Publications by authors named "Jian Zhao"

1,511 Publications

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Association between arthritis and risk of incident diabetes:a nationwide cohort study and updated meta-analysis.

Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2021 Jul 21:e3487. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environment and Health and State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Objective: To prospectively examine the association between arthritis and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the Chinese population and confirm this association through a comprehensive meta-analysis of cohort studies.

Methods: Data were from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study which was started in 2011-2013 and followed up in 2013-2014 and 2015-2016. Arthritis was defined as self-reported physician diagnosis at baseline, and incident T2D was determined by self-reported physician diagnosis, fasting blood glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L or glycosylated hemoglobin ≥6.5% during the follow-ups. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association between arthritis and risk for T2D. A meta-analysis was conducted to pool our effect estimate and those from other cohort studies using a random-effects model.

Results: 11,408 participants (47.9% men; mean age: 59.3 years) were included in final analyses. During a four-year follow-up, 981 reported incident T2D. Compared with individuals without arthritis, those with arthritis at baseline had an 18% higher risk for incident T2D (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio: 1.18; 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.34). In the meta-analysis of 13 cohort studies including ours, a total of 2,473,514 participants were included with 121,851 incident diabetes. The pooling HR was 1.32 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.44) for the association between arthritis and diabetes.

Conclusions: Arthritis was associated with an increased risk of incident diabetes in the Chinese adults, and the positive association was confirmed in the meta-analysis of cohort studies. Our work can inform clinical trials to assess the effectiveness of arthritis treatments in reducing risk of diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dmrr.3487DOI Listing
July 2021

LINC01224/ZNF91 Promote Stem Cell-Like Properties and Drive Radioresistance in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 13;13:5671-5681. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Departments of Chest Surgery, Affiliated Cancer Hospital & Institute of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510095, People's Republic of China.

Background: Radioresistance is the main reason for the failure of radiotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, the molecular mechanism of radioresistance is still unclear.

Methods: An RNA-Seq assay was used to screen differentially expressed long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and genes in irradiation-resistant NSCLC cells. RT-PCR and Western blotting assays were performed to analyze the expressions of lncRNAs and genes. The chromosome conformation capture (3C) assay was performed to measure chromatin interactions. Cell cytotoxicity, cell apoptosis, sphere formation and Transwell assays were performed to assess cellular function.

Results: In this study, it was found that LINC01224 increased during the induction of radioresistance in NSCLC cells. LINC01224 was located within the enhancer of ZNF91, and LINC01224 could affect the transcription of ZNF91 by regulating the long-range interactions between the ZNF91 enhancer and promoter. Moreover, upregulation of LINC01224 and ZNF91 could promote irradiation resistance by regulating the stem cell-like properties of NSCLC cells. In addition, high expression levels of LINC01224 and ZNF91 in tissue samples were associated with radioresistance in NSCLC patients.

Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated that LINC01224/ZNF91 drove radioresistance regulation by promoting the stem cell-like properties in NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S313744DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8286114PMC
July 2021

Identification of diatom taxonomy by a combination of region-based full convolutional network, online hard example mining, and shape priors of diatoms.

Int J Legal Med 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Faculty of Forensic Medicine, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University & Guangdong Province Translational Forensic Medicine Engineering Technology Research Center, Zhongshan 2nd Road 74, Yuexiu District, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Diatom test is one of the commonly used diagnostic methods for drowning in forensic pathology, which provides supportive evidence for drowning. However, in forensic practice, it is time-consuming and laborious for forensic experts to classify and count diatoms, whereas artificial intelligence (AI) is superior to human experts in processing data and carrying out classification tasks. Some AI techniques have focused on searching diatoms and classifying diatoms. But, they either could not classify diatoms correctly or were time-consuming. Conventional detection deep network has been used to overcome these problems but failed to detect the occluded diatoms and the diatoms similar to the background heavily, which could lead to false positives or false negatives. In order to figure out the problems above, an improved region-based full convolutional network (R-FCN) with online hard example mining and the shape prior of diatoms was proposed. The online hard example mining (OHEM) was coupled with the R-FCN to boost the capacity of detecting the occluded diatoms and the diatoms similar to the background heavily and the priors of the shape of the common diatoms were explored and introduced to the anchor generation strategy of the region proposal network in the R-FCN to locate the diatoms precisely. The results showed that the proposed approach significantly outperforms several state-of-the-art methods and could detect the diatom precisely without missing the occluded diatoms and the diatoms similar to the background heavily. From the study, we could conclude that (1) the proposed model can locate the position and identify the genera of common diatoms more accurately; (2) this method can reduce the false positives or false negatives in forensic practice; and (3) it is a time-saving method and can be introduced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00414-021-02664-2DOI Listing
July 2021

Cellulose induced protein 1 (Cip1) from Trichoderma reesei enhances the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulose.

Microb Cell Fact 2021 Jul 19;20(1):136. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, No. 72, Binhai Road, Qingdao, 266237, Shandong, China.

Background: Trichoderma reesei is currently the main strain for the commercial production of cellulase. Cellulose induced protein 1 (Cip1) is one of the most abundant proteins in extracellular proteins of T. reesei. Reported literatures about Cip1 mainly focused on the regulation of Cip1 and its possible enzyme activities, but the effect of Cip1 on the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and possible mechanism have not still been reported.

Results: In this study, Cip1 from T. reesei was cloned, expressed and purified, and its effects on enzymatic hydrolysis of several different pretreated lignocellulose were investigated. It was found that Cip1 could promote the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulose, and the promoting effect was significantly better than that of bovine serum albumin (BSA). And especially for the lignocellulosic substrate with high lignin content such as liquid hot water pretreated corn stover and corncob residue, the promoting effect of Cip1 was even better than that of the commercial cellulase when adding equal amount protein. It was also showed that the metal ions Zn and Cu influenced the promoting effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. The Cip1 protein had no lyase activity, but it could destroy the crystal structure of cellulose and reduce the non-productive adsorption of cellulase on lignin, which partly interpreted the promoting effect of Cip1 on enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose.

