Publications by authors named "Jian Zhou"

3,078 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Relationship between morning peak phenomenon and early renal injury NGAL in H-type hypertension.

Blood Press 2022 Dec;31(1):200-206

Department of General Practice, Affiliated Hospital of Chengde Medical College, Chengde, China.

Purpose: To investigate the relationship between morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) and neutrophilgelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) in patients with H-type hypertension.

Materials And Methods: A total of 224 patients with diagnosed H-type hypertension [homocysteine (Hcy)≧10umol/L] were selected and underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). In the morning peak group (115 cases), NGAL and serum cystatin C levels, -microglobulin levels were detected in each group, and general biochemical indicators were also detected.

Results: There was no significant difference in the course of hypertension, age, blood glucose, blood lipids, Hcy, BUN, Cr, and UA between the two groups ( > 0.05). CysC, -MG were higher than those in the nonmorning peak group, and the difference was statistically significant ( < 0.05).; Pearson correlation analysis showed that NGAL was moderately and highly correlated with CysC, systolic blood pressure morning peak, -MG, and high ( < 0.05), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), and Hcy were lowly correlated ( < 0.05).) and morning peak diastolic blood pressure ( > 0.05); multiple linear stepwise regression analysis indicated that morning peak systolic blood pressure, CysC,-MG, and FBG were the risk factors for NGAL.

Conclusion: The morning peak of systolic blood pressure in H-type hypertension is an important factor causing kidney injury. Paying attention to the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and the control of morning peak blood pressure in patients with H-type hypertension, and early screening of NGAL has important clinical significance for the early prevention and treatment of renal injury in patients with H-type hypertension. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARYThe morning peak of blood pressure is closely related to target organ damage.There are few studies on the relationship between morning peak phenomenon and renal damage in patients with H-type hypertension at home and abroad.We investigated the relationship between MBPS and NGAL in H-type hypertensive patients with BUN, Cr and UA in the normal range to provide a clinical basis for early renal protection in hypertensive patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08037051.2022.2106186DOI Listing
December 2022

Burden of tuberculosis and its association with socio-economic development status in 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 22;9:905245. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Burns and Plastic and Wound Repair Surgery, Xiang'an Hospital of Xiamen University, School of Medicine, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) always runs in the forefront of the global burden when it comes to infectious diseases. Tuberculosis, which can lead to impairment of quality of life, financial hardship, discrimination, marginalization, and social barriers, is a major public health problem. The assessment of TB burden and trend can provide crucial information for policy decision and planning, and help countries in the world to achieve the goal of sustainable development of ending the epidemic of TB in 2030.

Methods: All data are from the Global Burden of Disease 2019 (GBD 2019) database, which analyzed the burden trend of age-standardized incidence, DALYs, and deaths rate in TB and HIV/AIDS-infected TB over the past 30 years. Also, GBD 2019 not only analyzed the burden distribution of TB in 204 countries and main regions of the world but also analyzed the relationship between the burden of global TB and the socio-demographic Index (SDI).

Results: The age-standardized incidence, age-standardized disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and age-standardized deaths rate for HIV-negative TB were 10,671.45 (9,395.60-12,194.10), 59,042.45 (53,684.78-64,641.53), and 1,463.62 (1,339.24-1,602.71) (95% CI, per 100,000 person-years) in 2019, respectively. Age-standardized incidence, age-standardized DALYs, and age-standardized deaths rate of HIV/AIDS-XDR-TB (95% CI, per 1,000 person-years) were 2.10 (1.51-2.90), 64.23 (28.64-117.74), and 1.01 (0.42-1.86), respectively. We found that TB is inversely proportional to SDI, the age-standardized incidence, DALYs, and deaths rate low burden countries were in high SDI areas, while high burden countries were in low SDI areas. The global TB showed a slow decline trend, but the age-standardized incidence of HIV-positive TB was increasing, and mainly distributed in sub-Saharan Africa.

Conclusion: Age-standardized incidence, age-standardized DALYs, and age-standardized deaths rate of TB is related to SDI, and the burden of low SDI countries is lighter than that of high SDI countries. Without effective measures, it will be difficult for countries around the world to achieve the goal of ending the TB epidemic by 2030. Effective control of the spread of TB requires concerted efforts from all countries in the world, especially in the countries with low SDI, which need to improve the diagnosis and preventive measures of TB and improve the control of HIV/AIDS-TB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.905245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9355511PMC
July 2022

Deciphering the focuses and trends in skin regeneration research through bibliometric analyses.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 22;9:947649. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Xi'an Daxing Hospital, Xi'an, China.

Increasing attention to skin regeneration has rapidly broadened research on the topic. However, no bibliometric analysis of the field's research trends has yet been conducted. In response to this research gap, this study analyzed the publication patterns and progress of skin regeneration research worldwide using a bibliometric analysis of 1,471 papers comprising 1,227 (83.4%) original articles and 244 (16.6%) reviews sourced from a Web of Science search. Publication distribution was analyzed by country/region, institution, journal, and author. The frequency of keywords was assessed to prepare a bibliometric map of the development trends in skin regeneration research. China and the United States were the most productive countries in the field: China had the greatest number of publications at 433 (29.4%) and the United States had the highest H-index ranking (59 with 15,373 citations or 31.9%). Author keywords were classified into four clusters: stem cell, biomaterial, tissue engineering, and wound dressing. "Stem cells," "chitosan," "tissue engineering," and "wound dressings" were the most frequent keywords in each cluster; therefore, they reflected the field's current focus areas. "Immunomodulation," "aloe vera," "extracellular vesicles," "injectable hydrogel," and "three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting" were relatively new keywords, indicating that biomaterials for skin regeneration and 3D bioprinting are promising research hotspots in the field. Moreover, clinical studies on new dressings and techniques to accelerate skin regeneration deserve more attention. By uncovering current and future research hotspots, this analysis offers insights that may be useful for both new and experienced scholars striving to expand research and innovation in the field of skin regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.947649DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9355679PMC
July 2022

