Publications by authors named "Jian Zhu"

979 Publications

Fast-Charging Nonaqueous Potassium-Ion Batteries Enabled by Rational Construction of Oxygen-Rich Porous Nanofiber Anodes.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

School of Physics and Electronics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, People's Republic of China.

Practical applications of carbon anodes in high-power potassium-ion batteries (PIBs) were hampered by their limited rate properties, due to the sluggish K transport kinetics in the bulk. Constructing convenient ion/electron transfer channels in the electrode is of great importance to realize fast charge/discharge rates. Here, cross-linked porous carbon nanofibers (inner porous carbon nanotubes and outer soft carbon layer) modified with oxygen-containing functional groups were well designed as anodes to realize robust de-/potassiation kinetics. The novel anode delivered excellent rate capabilities (107 mAh g at 20 A g and 78 mAh g at 40 A g) and superior cycling stability (76% capacity retention after 14,000 cycles at 2 A g). In situ XRD measurement, in situ Raman spectra, and galvanostatic intermittent titration verified its surface-dominated potassium storage behavior with fast de-/potassiation kinetics, excellent reversibility, and rapid ion/electron transport. Moreover, theoretical investigation revealed that the carboxyl groups in the carbon offered additional capacitive adsorption sites for K, thus significantly enhancing the reversible capacity. Surprisingly, a full cell using the anode and perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride cathode achieved an outstanding power density of 23,750 W kg and superior fast charge/slow discharge performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c15524DOI Listing
October 2021

The Capabilities and Characteristics of Helical Tomotherapy and Co-Planar Dual Arcs Volumetric-Modulated arc Therapy Associated with Hippocampal Sparing During Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation.

Technol Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jan-Dec;20:15330338211043975

Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, 71107Shandong First Medical University and Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, China.

To investigate the features of helical tomotherapy and co-planar dual Arcs volumetric-modulated arc therapy during prophylactic cranial irradiation associated with bilateral hippocampal tissue sparing. Helical tomotherapy and co-planar dual arcs volumetric-modulated arc therapy treatment plans were generated with a dose of 30 Gy/10 fractions in 16 patients treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation. The dose to the bilateral hippocampal tissues, organs at risk, and planning target volume were determined when the average dose of bilateral hippocampal tissues was reduced by approximately 4 Gy as an observation point. Changes in dosimetry when sparing the bilateral hippocampal tissues were determined for both modalities. When bilateral hippocampal tissues were restricted to 8 Gy,  = 7.64 ± 0.41 Gy in helical tomotherapy, while  = 10.96 ± 0.38 Gy in co-planar dual arcs volumetric-modulated arc therapy volumetric-modulated arc therapy. Helical tomotherapy was associated with significantly lower doses to organs at risk, including ( = .03), ( = .01), ( = .01), ( = .02), ( = .02), ( = .02), and ( = .02), but not ( = .87). Helical tomotherapy provided better target coverage, with lower average ( = .02), higher average ( = .02), and better conformal index (0.87 vs 0.84,  = .02) and homogeneity index (0.15 vs 0.21,  = .05). With smaller bilateral hippocampal tissues doses, the planning target volume dose changed across 3 dosimetry regions for both modalities; the plateau region (>20.0 Gy for helical tomotherapy versus >16.0 Gy for co-planar dual arcs volumetric-modulated arc therapy), gradient region (20.0-12.0 Gy vs 16.0-11.0 Gy), and falling region (<12.0 Gy vs <11.0 Gy). The average delivery duration of helical tomotherapy was almost 7.7 times longer than that of co-planar dual arcs volumetric-modulated arc therapy. Helical tomotherapy was better at sparing the bilateral hippocampal tissues and organs at risk and had better target coverage but a significantly longer treatment duration than co-planar dual arcs volumetric-modulated arc therapy. Further dose decreases in the bilateral hippocampal tissues would yield worse target dose coverage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15330338211043975DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8504218PMC
October 2021

Elastomeric Nanodielectrics for Soft and Hysteresis-Free Electronics.

Adv Mater 2021 Oct 10:e2104761. Epub 2021 Oct 10.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, National Institute for Advanced Materials, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300350, P. R. China.

Elastomeric dielectrics are crucial for reliably governing the carrier densities in semiconducting channels during deformation in soft/stretchable field-effect transistors (FETs). Uncontrolled stacking of polymeric chains renders elastomeric dielectrics poorly insulated at nanoscale thicknesses, thereby thick films are usually required, leading to high voltage or power consumption for on/off operations of FETs. Here, layer-by-layer assembly is exploited to build 15-nm-thick elastomeric nanodielectrics through alternative adsorption of oppositely charged polyurethanes (PUs) for soft and hysteresis-free FETs. After mild thermal annealing to heal pinholes, such PU multilayers offer high areal capacitances of 237 nF cm and low leakage current densities of 3.2 × 10 A cm at 2 V. Owing to the intrinsic ductility of the elastomeric PUs, the nanofilms possess excellent dielectric properties at a strain of 5% or a bending radius of 1.5 mm, while the wrinkled counterparts show mechanical stability with negligible changes of leakage currents after repeated stretching to a strain of 50%. Besides, these nanodielectrics are immune to high humidity and conserve their properties when immersed into water, despite their assembly occurs aqueously. Furthermore, the PU dielectrics are implemented in carbon nanotube FETs, demonstrating low-voltage operations (< 1.5 V) and negligible hysteresis without any encapsulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202104761DOI Listing
October 2021

Visceral adiposity index is associated with arterial stiffness in hypertensive adults with normal-weight: the china H-type hypertension registry study.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2021 Oct 9;18(1):90. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Department of Cardiology, Nanchang University Second Affiliated Hospital, No. 1 Minde Road, Nanchang, 330006, Jiangxi, China.

Background: Limited information is available on arterial stiffness risk among hypertensive patients with metabolically abnormal but normal weight. Visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a novel indicator for visceral fat mass and metabolism, however, whether can be used to assessed arterial stiffness in a normal-weight population remains unclear. The goal of this study was to examine the independent association of VAI with arterial stiffness in normal-weight hypertensive patients.

