Publications by authors named "Jian Zeng"

232 Publications

An efficient, economical, and easy mass production biochar supported zero-valent iron composite derived from direct-reduction natural goethite for Cu(II) and Cr(VI) remove.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 12;285:131539. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Key Laboratory of Biohydrometallurgy of Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, China. Electronic address:

In this study, a novel biochar-supported zero-valent iron (ZVI) composite was synthesised by a one-pot co-pyrolysis reduction method, and was used to remove Cu(II) and Cr(VI). The raw materials for the composite were derived from natural bagasse/straw and goethite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis were used to characterise the biochar and biochar-supported ZVI composites. Batch removal experiments on the effects of the initial pH and citric acid concentrations were performed as well as kinetic studies and isotherm experiments. The composite materials showed better Cu(II) and Cr(VI) removal performance than single biochar and mineral. The removal of Cu(II) and Cr(VI) is pH-dependent, and proceeds via heterogeneous multilayer chemisorption. Electrochemical analysis revealed that straw biochar-supported ZVI composite exhibited greater electrical conductivity and electron transfer rate than pure biochar and ZVI. FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) elucidated the uptake mechanism, showing that Cu(II) and Cr(VI) were easily adsorbed onto the biochar surface and were then reduced by ZVI. These results indicate that biochar-supported ZVI composite is effective for heavy metal remediation, which is economical, environment-friendly, and suitable for mass production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131539DOI Listing
July 2021

A Comparison of Ten Polygenic Score Methods for Psychiatric Disorders Applied Across Multiple Cohorts.

Biol Psychiatry 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Polygenic scores (PGSs), which assess the genetic risk of individuals for a disease, are calculated as a weighted count of risk alleles identified in genome-wide association studies. PGS methods differ in which DNA variants are included and the weights assigned to them; some require an independent tuning sample to help inform these choices. PGSs are evaluated in independent target cohorts with known disease status. Variability between target cohorts is observed in applications to real data sets, which could reflect a number of factors, e.g., phenotype definition or technical factors.

Methods: The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Working Groups for schizophrenia and major depressive disorder bring together many independently collected case-control cohorts. We used these resources (31,328 schizophrenia cases, 41,191 controls; 248,750 major depressive disorder cases, 563,184 controls) in repeated application of leave-one-cohort-out meta-analyses, each used to calculate and evaluate PGS in the left-out (target) cohort. Ten PGS methods (the baseline PC+T method and 9 methods that model genetic architecture more formally: SBLUP, LDpred2-Inf, LDpred-funct, LDpred2, Lassosum, PRS-CS, PRS-CS-auto, SBayesR, MegaPRS) were compared.

Results: Compared with PC+T, the other 9 methods gave higher prediction statistics, MegaPRS, LDPred2, and SBayesR significantly so, explaining up to 9.2% variance in liability for schizophrenia across 30 target cohorts, an increase of 44%. For major depressive disorder across 26 target cohorts, these statistics were 3.5% and 59%, respectively.

Conclusions: Although the methods that more formally model genetic architecture have similar performance, MegaPRS, LDpred2, and SBayesR rank highest in most comparisons and are recommended in applications to psychiatric disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2021.04.018DOI Listing
May 2021

Ammonium-nitrogen addition at the seedling stage does not reduce grain cadmium concentration in two common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 11;286:117575. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Triticeae Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang 611130, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

High cadmium (Cd) concentration in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains poses potential health risks. Several management strategies have been used to reduce grain Cd concentration. However, limited information is available on the use of ammonium-nitrogen (NH-N) as a strategy to manage Cd concentration in wheat grains. In this study, NH-N addition at the seedling stage unchanged the grain Cd concentration in the high-Cd accumulator, Zhoumai 18 (ZM18), but dramatically increased that in the low-Cd accumulator, Yunmai 51 (YM51). Further analysis revealed that the effects of NH-N addition on whole-plant Cd absorption, root-to-shoot Cd translocation, and shoot-to-grain Cd remobilization were different between the two wheat cultivars. In ZM18, NH-N addition did not change whole-plant Cd absorption, but inhibited root-to-shoot Cd translocation and Cd remobilization from lower internodes, lower leaves, node 1, and internode 1 to grains via the down-regulation of yellow stripe-like transporters (YSL), zinc transporters (ZIP5, ZIP7, and ZIP10), and heavy-metal transporting ATPases (HMA2). This inhibition decreased the grain Cd content by 29.62%, which was consistent with the decrease of the grain dry weight by 23.26%, leading to unchanged grain Cd concentration in ZM18. However, in YM51, NH-N addition promoted continuous Cd absorption during grain filling, root-to-shoot Cd translocation and whole-plant Cd absorption. The absorbed Cd was directly transported to internode 1 via the xylem and then re-transported to grains via the phloem by up-regulated YSL, ZIP5, and copper transporters (COPT4). This promotion increased the grain Cd content by 245.35%, which was higher than the increased grain dry weight by 132.89%, leading to increased grain Cd concentration in YM51. Our findings concluded that the addition of NH-N fertilizer at the seedling stage is not suitable for reducing grain Cd concentration in common wheat cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117575DOI Listing
June 2021

Association of Mutation With Better Clinical Outcomes in NSCLC Patients Treated With Immune Checkpoint Blockades.

Front Oncol 2021 27;11:650122. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Medical Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, China.