Development, Characterization and Osteoinductive Efficacy of a Novel Biomimetically-Precipitated Nanocrystalline Calcium Phosphate With Internally-Incorporated Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2022 22;10:920696. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Pathology, Amsterdam UMC and Academic Center for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (VU), Amsterdam Movement Science (AMS), Amsterdam, Netherlands.

The repair of large-volume bone defects (LVBDs) remains a great challenge in the fields of orthopedics and maxillofacial surgery. Most clinically available bone-defect-filling materials lack proper degradability and efficient osteoinductivity. In this study, we synthesized a novel biomimetically-precipitated nanocrystalline calcium phosphate (BpNcCaP) with internally incorporated bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BpNcCaP + BMP-2) with an aim to develop properly degradable and highly osteoinductive granules to repair LVBDs. We first characterized the physicochemical properties of the granules with different incorporation amounts of BMP-2 using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We evaluated the cytotoxicity and cytocompatibility of BpNcCaP by assessing the viability and adhesion of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts using PrestoBlue assay, Rhodamine-Phalloidin and DAPI staining, respectively. We further assessed the osteoinductive efficacy in a subcutaneous bone induction model in rats. characterization data showed that the BpNcCaP + BMP-2 granules were comprised of hexagonal hydroxyapatite with an average crystallite size ranging from 19.7 to 25.1 nm and a grain size at 84.13 ± 28.46 nm. The vickers hardness of BpNcCaP was 32.50 ± 3.58 HV 0.025. BpNcCaP showed no obvious cytotoxicity and was favorable for the adhesion of pre-osteoblasts. BMP-2 incorporation rate could be as high as 65.04 ± 6.01%. histomorphometric analysis showed that the volume of new bone induced by BpNcCaP exhibited a BMP-2 amount-dependent increasing manner. The BpNcCaP+50 μg BMP-2 exhibited significantly more degradation and fewer foreign body giant cells in comparison with BpNcCaP. These data suggested a promising application potential of BpNcCaP + BMP-2 in repairing LVBDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2022.920696DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9354744PMC
July 2022

Evaluation of Four eGFR Calculating Formulae in Predicting Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury in Adult Patients Undergoing Open-Heart Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

Contrast Media Mol Imaging 2022 13;2022:6929758. Epub 2022 Jul 13.

Department of Nursing, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Objective: There are four widely-used formulae to calculate the perioperative glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. We assessed the predictive values of these formulae in the occurrence of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI).

Methods: Patients who underwent open-heart valvular surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass from January 2015 to October 2017 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Demographic data and perioperative serum creatinine levels were collected. The estimated GFR (eGFR) was calculated using four formulae: Cockcroft Gault (CG), body surface area (BSA) corrected CG, simplified modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD), and chronic kidney disease-epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) formula. The incidence of post-operative AKI was calculated and the predictive capability of these formulae was evaluated.

Results: A total of 290 patients were included. 136 patients (46.90%) developed AKI after surgery. The eGFR in the AKI group was significantly lower than those in the non-AKI group at all investigated time points. In addition, the eGFR in the non-AKI group increased temporarily on the day of operation, then decreased on the following days, and returned to preoperative level about one week after surgery. However, in the AKI group, the eGFR decreased from the day of operation, which still did not recover to the preoperative level by the end of the first week after surgery. The eGFR calculated by the BSA-standardized CG formula had the highest AUC ROC curves of 0.699 and 0.774 before operation and on the day of operation, respectively. While eGFR calculated by CKD-EPI formula had the highest AUC ROC of 0.874 and 0.887 at the first and second postoperative day.

Conclusions: The eGFR formula is a powerful tool for perioperative renal function assessment. The BSA-corrected CG and CKD-EPI formula have better performance in predicting postoperative AKI after cardiopulmonary bypass than serum creatinine level and other formulae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/6929758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9300297PMC
August 2022

Comprehensive analysis of complement-associated molecular features in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 2022 Jul 25. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Department of Liver Surgery and Transplantation, Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, and Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion of Ministry of Education, Shanghai 200032, China.

The complement cascade plays a "complementing" role in human immunity. However, the potential roles of complement system in impacting molecular and clinical features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. In this study, eleven public datasets are analyzed to compare the complement status between normal and cancerous samples based on 18 classical complement-associated genes. The complement scores are constructed to quantify complement signatures of individual tumors. HCC patients in the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort are focused to perform systematical analyses between complement status and immune infiltration, miRNA expression, DNA methylation, clinicopathological features, and drug response. The results show that the complement scores in normal tissues are dramatically higher than those of tumor tissues. Tumor samples in the TCGA cohort are classified into complement score-low and score-high groups. Pathway analysis reveals that tumor-promoting pathways are typically inhibited in complement score-high group. This study also shows that tumor-killing immune cells, such as CD8 T cells and natural killer cells are abundant and tumor-suppressing miRNAs are upregulated in complement score-high samples. In addition, we identify that complement scores are negatively correlated with certain clinical features, including pathological grade, clinical-stage, and portal vein invasion. Moreover, various molecular features together with complement scores are found to be correlated with response to anti-cancer drugs. This study provides a comprehensive and multidimensional analysis conducive to understanding the role of complement in cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/abbs.2022097DOI Listing
July 2022

Identifying potential prognosis markers in hepatocellular carcinoma integrated bioinformatics analysis and biological experiments.