Methods: 3258 participants recruited from the China H-type Hypertension Registry Study. VAI value was calculated using sex-specific equations. High arterial stiffness was defined as baPWV ≥ 18 m/s. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify the association of VAI with baPWV and high arterial stiffness.

Results: Of participants, 50.5% (1644) were males, the mean age was 65.5 (SD, 9.1) years. Mean VAI and baPWV were 2.0 (SD, 2.3) and 18.2 (SD, 3.9) m/s, respectively. For each unit increase of lg VAI in multivariable regression analysis, there was a 1.05 m/s increase in baPWV (95% CI 0.67, 1.43) and a 2.13-fold increase in the risk of high arterial stiffness (95% CI 1.59, 2.86). In all models, the VAI was consistently and significantly associated with baPWV after adjustment for different confounders. High VAI levels were stably associated with baPWV in all subgroups.

Conclusions: We found positive association of VAI with baPWV and high arterial stiffness in normal-weight adults with hypertension. The establishment of this association could help the arterial stiffness risk stratification in normal-weight hypertensive populations, who are frequently overlooked in preventing cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12986-021-00617-5DOI Listing
October 2021

Urodynamic evaluation of bladder function in patients with urinary incontinence secondary to congenital tethered cord syndrome after homogeneous spinal-shortening axial decompression procedure.

Eur Spine J 2021 Oct 3. Epub 2021 Oct 3.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Spine Center, Changzheng Hospital, Navy Medical University (Second Military Medical University), No 415 Fengyang Road, Shanghai, 200003, People's Republic of China.

Objective: To evaluate the effect of homogeneous spinal-shortening axial decompression procedure (HSAD) on bladder function in patients with spina bifida tethered syndrome.

Methods And Materials: Patients with tethered spinal cord syndrome were collected prospectively, and all patients were treated with lumbar HSAD. Patients' urodynamic evaluation mainly included detrusor function, sphincter function, sphincter coordination (Ig TLR, ratio of tension and loose of urethral sphincter), and bladder compliance. Meanwhile, all patients were followed up with ICI-Q-SF, SF-12, and Rantala scores.

Results: Twenty-four patients were included, with the average age of 27 ± 16 years. At the final follow-up, patients' detrusor function, sphincter function, sphincter coordination, and bladder compliance, were all improved dramatically (all P < 0.01). The preoperative SF-12 score, ICQ, and Rantala score were [52.16 ± 5.64, 14.11 ± 5.25, 7.84 ± 4.87], whereas the postoperative mean was [33.53 ± 3.53, 9.05 ± 4.89, 15 ± 3.77] (P < 0.01, respectively). According to objective evaluation, 16.7% of them recovered to normal. According to the subjective evaluation, 25% of the patients returned to normal. Only one patient (4.2%) deteriorated. Limitations include none-randomized controlled design and limited patient samples.

Conclusions: The HSAD can significantly restore the bladder function in patients with long-term urinary incontinence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-021-07011-yDOI Listing
October 2021

Expression of CXCR4 and CXCR7 in papillary thyroid carcinoma and adjacent tissues and their relationship with pathologic indicators of tumor aggressiveness.

Endocr J 2021 Sep 28. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, The 960th Hospital of the PLA Joint Logistics Support Force, 250031, Jinan, Shandong Province, China.

The receptors of chemokines play a significance role in the aggressiveness of tumor. CXCR4/CXCR7 promote metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). This study examined the expresssion of chemokine receptors CXCR4/CXCR7 in human tissue specimens of PTC and peritumoral nonmalignant tissues. The correlation between CXCR4/CXCR7 and the clinicopathological factors in PTC was also determined. CXCR4/CXCR7 were examined in 115 PTC tissues from 115 patients using immunohistochemistry. Staining intensity was compared with patients and tumor characteristics including gender, age, tumor size, capsule invasion, multifocality, lymph node metastasis, and nature of paracancerous tissue. [Statistics: rank sum test, Spearman rank order correlation test; p < 0.05]. Higher expression rates of CXCR4/CXCR7 exhibited in PTC compared with peritumoral nonmalignant tissues. The expression of them was correlated in cancer and paracancerous specimens. A trend toward higher CXCR4/CXCR7 expression was found among tumors showing positive lymph nodes and capsule invasion, while no association with sex, age, tumor size, and nature of paracancerous tissue. Number of lymph nodes was associated with higher intensity IHC staining for CXCR4/CXCR7. Intense staining for CXCR4 was also associated with multifocality. Expression of CXCR4/CXCR7 by PTCs was correlated with lymph node metastasis and capsule invasion. Although multiple bias, they were thought to play a significance role in the aggressiveness of PTC, which provides potential targets for therapeutic interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1507/endocrj.EJ21-0076DOI Listing
September 2021

Heterodimers of metal nanoparticles: synthesis, properties, and biological applications.

Mikrochim Acta 2021 09 19;188(10):345. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, People's Republic of China.

Heterodimers of metal nanoparticles consist of two metals, come in many sizes and adopt various shapes. They offer unique properties due to the presence of two metals and have the extraordinary flexibility needed to serve as a multipurpose platform for diverse applications in areas including photonics, sensing, and catalysis. Heterodimer nanoparticles contain different metals that contribute to extraordinary surface plasmon resonance (SPR), surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and catalytic properties. These properties make them versatile molecules that can be used in intracellular imaging, as antibacterial agents, as photocatalytic and biological macromolecules and for the detection of chemical substances. Moreover, heterodimer nanoparticles are composed of the two metals within larger molecules that provide more choices for modification and application. In this review, we briefly summarize the lesser-known aspects of heterodimers, including some of their properties, and present concrete examples of recent progress in synthesis and applications. This review provides a perspective on achievements and suggests a framework for future research with a focus on the synthesis and application of heterodimers. We also explore the possible applications of heterodimer nanoparticles based on their unique properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-021-05002-wDOI Listing
September 2021

Association between obstructive sleep apnea and male serum testosterone: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Andrology 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Andrology, Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Currently, there is no consensus on the effect of obstructive sleep apnea on male serum testosterone levels. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the association between obstructive sleep apnea and male serum testosterone level.

Methods: The literature related to obstructive sleep apnea and male serum testosterone in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from their inception to June 10, 2021. Data were pooled using the Stata 15 software. We performed a subgroup analysis of studies after matching the age and body mass index, as well as according to the severity of obstructive sleep apnea.