Conclusion: The Cip1 from T. reesei could significantly promote the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulose, and the promotion of Cip1 was even higher than that of commercial cellulase in the enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrates with high lignin content. This study will help us to better optimize cellulase to improve its ability to degrade lignocellulose, thereby reducing the cost of enzymes required for enzymatic hydrolysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12934-021-01625-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8287770PMC
July 2021

Icotinib versus chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment for stage II-IIIA EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (EVIDENCE): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Respir Med 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Thoracic Surgery Department, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Background: Icotinib has provided survival benefits for patients with advanced, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to compare icotinib with chemotherapy in patients with EGFR-mutant stage II-IIIA NSCLC after complete tumour resection. Here, we report the results from the preplanned interim analysis of the study.

Methods: In this multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial done at 29 hospitals in China, eligible patients were aged 18-70 years, had histopathogically confirmed stage II-IIIA NSCLC, had complete resection up to 8 weeks before random assignment, were treatment-naive, and had confirmed activation mutation in exon 19 or exon 21 of the EGFR gene. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) with an interactive web-based response system to receive either oral icotinib 125 mg thrice daily for 2 years or four 21-day cycles of intravenous chemotherapy (vinorelbine 25 mg/m on days 1 and 8 of each cycle plus cisplatin 75 mg/m on day 1 of each cycle for adenocarcinoma or squamous carcinoma; or pemetrexed 500 mg/m plus cisplatin 75 mg/m on day 1 every 3 weeks for non-squamous carcinoma). The primary endpoint was disease-free survival assessed in the full analysis set. Secondary endpoints were overall survival assessed in the full analysis set and safety assessed in all participants who received study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02448797.

Findings: Between June 8, 2015, and August 2, 2019, 322 patients were randomly assigned to icotinib (n=161) or chemotherapy (n=161); the full analysis set included 151 patients in the icotinib group and 132 in the chemotherapy group. Median follow-up in the full analysis set was 24·9 months (IQR 16·6-36·4). 40 (26%) of 151 patients in the icotinib group and 58 (44%) of 132 patients in the chemotherapy group had disease relapse or death. Median disease-free survival was 47·0 months (95% CI 36·4-not reached) in the icotinib group and 22·1 months (16·8-30·4) in the chemotherapy group (stratified hazard ratio [HR] 0·36 [95% CI 0·24-0·55]; p<0·0001). 3-year disease-free survival was 63·9% (95% CI 51·8-73·7) in the icotinib group and 32·5% (21·3-44·2) in the chemotherapy group. Overall survival data are immature with 14 (9%) deaths in the icotinib group and 14 (11%) deaths in the chemotherapy. The HR for overall survival was 0·91 (95% CI 0·42-1·94) in the full analysis set. Treatment-related serious adverse events occurred in two (1%) of 156 patients in the icotinib group and 19 (14%) of 139 patients in the chemotherapy group. No interstitial pneumonia or treatment-related death was observed in either group.

Interpretation: Our results suggest that compared with chemotherapy, icotinib significantly improves disease-free survival and has a better tolerability profile in patients with EGFR-mutant stage II-IIIA NSCLC after complete tumour resection.

Funding: Betta Pharmaceuticals TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(21)00134-XDOI Listing
July 2021

Anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities of Pyrrosia petiolosa ethyl acetate (PPEAE) against Staphylococcus aureus in mice.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2021 Mar;34(2):493-498

Key Laboratory of Bio-Resource and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, P.R. China.

P. petiolosa as a typical Chinese herbal medicine has been generally utilized as Chinese native medicine formulation for treatment of chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma and pneumoconiosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities of P. petiolosa ethyl acetate extract (PPEAE) against S. aureusin mice. In our study, mice were infected pneumonia by S. aureus, colonization of S. aureus in lung tissue was calculated and the number of white blood cells (WBC) in blood was measured. Meanwhile, the hematoxylin-eosin staining (H&E) was observed and the Real-time PCR was employed to determine the relative mRNA expression. The results showed that, after treated with PPEAE the wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio and the number of WBC decreased dramatically, the number of S. aureus was significantly reduced. Furthermore, H&E staining showed that PPEAE obviously relieved the inflammation of infected mice and real-time PCR results indicated that PPEAE significantly down regulated the inflammatory iNOS, TNF-α and up regulated the anti-inflammatory HO-1 mRNA. In summary, our study revealed that application of crude product PPEAE had prominent antibacterial activity against S. aureus. PPEAE significantly reduced the biomass of S. aureus and effectively relieved the inflammation of S. aureus-induced pneumonia.
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March 2021

Individual and combined applications of biochar and pyroligneous acid mitigate dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in agricultural soil.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 9;796:148962. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, United States. Electronic address:

Remediation of agricultural soils polluted with antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) is important for protecting food safety and human health. However, the feasibility of co-application of biochar and pyroligneous acid, two multifunctional soil amendments, for mitigating dissemination of soil ARGs is unknown. Thus, a woody biochar (BC450) and its by-product, pyroligneous acid (PA450) simultaneously produced at 450 °C from blended wood wastes, were used to compare their individual and combined effects on soil ARG abundance using a 65-day pot experiment planted with leafy vegetable Brassica chinensis L. The individual and combined applications of PA450 and BC450 significantly reduced the absolute abundance of ARGs by 65.7-81.4% and 47.5-72.9% in the corresponding rhizosphere and bulk soil. However, the co-application showed little synergistic effect, probably due to the counteractive effect of BC450 on the PA450-mitigated soil ARG proliferation, resulted from the promoted soil bacterial growth and/or adsorption of antimicrobial components of PA450 by BC450. The decreased abundances of mobile genetic element intI1 and Tn916/1545 in the PA450 treatments demonstrated the potential of PA450 for weakening horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Furthermore, weakened HGT by individual PA450, lowered availability of heavy metals by individual BC450, and different bacterial community (e.g., reduced ARGs bacterial host) together with improved soil properties from co-application of PA450 and BC450 all contributed to the reduced ARG level. This study highlighted the feasibility of co-applications of biochar and pyroligneous acid amendment for mitigating soil ARG pollution. These findings provide important information for developing eco-friendly technologies using biochar and pyroligneous acid in remediating ARG-contaminated soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148962DOI Listing
July 2021