Front Genet 2022 19;13:942454. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Department of Hematology, Linyi Central Hospital, Yishui, Shandong, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma is one kind of clinical common malignant tumor with a poor prognosis, and its pathogenesis remains to be clarified urgently. This study was performed to elucidate key genes involving HCC by bioinformatics analysis and experimental evaluation. We identified common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) based on gene expression profile data of GSE60502 and GSE84402 from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, REACTOME pathway enrichment analysis, and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) were used to analyze functions of these genes. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using Cytoscape software based on the STRING database, and Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) was used to pick out two significant modules. Hub genes, screened by the CytoHubba plug-in, were validated by Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) and the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) database. Then, the correlation between hub genes expression and immune cell infiltration was evaluated by Tumor IMmune Estimation Resource (TIMER) database, and the prognostic values were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier plotter. Finally, biological experiments were performed to illustrate the functions of RRM2. Through integrated bioinformatics analysis, we found that the upregulated DEGs were related to cell cycle and cell division, while the downregulated DEGs were associated with various metabolic processes and complement cascade. RRM2, MAD2L1, MELK, NCAPG, and ASPM, selected as hub genes, were all correlated with poor overall prognosis in HCC. The novel RRM2 inhibitor osalmid had anti-tumor activity, including inhibiting proliferation and migration, promoting cell apoptosis, blocking cell cycle, and inducing DNA damage of HCC cells. The critical pathways and hub genes in HCC progression were screened out, and targeting RRM2 contributed to developing new therapeutic strategies for HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2022.942454DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9343963PMC
July 2022

Coulomb Screening and Scattering in Atomically Thin Transistors across Dimensional Crossover.

Nano Lett 2022 Aug 3. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

National Laboratory of Solid-State Microstructures, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023, China.

Layered two-dimensional dichalcogenides are potential candidates for post-silicon electronics. Here, we report insightfully experimental and theoretical studies on the fundamental Coulomb screening and scattering effects in these correlated systems, in response to the changes of three crucial Coulomb factors, including electric permittivity, interaction distance, and density of Coulomb impurities. We systematically collect and analyze the trends of electron mobility with respect to the above factors, realized by synergic modulations on channel thicknesses and gating modes in dual-gated MoS transistors with asymmetric dielectric cleanliness. Strict configurative form factors are developed to capture the subtle parametric changes across dimensional crossover. A full diagram of the carrier scattering mechanisms, in particular on the pronounced Coulomb scattering, is unfolded. Moreover, we clarify the presence of up to 40% discrepancy in mobility by considering the permittivity modification across dimensional crossover. The understanding is useful for exploiting atomically thin body transistors for advanced electronics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.2c02023DOI Listing
August 2022

Uncovering the Heterogeneity and Clinical Relevance of Circulating Tumor-Initiating Cells in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using an Integrated Immunomagnetic-Microfluidic Platform.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Aug 2. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

Department of Liver Surgery & Transplantation, Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University; Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion, Ministry of Education, 180 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032, P. R. China.

Circulating tumor-initiating cells (CTICs) with stem cell-like properties play pivotal roles in tumor metastasis and recurrence. However, little is known about the biology and clinical relevance of CTICs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we investigated the molecular heterogeneity and clinical relevance of CTICs in HCC using a novel integrated immunomagnetic-microfluidic platform (iMAC). We constructed the iMAC and evaluated its ability to detect CTICs using a series of spiked cell experiments. A four-channel microfluidic chip was applied to investigate the composition of CTICs in patients with primary and recurrent HCC utilizing microbeads labeled with one of four stem-related markers: epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), CD133, CD90, and CD24. The dynamic changes of these four CTIC subsets were serially monitored during treatment courses. Finally, single-cell RNA profiling was used to reveal the molecular characteristics of the four CTIC subsets. The iMAC platform detected significantly more EpCAM CTICs in the blood samples from 33 HCC patients than the FDA-approved CellSearch system (0.92 ± 0.94 0.23 ± 0.36, < 0.001). The number of EpCAM CTICs (≥0.75/mL) detected by iMAC was a predictor of early recurrence ( = 0.007). The distinct stem-related markers' expression of CTICs could distinguish primary HCC, recurrent HCC, and TACE-resistant HCC. Single-cell transcriptional profiling proved the heterogeneity among individual CTICs and separated the four CTIC subsets into distinct phenotypes. Dissecting the heterogeneity of CTICs using the iMAC represents a novel and informative method for accurate CTIC detection and characterization. This innovative technology will enable more indepth cancer biology research and clinical cancer management than is currently available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c09085DOI Listing
August 2022

Combined analysis of expression, prognosis and immune infiltration of GINS family genes in human sarcoma.

Aging (Albany NY) 2022 Jul 27;14(14):5895-5907. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Department of Orthopedics, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510900, Guangdong, China.

Objective: This study was undertaken to explore the expression and prognostic value of GINS family in human sarcoma, as well as the association between the expression levels of the GINS family and sarcoma immune infiltration.