Results: Eighteen studies involving 1823 men were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. A significant inverse association between obstructive sleep apnea and male serum testosterone (SMD = -0.76; 95% CI: -1.18, -0.33; p = 0.001) was found. After adjusting for age and body mass index, this inverse association still existed (SMD = -0.8; 95% CI = -1.41, -0.18, p = 0.012). According to the subgroup analysis of obstructive sleep apnea severity, our results showed that serum testosterone was not significantly decreased in mild (SMD = -0.58; 95% CI = -1.88, 0.73, p = 0.386) and moderate obstructive sleep apnea patients (SMD = -0.94; 95% CI = -2.04, 0.15, p = 0.092), whereas it was significantly reduced in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (SMD = -1.21; 95% CI = -2.02, -0.41, p = 0.003).

Conclusions: Obstructive sleep apnea is inversely associated with male serum testosterone levels, independent of body mass index and age. Notably, the severity of obstructive sleep apnea is also correlated with male serum testosterone, which is significantly reduced in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/andr.13111DOI Listing
September 2021

LCC-09, a Novel Salicylanilide Derivative, Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Vascular Endothelial Cells.

J Inflamm Res 2021 8;14:4551-4565. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, College of Medicine and Science, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Objective: Endothelial cell (EC) activation facilitates leukocyte adhesion to vascular walls, which is implicated in a variety of cardiovascular diseases and is a target for prevention and treatment. Despite the development of anti-inflammatory medications, cost-effective therapies with significant anti-inflammatory effects and lower organ toxicity remain elusive. The goal of this study is to identify novel synthetic compounds that inhibit EC inflammatory response with minimal organ toxicity.

Methods And Results: In this study, we discovered LCC-09, a salicylanilide derivative consisting of the functional fragment of magnolol, 2,4-difluorophenyl, and paeonol moiety of salicylate, as a novel anti-inflammatory compound in cultured ECs and zebrafish model. LCC-09 was shown to inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)-induced expression of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines, leading to reduced leukocyte adhesion to ECs. Mechanistically, LCC-09 inhibits the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), TNFα-induced degradation of NF-κ-B Inhibitor-α (IκBα) and phosphorylation of NFκB p65, resulting in reduced NFκB transactivation activity and binding to E-selectin promoter. Additionally, LCC-09 attenuated TNFα-induced generation of reactive oxygen species in ECs. Molecular docking models suggest the binding of LCC-09 to NFκB essential modulator (NEMO) and Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK) may lead to dual inhibition of NFκB and STAT1. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory effect of LCC-09 was validated in the lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced inflammation model in zebrafish. Our results demonstrated that LCC-09 significantly reduced the LPS-induced leukocyte recruitment and mortality of zebrafish embryos. Finally, LCC-09 was administered to cultured ECs and zebrafish embryos and showed minimal toxicities.

Conclusion: Our results support that LCC-09 inhibits EC inflammatory response but does not elicit significant toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S305168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8436973PMC
September 2021

Liver Cancer Survival: A Real World Observation of 45 Years with 32,556 Cases.

J Hepatocell Carcinoma 2021 31;8:1023-1034. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Cancer Institute, Nantong Tumor Hospital, Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, People's Republic of China.

Background And Aims: To explore the long-term trend of liver cancer survival, based on the real-world data (RWD) in the past 45 years from a population-based cancer registry, in Qidong, China.

Methods: A number of 32,556 patients with liver cancer were registered during the period of 1972 to 2016. Mixed methods by active and passive follow-up were performed. Life table method was employed for survival analysis by SPSS22 software. Wilcoxon (Gehan) statistics was considered as a significant test. Relative survival was calculated by using SURV software, and its annual percent change (APC) was estimated by the Joinpoint Regression Program.

Results: The overall observed survival (OS) rates of 1-, 5-, 10-, and 20-year rates from the data series were 18.51%, 6.28%, 4.03%, and 2.84%, and their relative survival (RS) rates were 18.88%, 6.95%, 4.96%, and 4.49%, respectively. For 24,338 male cases, the 5-year OS and RS rates were 5.93% and 6.54%, and for 8218 female cases, 7.34% and 8.15%, respectively, with values less than 0.01. Survival rates of liver cancer from three 15-year periods of 1972-1986, 1987-2001, and 2002-2016 have increased significantly, with 5-year OS rates of 2.02%, 4.40%, and 10.76%, 5-year RS rates of 2.18%, 4.83%, and 12.18%; 10-year OS and RS rates of 0.95%, 3.00%, and 7.02%, vs 1.13%, 3.65%, and 8.96%, respectively, showing a very significant upward trend (<0.01). There are significant differences among age groups (): those aged 55-64 demonstrated the best OS and RS rates of 5-year, being 8.44% and 9.09%, respectively.

Conclusion: There are significant gender and age differences in the survival rate of liver cancer in Qidong. RWD indicates the relative lower survival rate of liver cancer in this area, but great improvement has been achieved over the past decades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JHC.S321346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8418373PMC
August 2021

Value of ovarian positional assessment on 4D hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography.

Med Ultrason 2021 Sep 11. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Department of Ultrasonography, the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Aims: To investigate the positional relationship between the ovary and Fallopian tube and the relationship between the ovarian position and tubal morphology.

Material And Methods: A total of 195 patients with 338 fallopian tubes were enrolled in this retrospective study. The ovarian and tubal positions were defined relative to the uterus in all directions. Tubal morphology was classified as smooth or tortuous.

Results: The distribution of the Fallopian tubes corresponded to the positions of the ipsilateral ovaries in the superoinferior direction (χ2 =197.653, p<0.001), mediolateral direction (χ2 =237.447, p <0.001) and anteroposterior direction (χ2 =109.746, p<0.001). Tubal morphology differed according to ovarian position in the superoinferior (χ2 =21.804, p<0.001), mediolateral directions (χ2 =4.679, p=0.031) but not in the anteroposterior direction (χ2 =0.793, p=0.373).