Identifying the Key Genes in Mouse Liver Regeneration After Partial Hepatectomy by Bioinformatics Analysis and / Experiments.

Front Genet 2021 23;12:670706. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Yunnan University, Kunming, China.

Background: The liver is the only organ that can completely regenerate after various injuries or tissue loss. There are still a large number of gene functions in liver regeneration that have not been explored. This study aimed to identify key genes in the early stage of liver regeneration in mice after partial hepatectomy (PH).

Materials And Methods: We first analyzed the expression profiles of genes in mouse liver at 48 and 72 h after PH from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Gene ontology (GO), and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis were performed to identify key genes in liver regeneration. Finally, we validated key genes and .

Results: We identified 46 upregulated genes and 19 downregulated genes at 48 h after PH, and 223 upregulated genes and 40 downregulated genes at 72 h after PH, respectively. These genes were mainly involved in cell cycle, DNA replication, and p53 signaling pathway. Among of these genes, cycle-related genes (Ccna2, Cdkn1a, Chek1, and Mcm5) and Ube2c were highly expressed in the residual liver both at 48 and 72 h after PH. Furthermore, Ube2c knockdown not only caused abnormal expression of Ccna2, Cdkn1a, Chek1, and Mcm5, but also inhibited transition of hepatocytes from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle .

Conclusion: Mouse hepatocytes enter the proliferation phase at 48 h after PH. Ube2c may mediate cell proliferation by regulating or partially regulating Ccna2, Cdkn1a, Chek1, and Mcm5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.670706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8260846PMC
June 2021

The prevalence of HLA-I LOH in Chinese pan-cancer patients and genomic features of patients harboring HLA-I LOH.

Hum Mutat 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China.

HLA-I LOH may facilitate immune evasion. However, large population studies on the prevalence of HLA-I LOH across different cancer types and in relation to mutational profiles are lacking, in particular, in the Chinese population. In this study, analysis was performed in 1504 advanced pan-cancer patients and 134 early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer patients using a 1021-gene panel. The consistency between the 1021-gene panel and whole-exome sequencing was evaluated in 45 samples, where concordant results were obtained in 95.6% (43/45) of the samples. Analytical results revealed that the prevalence of HLA-I LOH in tumor tissue presents considerable differences across cancer types. HLA-I LOH was relevant to genomic instability, reflected in higher tumor mutation burden level. HLA-I LOH occurs more frequently in MSS samples than in MSI-H samples. The alteration frequencies of p53 pathway, RTK/RAS pathway, Notch pathway, Hippo pathway, and Nrf2 pathway in HLA-I LOH group were significantly higher than that in HLA-I stable group (p < .0001, p < .0001, p = .032, p = .013, p = .003, respectively). In DNA damage response pathways, alterations in the checkpoint factor pathway and Fanconi anemia pathway are enriched in HLA-I LOH group (p < .0001, p = .023, respectively). Besides, HLA-I LOH was accompanied by higher mutation rates of several tumor suppressors, including TP53 and LRP1B. These results may shed light on follow-up tumor immunology research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.24255DOI Listing
July 2021

TIGIT-Fc Promotes Antitumor Immunity.

Cancer Immunol Res 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Biophysics, Second Military Medical University

T-cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM domains (TIGIT) is a checkpoint receptor that mediates both T cell and natural killer (NK) cell exhaustion in tumors. An Fc-TIGIT fusion protein was shown to induce an immune-tolerance effect in a previous report, but the relevance of the TIGIT-Fc protein to tumor immunity is unknown. Here, we found that TIGIT-Fc promotes, rather than suppresses, tumor immunity. TIGIT-Fc treatment promoted the effector function of CD8+ T and NK cells in several tumor-bearing mouse models. TIGIT-Fc treatment resulted in potent T cell- and NK cell-mediated tumor reactivity, sustained memory-induced immunity in tumor re-challenge models, enhanced therapeutic effects via an antibody against PD-L1, and induction of Th1 development in CD4+ T cells. TIGIT-Fc showed a potent antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) effect but had no intrinsic effect on tumor cell development. Our findings elucidate the role of TIGIT-Fc in tumor immune reprogramming, suggesting that TIGIT-Fc treatment alone or in combination with other checkpoint receptor blockers is a promising anticancer therapeutic strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-20-0986DOI Listing
July 2021

Copper Oxide Nanoparticle-Embedded Hydrogels Enhance Nutrient Supply and Growth of Lettuce () Infected with f. sp. .

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, United States.