The common gamma receptor-dependent cytokines and their JAK-STAT pathways play important roles in T cell immunity and have been demonstrated to be related with response to immune checkpoint blockades (ICBs). PTPRD and PTPRT are phosphatases involved in JAK-STAT pathway. However, their clinical significance for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with ICBs is still unclear. Genomic and survival data of NSCLC patients administrated with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 or anti-CTLA-4 antibodies (Rizvi2015; Hellmann2018; Rizvi2018 Samstein2019) were retrieved from publicly accessible data. Genomic, survival and mRNA data of 1007 patients with NSCLC were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). mutation was significantly associated with better progression-free survival (PFS) in three independent Rizvi2015, Hellmann2018 and Rizvi2018 cohorts. The median PFS for mutant-type . wild-type NSCLC patients were not reached . 6.3 months (Rizvi2015, HR = 0.16; 95% CI, 0.02-1.17; P=0.03), 24.0 . 5.4 months (Hellmann2018, HR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.26-0.94; P=0.03), 5.6 . 3.0 months (Rizvi2018, HR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44-0.92; P=0.01) and 6.8 . 3.5 months (Pooled cohort, HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.39-0.73; P<0.0001) respectively. mutation was an independent predictive factor for PFS in pooled cohort (P = 0.01). Additionally, mutation associated with better overall survival (OS) in Samstein2019 cohort (19 . 10 months, P=0.03). While similar clinical benefits were not observed in patients without ICBs treatment (TCGA cohort, P=0.78). In the further exploratory analysis, mutation was significantly associated with increased tumor mutation burden and higher mRNA expression of JAK1 and STAT1. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis revealed prominent enrichment of signatures related to antigen processing and presentation in patients with mutation. This work suggested that mutation might be a potential positive predictor for ICBs in NSCLC. These results need to be further confirmed in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.650122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192300PMC
May 2021

Identifying key areas of imbalanced supply and demand of ecosystem services at the urban agglomeration scale: A case study of the Fujian Delta in China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 5;791:148173. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

School of Architecture, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.

The coordinated supply and demand of ecosystem services (ESs) is important for ensuring regional sustainable development. However, research identifying key areas of imbalanced supply and demand of ESs at the urban agglomeration scale is limited. Therefore, in this study, using the Fujian Delta urban agglomeration of China as the research area, based on multi-source data, and analysis tools, such as ArcGIS, ENVI, and GeoDa, we constructed a research framework and indicator system for ESs supply and demand to determine the spatial change law, matching degree, and coupling coordination degree (CCD) of the ESs. On this basis, the key areas of imbalanced supply and demand of ESs were identified, and optimization strategies were proposed. The results showed that (1) there is obvious spatial heterogeneity between ESs supply and demand in the study area, and different degrees of spatial changes occurred with urbanization. Specifically, areas with large changes were concentrated in urban core areas and economic development zones. (2) The matching degree between ESs supply and demand is quite diverse and shows a trend of polarization. Under the influence of urbanization, some cities began facing ESs supply shortages. (3) Overall, the CCD between ESs supply and demand in the study area is in a state of mild incoordination, but with increasing urbanization, some cities have turned into a state of extreme incoordination. Our results indicate that the ESs supply and demand status in some cities at the urban agglomeration scale has become increasingly severe. Therefore, it is necessary to focus on certain "key areas" to formulate optimization strategies. For key areas with "low supply-high demand" and extreme incoordination, the population and land use intensity should be controlled to reduce the ESs demand level. Meanwhile, for key areas with "high supply-low demand" and extreme incoordination, the utilization efficiency of ecological resources should be improved to enhance the ESs supply capacity. The results of this study will help decision-makers optimize the relationship between ESs supply and demand in order to achieve the sustainable development of urban agglomeration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148173DOI Listing
June 2021

Virome of respiratory secretion from children with unknown etiological acute respiratory disease revealed recombinant human parechovirus and other significant viruses.

Virol J 2021 Jun 9;18(1):122. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Xuzhou Central Hospital, 199 Jiefangnan Road, Xuzhou, 221009, Jiangsu, China.

Using viral metagenomics, viral nucleic acid in 30 respiratory secretion samples collected from children with unknown etiological acute respiratory disease were investigated. Sequences showing similarity to human parainfluenza virus 1, anellovirus, bocavirus, coxsackievirus A4, human parechovirus (HPeV), and alphaflexivirus were recovered from these samples. Complete genomes of one anellovirus, one coxsackievirus A4, three parechoviruses were determined from these libraries. The anellovirus (MW267851) phylogenetically clustered with an unpublished anellovirus (MK212032) from respiratory sample of a Vietnamese patient, forming a separate branch neighboring to strains within the genus Betatorquevirus. The genome of coxsackievirus A4 (MW267852) shares the highest sequence identity of 96.4% to a coxsackievirus A4 (MN964079) which was identified in clinical samples from children with Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD). Two (MW267853 and MW267854) of the three parechoviruses belong to HPeV-1 and the other one (MW267855) belongs to HPeV-6. Recombination analysis indicated that an HPeV-1 (MW267854) identified in this study is a putative recombinant occurred between HPeV-1 and HPeV-3. Whether these viruses have association with specific respiratory disease calls for further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-021-01586-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8188738PMC
June 2021

Effects of Corrosion on Compressive Arch Action and Catenary Action of RC Frames to Resist Progressive Collapse Based on Numerical Analysis.

Materials (Basel) 2021 May 19;14(10). Epub 2021 May 19.

College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004, China.