Conclusions: Evaluating the ovarian position can provide preliminary information on the distribution and shapeof the Fallopian tube, helping the operator choose the appropriate initial plane and the necessary approaches for inspection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11152/mu-3209DOI Listing
September 2021

Valley Vortex Assisted and Topological Protected Microparticles Manipulation with Complicated 2D Patterns in a Star-like Sonic Crystal.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Aug 30;14(17). Epub 2021 Aug 30.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

Arranging microparticles into desired patterns, especially in a complicated pattern with a reliable and tunable manner, is challenging but highly desirable in the fields such as biomedicine and tissue engineering. To overcome these limitations, here, by using the concept of topology in acoustics, the valley vortex is utilized to manipulate particles on a large scale with complicated 2D patterns in the star-like sonic crystals at different frequencies. A topologically protected edge state is obtained at the interface of the crystals with different valley Hall phases, which shows the ability of reliable microparticles control along the sharp corner and the capability of robust particles cluster aggregation in a defective system. The results may provide intriguing resources for future microfluidic systems in a complicated and brittle environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14174939DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8433743PMC
August 2021

Two-dimensional BCN nanosheets self-assembled with hematite nanocrystals for sensitively detecting trace toxic Pb(II) ions in natural water.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Dec 1;225:112745. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Institute for Ecological Research and Pollution Control of Plateau Lakes, School of Ecology and Environmental Science, Yunnan University, Kunming 650504, China. Electronic address:

In the present work, hematite-boron-carbonitride (FeO-BCN) nanosheets were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal reaction and the following high temperature treatment. The morphology, structure and chemical composition of the as-prepared material were carefully characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The FeO-BCN nanosheets were used to modified on the surface of the glassy carbon electrode to fabricate an electrochemical sensor for lead ions (Pb(II)) via differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). At the same time, the influence of the modification concentration, solution acidity, deposition potential and deposition time on response peak current of Pb(II) at the FeO-BCN-based electrochemical sensor was well investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the electrochemical signal and concentration of Pb(II) show two-stage linear relationship in the range of 0.5 - 40 μg/L and 40 -140 μg/L, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.129 μg/L. The FeO-BCN-based electrochemical sensor shows excellent selectivity and anti-interference ability in the anti-interference experiments and actual sample analysis experiments, revealing its broad application in environmental monitoring of Pb(II).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112745DOI Listing
December 2021

Nomogram for predicting reoperation following internal fixation of nondisplaced femoral neck fractures in elderly patients.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Sep 1;16(1):544. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, People's Republic of China.

Objective: We aimed to evaluate risk factors and develop a nomogram for reoperation after internal fixation of nondisplaced femoral neck fractures (FNFs) in elderly patients.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study involving a total of 255 elderly patients who underwent closed reduction and internal fixation with cannulated screw system for nondisplaced FNFs between January 2016 and January 2019. We collected data on demographics, preoperative radiological parameters, surgery, serum biochemical markers, and postoperative rehabilitation. In addition, we performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine independent risk factors for reoperation, and then developed a nomogram to assess the risks of reoperation. Besides, discriminative ability, calibration, and clinical usefulness of the nomogram were evaluated using the concordance index (C-index), the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, calibration curve and decision curve analysis (DCA), respectively. We employed bootstrap method to validate the performance of the developed nomogram.

Results: Our analysis showed that among the 255 patients, 28 (11.0%) underwent reoperation due to osteonecrosis of the femoral head (14 cases), mechanical failure (8 cases) or nonunion (6 cases). All of the 28 patients underwent conversion surgery to arthroplasty. The multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that preoperative posterior tilt angle ≥ 20°, Pauwel's III type, younger patients, preoperative elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), preoperative hypoalbuminemia, and early postoperative weight-bearing were independent risk factors for reoperation. In addition, the C-index and the bootstrap value of the developed nomogram was 0.850 (95% CI = 0.803-0.913) and 0.811, respectively. Besides, the calibration curve showed good consistency between the actual diagnosed reoperation and the predicted probability, while the DCA indicated that the nomogram was clinically valuable.

Conclusions: Our analysis showed we successfully developed and validated a nomogram for personalized prediction of reoperation after internal fixation of nondisplaced FNFs in elderly patients. This model would help in individualized evaluation of the need for reoperation and inform strategies aimed at eliminating the need for the reoperation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-021-02697-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8408942PMC
September 2021

Oral Enrichment of Streptococcus and its Role in Systemic Inflammation Related to Monocyte Activation in Humans with Cocaine Use Disorder.

J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Ave. BSB208D, Charleston, SC, 29425, USA.

Cocaine use is commonly associated with increased chronic systemic inflammation. However, the drivers for cocaine use-mediated systemic inflammation are not fully understood. In the current study, we recruited individuals with cocaine use disorder and healthy individuals who did not use cocaine and collected paired saliva and blood samples. The saliva samples were used to assess the oral microbiome, and the plasma samples were evaluated for 33 cytokines and chemokines. Cocaine users exhibited decreased saliva microbial diversities compared to non-users. Streptococcus was the only increased genus in the saliva from cocaine users, whereas several genera were decreased in cocaine users compared to non-users. Notably, cocaine users exhibited increased plasma levels of several monocyte activation markers, including monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-4, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3α, macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), all of which were correlated with increased saliva levels of three Streptococcus species. Furthermore, treatment with Streptococcus or its lipoteichoic acid preferentially activated primary human monocytes to produce proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as MIP-3α and TARC, in vitro compared to controls. However, monocytes failed to produce these chemokines after exposure to cocaine or cocaine plus bacteria compared to medium or bacteria alone. This study revealed that chronic cocaine use-associated inflammation in the blood may result from increased oral Streptococcus and its effects on myeloid cell activation, but does not result from cocaine directly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11481-021-10007-6DOI Listing
August 2021

The Emerging Landscapes of Long Noncoding RNA in Thyroid Carcinoma: Biological Functions and Clinical Significance.

Front Oncol 2021 10;11:706011. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, The 960th Hospital of the Chinese People's Liberation Army, Jinan, China.