The use of nanotechnology to suppress crop diseases has attracted increasing attention in agriculture. The present work investigated the antifungal efficacy of copper oxide nanoparticle (CuO NP)-embedded hydrogels, which were synthesized by loading CuO nanoparticles (NPs) in hydrogels formed from cross-linked interaction between chitosan and acrylic acid, against Fusarium wilt of lettuce () caused by f. sp. . In comparison with CuO NPs, 7-day Cu dissolution from CuO NP-embedded hydrogels was 34.2-94.8% slower regardless of media type, including water, potato dextrose broth, or a soil extract. In a greenhouse study, upon exposure to CuO NP-embedded hydrogels, CuO NPs, or Kocide 3000 with equivalent amounts of Cu (31 mg/kg), the fresh shoot biomass was significantly increased by 40.5, 26.1 and 27.2%, respectively, as compared to that of the infected control. Notably, CuO NP-embedded hydrogels enhanced uptake of P, Mn, Zn, and Mg and increased the levels of organic acids as compared to the diseased control. Increased salicylic acid (SA) and decreased jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) levels with the addition of different forms of Cu may have enhanced disease resistance. Taken together, our findings provide useful information and approach for improving the delivery efficiency of agrichemicals via nanoenabled strategies and an advanced understanding of plant defense mechanisms triggered by Cu-based NPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c00777DOI Listing
July 2021

MDCAN-Lys: A Model for Predicting Succinylation Sites Based on Multilane Dense Convolutional Attention Network.

Biomolecules 2021 Jun 11;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

College of Information and Computer, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, China.

Lysine succinylation is an important post-translational modification, whose abnormalities are closely related to the occurrence and development of many diseases. Therefore, exploring effective methods to identify succinylation sites is helpful for disease treatment and research of related drugs. However, most existing computational methods for the prediction of succinylation sites are still based on machine learning. With the increasing volume of data and complexity of feature representations, it is necessary to explore effective deep learning methods to recognize succinylation sites. In this paper, we propose a multilane dense convolutional attention network, MDCAN-Lys. MDCAN-Lys extracts sequence information, physicochemical properties of amino acids, and structural properties of proteins using a three-way network, and it constructs feature space. For each sub-network, MDCAN-Lys uses the cascading model of dense convolutional block and convolutional block attention module to capture feature information at different levels and improve the abstraction ability of the network. The experimental results of 10-fold cross-validation and independent testing show that MDCAN-Lys can recognize more succinylation sites, which is consistent with the conclusion of the case study. Thus, it is worthwhile to explore deep learning-based methods for the recognition of succinylation sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11060872DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8231176PMC
June 2021

Trends and Urban-Rural Disparities of Energy Intake and Macronutrient Composition among Chinese Children: Findings from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (1991 to 2015).

Nutrients 2021 Jun 4;13(6). Epub 2021 Jun 4.

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

The nutrition status of children is gaining more attention with a rapid nutrition transition. This study aimed to investigate trends and urban-rural differences in dietary energy and macronutrient composition among Chinese children. A total of 7565 participants aged 6 to 17 years were obtained from three rounds (1991, 2004 and 2015) of the Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). The individual diet was evaluated via three consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls and compared with the Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). From 1991 to 2015, there was a significant increase in children's fat intake, the proportion of energy intake from fat, and the proportion of children with more than 30% of energy from fat and less than 50% of energy from carbohydrates ( < 0.001). Compared with the DRI, the proportion with higher fat and lower carbohydrate intakes were, respectively, 64.7% and 46.8% in 2015. The urban-rural disparities in fat and carbohydrate intake gradually narrowed, while the gap in protein intake increased notably over time ( < 0.001). Chinese children experienced a rapid transformation to a low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet. Urban-rural disparities persistently existed; further nutritional interventions and education were of great significance, so as to ensure a more balanced diet for Chinese children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13061933DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8229111PMC
June 2021

Role of betulinic acid derivative SH-479 in triple negative breast cancer and bone microenvironment.

Oncol Lett 2021 Aug 15;22(2):605. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Spine Tumor Center, Department of Orthopedic Oncology, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003, P.R. China.

Breast cancer has a high prevalence in the general population and is often associated with bone metastasis. Specific therapeutic targets are missing for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), which presents some immunogenic characteristics. Betulinic acid (BA) has been reported to have some anti-tumor properties, and its modified derivative SH-479 was demonstrated to inhibit TNBC bone metastasis. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of the BA derivative SH-479 on breast cancer and bone microenvironment. The effect of BA and its derivative SH-479 on MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation was determined with the MTS method. The cytotoxicity effect of SH-479 was evaluated using the Live and Dead assay. Cell microfilament changes were observed by F-actin staining. The effects of SH-479 on PARP protein expression and cell cycle were detected by western blotting and flow cytometry, respectively. The migratory ability of breast cancer cells treated with SH-479 was determined by migration assay. The effect of SH-479 on osteoclast differentiation induced by breast cancer cells was observed using the osteoclast differentiation assay and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. The effects of SH-479 on T lymphocytes and bone marrow-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in bone marrow from mice were observed by flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that SH-479 significantly inhibited the proliferation of the TNBC cell line MDA-MB-231 at lower concentrations but had no significant effect on normal cells and other types of breast cancer cells for the same concentration. Furthermore, SH-479 significantly interfered with actin microfilaments in breast cancer cells but had no effect on cell apoptosis and cell cycle. In addition, SH-479 inhibited the migratory ability of breast cancer cells and the differentiation of osteoclasts induced by breast cancer cells. In bone marrow immune microenvironment, addition of SH-479 could promote the proliferation of CD4+T lymphocytes and inhibit the proliferation of MDSCs. Taken together, the findings from this study demonstrated that SH-479 inhibited the activity and migratory ability of TNBC cells and the differentiation of osteoclasts induced by TNBC and affected the bone marrow immune microenvironment. SH-479 may therefore inhibit breast cancer metastasis to bones, indicating that SH-479 may be considered as a promising drug to inhibit bone metastasis in patients with breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2021.12866DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227548PMC
August 2021

The Utility of MRI to Diagnose Ischifemoral Impingement by Assessing the Ischiofemoral and Quadratus Femoris Spaces During Femoral External Rotation.