Many negative factors can influence the progressive collapse resistance of reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures. One of the most important factors is the corrosion of rebar within the structure. With increasing severity of corrosion, the duration, robustness, and mechanical performance can be greatly impaired. One specific side effect of rebar corrosion is the significant loss of protection against progressive collapse. In order to quantify the effects of rebar corrosion on load-resisting mechanisms (compressive arch action (CAA) and tensile catenary action (TCA)) of RC frames, a series of numerical investigations were carried out in this paper. The previous experimental results reported in the literature provide a benchmark for progressive collapse behavior as a sound condition and validate the proposed numerical model. Furthermore, based on the verified numerical model, the CAA and TCA with increasing corrosion and an elapsed time from 0 to 70 years are investigated. Comparing with the conventional empirical model, the proposed numerical model has shown the ability and feasibility in predicting the collapse resistance capacity in structures with corroded rebar. Therefore, this numerical modeling strategy provides comprehensive insights into the change of load-resisting mechanisms in these structures, which can be beneficial for optimizing the design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14102662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161380PMC
May 2021

Anticancer mechanism of breviscapine in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells acts via ROS-mediated upregulation of IGFBP4.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Apr;13(4):2475-2485

Department of Thoracic Tumor Surgery, Institute of Cancer and Basic Medicine, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou, China.

Background: The overall 5-year survival rate of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is less than 15% because of multiple drug resistance to chemotherapy and the limitations of early diagnosis. Thus, safe and effective drugs to treat NSCLC are required. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of breviscapine (BVP) on NSCLC cell apoptosis and proliferation, and to study its possible mechanisms.

Methods: Using the NSCLC A549 cell line and BVP (0, 25, 50, and 100 µM), the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to detect A549 cell proliferation, and flow cytometry was used to assess cell apoptosis. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 (IGFBP4) levels was assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and western blotting. Flow cytometry of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide was used to assess intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Western blotting was used to assess the levels of BCL2-associated X, apoptosis regulator (BAX) and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to assess mRNA expression.

Results: BVP induced apoptosis, inhibited cell proliferation, and increased ROS in A549 cells. Western blotting and qRT-PCR showed that BVP increased IGFBP4 protein and mRNA expressions in A549 cells. Compared with BVP treatment alone, IGFBP4 expression decreased in A549 cells treated with BVP and the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine. IGFBP4 overexpression increased BVP-induced proliferation inhibition, while increasing BAX expression and decreasing BCL2 expression. Silencing IGFBP4 had the opposite effects.

Conclusions: BVP could inhibit the growth of NSCLC A549 cells by promoting apoptosis via ROS-mediated upregulation of IGFBP4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-21-551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107560PMC
April 2021

Hydroxytyrosol alleviates oxidative stress and neuroinflammation and enhances hippocampal neurotrophic signaling to improve stress-induced depressive behaviors in mice.

Food Funct 2021 Jun;12(12):5478-5487

College of Food Science and Technology, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, 524088, P.R. China.

Hydroxytyrosol (HT), the main phenolic compound in olives and olive products, has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and other physiological functions. The effects of HT on depression are unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of HT on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induced depressive-like behaviors. Mice were exposed to CUMS for 9 weeks and then treated with HT beginning in the second week and continuing for 7 weeks. Behavioral, biochemical, and molecular tests were conducted at the end of the experiment. The sucrose preference was significantly decreased in the CUMS group versus the healthy control group. Also, immobility times in forced swimming and tail suspension tests were increased in CUMS-induced mice, but treatment with HT significantly reversed this change. HT ameliorated oxidative stress in CUMS-exposed mice by enhancing superoxide dismutase activity and reducing reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde levels in the hippocampus. HT administration significantly suppressed microglia activation and inhibited the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta in the hippocampus versus the untreated group. The expression level of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and the number of GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes in the hippocampus were significantly augmented by HT. Furthermore, HT treatment increased the expression of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylated tropomyosin receptor kinase B (p-TrkB), and phosphorylated c-AMP response element binding protein (p-CREB) compared with the untreated CUMS group. Overall, HT improved CUMS-induced depressive-like behaviors in mice by alleviating oxidative stress and neuroinflammation and by enhancing the BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo00210dDOI Listing
June 2021

Targeting Gremlin 1 Prevents Intestinal Fibrosis Progression by Inhibiting the Fatty Acid Oxidation of Fibroblast Cells.

Front Pharmacol 2021 22;12:663774. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Gastroenterology and the Center of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Intestinal fibrosis is a consequence of continuous inflammatory responses that negatively affect the quality of life of patients. By screening altered proteomic profiles of mouse fibrotic colon tissues, we identified that GREM1 was dramatically upregulated in comparison to that in normal tissues. Functional experiments revealed that GREM1 promoted the proliferation and activation of intestinal fibroblast cells by enhancing fatty acid oxidation. Blocking GREM1 prevented the progression of intestinal fibrosis Mechanistic research revealed that GREM1 acted as a ligand for VEGFR2 and triggered downstream MAPK signaling. This facilitated the expression of FAO-related genes, consequently enhancing fatty acid oxidation. Taken together, our data indicated that targeting GREM1 could represent a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of intestinal fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.663774DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100665PMC
April 2021

Boosting the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution performance of monolayer CN coupled with MoSiN: density-functional theory calculations.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Apr 31;23(14):8318-8325. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Energy Materials Computing Center, School of Energy and Mechanical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Nanchang 330013, China.