Thyroid carcinoma (TC) is one of the most prevalent primary endocrine tumors, and its incidence is steadily and gradually increasing worldwide. Accumulating evidence has revealed the critical functions of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the tumorigenesis and development of TC. Many TC-associated lncRNAs have been documented to be implicated in TC malignant behaviors, including abnormal cell proliferation, enhanced stem cell properties and aggressiveness, and resistance to therapeutics, through interaction with proteins, DNA, or RNA or encoding small peptides. Therefore, further elucidating the lncRNA dysregulation sheds additional insights into TC tumorigenesis and progression and opens new avenues for the early diagnosis and clinical therapy of TC. In this review, we summarize the abnormal expression of lncRNA in TC and the fundamental characteristics in TC tumorigenesis and development. Additionally, we introduce the potential prognostic and therapeutic significance of lncRNAs in TC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.706011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8383148PMC
August 2021

Design of Aligned Porous Carbon Films with Single-Atom Co-N-C Sites for High-Current-Density Hydrogen Generation.

Adv Mater 2021 Oct 23;33(41):e2103533. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Advanced Catalytic Engineering Research Center of the Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082, China.

Metal- and nitrogen-doped carbon (M-N-C) materials as a unique class of single-atom catalysts (SACs) have increasingly attracted attention as the replacement of platinum for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER); however, their employment as HER electrodes at high current densities of industrial level remains a grand challenge. Herein, an aligned porous carbon film embedded with single-atom Co-N-C sites of exceptional activity and stability at high current densities is designed. Within the film, the atomic CoN moieties exhibit high intrinsic activity, while the multiscale porosity of the carbon frameworks with vertically aligned microchannels afford facilitated mass transfer under the conditions of high production rate and ultrathick electrodes. Moreover, the superwetting properties of the film promote electrolyte wetting and ensure the timely removal of the evolving H gas bubbles. The as-designed film can work as an efficient HER electrode to deliver 500 and 1000 mA cm in acid at overpotentials of 272 and 343 mV, respectively, and can operate uninterruptedly and stably at 1000 mA cm for at least 32 h under static conditions. These findings pave the road toward the rational design of SACs with improved activity and stability at high current densities in gas-evolving electrocatalytic processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202103533DOI Listing
October 2021

Anchor and bridge functions of APTES layer on interface between hydrophilic starch films and hydrophobic soyabean oil coating.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Nov 20;272:118450. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Collage of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China; Sino-Singapore International Joint Research Institute, Knowledge City, Guangzhou 510663, China. Electronic address:

One of the well-recognized weaknesses of starch-based materials is their sensitivity to moisture, which limits their expanding applications. Natural materials, soyabean oils have been used as a coating for starch film, but the poor interface between hydrophilic starch and hydrophobic soyabean oil needs to be improved. In this work, (3-Aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) was used to reinforce the bonding between starch matrix and the coating of bio-based acrylated epoxidized soyabean oil (AESO). Study results show that APTES interacted effectively with both starch films via hydrogen bonding, and chemical bonds with AESO through the Michael addition reaction. Pull adhesion and cross-cutting tests demonstrated that the interfacial adhesion was significantly improved after treating their surface with APTES. The interfacial adhesion strength increased over 4 times after treating with 1.6 wt% APTES. The starch films treated with APTES and AESO coating were intact after soaking in water for more than 2 h.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118450DOI Listing
November 2021

Tissue Renin-Angiotensin System (tRAS) Induce Intervertebral Disc Degeneration by Activating Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Reaction.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 6;2021:3225439. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Changzheng Hospital, Navy Medical University (Second Military Medical University), No. 415 Fengyang Road, Shanghai 200003, China.

Lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) has been the major contributor to low back pain (LBP). IDD is an chronic inflammation process, with the activation of plentiful inflammation-related cytokines and ECM degradation-related enzymes. In the past few years, hypertension has been reported to correlate with LBP. In addition, the local tissue renin-angiotensin system (tRAS) has been identified in multiple tissues, including the spinal cord, skin, kidney, heart, and bone. Recently, tRAS has also been established in both bovine and human intervertebral disc tissues, especially in the degenerated disc tissue. However, the exact of tRAS and IDD remains unknown. In this present study, proteomic analysis, molecular biology analysis, and animal model were all used. Firstly, we revealed that tRAS was excessively activated in the human degenerated intervertebral disc tissue via proteomic analysis and molecular biology analysis. Then, in vitro experiment suggested that Ang II could decrease the cell viability of human NP cells and promote NP cell apoptosis, senescence, oxidative stress, and NLRP3 activation in human NP cells. In addition, Ang II could also trigger degeneration and fibrosis phenotype in human NP cells. Finally, the animal model demonstrated that the local activated ACE/Ang II axis in the NP tissue could accelerate IDD in aging spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Collectively, the degenerated intervertebral disc tissue showed excessively activated tRAS, and local activated tRAS could induce NP cell senescence, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammatory reaction to promote IDD. These biological effects of Ang II on human NP cells may provide novel insight into further treatment of IDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/3225439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8369181PMC
August 2021

Titanium alloy cannulated screws and biodegradable magnesium alloy bionic cannulated screws for treatment of femoral neck fractures: a finite element analysis.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Aug 18;16(1):511. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Trauma Emergency Center, Key Laboratory of Biomechanics and Orthopaedic Research Institute of Hebei Province, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, No.139 Ziqiang Road, Shijiazhuang, 050051, Hebei, People's Republic of China.

Background: Cannulated screws (CS) are one of the most widely used treatments for femoral neck fracture, however, associated with high rate of complications. In this study, we designed a new type of cannulated screws called degradable magnesium alloy bionic cannulated screws (DMBCS) and our aim was to compare the biomechanical properties of DMBCS, the traditionally used titanium alloy bionic cannulated screws (TBCS) and titanium alloy cannulated screws (TTCS).

Methods: A proximal femur model was established based on CT data of a lower extremity from a voluntary healthy man. Garden type III femoral neck fracture was constructed and fixed with DMBCS, TBCS, and TTCS, respectively. Biomechanical effect which three type of CS models have on femoral neck fracture was evaluated and compared using von Mises stress distribution and displacement.

Results: In the normal model, the maximum stress value of cortical bone and cancellous bone was 76.18 and 6.82 MPa, and the maximum displacement was 5.52 mm. Under 3 different fracture healing status, the stress peak value of the cortical bone and cancellous bone in the DMBCS fixation model was lower than that in the TTCS and TBCS fixation, while the maximum displacement of DMBCS fixation model was slightly higher than that of TTCS and TBCS fixation models. As the fracture heals, stress peak value of the screws and cortical bone of intact models are decreasing, while stress peak value of cancellous bone is increasing initially and then decreasing.