Curr Med Imaging 2021 Jun 25. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Radiology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Hebei Province Biomechanical Key Laboratory of Orthopedics, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050051, China.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore if the dimensions of the ischiofemoral space on MRI vary with changes in external femoral rotation in Ischifemoral Impingement patients relative to healthy control; if so, to determine the optimal diagnostic cutoff values of these dimensions in Ischifemoral Impingement.

Methods: The study included 43 clinically confirmed Ischifemoral Impingement patients and 50 healthy volunteers. All subjects underwent hip MRI examinations with their hips externally rotated at 0°, 30°, and 60°. The IFS and QFS were measured respectively at each angle. The measurements were compared between the IFI group and the control group to determine the optimal diagnostic cutoff values for diagnosing IFI by using IFS and QFS measurements.

Results: In the IFI group, the spaces were smaller than those of the control group at all rotation angles (P < 0.05 for each). When external rotation angles were increased, the IFS and QFS tended to decrease. QFSs were smaller in the case group than the control group at each rotation angle. The receiver operating characteristic areas under the curves of IFS and QFS in a neutral position of 0° were highest.

Conclusion: Both of the IFS and QFS spaces of IFI patients were found to be smaller than those of the control group, regardless of the external hip rotation angles. A neutral position of 0° was deemed the best position for diagnosing IFI. The diagnostic cutoff values of IFS and QFS were 2.44cm and 1.34cm in the neutral position, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573405617666210625155722DOI Listing
June 2021

A biomechanical study of proximal junctional kyphosis after posterior long segment fusion with vertebral body augmentation.

Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2021 Jul 23;87:105415. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Medical Instrument and Food Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.

Background Proximal junction kyphosis is a common clinical complication of posterior long-segment spinal fusion and vertebral body augmentation method is one of the effective approaches to prevent it. The purpose of this study was to explore the biomechanical effect of proximal junction kyphosis after posterior long-segment thoracolumbar fusion with different vertebral augmentation schemes using finite element analysis. Methods 3D nonlinear finite element models of T1-L5 spine posterior long-segment T8-L5 thoracolumbar fusion combined with T7, T8 and T7&T8 vertebral bone cement augmentation were constructed from human spine CT data and clinical surgical operation scheme to analyze the von Mises stress in the vertebrae, intervertebral discs pressure and pedicle screws system loads under the flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation motion. Findings Compared with thoracolumbar posterior long-segment fusion model, T7 maximum stress in T7, T8 and T7&T8 vertebrae augmentation models were reduced by 8.64%, 7.17%, 8.51%;0.79%, -3.88%,1.67%;4.02%, 5.30%, 4.27% and 3.18%, 3.06%, -6.38% under the flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation motion. T7/T8 intervertebral disc pressure in T7, T8, T7&T8 vertebral augmentation models were 36.71Mpa,29.78Mpa,36.47Mpa;22.25Mpa,18.35Mpa,22.06Mpa;84.27Mpa,68.17Mpa, 83.89Mpa and 52.23Mpa, 38.78Mpa,52.10Mpa under the same condition. The maximum stress 178.2Mpa of pedicle screws is mainly distributed at the root of screw. Interpretation Thoracolumbar posterior long-segment fusion with proximal double-segment vertebral augmentation should be recommended to prevent proximal junction kyphosis than single-segment augmentation. Simulation results can provide theoretical foundations and assist surgeons in selecting the appropriate operation scheme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2021.105415DOI Listing
July 2021

Relationship between intact parathyroid hormone and all-cause death, cardiovascular events, and ectopic calcification in patients with diabetic kidney disease: A retrospective study.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2021 Jun 20;177:108926. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Department of Nephrology & Rheumatology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, 301, Middle Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072, China. Electronic address:

Aim: We aimed to investigate the relationship between intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels and all-cause death, cardiovascular events, and ectopic calcification in patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD).

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we collected the clinical data of 508 patients with clinically diagnosed DKD. The primary and secondary outcomes were all-cause death or cardiovascular events and ectopic calcification, respectively. We used different regression methods to analyze the relationship between various clinical parameters and the two clinical outcomes.

Results: We found that iPTH was a risk factor for all-cause death and cardiovascular events (hazards ration [HR]: 2.817, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.045-6.562, P = 0.016). Meanwhile, diabetes duration (HR: 1.090, 95% CI: 1.045-1.138, P < 0.0001), triglycerides (TG) (HR: 1.254, 95% CI: 1.049-1.499, P = 0.013), and iPTH (HR: 1.954, 95% CI: 1.001-3.813, P = 0.049) were independent risk factors for ectopic calcification. In contrast to patients with lower iPTH levels (iPTH < 31.7 pg/mL), patients with higher iPTH levels (iPTH ≥ 31.7 pg/mL) had increased ectopic calcification rate (P = 0.002) and decreased survival time (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: In patients with DKD, higher iPTH levels were significantly related to worsen clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2021.108926DOI Listing
June 2021

Information rates in Kerr nonlinearity limited optical fiber communication systems.

Opt Express 2021 May;29(11):17428-17439

Achievable information rates of optical communication systems are inherently limited by nonlinear distortions due to the Kerr effect occurred in optical fibres. These nonlinear impairments become more significant for communication systems with larger transmission bandwidths, closer channel spacing and higher-order modulation formats. In this paper, the efficacy of nonlinearity compensation techniques, including both digital back-propagation and optical phase conjugation, for enhancing achievable information rates in lumped EDFA- and distributed Raman-amplified fully-loaded C -band systems is investigated considering practical transceiver limitations. The performance of multiple modulation formats, such as dual-polarisation quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK), dual-polarisation 16 -ary quadrature amplitude modulation (DP-16QAM), DP-64QAM and DP-256QAM, has been studied in C -band systems with different transmission distances. It is found that the capabilities of both nonlinearity compensation techniques for enhancing achievable information rates strongly depend on signal modulation formats as well as target transmission distances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.415753DOI Listing
May 2021

Effectiveness of photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming in root canal models with different diameters or tapers.