Very recently, an important two-dimensional material, MoSiN, was successfully synthesized. However, pure MoSiN has some inherent shortcomings when used in photocatalytic water splitting to produce hydrogen, especially a low separation rate of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and a poor visible light response. Interestingly, we find that the MoSiN can be used as a good modification material, and it can be coupled with CN to form an efficient heterojunction photocatalyst. Here, using density functional theory, a type-II heterojunction, CN/MoSiN, is designed and systematically studied. Based on AIMD simulations and phonon dispersion verification, CN/MoSiN shows sufficient thermodynamic stability. As well as its perfect interface electronic properties, its large interlayer charge transfer and good visible light response lay the foundation for its excellent photocatalytic performance. In addition, the oxidation and reduction potentials of the CN/MoSiN heterojunction not only can meet the requirements of water splitting well but can also maintain a delicate balance between oxidation and reduction reactions. More importantly, the |ΔG| value of the CN/MoSiN heterojunction is very close to zero, indicating great application potential in the field of photocatalytic water splitting. In brief, our research paves the way for the design of future MoSiN-based efficient heterojunction photocatalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp00364jDOI Listing
April 2021

Genetic diversity of Asian and European common wheat lines assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

Genome 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Sichuan Agricultural University, 12529, Chengdu, Sichuan, China;

Understanding the genetic diversity of wheat is important for wheat breeding and improvement. However, there have been limited attempts to evaluate wheat diversity using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In this study, the chromosomal structures of 149 wheat accessions from 13 countries located between the latitudes of 30° and 45°N, the principal growing region for wheat, were characterized using FISH with pTa535 and pSc119.2 probes. The ranges of the numbers of FISH types in the A-, B-, and D-genomes were 2-8, 3-7, and 2-4, respectively, and the average numbers in the A- and B-genomes were greater than in the D-genome. Chromosomal translocations were detected by these probes, and previously undescribed translocations were also observed. Using the FISH, the genetic relationships among the 149 common wheat lines were divided into three groups (G1, G2, and G3). G1 mainly consisted of Southern European lines, G2 consisted of most lines from Japan and some lines from Western Asia, China, and Korea, and G3 consisted of the other lines from Southern Europe and most of the lines from Western Asia, China, and Korea. FISH karyotypes of wheat chromosomes distinguished chromosomal structural variations, revealed the genetic diversity among wheat varieties. Furthermore, these results provide valuable information for the further genetic improvement of wheat in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/gen-2020-0161DOI Listing
April 2021

Improved 1D convolutional neural network adapted to near-infrared spectroscopy for rapid discrimination of Anoectochilus roxburghii and its counterfeits.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 May 22;199:114035. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

College of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350108, China; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Medical Instrument and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350108, China.

Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae) is a rare traditional Chinese medicine. For seeking high profit, some traditional Chinese medicine sellers usually adulterated A. roxburghii with Goodyera Schlechtendaliana and Ludisia discolor or directly fake A. roxburghii using Anoectochilus formosanus. These counterfeits with similar appearance greatly influence the prescription efficacy. Therefore, there is an urgent need for an effective and fast authentication method to identify A. roxburghii and its counterfeits. In this paper, the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) data of A. roxburghii and its counterfeits are mearsured. Then, an improved inception architecture based 1-dimensional convolutional neural network (Improved 1D-Inception-CNN) is designed for processing the NIRS data and identifying A. roxburghii and its counterfeits. The Improved 1D-Inception-CNN has less parameters and high calculation efficiency which makes the identification model more practical. The experimental results show that compared with traditional structured CNN models, the complexity of the Improved 1D-Inception-CNN is reduced by 40 %, the parameters are reduced by 50 % and the performances are improved by 1.01 %. Therefore, the Improved 1D-Inception-CNN model based on NIRS technology can effectively and quickly identify A. roxburghii and its counterfeits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2021.114035DOI Listing
May 2021

A land-use decision approach integrating thermal regulation, stormwater management, and economic benefits based on urbanization stage identification.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 13;779:146415. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

School of Architecture, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, PR China.

Driven by global climate change and urbanization, urban heat island (UHI) and urban storm flood (USF) have become the most frequent and influential hazards in recent decades. Land-use optimization can effectively cope with these hazards. However, the trade-offs between multi-hazard mitigation and economic development impose many limitations in practice. Furthermore, current region-based optimization methods no longer meet the precise management demand, and both subdivision and spatial heterogeneity identification have the potential for wider applicability. Hence, a systematic integration of climate adaptation and urban construction through land-use planning is urgently required. This paper proposes a new land-use decision approach for improving climate adaptability of urbanization. This approach involves multi-objective optimization, spatial subdivision, and urbanization stage identification, which enable the simultaneous achievement of environmental and economic benefits. Taking Xiamen as case study, the results showed that excessive pursuit of land economic output (LEO) limits the chance of mitigating UHI and USF. Improving the LEO per unit area of construction land could disrupt the link between land exploitation and the increasing side effects of climate hazards. Future urbanization hotspots in Xiamen will likely emerge at the urban fringe in Tong'an District and Xiang'an District. Within each developing unit, the upper limit of construction land was 81.06 hm and the green space was recommended to be 7.29-21.94 hm. Construction land and bare land contributed most to UHI and USF, while forest and grassland were highly efficient in heat and runoff mitigation. The developed approach proved to be effective and practicable, especially for reducing the impacts of extreme UHI and USF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146415DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparison of clinical outcomes of conbercept versus ranibizumab treatment for retinopathy of prematurity: a multicentral prospective randomised controlled trial.

Br J Ophthalmol 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Ophthalmology, Shenzhen Eye Hospital, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Shenzhen University School of Medicine, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China

Purpose: To compare the recurrence rate and surgical complications of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) between patients treated with intravitreal injection of conbercept (IVC) and intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR) within 6 months.

Methods: A multicentral prospective, randomised controlled trial was applied from May 2017 to February 2019 for the infants diagnosed as aggressive posterior-ROP, zone I or posterior zone II treatment-requiring ROP by binocular indirect ophthalmoscope and RetCam3. These infants were assigned to randomly receive either intravitreal injection of 0.25 mg conbercept or 0.25 mg ranibizumab. The recurrence rate, fundus fluorescence angiography (FFA) and surgical complications were examined during the follow-up period of 6 months. Recurrent eyes were retreated by laser or another intravitreal injection within the 72 hours.