Conclusions: The DMBCS exhibits the superior biomechanical performance than TTCS and TBCS, whose fixation model is closest to the normal model in stress distribution. DMBCS is expected to reduce the rates of post-operative complications with traditional internal fixation and provide practical guidance for the structural design of CS for clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-021-02665-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371795PMC
August 2021

Nicotinic acid mononucleotide is an allosteric SARM1 inhibitor promoting axonal protection.

Exp Neurol 2021 Nov 14;345:113842. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Washington University School of Medicine in Saint Louis, Department of Genetics, St. Louis, MO, USA; Needleman Center for Neurometabolism and Axonal Therapeutics, USA.

SARM1 is an inducible NAD hydrolase that is the central executioner of pathological axon loss. Recently, we elucidated the molecular mechanism of SARM1 activation, demonstrating that SARM1 is a metabolic sensor regulated by the levels of NAD and its precursor, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), via their competitive binding to an allosteric site within the SARM1 N-terminal ARM domain. In healthy neurons with abundant NAD, binding of NAD blocks access of NMN to this allosteric site. However, with injury or disease the levels of the NAD biosynthetic enzyme NMNAT2 drop, increasing the NMN/ NAD ratio and thereby promoting NMN binding to the SARM1 allosteric site, which in turn induces a conformational change activating the SARM1 NAD hydrolase. Hence, NAD metabolites both regulate the activation of SARM1 and, in turn, are regulated by the SARM1 NAD hydrolase. This dual upstream and downstream role for NAD metabolites in SARM1 function has hindered mechanistic understanding of axoprotective mechanisms that manipulate the NAD metabolome. Here we reevaluate two methods that potently block axon degeneration via modulation of NAD related metabolites, 1) the administration of the NMN biosynthesis inhibitor FK866 in conjunction with the NAD precursor nicotinic acid riboside (NaR) and 2) the neuronal expression of the bacterial enzyme NMN deamidase. We find that these approaches not only lead to a decrease in the levels of the SARM1 activator NMN, but also an increase in the levels of the NAD precursor nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN). We show that NaMN inhibits SARM1 activation, and demonstrate that this NaMN-mediated inhibition is important for the long-term axon protection induced by these treatments. Analysis of the NaMN-ARM domain co-crystal structure shows that NaMN competes with NMN for binding to the SARM1 allosteric site and promotes the open, autoinhibited configuration of SARM1 ARM domain. Together, these results demonstrate that the SARM1 allosteric pocket can bind a diverse set of metabolites including NMN, NAD, and NaMN to monitor cellular NAD homeostasis and regulate SARM1 NAD hydrolase activity. The relative promiscuity of the allosteric site may enable the development of potent pharmacological inhibitors of SARM1 activation for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2021.113842DOI Listing
November 2021

Predictors of acute compartment syndrome of the lower leg in adults following tibial plateau fractures.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Aug 16;16(1):502. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, People's Republic of China.

Background: Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is an underestimated complication following tibial plateau fractures. Understanding predictors of ACS in the lower leg after a fracture of the tibial plateau may guide earlier diagnosis and promptly decompressed by surgical fasciotomy. To date, however, there are few large-scale sample literatures to investigate the predictors of it. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the prevalence rate of ACS associated with tibial plateau fractures and identified any such predictors with the development of ACS.

Materials And Methods: From January 2015 to January 2020, a total of 1119 consecutive patients (1119 fractures) including 703 males and 416 females with an average age of 40.7 years (18 to 80 years) in tibial plateau fractures who presented to a university-affiliated hospital with level-I trauma center were included. The presence of ACS and associated predictors were collected from patients' electronic medical records. Associated predictors included gender, age, fracture pattern (open or closed), mechanisms of injury, fracture classification, and underlying disease. Univariate and multivariate logistical regression analyses were performed to identify the predictors of the development of ACS following tibial plateau fractures.

Results: Of the 1119 fractures of the tibial plateau, 35 (3.1%) developed an acute compartment syndrome. On multivariate analysis, only younger patient age (odds ratio (OR) 2.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26 to 6.31; P = 0.003), and Schatzker VI type fracture (OR 5.78; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.78 to 54.34; P = 0.021) were significantly associated with the development of ACS. Other variables did not reach statistical significance.

Conclusion: Younger patient age and Schatzker VI type fracture were predictors of ACS of the lower leg in adults following tibial plateau fractures. Further studies in the prospective study are still needed to identify the potential risk factors associated with ACS in tibial plateau fractures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-021-02660-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8365966PMC
August 2021

Response to immunotherapy in a patient with anaplastic thyroid cancer: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Aug;100(32):e26138

Yinfeng Gene Technology Co Ltd, CORA, Jinan, Shandong, P. R. China.

Rationale: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is an aggressive malignancy that is almost always fatal and lacks effective systemic treatment options. Current treatments of ATC include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, used in combination when possible. In the aspect of immunotherapy, the biomarker of TMB-H and MSI-H may suggest that patients benefit from pembrolizumab. Programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is highly expressed in ATC but has not been written into the guidelines or approved by the FDA as a biomarker for thyroid cancer immunotherapy.

Patient Concerns: A 55-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of a slight right-sided neck enlargement in November 2019.

Diagnoses: The clinical diagnosis was ATC, pT3bN0M0, and stage IVB.

Interventions: Oral administration of apatinib (250 mg 3 times daily) was initiated after surgery, but some unpleasant side effects emerged after 1 month of treatment. Next-generation sequencing revealed that the tumor harbored 2 mutations, HRAS p.Q61R and TP53 p.P278S, and PD-L1 staining was positive with a high expression. Thus, camrelizumab (programmed cell death protein 1 inhibitor) was combined with apatinib, and apatinib was changed to 250 mg once a day from March 2020.

Outcomes: No adverse reactions were observed after the treatment immunotherapy combined with antiangiogenic drugs. Currently, the survival time of patients is more than 11 months, and the quality of life is not affected.