BMC Oral Health 2021 06 15;21(1):307. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Endodontics, Affiliated Stomatology Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Basic and Applied Research of Oral Regenerative Medical, Guangzhou, 510182, Guangdong, China.

Background: This study aimed to compare the use of photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) and conventional needle irrigation (CNI) in conjunction with different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) to remove Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) suspended bacteria and biofilms from root canal systems with different diameters or tapers.

Methods: Artificial root canal samples (n = 480) were randomly divided into three groups (n = 160/group). The canals were prepared to fit file sizes #10/.02, #25/.02, or #25/.06. The size #10/.02 group was incubated for seven days. The size #25/.02 or #25/.06 group was incubated for 2 days. A stable biological model of E. faecalis infection was established. The root canals were washed with distilled water or with 1%, 2%, or 5.25% NaOCl combined with CNI or PIPS. Bacterial suspensions and biofilms were assessed using an ATP assay kit and fluorescence microscopy. Image-Pro Plus was used to analyse the average fluorescence intensity to determine the most suitable root canal irrigation solution.

Results: In the CNI and PIPS groups, the ATP value of the 5.25% NaOCl subgroup was the lowest, followed by that of the 2% and 1% NaOCl subgroups. The ATP value of the distilled water subgroup was the highest (P < 0.05). When the root canal taper was 0.02, the ATP value of the #10/.02 + PIPS group was significantly lower than that of the #25/.02 + CNI group (P < 0.05). The average fluorescence intensity of the #10/.02 + PIPS group was lower than that of the #25/.02 + CNI group (P < 0.05). When the apical diameter was #25, the ATP value of the 0.02 taper in the PIPS group was lower than that of the 0.06 taper in the CNI group (P < 0.05), and the average fluorescence intensity of the 0.02 taper + PIPS group was lower than that of the 0.06 taper + CNI group (P < 0.05). PIPS combined with 2% and 5.25% NaOCl effectively improved the long-term antibacterial effect after irrigation and re-culture for 6 h.

Conclusions: Compared with CNI, PIPS has greater ability to remove bacteria in root canals with a small preparation diameter and a small taper. PIPS with 2% and 5.25% NaOCl exhibited superior antibacterial and bacteriostatic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-021-01671-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8207708PMC
June 2021

Spatially Selective Imaging of Mitochondrial MicroRNAs via Optically Programmable Strand Displacement Reactions.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety and CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing, 100190, China.

MicroRNA (miRNA) functions are tightly regulated by their sub-compartmental location in living cells, and the ability to imaging of mitochondrial miRNAs (mitomiRs) is essential for understanding of the related pathological processes. However, most existing DNA-based methods could not be used for this purpose. Here, we report the development of a DNA nanoreporter technology for imaging of mitomiRs in living cells through near-infrared (NIR) light-controlled DNA strand displacement reactions. The sensing function of the DNA nanoreporters are silent (OFF) during the delivery process, but can be photoactivated (ON) with NIR light after targeted mitochondrial localization, enabling spatially-restricted imaging of two types of cancer-related mitomiRs with improved detection accuracy. Furthermore, we demonstrate imaging of mitomiRs in vivo through spatiotemporally-controlled delivery and activation. Therefore, this study illustrates a simple methodology that may be broadly applicable for investigating the mitomiRs-associated physiological events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202105696DOI Listing
June 2021

Room-Temperature Magnetic Field Effect on Excitonic Photoluminescence in Perovskite Nanocrystals.

Adv Mater 2021 Jun 10:e2008225. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die & Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074, P. R. China.

Magnetic-field-enhanced spin-polarized electronic/optical properties in semiconductors are crucial for fabricating various spintronic devices. However, this spin polarization is governed by weak spin exchange interactions and easily randomized by thermal fluctuations; therefore, it is only produced at cryogenic temperatures, which severely limits the applications. Herein, a room-temperature intrinsic magnetic field effect (MFE) on excitonic photoluminescence is achieved in CsPbX :Mn (X = Cl, Br) perovskite nanocrystals. Through moderate Mn doping, the MFE is enhanced by exciton-Mn interactions, and through partial Br substitution, the MFE is stabilized at room temperature by exciton orbital ordering. The orbital ordering significantly enhances the g-factor difference between electrons and holes, which is evidenced by a parallel orbit-orbit interaction among excitons generated by circular polarized laser excitation. This study provides a clear avenue for engineering spintronic materials based on orbital interactions in perovskites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202008225DOI Listing
June 2021

Inflammation and enhanced atherogenesis in the carotid artery with altered blood flow in an atherosclerosis-resistant mouse strain.

Physiol Rep 2021 Jun;9(11):e14829

Departments of Radiology & Medical Imaging, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Ligation of the common carotid artery near its bifurcation in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe ) mice leads to rapid atherosclerosis development, which is affected by genetic backgrounds. BALB/cJ (BALB) mice are resistant to atherosclerosis, developing much smaller aortic lesions than C57BL/6 (B6) mice. In this study, we examined cellular events leading to lesion formation in carotid arteries with or without blood flow restriction of B6 and BALB Apoe mice. Blood flow was obstructed by ligating the left common carotid artery near its bifurcation in one group of mice, and other group received no surgical intervention. Without blood flow interruption, BALB-Apoe mice formed much smaller atherosclerotic lesions than B6-Apoe mice after 12 weeks of Western diet (3,325 ± 1,086 vs. 81,549 ± 9,983 µm /section; p = 2.1E-7). Lesions occurred at arterial bifurcations in both strains. When blood flow was obstructed, ligated carotid artery of both strains showed notable lipid deposition, inflammatory cell infiltration, and rapid plaque formation. Neutrophils and macrophages were observed in the arterial wall of BALB mice 3 days after ligation and 1 week after ligation in B6 mice. CD4 T cells were observed in intimal lesions of BALB but not B6 mice. By 4 weeks, both strains developed similar sizes of advanced lesions containing foam cells, smooth muscle cells, and neovessels. Atherosclerosis also occurred in straight regions of the contralateral common carotid artery where MCP-1 was abundantly expressed in the intima of BALB mice. These findings indicate that the disturbed blood flow is more prominent than high fat diet in promoting inflammation and atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic BALB mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.14829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8191400PMC
June 2021