Results: A total of 30 infant patients (60 eyes) underwent IVC and 30 patients (60 eyes) underwent IVR. A total of 10 eyes (16.67%) in the IVC group and 14 eyes (23.34%) in the IVR group developed recurrence. There was no significant statistical difference in the recurrence rate between the two groups (χ=0.83, p=0.36). The postmenstrual age (PMA) at first injection was (34.60±3.47) weeks in IVC and (35.14±1.76) in IVR group. In recurrent cases, the mean PMA at second treatment were (43.31±3.85) and (43.43±3.89) weeks in the IVC and IVR group, respectively. The period between two treatments was (8.71±6.62) for the IVC and (8.29±2.56) weeks for the IVR group. All these results showed no significant statistical difference between these two groups. The fluorescein leakage were observed in the eyes of recurrent infants by FFA. There were no other complications in the two groups except for complicated cataract in three eyes.

Conclusion: Both IVC and IVR are effective therapies for the treatment of ROP. Conbercept is a new option for treating ROP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2020-318026DOI Listing
February 2021

Widespread signatures of natural selection across human complex traits and functional genomic categories.

Nat Commun 2021 02 19;12(1):1164. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Understanding how natural selection has shaped genetic architecture of complex traits is of importance in medical and evolutionary genetics. Bayesian methods have been developed using individual-level GWAS data to estimate multiple genetic architecture parameters including selection signature. Here, we present a method (SBayesS) that only requires GWAS summary statistics. We analyse data for 155 complex traits (n = 27k-547k) and project the estimates onto those obtained from evolutionary simulations. We estimate that, on average across traits, about 1% of human genome sequence are mutational targets with a mean selection coefficient of ~0.001. Common diseases, on average, show a smaller number of mutational targets and have been under stronger selection, compared to other traits. SBayesS analyses incorporating functional annotations reveal that selection signatures vary across genomic regions, among which coding regions have the strongest selection signature and are enriched for both the number of associated variants and the magnitude of effect sizes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21446-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7896067PMC
February 2021

Preliminary assessment of viral metagenome from cancer tissue and blood from patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

J Med Virol 2021 Aug 1;93(8):5126-5133. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Affiliated Huai'an Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Huai'an, Jiangsu, China.

In this study, using a viral metagenomic method, we investigated the composition of virome in blood and cancer tissue samples that were collected from 25 patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Results indicated that virus sequences showing similarity to human pegivirus (HPgV), anellovirus, human endogenous retrovirus (HERV), and polyomavirus were recovered from this cohort. Three different complete genomes of HPgV were acquired from the blood samples and one complete genome of polyomavirus was determined from the cancer tissue sample. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the three HPgV strains belonged to genotype 3 and the polyomavirus showed the highest sequence identity (99.73%) to trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus. PCR screening results indicated that the three HPgVs were present in 5 out of the 25 blood samples and the polyomavirus only existed in a cancer tissue sample pool. Whether infections with viruses have an association with lung cancer needs further study with a larger size of sampling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26887DOI Listing
August 2021

Analysis of common genetic variation and rare CNVs in the Australian Autism Biobank.

Mol Autism 2021 02 10;12(1):12. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Cooperative Research Centre for Living With Autism (Autism CRC), Long Pocket, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition whose biological basis is yet to be elucidated. The Australian Autism Biobank (AAB) is an initiative of the Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC) to establish an Australian resource of biospecimens, phenotypes and genomic data for research on autism.

Methods: Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism genotypes were available for 2,477 individuals (after quality control) from 546 families (436 complete), including 886 participants aged 2 to 17 years with diagnosed (n = 871) or suspected (n = 15) ASD, 218 siblings without ASD, 1,256 parents, and 117 unrelated children without an ASD diagnosis. The genetic data were used to confirm familial relationships and assign ancestry, which was majority European (n = 1,964 European individuals). We generated polygenic scores (PGS) for ASD, IQ, chronotype and height in the subset of Europeans, and in 3,490 unrelated ancestry-matched participants from the UK Biobank. We tested for group differences for each PGS, and performed prediction analyses for related phenotypes in the AAB. We called copy-number variants (CNVs) in all participants, and intersected these with high-confidence ASD- and intellectual disability (ID)-associated CNVs and genes from the public domain.

Results: The ASD (p = 6.1e-13), sibling (p = 4.9e-3) and unrelated (p = 3.0e-3) groups had significantly higher ASD PGS than UK Biobank controls, whereas this was not the case for height-a control trait. The IQ PGS was a significant predictor of measured IQ in undiagnosed children (r = 0.24, p = 2.1e-3) and parents (r = 0.17, p = 8.0e-7; 4.0% of variance), but not the ASD group. Chronotype PGS predicted sleep disturbances within the ASD group (r = 0.13, p = 1.9e-3; 1.3% of variance). In the CNV analysis, we identified 13 individuals with CNVs overlapping ASD/ID-associated CNVs, and 12 with CNVs overlapping ASD/ID/developmental delay-associated genes identified on the basis of de novo variants.

Limitations: This dataset is modest in size, and the publicly-available genome-wide-association-study (GWAS) summary statistics used to calculate PGS for ASD and other traits are relatively underpowered.