Results: We discovered that the mRNA expression levels of GINS1, GINS2, GINS3, and GINS4 were all higher in the majority of tumor tissues than in normal samples, of course, including sarcoma. Through the CCLE, all the four members expression were observed in high levels in sarcoma cell lines. In Gene Expression Profiling Analysis (GEPIA) and Kaplan-Meier Plotter, our results indicated that the poor overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and relapse free survival (RFS) were tightly associated with the increased expression of GINS genes. In TIMER database, we found that highly expressed GINS was significantly correlated with the low infiltration level of CD4+ T cell and macrophage.

Conclusions: The four GINS family members were all the prognostic biomarkers for the prognosis of human sarcoma and can reduce the level of immune cell infiltration in the sarcoma microenvironment.

Methods: In terms of the expression levels of mRNA for GINS family members, a particular contrast in various cancers, especially human sarcoma, was conducted through ONCOMINE and GEPIA and CCLE databases. Kaplan-Meier Plotter was used to identify the prognostic value of GINS family in sarcoma. The relationship between the expression level of GINS and the infiltration of immune cells was analyzed in TIMER database.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.204191DOI Listing
July 2022

[Corrigendum] MicroRNA‑335 is downregulated in bladder cancer and inhibits cell growth, migration and invasion via targeting ROCK1.

Mol Med Rep 2022 Sep 27;26(3). Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Department of Urology, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Nantong Medical College, Yancheng, Jiangsu 224001, P.R. China.

Subsequently to the publication of this paper, an interested reader drew to the authors' attention that, in Fig. 3 on p. 4382, the 'Invasion' assay data for the negative control (NC) experiments for the T24 and EJ cell lines appeared to contain an overlap of data, such that they may have been derived from the same original source even though the data were purportedly intended to show the results from differently peformed experiments. The authors have re‑examined their original data, and realize that this figure was inadvertently assembled incorrectly. The revised version of Fig. 3, showing alternative data from one of the repeated experiments, is shown below. Note that this error did not significantly affect either the results or the conclusions reported in this paper, and all the authors agree to this corrigendum. Furthermore, the authors thank the Editor of for allowing them the opportunity to publish this corrigendum, and apologize to the readership for any inconvenience caused. [Molecular Medicine Reports 13: 4379-4385, 2016; DOI: 10.3892/mmr.2016.5055].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2022.12799DOI Listing
September 2022

The Bifunctional Silyl Reagent Me (CH Cl)SiCF Enables Highly Enantioselective Ketone Trifluoromethylation and Related Tandem Processes.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2022 Jul 26:e202208861. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Molecular Therapeutics and New Drug Development, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Processes, School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China Normal University, 3663N Zhongshan Road, Shanghai, 200062, China.

We report the development of bifunctional trifluoromethylsilyl reagents for selective trifluoromethylation. The newly developed reagent, Me (CH Cl)SiCF , allows highly enantioselective trifluoromethylations of ketones with broad scope. Notably, by taking advantage of the chloromethyl group, a tandem synthesis of chiral trifluoromethylated oxasilacyclopentanes is developed, paving way to α-CF tertiary alcohols with vicinal tertiary or quaternary stereocenters. Theoretical studies revealed the important role of nonclassical C-H⋅⋅⋅F-C interactions in stabilizing the transition state, and that the presence of the chlorine atom enhances such interactions for better enantiofacial control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202208861DOI Listing
July 2022

A Review on Electrode Materials of Fast-Charging Lithium-Ion batteries.

Chem Rec 2022 Jul 25:e202200127. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

School of Energy Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, 211816, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China.

In recent years, the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) has been dramatically improved. But the large-scale adoption of EVs still is hindered by long charging time. The high-energy LIBs are unable to be safely fast-charged due to their electrode materials with unsatisfactory rate performance. Thus it is necessary to summarize the properties of cathode and anode materials of fast-charging LIBs. In this review, we summarize the background, the fundamentals, electrode materials and future development of fast-charging LIBs. First, we introduce the research background and the physicochemical basics for fast-charging LIBs. Second, typical cathode materials of LIBs and the method to enhancing their fast-charging properties are discussed. Third, the anode materials of LIBs and the strategies for improving their fast-charging performance are analyzed. Finally, the future development of the cathode materials in fast-charging LIBs is prospected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tcr.202200127DOI Listing
July 2022

S100A8 regulates autophagy-dependent ferroptosis in microglia after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Exp Neurol 2022 Jul 21;357:114171. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, the Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou 646000, China; Laboratory of Neurological Diseases and Brain Function, the Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou 646000, China; Institute of Epigenetics and Brain Science, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou 646000, China; Academician (Expert) Workstation of Sichuan Province, the Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou 646000, China. Electronic address:

Targeting microglial activation has been shown to ameliorate early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Ferroptosis is a new form of programmed cell death after SAH, but these molecular features were not recognized as evidence of microglial function so far. In this study, we constructed microglial S100A8-specific knockdown and established the SAH model in vivo and in vitro. Multi-technology strategies, including high throughput sequencing, adeno-associated virus gene gene-editing and several molecular biotechnologies to validate the effects of S100A8 on microglial autophagy and ferroptosis after SAH. Our results revealed that the expression of S100A8 was significantly increased in brain tissue after SAH. Targeted microglial S100A8 inhibition improved neural function and neuronal apoptosis in mice after SAH. Further mechanism exploration found that favourable effects of S100A8 depletion in EBI may be through the inhibition of microglia autophagy-dependent ferroptosis. In conclusion, S100A8 may be a potential intervention target for microglial ferroptosis in EBI after SAH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2022.114171DOI Listing
July 2022

PRMT5 acts as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling in murine gastric tumorigenesis.