Association between baseline and changes in serum uric acid and incident metabolic syndrome: a nation-wide cohort study and updated meta-analysis.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2021 Jun 9;18(1):59. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

The George Institute for Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Background: To prospectively examine the associations of baseline serum uric acid (SUA) and SUA changes with incident metabolic syndrome (MetS) and update the evidence through a meta-analysis.

Methods: Our analyses were based on the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study from 2011-2012 to 2015-2016. The exposures were baseline SUA and SUA changes, and the outcome was incident MetS assessed in 2015-2016. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A meta-analysis was conducted to synthesize evidence from all cohort studies on the same topic.

Results: Of 3779 participants (47.2% men; mean age: 59.5 years) without MetS, 452 participants developed MetS after a follow-up of 4 years. Compared to the lowest quartiles, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for MetS were 1.08 (0.77-1.50), 1.32 (0.95-1.82), and 1.55 (1.12-2.16) for three higher quartiles of baseline SUA, and 1.23 (0.89-1.71), 1.39 (1.00-1.93), and 1.89 (1.38-2.58) for three higher quartiles of SUA changes. Each increment of 1 mg/dL of baseline SUA level was associated with 19% higher odds of MetS (adjusted OR 1.19; 95% CI 1.07-1.33). In the meta-analysis of 24 cohort studies among 140,913 participants, the pooled relative risk (95% CI) was 1.32 (1.25-1.40) for the highest versus lowest SUA category, and 1.15 (1.09-1.21) for each 1 mg/dL increase in the SUA level.

Conclusions: Both baseline SUA and longitudinal SUA changes were positively associated with risk of MetS among middle-aged and elderly Chinese, which was supported by findings from a comprehensive meta-analysis across multiple populations. SUA levels might need to be monitored closely for subsequent risk of MetS in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12986-021-00584-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8191036PMC
June 2021

lncRNA IGF2-AS promotes the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by sponging miR-3,126-5p to upregulate KLK4.

J Gene Med 2021 Jun 7:e3372. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Joint Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhen Jiang, Jiangsu Province, China.

Background: Osteoporosis (OP) is a bone disease characterized by reduced amount and quality of bone. This study was designed to explore the role and mechanism of lncRNA IGF2-AS in the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs).

Methods: Human lncRNA and miRNA microarray analyses were performed to measure the differential expression levels of lncRNAs and miRNAs in undifferentiated and osteogenically differentiated BMSCs. lncRNA IGF2-AS, miR-3,126-5p, and KLK4 levels were measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and Alizarin Red staining (ARS). Protein levels of osterix (Osx), osteocalcin (OCN), and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) were examined by RT-PCR and western blot assays. The binding relationship between miR-3,126-5p and lncRNA IGF2-AS or KLK4 was predicted by TargetScan (http://www.targetscan.org/vert_72/) and then verified with a dual-luciferase reporter assay.

Results: lncRNA IGF2-AS and KLK4 were highly expressed and miR-3,126-5p was weakly expressed in osteogenically differentiated BMSCs. Moreover, lncRNA IGF2-AS overexpression enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. In contrast, lncRNA IGF2-AS knockdown showed the opposite trend. Moreover, miR-3,126-5p overexpression abolished the lncRNA IGF2-AS-mediated osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. lncRNA IGF2-AS functions as a sponge of miR-3,126-5p to regulate KLK4 expression.

Conclusion: lncRNA IGF2-AS enhances the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs by modulating the miR-3,126-5p/KLK4 axis, suggesting a promising therapeutic target for bone-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgm.3372DOI Listing
June 2021

Association Between Polymorphisms in Gastric Cancer Related Genes and Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Case-Control Study.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 17;8:690665. Epub 2021 May 17.

School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.

Gastric cancer has the second highest incidence among all the malignancies in China, just below lung cancer. Gastric cancer is likewise one of the main sources of cancer related passings. Gastric cancer therefore remains a huge threat to human health. The primary reason is absence of high sensitivity and specificity for early detection while the pathogenesis of GC is stayed muddled. During the last few decades, a lot of GC related genes have been identified. To find candidate GC related variant in these GC related genes, we conducted this case-control study. 29 tagSNPs located in 7 GC related genes were included. 228 gastric cancer patients and 299 healthy controls were enrolled. Significant differences were found between the genotype frequencies of rs4971066 polymorphism between gastric cancer patients and healthy controls. The result indicated that ephrin-A1 tagSNP rs4971066 GT/TT genotypes was significantly associated with reduced susceptibility of gastric cancer development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2021.690665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166284PMC
May 2021

Role of Nanoscale Hydroxyapatite in Disease Suppression of -Infected Tomato.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, United States.