Conclusions: We report on common genetic variation and rare CNVs within the AAB. Prediction analyses using currently available GWAS summary statistics are largely consistent with expected relationships based on published studies. As the size of publicly-available GWAS summary statistics grows, the phenotypic depth of the AAB dataset will provide many opportunities for analyses of autism profiles and co-occurring conditions, including when integrated with other omics datasets generated from AAB biospecimens (blood, urine, stool, hair).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13229-020-00407-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7874616PMC
February 2021

Publisher Correction: Genome-wide analyses of behavioural traits are subject to bias by misreports and longitudinal changes.

Nat Commun 2021 Feb 8;12(1):988. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21294-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870948PMC
February 2021

A Review of the Discriminant Analysis Methods for Food Quality Based on Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Pattern Recognition.

Molecules 2021 Feb 1;26(3). Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Flavor Chemistry, Beijing Technology and Business University (BTBU), Beijing 100048, China.

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with pattern recognition technique has become an important type of non-destructive discriminant method. This review first introduces the basic structure of the qualitative analysis process based on near-infrared spectroscopy. Then, the main pretreatment methods of NIRS data processing are investigated. Principles and recent developments of traditional pattern recognition methods based on NIRS are introduced, including some shallow learning machines and clustering analysis methods. Moreover, the newly developed deep learning methods and their applications of food quality analysis are surveyed, including convolutional neural network (CNN), one-dimensional CNN, and two-dimensional CNN. Finally, several applications of these pattern recognition techniques based on NIRS are compared. The deficiencies of the existing pattern recognition methods and future research directions are also reviewed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26030749DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7867108PMC
February 2021

Genomic Profiling and Prognostic Value Analysis of Genetic Alterations in Chinese Resected Lung Cancer With Invasive Mucinous Adenocarcinoma.

Front Oncol 2020 11;10:603671. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Zhejiang Cancer Hospital), Hangzhou, China.

Background: Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA) of the lung is a distinct histological subtype with unique clinical and pathological features. Despite previous genomic studies on lung IMA, the genetic characteristics and the prognosis-related biomarkers in Chinese surgically resected lung IMA remain unclear.

Methods: We collected 76 surgically resected primary tumors of invasive lung adenocarcinoma, including 51 IMA and 25 non-mucinous adenocarcinomas (non-IMA). IMA was further divided into pure-IMA (mucinous features≥90%) and mixed-IMA subgroups. Comprehensive genomic profiling based on targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 425 genes was explored and genomic characteristics were evaluated for the correlation with postoperative disease-free survival (DFS).

Results: IMA had a unique genetic profile, with more diverse driver mutations and more tumor drivers/suppressors co-occurrence than that of non-IMA. The frequency of (72.0% vs. 40.0% vs. 23.1%, p=0.002) and (undetected vs. 20.0% vs. 26.9%, p=0.015) alterations showed a trend of gradual decrease and increase from non-IMA to mixed-IMA to pure-IMA, respectively. The frequency of mutations in pure-IMA was higher than that in mixed-IMA, albeit statistically insignificant (23.1% vs. 4.0%, p=0.10). mutation was significantly less in pure-IMA compared to mixed-IMA and non-IMA (23.1% vs. 52.0% vs. 56.0%, p=0.03). Besides, IMA exhibited less arm-level amplifications (p=0.04) and more arm-level deletions (p=0.004) than non-IMA, and the frequency of amplification and deletion also showed a trend of gradual decrease and increase from non-IMA to mixed-IMA to pure-IMA, respectively. Furthermore, prognosis analysis in stage III IMA patients showed that patients harboring alterations in (mDFS=30.3 vs. 16.0 months, HR=0.19, P=0.027) and PI3K pathway (mDFS=36.0 vs. 16.0 months, HR=0.12, P=0.023) achieved prolonged DFS, while patients with poorly differentiated tumors (mDFS=14.1 vs. 28.0 months, HR=3.75, p=0.037) or with mutations (mDFS=13.0 vs. 20.0 months, HR=6.95, p=0.027) had shorter DFS. Multivariate analysis showed that mutations, PI3K pathway alterations, and tumor differentiation status were independent factors that have statistically significant influences on clinical outcomes of IMA patients.

Conclusion: Our study provided genomic insights into Chinese surgically resected lung IMA. We also identified several genomic features that may serve as potential biomarkers on postoperative recurrence in IMA patients with stage III disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.603671DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7829865PMC
January 2021

Identification and expression of the BAHD family during development, ripening, and stress response in banana.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Feb 25;48(2):1127-1138. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Hainan Key Laboratory for Biosafety Monitoring and Molecular Breeding in Off-Season Reproduction Regions, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Resources of Tropical Crops, Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Haikou, China.

The BAHD family is involved in different biological roles in plants, including secondary metabolite synthesis, improving abiotic/biotic stress resistance, and influencing fruit quality. However, the knowledge about BAHD in banana, an important fruit crop, is limited. In this study, 46 banana BAHD genes (MaBAHDs) were identified and divided into four groups according to phylogenetic analysis. Most of the MaBAHD genes in the same group presented similar conserved motifs and genetic structures. MaBAHD genes have similar expression patterns in two banana varieties, and more genes showed high expressions in the roots. The comprehensive MaBAHD gene expression patterns obtained from two varieties of banana showed valuable information regarding their participation in fruit development, ripening, and response to abiotic/biotic stresses, suggesting that they play key roles in these processes. The systematic analysis of MaBAHD genes offered basic insight for further gene functional assays and potential applications in genetically improving banana cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-06132-9DOI Listing
February 2021

A novel design of SiH/CeO(111) van der Waals type-II heterojunction for water splitting.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Feb;23(4):2812-2818

Energy Materials Computing Center, School of Energy and Mechanical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Nanchang 330013, China. and State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China.