Conclusion: This case suggests that immunotherapy in patients with ATC based upon PD-L1 evaluation provides a therapeutic option. Targeting programmed cell death protein 1/PD-L1 may provide a much-needed treatment option for patients with advanced ATC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8360478PMC
August 2021

Comparison of total patellectomy and osteosynthesis with tension band wiring in patients with highly comminuted patella fractures: a 10-20-year follow-up study.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Aug 13;16(1):497. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, People's Republic of China.

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the long-term clinical outcomes between the total patellectomy and osteosynthesis with tension band wiring in patients with highly comminuted patella fractures.

Methods: Between January 1987 and December 2003, this retrospective study included a total of 35 patients (mean age, 51.4±16.8 years) with a minimum of 10 years follow-up period, comprising 29 males and 6 females, who were divided into the total patellectomy group (17 patients) or the open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) group (18 patients) in the Third Affiliated Hospital of Hebei Medical University. We retrospectively collected patient demographics and data on the type of trauma, fracture type, and postoperative complications. Clinical outcomes including knee range of motion (ROM), 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) score [including physical component score (PCS) and mental component score (MCS)], Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and Kujala score were evaluated and compared between the two groups. Biodex System dynamometer was used to quantitatively evaluate quadriceps femoris muscle power following measurement of peak torque.

Results: The mean follow-up periods of the total patellectomy group and the ORIF group were 17.2±5.6 and 16.8±4.9 years, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups of patient demographics in terms of the number of patients, age, sex, injury side, time to surgery, type of trauma, and fracture classification (p>0.05). Total patellectomy was comparable to osteosynthesis with tension band wiring in terms of ROM [injured knee: 120.4±3.1° vs 118.6±3.3°; uninjured knee: 126.5±2.8° vs 127.3±1.7°; both p>0.05], peak torque [Injured knee: 96.2±2.3 vs 97.3±2.6, N· m; Uninjured knee: 107.6±2.1 vs 106.3±1.8, N· m; both p>0.05], SF-36 score [PCS: 64.1±18.0 vs 61.5±17.9; MCS: 55.1±13.8 vs 54.3±12.4; both p>0.05], KOOS score [76.3±12.1 vs 73.4±11.7; p>0.05], and Kujala score [67.6±11.8 vs 70.8±11.9; p>0.05] at the final follow-up, while total patellectomy had significantly shorter operation time than ORIF group (47.5±12.1 vs 68.8±22.3, min, p<0.05). In the total patellectomy group, complications occurred in 6 of 17 cases (35.3%), and all occurred with calcification. In the ORIF group, complications occurred in 12 of 18 cases (66.7%), including 2 cases of infection (11.1%), 1 case of non-union (5.6%), 2 cases of implant failure (11.1%), 2 cases of soft tissue irritation (11.1%), and 5 cases of patellofemoral arthritis (27.8%).

Conclusions: Total patellectomy technique was a safe and reliable alternative treatment for treating patients with highly comminuted patella fractures when anatomically reduction and rigid fixation were difficult, although it caused relatively higher rates of calcification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-021-02656-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8361621PMC
August 2021

Tunable Soft Lens of Large Focal Length Change.

Soft Robot 2021 Aug 12. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

School of Science and Engineering, Chinese University of Hong Kong at Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China.

Tunable lens technology inspired by the human eye has opened a new paradigm of smart optical devices for a variety of applications due to unique characteristics such as lightweight, low cost, and facile fabrication over conventional lens assemblies. The fast-growing demands for tunable optical lenses in consumer electronics, medical diagnostics, and optical communications require the lens to have a large focal length modulation range and high compactness. Herein, for the first time, an all-solid tunable soft lens driven by highly transparent dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) and waterborne polyurethane (PEDOT:PSS/WPU) transparent electrodes is developed. The deformation of the tunable soft lens is achieved by the actuation of DEAs, mimicking the change of the surface profile of the human eye to achieve remarkable focal length variations. Upon electrical activation, this tunable soft lens can vary its original focal length by 209%, which is one of the highest among current tunable soft lenses and far beyond that of the human eye. This study demonstrates that transparent DEAs are capable of achieving focus-variation functions, and potentially useful in artificial robotic vision, visual prostheses, and adjustable glasses, which will induce significant effects on the future development of tunable optics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/soro.2021.0036DOI Listing
August 2021

Effects of dominant plant growth on the nutrient composition and bacterial community structure of manganese residues.

Int J Phytoremediation 2021 Aug 12:1-11. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

School of Geography and Resources, Guizhou Education University, Guiyang, China.

The rhizospheres of three dominant plant species (, and ) growing in manganese residue disposal sites in eastern Guizhou Province, China, were analyzed to study the effects of plant growth on the nutrient levels and bacterial community structure of two types of manganese residues. The results showed that the growth of the three species improved the nutritional composition of manganese residues; the available nitrogen (AN) contents of the manganese mine residue significantly increased by 29.56-60.78% while the available phosphorus (AP) contents of the electrolytic manganese residue significantly increased by 30.24-44.41% compared to those in unvegetated manganese residue. The diversity of the bacterial community in the manganese mine residue increased significantly due to plant growth. , , and were the dominant phyla in both manganese residues. and GP6 were the dominant bacterial genera. The relative abundance of the phylum was significantly higher in the manganese mine residue than in the control and that of the genus was lower, which indicated improvements in the microenvironment. Correlation analysis showed that OM and AN were the main nutrient factors affecting the bacterial community structure in the manganese mine residue. At present, research on the phytoremediation of manganese residue disposal sites focuses mostly on the investigation of different plant types and their heavy metal accumulation and transformation characteristics. However, comparative studies of the differences in growth matrix characteristics between plant growth areas and exposed areas are lacking. In addition, dominant plant species are regionally distributed. The previous studies were mostly concentrated in Chongqing, Guangxi, and Hunan in China. The eastern region of Guizhou Province is located in the "Manganese Triangle" area of China, where the manganese resources account for about 50% of the national total. There is no report on the phytoremediation of manganese residue disposal sites in this region. Therefore, the rhizospheres of three dominant plant species (, , and ) growing in manganese residue disposal sites in eastern Guizhou Province, China, were analyzed to study the effects of plant growth on the nutrient levels and bacterial community structure of two types of manganese residues (manganese mine residue and electrolytic manganese residue). This study could provide useful theoretical information to benefit the ecological restoration of manganese residue disposal sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15226514.2021.1957769DOI Listing
August 2021

Preparation and Characterization of Instant Casein Phosphopeptide by Supercritical Fluid Assisted Atomization.

