL2 and the fully modern human morphology of TPL1 suggest that a large range of morphological variation was present in early modern human populations residing in the eastern Eurasia by MIS 3.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0121193PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4388508PMC
March 2016

Bayesian modeling and chronological precision for Polynesian settlement of Tonga.

PLoS One 2015 23;10(3):e0120795. Epub 2015 Mar 23.

School of Earth Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia.

First settlement of Polynesia, and population expansion throughout the ancestral Polynesian homeland are foundation events for global history. A precise chronology is paramount to informed archaeological interpretation of these events and their consequences. Recently applied chronometric hygiene protocols excluding radiocarbon dates on wood charcoal without species identification all but eliminates this chronology as it has been built for the Kingdom of Tonga, the initial islands to be settled in Polynesia. In this paper we re-examine and redevelop this chronology through application of Bayesian models to the questioned suite of radiocarbon dates, but also incorporating short-lived wood charcoal dates from archived samples and high precision U/Th dates on coral artifacts. These models provide generation level precision allowing us to track population migration from first Lapita occupation on the island of Tongatapu through Tonga's central and northern island groups. They further illustrate an exceptionally short duration for the initial colonizing Lapita phase and a somewhat abrupt transition to ancestral Polynesian society as it is currently defined.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0120795PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4370570PMC
February 2016