Searching for economical low-dimensional materials to construct the highly efficient type-II heterojunction photocatalysts for splitting water into hydrogen is very strategic. In this study, using the first-principles calculations, we construct a novel SiH/CeO2(111) type-II heterojunction with a very small lattice mismatch of less than 1%. Based on AIMD simulation and phonon dispersion calculations, the SiH/CeO2(111) heterojunction reveals sufficient stability, and is easy to synthesize. Due to the vdW interaction between SiH and CeO2(111) components, electron and hole accumulation regions form at the heterojunction interface, which is very conducive to the separation of photoexcited electron-hole pairs. Besides, the SiH/CeO2(111) heterojunction has good visible light response, and even a strong absorption peak of up to 8.7 × 105 cm-1 in the high-energy visible region. More importantly, the SiH/CeO2(111) heterojunction exhibits good OER and HER performance because its oxidation and reduction potentials well meet the requirements of water splitting. Consequently, SiH/CeO2(111) is a potential photocatalyst for splitting water to hydrogen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cp05238hDOI Listing
February 2021

The semi-dwarfing gene Rht-dp from dwarf polish wheat (Triticum polonicum L.) is the "Green Revolution" gene Rht-B1b.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jan 19;22(1):63. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Triticeae Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Chengdu, 611130, Sichuan, China.

Background: The wheat dwarfing gene increases lodging resistance, the grain number per spike and harvest index. Dwarf Polish wheat (Triticum polonicum L., 2n = 4x = 28, AABB, DPW), initially collected from Tulufan, Xinjiang, China, carries a semi-dwarfing gene Rht-dp on chromosome 4BS. However, Rht-dp and its dwarfing mechanism are unknown.

Results: Homologous cloning and mapping revealed that Rht-dp is the 'Green Revolution' gene Rht-B1b. A haplotype analysis in 59 tetraploid wheat accessions showed that Rht-B1b was only present in T. polonicum. Transcriptomic analysis of two pairs of near-isogenic lines (NILs) of DPW × Tall Polish wheat (Triticum polonicum L., 2n = 4x = 28, AABB, TPW) revealed 41 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) as potential dwarfism-related genes. Among them, 28 functionally annotated DEGs were classed into five sub-groups: hormone-related signalling transduction genes, transcription factor genes, cell wall structure-related genes, reactive oxygen-related genes, and nitrogen regulation-related genes.

Conclusions: These results indicated that Rht-dp is Rht-B1b, which regulates pathways related to hormones, reactive oxygen species, and nitrogen assimilation to modify the cell wall structure, and then limits cell wall loosening and inhibits cell elongation, thereby causing dwarfism in DPW.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07367-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7814455PMC
January 2021

Genome-wide analyses of behavioural traits are subject to bias by misreports and longitudinal changes.

Nat Commun 2021 01 7;12(1):20211. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have discovered numerous genetic variants associated with human behavioural traits. However, behavioural traits are subject to misreports and longitudinal changes (MLC) which can cause biases in GWAS and follow-up analyses. Here, we demonstrate that individuals with higher disease burden in the UK Biobank (n = 455,607) are more likely to misreport or reduce their alcohol consumption levels, and propose a correction procedure to mitigate the MLC-induced biases. The alcohol consumption GWAS signals removed by the MLC corrections are enriched in metabolic/cardiovascular traits. Almost all the previously reported negative estimates of genetic correlations between alcohol consumption and common diseases become positive/non-significant after the MLC corrections. We also observe MLC biases for smoking and physical activities in the UK Biobank. Our findings provide a plausible explanation of the controversy about the effects of alcohol consumption on health outcomes and a caution for future analyses of self-reported behavioural traits in biobank data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20237-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7804181PMC
January 2021

Tumor Mutational Burden Is Polygenic and Genetically Associated with Complex Traits and Diseases.

Cancer Res 2021 03 8;81(5):1230-1239. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Institute for Advanced Research, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, P.R. China.

Tumor mutational burden (TMB) is an emerging biomarker of response to immunotherapy in solid tumors. However, the extent to which variation in TMB between patients is attributable to germline genetic variation remains elusive. Here, using 7,004 unrelated patients of European descent across 33 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we show that pan-cancer TMB is polygenic with approximately 13% of its variation explained by approximately 1.1 million common variants altogether. We identify germline variants that affect TMB in stomach adenocarcinoma through altering the expression levels of and . Further analyses provide evidence that TMB is genetically associated with complex traits and diseases, such as smoking, rheumatoid arthritis, height, and cancers, and some of the associations are likely causal. Overall, these results provide new insights into the genetic basis of somatic mutations in tumors and may inform future efforts to use genetic variants to stratify patients for immunotherapy. SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence for a polygenic architecture of tumor mutational burden and opens an avenue for the use of whole-genome germline genetic variations to stratify patients with cancer for immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-3459DOI Listing
March 2021

Regulating CH, NO, and NO emissions from an alkaline paddy field under rice-wheat rotation with controlled release N fertilizer.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 6;28(14):18246-18259. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

College of Resources, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, Sichuan, China.