Int J Biol Sci 2022 4;18(11):4329-4340. Epub 2022 Jul 4.

State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing Proteome Research Centre, National Centre for Protein Sciences, Beijing Institute of Lifeomics, Beijing 102206, China.

Previous studies have demonstrated the oncogenic role of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) in gastric cancer cell lines. The function of PRMT5 in gastric tumorigenesis, however, is still unexplored. Here, we showed that deletion in mouse gastric epithelium resulted in spontaneous tumorigenesis in gastric antrum. All -deficient mice displayed intestinal-type gastric cancer within 4 months of age. Of note, 20% (2/10) of mutants finally developed into invasive gastric cancer by 8 months of age. Gastric cancer caused by PRMT5 loss exhibited the increase in Lgr5 stem cells, which are proposed to contribute to both the gastric tumorigenesis and progression in mouse models. Consistent with the notion that Lgr5 is the target of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, whose activation is the most predominant driver for gastric tumorigenesis, mutant gastric cancer showed the activation of Wnt/β-Catenin signaling. Furthermore, in human gastric cancer samples, deletion and downregulation were frequently observed and associated with the poor prognosis. We propose that as opposed to the tumor-promoting role of PRMT5 well-established in the progression of various cancer types, PRMT5 functions as a tumor suppressor , at least during gastric tumor formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.71581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9295066PMC
July 2022

The associations between TMAO-related metabolites and blood lipids and the potential impact of rosuvastatin therapy.

Lipids Health Dis 2022 Jul 21;21(1):60. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

Department of Cardiology, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine Third Affiliated Hospital, No. 51, Xiaoguan Street, Andingmenwai, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100029, China.

Background: Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)-related metabolites are associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and are known to disrupt lipid metabolism. The aims of this study were to evaluate the associations between TMAO-related metabolites and blood lipids and determine how lowering the lipid profile via rosuvastatin therapy influences TMAO-related metabolites.

Methods: A total of 112 patients with suspected ASCVD were enrolled in this study. The levels of plasma TMAO-related metabolites, including TMAO, choline, carnitine, betaine, and γ-butyrobetaine (GBB), were analyzed by stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) before and after rosuvastatin therapy in all patients. Statistical methods were used to detect the associations between TMAO-related metabolites and blood lipids and determine how rosuvastatin therapy alters the levels of these metabolites.

Results: A significant positive correlation was found between TMAO and triglycerides (TG) (r = 0.303, P < 0.05). Furthermore, significant negative correlations were found between TMAO and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and between betaine and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (r = - 0.405 and - 0.308, respectively, both P < 0.01). Compared to baseline, significantly lower TMAO levels and higher carnitine, betaine and GBB levels were observed after rosuvastatin therapy, while the lipids decreased significantly (P < 0.05). The significant correlation between TMAO and TG or between betaine and LDL-c disappeared after rosuvastatin therapy (r = 0.050 and - 0.172, respectively, both P > 0.05). However, a significantly positive association between carnitine and TC and a negative association between carnitine and LDL-c or between betaine and TG were found after adjustment for sex, age, body mass index (BMI) and lipids (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: This study suggests that TMAO-related metabolites are significantly associated with blood lipids, although some of them are changed postrosuvastatin therapy. Lower TMAO and higher TMAO precursors were observed after rosuvastatin therapy compared to baseline. This study indicates that elevated TMAO precursors after rosuvastatin therapy and their potential impact on ASCVD should be considered in the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12944-022-01673-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9306211PMC
July 2022

Multimodule characterization of immune subgroups in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma reveals distinct therapeutic vulnerabilities.

J Immunother Cancer 2022 Jul;10(7)

Jinshan Hospital Center for Tumor Diagnosis & Therapy, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

Background: Immune microenvironment is well recognized as a critical regulator across cancer types, despite its complex roles in different disease conditions. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is characterized by a tumor-reactive milieu, emphasizing a deep insight into its immunogenomic profile to provide prognostic and therapeutic implications.

Methods: We performed genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic characterization of 255 paired iCCA and adjacent liver tissues. We validated our findings through H&E staining (n=177), multiplex immunostaining (n=188), single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) (n=10), functional studies, and transposon-based mouse models.

Results: Integrated multimodule data identified three immune subgroups with distinct clinical, genetic, and molecular features, designated as IG1 (immune-suppressive, 25.1%), IG2 (immune-exclusion, 42.7%), and IG3 (immune-activated, 32.2%). IG1 was characterized by excessive infiltration of neutrophils and immature dendritic cells (DCs). The hallmark of IG2 was the relatively higher tumor-proliferative activity and tumor purity. IG3 exhibited an enrichment of adaptive immune cells, natural killer cells, and activated DCs. These immune subgroups were significantly associated with prognosis and validated in two independent cohorts. Tumors with mutations were enriched in IG1 and associated with myeloid inflammation-dominated immunosuppression. Although tumor mutation burden was relatively higher in IG2, loss of heterozygosity in human leucocyte antigen and defects in antigen presentation undermined the recognition of neoantigens, contributing to immune-exclusion behavior. Pathological analysis confirmed that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and tertiary lymphoid structures were both predominant in IG3. Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related samples tended to be under-represented in IG1, and scRNA-seq analyses implied that HBV infection indeed alleviated myeloid inflammation and reinvigorated antitumor immunity.