Foods 2021 Jul 5;10(7). Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Collage of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China.

Casein phosphopeptide (CPP) has been widely used as micronutrient supplementation for certain populations. However, its solubility performance is far from satisfying. In this work, instant CPP powders with micropore structures were fabricated by supercritical fluid-assisted atomization (SAA) using supercritical CO fluid (SC-CO) as an atomizing agent. The effects of the processing parameters (temperature, time, and pressure) on SC-CO absorption rate and dissolution rate were systematically evaluated and studied. The viscosity of the CPP solution increased with increased pressure of SC-CO as pressure increased its solubility. The processing conditions are optimized as follows: 40 °C, 40 min, and 8.27 MPa, with an SC-CO absorption rate of about 8 wt.%. The dissolution time of the SAA-CPP powders was significantly decreased from 1800 s to 54 s at room temperature, due to the micropore structures and almost 10 times increase in the specific surface area of SAA-CPP. The bioactivities of the instant SAA-CPP, especially the calcium-binding capacity, were also evaluated and showed no observable difference. Among the four CPPs prepared in different ways in this work, SAA-CPP had better dissolution performance. The results show that SAA technology is a promising way to prepare instant polypeptide powders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10071555DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8304231PMC
July 2021

Underweight and obesity are strong predictors of clinical outcomes in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: data from the Smart-phone SpondyloArthritis Management System.

Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis 2021 13;13:1759720X211030792. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, the First Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100853, China.

Background: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of underweight, overweight and obesity on clinical outcomes and treatment responses to biologics in Chinese patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS).

Methods: Body mass index (BMI) was available in 1074 patients from the Smart-phone SpondyloArthritis Management System. Patients were categorized into four groups based on BMI: underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity. Multivariable median regression analyses examined the effect of underweight and obesity on clinical outcomes and treatment response to biologics.

Results: Among 1074 patients with AS, normal weight accounted for 49.1%, while underweight, overweight, and obesity for 8.1%, 30.1%, and 12.0%, respectively. Compared to patients with normal weight, patients with underweight, overweight and obesity had an increased disease activity, while patients with underweight and obesity had a significantly poor Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index and Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society Health Index scores. For tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitor users, BMI was found to be negatively correlated with changes in disease activity in the multivariate regression model (all  < 0.05). Besides, the patients using TNF-α inhibitor in the overweight or obesity categories were much less likely to achieve a significant reduction on disease activity during follow-up period in the multivariate regression model (all  < 0.05), taking these with normal-weight patients as a reference.

Conclusions: Both underweight and obesity except for overweight were associated independently with worse disease activity, physical function and health status. Overweight and obesity might impact on treatment responses to biologics in patients with AS. This argues that weight management, to maintain it at a normal level, should be one of the disease management strategies in patients with AS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1759720X211030792DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8280843PMC
July 2021

A male-ABCD algorithm for hepatocellular carcinoma risk prediction in HBsAg carriers.

Chin J Cancer Res 2021 Jun;33(3):352-363

State Key Lab of Molecular Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021, China.

Objective: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development among hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers shows gender disparity, influenced by underlying liver diseases that display variations in laboratory tests. We aimed to construct a risk-stratified HCC prediction model for HBsAg-positive male adults.

Methods: HBsAg-positive males of 35-69 years old (N=6,153) were included from a multi-center population-based liver cancer screening study. Randomly, three centers were set as training, the other three centers as validation. Within 2 years since initiation, we administrated at least two rounds of HCC screening using B-ultrasonography and α-fetoprotein (AFP). We used logistic regression models to determine potential risk factors, built and examined the operating characteristics of a point-based algorithm for HCC risk prediction.

Results: With 2 years of follow-up, 302 HCC cases were diagnosed. A male-ABCD algorithm was constructed including participant's age, blood levels of GGT (γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase), counts of platelets, white cells, concentration of DCP (des-γ-carboxy-prothrombin) and AFP, with scores ranging from 0 to 18.3. The area under receiver operating characteristic was 0.91 (0.90-0.93), larger than existing models. At 1.5 points of risk score, 26.10% of the participants in training cohort and 14.94% in validation cohort were recognized at low risk, with sensitivity of identifying HCC remained 100%. At 2.5 points, 46.51% of the participants in training cohort and 33.68% in validation cohort were recognized at low risk with 99.06% and 97.78% of sensitivity, respectively. At 4.5 points, only 20.86% of participants in training cohort and 23.73% in validation cohort were recognized at high risk, with positive prediction value of 22.85% and 12.35%, respectively.

Conclusions: Male-ABCD algorithm identified individual's risk for HCC occurrence within short term for their HCC precision surveillance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21147/j.issn.1000-9604.2021.03.07DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8286891PMC
June 2021

Selective controlling transverse plasmon spectrum of pentagonal gold nanotube: from visible to near-infrared region.

Nanotechnology 2021 Aug 13;32(44). Epub 2021 Aug 13.

The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, People's Republic of China.

In this paper, the optical properties and local electric field distribution of transverse plasmon mode of a single pentagonal gold nanotube are studied for the first time by the discrete dipole approximation (DDA). We find that the transverse plasmon peaks can nonlinearly red shift from visible to infrared region via controlling the inner diameter. In addition, the transverse plasmon peak firstly blue shifts and then red shifts in the visible region with the increase of outer diameter. Further analysis shows that the spectra red shift with the increase of outer diameters when scattering is dominant. Local electric field analysis reveals that transverse plasmon resonance peaks of gold nanotube mainly come from dipole resonance. When the tube wall is thin enough, multi-polar plasmon resonance mode will be generated, and the number of peaks will be increased. The surface charges of inner and outer tube walls are changed by tuning the inner diameter and outer diameter parameters of pentagonal gold nanotube. The selective controlling transverse plasmon spectra of gold nanotube are realized, which is of great significance to the study of optical properties of gold nanotube and the application of molecular detection and biological imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ac18a1DOI Listing
August 2021
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