Controlled release fertilizer (CRF) has been shown to increase crop yield and N use efficiency (NUE) compared with traditional chemical fertilizer (TF). However, few studies examined the effects of CRF on CH, NO, and NO emissions simultaneously in alkaline paddy fields under rice-wheat rotation. In the present study, we conducted a 2-year field experiment to compare the effects of different CRF application strategies on these gas emissions with those of TF and explored the effects of CRF on global warming potential (GWP), crop yields, and greenhouse gas emission intensity (GHGI). Results showed that CRF can reduce 0.98-14.3%, 13.3-21.1%, and 8.22-16.3% of CH, NO, and NO emissions, respectively, in the studied alkaline paddy field. CRF reduce CH emission probably by regulating soil NH concentration. CRF reduce NO and NO emissions probably by regulating inorganic N content in the studied alkaline paddy soil. CRF had the same effect on annual crop yield as TF, especially when CRF was applied twice in each season and had the same N application rate as TF. Annual crop yields and the agronomic efficiency of N (AE) increased by 8.24% and 21.6%, respectively. On the average of the two rice-wheat rotation cycles, GHGI significantly decreased by up to 14.1% after the application of CRF as relative to that after the application of TF (P < 0.05). These results suggest that CRF is an environment-friendly N fertilization strategy for mitigating GWP and ensuring high crop yield in an alkaline paddy field under rice-wheat rotation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11846-1DOI Listing
April 2021

Comparison of viromes in vaginal secretion from pregnant women with and without vaginitis.

Virol J 2021 01 6;18(1):11. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, 20 Zhengdong Road, Zhenjiang, 212001, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Although some studies have investigated the bacterial community in vaginal tract of pregnant women, there are few reports about the viral community (virome) in this type of microenvironment.

Methods: To investigate the composition of virome in vaginal secretion samples, 40 vaginal secretion samples from pregnant women with vaginitis and 20 vaginal secretion samples from pregnant women without vaginitis, pooled into 4 and 2 sample pools, respectively, were subjected to viral metagenomic analysis.

Results: Results indicated virus sequences showing similarity to human papillomavirus (HPV), anellovirus, and norovirus were recovered from this cohort of pregnant women. Further analysis indicated that 15 different defined types and one unclassified type of HPV were detected from pregnant women with vaginitis while only 3 defined types of HPV were detected in pregnant women without vaginitis. Five different groups of viruses from the family Anelloviridae were present in pregnant women with but none of them were detected in pregnant women without vaginitis. Norovirus was detected in 3 out of the 4 sample pools from pregnant women with vaginitis but none in the pregnant women without vaginitis. Twelve complete genomes belonging to 10 different types of HPV, and 5 novel anllovirus genomes belonging 2 different genera in Anelloviridae were acquired from these libraries, based on which phylogenetical analysis and pairwise sequence comparison were performed. Phageome in these samples was also briefly characterized and compared between two groups.

Conclusion: Our data suggested that virome might play an important role in the progression of vaginitis in pregnant women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-020-01482-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7789296PMC
January 2021

Single Atom Catalysts for Fuel Cells and Rechargeable Batteries: Principles, Advances, and Opportunities.

ACS Nano 2021 Jan 6;15(1):210-239. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

School of Metallurgy and Environment, Engineering Research Center of the Ministry of Education for Advanced Battery Materials, Central South University, Changsha 410083, P. R. China.

Owing to the energy crisis and environmental pollution, developing efficient and robust electrochemical energy storage (or conversion) systems is urgently needed but still very challenging. Next-generation electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices, mainly including fuel cells, metal-air batteries, metal-sulfur batteries, and metal-ion batteries, have been viewed as promising candidates for future large-scale energy applications. All these systems are operated through one type of chemical conversion mechanism, which is currently limited by poor reaction kinetics. Single atom catalysts (SACs) perform maximum atom efficiency and well-defined active sites. They have been employed as electrode components to enhance the redox kinetics and adjust the interactions at the reaction interface, boosting device performance. In this Review, we briefly summarize the related background knowledge, motivation and working principle toward next-generation electrochemical energy storage (or conversion) devices, including fuel cells, Zn-air batteries, Al-air batteries, Li-air batteries, Li-CO batteries, Li-S batteries, and Na-S batteries. While pointing out the remaining challenges in each system, we clarify the importance of SACs to solve these development bottlenecks. Then, we further explore the working principle and current progress of SACs in various device systems. Finally, future opportunities and perspectives of SACs in next-generation electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c08652DOI Listing
January 2021

Identification of Additive-Epistatic QTLs Conferring Seed Traits in Soybean Using Recombinant Inbred Lines.

Front Plant Sci 2020 10;11:566056. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Soybean Research Institute, MOA National Center for Soybean Improvement, MOA Key Laboratory for Biology and Genetic Improvement of Soybean (General), State Key Laboratory for Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Crop Production, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Seed weight and shape are important agronomic traits that affect soybean quality and yield. In the present study, we used image analysis software to evaluate 100-seed weight and seed shape traits (length, width, perimeter, projection area, length/width, and weight/projection area) of 155 novel recombinant inbred soybean lines (NJRISX) generated by crossing "Su88-M21" and "XYXHD". We examined quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the six traits (except seed weight per projection area), and identified 42 additive QTLs (5-8 QTLs per trait) accounting for 24.9-37.5% of the phenotypic variation (PV). Meanwhile, 2-4 epistatic QTL pairs per trait out of a total of 18 accounted for 2.5-7.2% of the PV; and unmapped minor QTLs accounted for the remaining 35.0-56.7% of the PV. A total of 28 additive and 11 epistatic QTL pairs were concentrated in nine joint QTL segments (JQSs), indicating that QTLs associated with seed weight and shape are closely related and interacted. An interaction was also detected between additive and epistatic QTL pairs and environment, which made significant contributions of 1.4-9.5% and 0.4-0.8% to the PV, respectively. We annotated 18 candidate genes in the nine JQSs, which were important for interpreting the close relationships among the six traits. These findings indicate that examining the interactions between closely related traits rather than only analyzing individual trait provides more useful insight into the genetic system of the interrelated traits for which there has been limited QTL information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.566056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7758492PMC
December 2020
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