The present study investigated the mechanisms by which large- and small-sized nanoscale hydroxyapatite (nHA) suppressed -induced wilt disease in tomato. Both nHA sizes at 9.3 mg/L (low) and 46.5 mg/L (high dose) phosphorus (P) were foliar-sprayed on -infected tomato leaf surfaces three times. Diseased shoot mass was increased by 40% upon exposure to the low dose of large-sized nHA compared to disease controls. Exposure to both nHA sizes significantly elevated phenylalanine ammonialyase activity and total phenolic content in -infected shoots by 30-80% and 40-68%, respectively. Shoot salicylic acid content was also increased by 10-45%, suggesting the potential relationship between antioxidant and phytohormone pathways in nHA-promoted defense against fungal infection. Exposure to the high dose of both nHA sizes increased the root P content by 27-46%. A constrained analysis of principal coordinates suggests that high dose of both nHA sizes significantly altered the fatty acid profile in diseased tomato. Particularly, the diseased root C18:3 content was increased by 28-31% in the large-sized nHA treatments, indicating that nHA remodeled the cell membrane as part of defense against infection. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the important role of nHA in promoting disease suppression for the sustainable use of nHA in nanoenabled agriculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c00901DOI Listing
June 2021

Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals key genes associated with pigmentation in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) skin and flesh.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 1;11(1):11434. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Institute of Bast Fiber Crops, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Changsha, China.

Radish (Raphanus sativus) is an important vegetable worldwide that exhibits different flesh and skin colors. The anthocyanins responsible for the red and purple coloring in radishes possess nutritional value and pharmaceutical potential. To explore the structural and regulatory networks related to anthocyanin biosynthesis and identify key genes, we performed comparative transcriptome analyses of the skin and flesh of six colored radish accessions. The transcript profiles showed that each accession had a species-specific transcript profile. For radish pigmentation accumulation, the expression levels of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (RsTT4, RsC4H, RsTT7, RsCCOAMT, RsDFR, and RsLDOX) were significantly upregulated in the red- and purple-colored accessions, but were downregulated or absent in the white and black accessions. The correlation test, combined with metabolome (PCC > 0.95), revealed five structural genes (RsTT4, RsDFR, RsCCOAMT, RsF3H, and RsBG8L) and three transcription factors (RsTT8-1, RsTT8-2, and RsPAR1) to be significantly correlated with flavonoids in the skin of the taproot. Four structural genes (RsBG8L, RsDFR, RsCCOAMT, and RsLDOX) and nine transcription factors (RsTT8-1, RsTT8-2, RsMYB24L, RsbHLH57, RsPAR2L, RsbHLH113L, RsOGR3L, RsMYB24, and RsMYB34L) were found to be significantly correlated with metabolites in the flesh of the taproot. This study provides a foundation for future studies on the gene functions and genetic diversity of radish pigmentation and should aid in the cultivation of new valuable radish varieties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90633-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8169917PMC
June 2021

InfoColorizer: Interactive Recommendation of Color Palettes for Infographics.

IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 2021 Jun 1;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

When designing infographics, general users usually struggle with getting desired color palettes using existing infographic authoring tools, which sometimes sacrifice customizability, require design expertise, or neglect the influence of elements? spatial arrangement. We propose a data-driven method that provides flexibility by considering users? preferences, lowers the expertise barrier via automation, and tailors suggested palettes to the spatial layout of elements. We build a recommendation engine by utilizing deep learning techniques to characterize good color design practices from data, and further develop InfoColorizer, a tool that allows users to obtain color palettes for their infographics in an interactive and dynamic manner. To validate our method, we conducted a comprehensive four-part evaluation, including case studies, a controlled user study, a survey study, and an interview study. The results indicate that InfoColorizer can provide compelling palette recommendations with adequate flexibility, allowing users to effectively obtain high-quality color design for input infographics with low effort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TVCG.2021.3085327DOI Listing
June 2021

Prediction of the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) Permeability of Chemicals Based on Machine-Learning and Ensemble Methods.

Chem Res Toxicol 2021 Jun 28;34(6):1456-1467. Epub 2021 May 28.

Research Center for Computer Simulating and Information Processing of Bio-macromolecules of Shenyang, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036, China.

The ability of chemicals to enter the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a key factor for central nervous system (CNS) drug development. Although many models for BBB permeability prediction have been developed, they have insufficient accuracy (ACC) and sensitivity (SEN). To improve performance, ensemble models were built to predict the BBB permeability of compounds. In this study, in silico ensemble-learning models were developed using 3 machine-learning algorithms and 9 molecular fingerprints from 1757 chemicals (integrated from 2 published data sets) to predict BBB permeability. The best prediction performance of the base classifier models was achieved by a prediction model based on an random forest (RF) and a MACCS molecular fingerprint with an ACC of 0.910, an area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of 0.957, a SEN of 0.927, and a specificity of 0.867 in 5-fold cross-validation. The prediction performance of the ensemble models is better than that of most of the base classifiers. The final ensemble model has also demonstrated good accuracy for an external validation and can be used for the early screening of CNS drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrestox.0c00343DOI Listing
June 2021

Methyltransferase-Like Protein 14 Attenuates Mitochondrial Antiviral Signaling Protein Expression to Negatively Regulate Antiviral Immunity via N -methyladenosine Modification.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 May 27:e2100606. Epub 2021 May 27.

Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity of Shandong Province and Department of Immunology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250012, P. R. China.

Mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein is the core signaling adaptor in the RNA signaling pathway. Thus, appropriate regulation of MAVS expression is essential for antiviral immunity against RNA virus infection. However, the regulation of MAVS expression at the mRNA level especially at the post transcriptional level is not well-defined. Here, it is reported that the MAVS mRNA undergoes N -methyladenosine (m A) modification through methyltransferase-like protein 14 (METTL14), which leads to a fast turnover of MAVS mRNA. Knockdown or deficiency of METTL14 increases MAVS mRNA stability, and downstream phosphorylation of TBK1/IRF3 and interferon-β production in response to RNA viruses. Compared to wild-type mice, heterozygotes Mettl14 mice better tolerate RNA virus infection. The authors' findings unveil a novel mechanism to regulate the stability of MAVS transcripts post-transcriptionally through m A modification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202100606DOI Listing
May 2021
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