Conclusions: Our study elucidates that the immunogenomic traits of iCCA are intrinsically heterogeneous among patients, posing great challenge and opportunity for the application of personalized immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2022-004892DOI Listing
July 2022

Traditional Chinese Medicine Injections for Diabetic Retinopathy: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

J Integr Complement Med 2022 Jul 20. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Department of Ophthalmology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.

The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of different injected Traditional Chinese Medicines in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and to provide a reference for the selection of adjuvant therapy for DR. Related literature in multiple biological databases and websites was searched up to April 15, 2022, without language and publication time restrictions. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was used to analyze the included studies. Compared with conventional treatment, the combined use of injected Traditional Chinese Medicines, including astragalus, danhong, extract powder, ginkgo leaf extract and dipyridamole (GLED), ligustrazine (LIG), mailuoning, puerarin, safflower, shuxuetong, safflower yellow sodium chloride, and xueshuantong (XST), can significantly improve the clinical effectiveness in patients with DR, while LIG, XST, and GLED can improve vision. The strength of the evidence ranged from high to very low. In patients with DR, the combination of multiple injected Traditional Chinese Medicines is more effective than conventional treatment; some of these medicines may also improve visual acuity. This study may provide a good resource and reference for the selection of adjuvant therapy for DR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jicm.2021.0392DOI Listing
July 2022

Research progress of reduced amino acid alphabets in protein analysis and prediction.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2022 4;20:3503-3510. Epub 2022 Jul 4.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Regulation and Breeding of Grassland Livestock, College of Life Sciences, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, China.

Proteins are the executors of cellular physiological activities, and accurate structural and function elucidation are crucial for the refined mapping of proteins. As a feature engineering method, the reduction of amino acid composition is not only an important method for protein structure and function analysis, but also opens a broad horizon for the complex field of machine learning. Representing sequences with fewer amino acid types greatly reduces the complexity and noise of traditional feature engineering in dimension, and provides more interpretable predictive models for machine learning to capture key features. In this paper, we systematically reviewed the strategy and method studies of the reduced amino acid (RAA) alphabets, and summarized its main research in protein sequence alignment, functional classification, and prediction of structural properties, respectively. In the end, we gave a comprehensive analysis of 672 RAA alphabets from 74 reduction methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2022.07.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9284397PMC
July 2022

Advantages of Small Incision Surgery in Thyroid Tumors.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 11;2022:7794819. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

Department of General Surgery II, Qingdao Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Qingdao, Shandong 266000, China.

Objective: Thyroid tumor is a common thyroid disease, and the incidence of complications after traditional thyroid surgery is high, which seriously affects the prognosis of patients. With the development of minimally invasive techniques, small incision surgery has a positive impact on changing the traditional thyroid surgery treatment. However, the gap between small incision surgery and traditional thyroid surgery is unclear, so this meta-analysis was used to evaluate its application value.

Methods: Searching English biomedical databases, including PubMed and Science Network and Chinese major biomedical databases, including CNKI, Wanfang, and Weipu. The keywords of the searched articles are as follows: small incision surgery, traditional thyroid surgery, thyroid tumor treatment, clinical efficacy of thyroid tumor, and surgical treatment, and these keywords are searched individually or in combination to track relevant systematic reviews and literature meta-analysis, and conduct other studies. The retrieval period is from the establishment of the database to January 2022. After extracting the article data, the patients were divided into small incision surgery group and traditional thyroid surgery group due to different intervention methods. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the quality of the included literature, and RevMan 5.30 was used for meta-analysis.

Results: A total of 9 articles met the inclusion criteria. There were 369 patients with small incision surgery and 364 patients with traditional thyroid surgery. Compared with traditional thyroid surgery, patients treated with small incision surgery had significant short hospitalization time (MD -2.72, 95% CI (-3.32, -2.12)), less amount of bleeding (MD -15.52, 95% CI (-20.40, -10.65)), short incision length (MD -12.73, 95% CI (-16.29, -9.17)), lower VAS score (MD -2.58, 95% CI (-4.08, -1.08)), and less complications (RR 0.30, 95% CI (0.21, 0.44)).

Conclusion: Compared with traditional thyroid surgery, the results show that small incision surgery can shorten the hospital stay of patients with thyroid tumor, reduce the length of incision, reduce the amount of bleeding and the occurrence of complications, reduce postoperative pain, and have a positive effect on postoperative survival of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/7794819DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9293577PMC
July 2022

Microfluidic techniques for isolation, formation, and characterization of circulating tumor cells and clusters.

APL Bioeng 2022 Sep 15;6(3):031501. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Illinois Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607, USA.

Circulating tumor cell (CTC) clusters that are shed from the primary tumor into the bloodstream are associated with a poor prognosis, elevated metastatic potential, higher proliferation rate, and distinct molecular features compared to single CTCs. Studying CTC clusters may give us information on the differences in the genetic profiles, somatic mutations, and epigenetic changes in circulating cells compared to the primary tumor and metastatic sites. Microfluidic systems offer the means of studying CTC clusters through the ability to efficiently isolate these rare cells from the whole blood of patients in a liquid biopsy. Microfluidics can also be used to develop models of CTC clusters and make possible their characterization and analysis. Ultimately, microfluidic systems can offer the means to gather insight on the complexities of the metastatic process, the biology of cancer, and the potential for developing novel or personalized therapies. In this review, we aim to discuss the advantages and challenges of the existing microfluidic systems for working with CTC clusters. We hope that an improved understanding of the role microfluidics can play in isolation, formation, and characterization of CTC clusters, which can lead to increased sophistication of microfluidic platforms in cancer research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0093806DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9288269PMC
September 2022

Geospatial immune heterogeneity reflects the diverse tumor-immune interactions in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

Cancer Discov 2022 Jul 19. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Liver Cancer Institute, Zhong Shan Hospital and Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University,, Shanghai, China.

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) exhibits extensive intratumoral heterogeneity and extremely high mortality rate. Here, we performed WES, RNA-seq, TCR-seq and multiplexed immunofluorescence on 207 tumor regions from 45 iCCA patients. Over half of iCCA displayed intratumoral heterogeneity of immune infiltration, and iCCA were classified into sparsely, heterogeneously, and highly infiltrated subgroups with distinct immunogenomic characteristics. Sparsely infiltrated tumors displayed active copy number loss of clonal neoantigens and heterogeneous immune infiltration played an important role in the subclonal evolution across tumor subregions. Highly infiltrated tumors were characterized by extensive immune activation and similar TCR repertoire across tumor subregions, but counteracted with T cell exhaustion and pervasive antigen presentation defects. Notably, FGFR2 mutations and fusions correlated with low mutation burden and reduced immune infiltration. Our work sculpted the dynamic tumor-immune interactions and developed a robust classification system to divide iCCA patients into high and low immune evasion groups with different prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-21-1640DOI Listing
July 2022

Near-infrared fluorescence imaging of thoracic duct in minimally invasive esophagectomy.

Dis Esophagus 2022 Jul 17. Epub 2022 Jul 17.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Center of Thoracic Mini-invasive Surgery, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China.

Chylothorax is a serious complication after esophagectomy and there are unmet needs for new intraoperative navigation tools to reduce its incidence. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIR-FI) with indocyanine green (ICG) to identify thoracic ducts (TDs) and chyle leakage during video-assisted thoracoscopic esophagectomy. We recruited 41 patients who underwent thoraco-laparoscopic minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) for esophageal cancer in this prospective, open-label, single-arm clinical trial. ICG was injected into the right inguinal region before operations, after which TD anatomy and potential chyle leakage were checked under the near-infrared fluorescence intraoperatively. In 38 of 41 patients (92.7%) using NIR-FI, TDs were visible in high contrast. The mean signal-to-background ratio (SBR) value of all fluorescent TDs was 3.05 ± 1.56. Fluorescence imaging of TDs could be detected 0.5 hours after ICG injection and last up to 3 hours with an acceptable SBR value. The optimal observation time window is from about 1 to 2 hours after ICG injection. Under the guidance of real-time NIR-FI, three patients were found to have chylous leakage and the selective TD ligations were performed intraoperatively. No patient had postoperative chylothorax. NIR-FI with ICG can provide highly sensitive and real-time assessment of TDs as well as determine the source of chyle leakage, which might help reduce TD injury and direct selective TD ligation. It could be a promising navigation tool to reduce the incidence of chylothorax after minimally invasive esophagectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/dote/doac049DOI Listing
July 2022

Low-dose post-transplant cyclophosphamide with low-dose antithymocyte globulin for prevention of graft-versus-host disease in first complete remission undergoing 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated donor peripheral blood stem cell transplants: a multicentre, randomized controlled trial.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2022 Jul 15. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Hematology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University and Henan Cancer Hospital, Zhengzhou, 450000, Henan, China.

The most widely used regimens of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis in HLA-matched unrelated donor peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (MUD-PBSCT) are based on anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) or post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy). To improve the efficiency of GVHD prophylaxis, a novel regimen, composed of low-dose PTCy (20 mg/kg on day +3 and +4) and low-dose ATG (6 mg/kg), was evaluted in patients with hematological malignancies ungoing 10/10 HLA MUD-PBSCT in first remission (CR1). In our prospective, multicenter study, 104 patients were randomly assigned one-to-one to low-dose PTCy-ATG (n = 53) or standard-dose ATG (10 mg/kg, n = 51). Both the cumulative incidences (CIs) of grade II-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) and chronic GVHD (cGVHD) at 2 years in low-dose PTCy-ATG cohort were significantly reduced (24.5% vs. 47.1%; P = 0.017; 14.1% vs. 33.3%; P = 0.013). The CI of non-relapse-mortality (NRM) was much lower (13.2% vs. 34.5%; P = 0.049) and GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) was significantly improved at 2 years in low-dose PTCy-ATG arm (67.3% vs 42.3%; P = 0.032). The low-dose PTCy-ATG based GVHD prophylaxis is a promising strategy for patients in CR1 after 10/10 HLA MUD-PBSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-022-01754-yDOI Listing
July 2022

Strain-tunable magnetic and electronic properties of a CuCl monolayer.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2022 Jul 21;24(28):17329-17336. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Artificial Functional Materials, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, P. R. China.

Recently, theoretical search has found that a two-dimensional CuCl monolayer is a ferromagnetic semiconductor. Here, we apply density functional theory to study its geometrical structure, magnetic and electronic properties under the influence of a biaxial strain . It is found that the CuCl monolayer exhibits ferromagnetic ordering at the ground state with = 0 and its Curie temperature increases monotonously with respect to the biaxial strain, which can be increased to about 100 K at 10% tensile strain. When a compressive strain of about 6.8% is applied, a transition from the ferromagnetic to the antiferromagnetic state occurs. In addition to the transition of the magnetic ground state, the electronic band gaps of spin-up and spin-down electrons undergo direct-indirect and indirect-direct-indirect transitions at the tensile strains, respectively. The tunable magnetic and electronic properties investigated in this work are helpful in understanding the magnetism in the CuCl monolayer, which is useful for the design of spintronic devices based on ferromagnetic semiconductors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cp01510bDOI Listing
July 2022

A sequence-based global map of regulatory activity for deciphering human genetics.

Nat Genet 2022 Jul 11;54(7):940-949. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

Lyda Hill Department of Bioinformatics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Epigenomic profiling has enabled large-scale identification of regulatory elements, yet we still lack a systematic mapping from any sequence or variant to regulatory activities. We address this challenge with Sei, a framework for integrating human genetics data with sequence information to discover the regulatory basis of traits and diseases. Sei learns a vocabulary of regulatory activities, called sequence classes, using a deep learning model that predicts 21,907 chromatin profiles across >1,300 cell lines and tissues. Sequence classes provide a global classification and quantification of sequence and variant effects based on diverse regulatory activities, such as cell type-specific enhancer functions. These predictions are supported by tissue-specific expression, expression quantitative trait loci and evolutionary constraint data. Furthermore, sequence classes enable characterization of the tissue-specific, regulatory architecture of complex traits and generate mechanistic hypotheses for individual regulatory pathogenic mutations. We provide Sei as a resource to elucidate the regulatory basis of human health and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-022-01102-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9279145PMC
July 2022

Choroid automatic segmentation and thickness quantification on swept-source optical coherence tomography images of highly myopic patients.

Ann Transl Med 2022 Jun;10(11):620

Department of Preventative Ophthalmology, Shanghai Eye Diseases Prevention and Treatment Center, Shanghai Eye Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Background: Thinning of the choroid has been linked with various ocular diseases, including high myopia (HM), which can lead to visual impairment. Although various artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms have been developed to quantify choroidal thickness (ChT), few patients with HM were included in their development. The choroid in patients with HM tends to be thinner than that of normal patients, making it harder to segment. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to develop and implement a novel deep learning algorithm based on a group-wise context selection network (GCS-Net) to automatically segment the choroid and quantify its thickness on swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) images of HM patients.

Methods: A total of 720 SS-OCT images were obtained from 40 HM eyes and 20 non-HM eyes and were used to develop a GCS-Net to segment the choroid. The intersection-over-union (IoU), Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), sensitivity, and specificity were used to assess the performance in relation to manually segmented ground truth. The independent test dataset included 3,192 images from 266 HM eyes. The ChT in the test dataset was measured manually and automatically at 9 different regions within the choroid. The average difference in the ChT between the 2 methods was calculated. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to evaluate the agreement between the 2 measurements.

Results: Our method reached an IoU, DSC, sensitivity, and specificity of 87.89%, 93.40%, 92.42%, and 99.82% in HM, respectively. The average difference in the ChT between the 2 measurements was 5.54±4.57 µm. The ICC was above 0.90 (P<0.001) for all regions of the choroid, indicating a very high level of agreement.

Conclusions: The GCS-Net proposed in our study provides a reliable and fast tool to quantify ChT in HM patients and could potentially be used as a tool for monitoring ChT in ocular diseases related to the choroid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-6736DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9263793PMC
June 2022

Centrifugal Spinning Enables the Formation of Silver Microfibers with Nanostructures.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2022 Jun 22;12(13). Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Key Laboratory for Polymeric Composite & Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronic Materials and Wearable Devices, State Key Laboratory for Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Material Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.

Silver nanowires (AgNWs) have received much attention and application in transparent electrodes, wearable electronic devices, and sensors. The hope is for these nanowires to eventually replace the most commonly used transparent electrode material-indium tin oxide (ITO). However, electrospinning used for the preparation of AgNWs on a large scale is limited by its low productivity and high electric field, while the alcohol-thermal method is limited to mixing by-product silver nanoparticles in silver nanowires. We demonstrate a novel and simple centrifugal spinning approach in order to successfully fabricate ultra-long silver microfibers based on AgNO and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). The centrifugal-spun precursor fiber and silver fiber can be prepared to as thin as 390 and 310 nm, respectively. Annealed fibers show typical nanostructures with grains down to a minimum size of 51 nm. Combinations of different parameters, including concentrations of PVP, needle size, and annealing temperature are also investigated, in order to optimize the spinning process of ultra-long silver microfibers. The feasibility of preparing silver microfibers by centrifugal spinning is preliminarily verified, examining prospects for mass production. Furthermore, numerous strategies related to assisting the creation of silver nanofibers using centrifugal spinning are presented as possibilities in future development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano12132145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9268077PMC
June 2022

Mitochondrial fission induces immunoescape in solid tumors through decreasing MHC-I surface expression.

Nat Commun 2022 Jul 6;13(1):3882. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510120, China.

Mitochondrial dynamics can regulate Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)-I antigen expression by cancer cells and their immunogenicity in mice and in patients with malignancies. A crucial role in the mitochondrial fragmentation connection with immunogenicity is played by the IRE1α-XBP-1s axis. XBP-1s is a transcription factor for aminopeptidase TPP2, which inhibits MHC-I complex cell surface expression likely by degrading tumor antigen peptides. Mitochondrial fission inhibition with Mdivi-1 upregulates MHC-I expression on cancer cells and enhances the efficacy of adoptive T cell therapy in patient-derived tumor models. Therefore mitochondrial fission inhibition might provide an approach to enhance the efficacy of T cell-based immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-31417-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9259736PMC
July 2022
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