Publications by authors named "Jian Luo"

532 Publications

Cation-chloride cotransport mediated by an ion pair transporter.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Recognition and Function, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China.

Ion transport mediated by an ion pair receptor 1 bearing both cation and anion binding sites is presented. The ion pair binding property was revealed by means of H NMR titrations in organic solutions and X-ray analysis in the solid state. Single crystal structures demonstrated that 1 and CaI formed a solvent-separated ion-pair complex with two iodides each interacting with a triazine ring through anion-π interactions, whereas the calcium ion is bound by a pentaethylene glycol moiety. The ion transport activity was studied by monitoring the efflux of ions from salt-loaded EYPC large unilamellar vesicles (EYPC-LUVs) using ion selective electrodes. Chloride transport across the membrane mediated by the ion pair receptor through K/Cl or Na/Cl cotransport with a selectivity towards the K/Cl symport was realized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ob01617bDOI Listing
September 2021

Using a reactive emulsifier to construct simple and convenient nanocapsules loaded with lambda-cyhalothrin to achieve efficient foliar delivery and insecticidal synergies.

Nanoscale 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, Shandong 271018, P. R. China.

Nanocapsules are a promising controlled release formulation for foliar pest control. However, the complicated process and high cost limit widespread use in agriculture, so a simpler and more convenient preparation system is urgently needed. Meanwhile, under complex field conditions, the advantageous mechanism of the nanosize effect and sustained release have no quantitative and detailed study. In this study, a reactive emulsifier (OP-10) is used to participate in the interfacial polymerization of the nanoemulsion, and polymer nanocapsules loaded with lambda-cyhalothrin ([email protected]) are quickly and easily prepared to study the efficacy and synergistic mechanism of foliar pest control. As a result, the nanocapsule is about 150 nm with a stable core-shell structure. The nanoscale state increases the distribution and adhesion of the particles on the leaf surface, which increases the contact efficiency of pesticides under the different physiological stages and behavioral activities of the target organism. The shell structure provides sustained release characteristics and increases the UV resistance by about 2.5 times for pesticides. Compared with microcapsules loaded with lambda-cyhalothrin ([email protected]), [email protected] not only shows rapid and synergistic insecticidal efficacy but also provides sustained insecticidal efficacy. The mortality of NCS is 3.4 times that of the nanosized emulsion in water (NEW) at the lowest concentration (0.5 mg L), and the control efficacy remained 77.3% after 7 days. Compared with NEW, [email protected] provides excellent field efficacy, while LC for zebrafish is only 0.68 times without increasing the aquatic toxicity risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr04381aDOI Listing
September 2021

Identification of immune correlates of fatal outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

PLoS Pathog 2021 09 16;17(9):e1009804. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Prior studies have demonstrated that immunologic dysfunction underpins severe illness in COVID-19 patients, but have lacked an in-depth analysis of the immunologic drivers of death in the most critically ill patients. We performed immunophenotyping of viral antigen-specific and unconventional T cell responses, neutralizing antibodies, and serum proteins in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, using influenza infection, SARS-CoV-2-convalescent health care workers, and healthy adults as controls. We identify mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cell activation as an independent and significant predictor of death in COVID-19 (HR = 5.92, 95% CI = 2.49-14.1). MAIT cell activation correlates with several other mortality-associated immunologic measures including broad activation of CD8+ T cells and non-Vδ2 γδT cells, and elevated levels of cytokines and chemokines, including GM-CSF, CXCL10, CCL2, and IL-6. MAIT cell activation is also a predictor of disease severity in influenza (ECMO/death HR = 4.43, 95% CI = 1.08-18.2). Single-cell RNA-sequencing reveals a shift from focused IFNα-driven signals in COVID-19 ICU patients who survive to broad pro-inflammatory responses in fatal COVID-19 -a feature not observed in severe influenza. We conclude that fatal COVID-19 infection is driven by uncoordinated inflammatory responses that drive a hierarchy of T cell activation, elements of which can serve as prognostic indicators and potential targets for immune intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1009804DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8445447PMC
September 2021

Clothianidin loaded TA/Fe (III) controlled-release granules: improve pesticide bioavailability and alleviate oxidative stress.

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 20;416:125861. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Key Laboratory of Pesticide Toxicology & Application Technique, College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271018, China. Electronic address:

Neonicotinoid insecticides have been widely used due to their excellent systemic activity and high insecticidal activity, but the problems of low utilization rate and environmental risk have attracted widespread attention. Controlled-release technology is an approach to realize the efficient utilization of pesticides and reduce environmental pressure. In this study, clothianidin (CLO) controlled-release granules ([email protected] TA (tannic acid)/Fe (III)) were prepared with TA/Fe (III) coordination chelate as the coating material. These granules exhibited the core-shell structure with 500-1200 µm of particle size, and had obvious release performance and hydrolysis behavior of coating materials. Pot experiments by root application showed that the [email protected]/Fe (III) showed balanced and lasting control efficacy to broad bean aphids. The plants have a stronger capacity for absorption and enrichment and a higher utilization rate of CLO for [email protected]/Fe (III), than those for 10% suspension concentrate (SC). One of the hydrolysates of coating materials, TA, a polyphenolic antioxidant, could improve the bioaccumulation amount and alleviating the oxidative stress response of CLO in plants. Our study illustrates that the controlled-release granules base on TA have efficient controlled-release properties and free radical scavenging performance that may eventually be used as pesticide carriers and antioxidants in the field of plant protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125861DOI Listing
August 2021

Whole-genome sequencing of brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) provides insights into adaptive evolution and growth differences.

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Life Sciences School, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

The brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) is an important species of fish in the coral reef ecosystem and marine aquaculture industry. In this study, a high-quality chromosome-level genome of brown-marbled grouper was assembled using Oxford Nanopore technology and Hi-C technology. The GC content and heterozygosity were approximately 42% and 0.35%, respectively. A total of 230 contigs with a total length of 1047 Mb and contig N50 of 13.8 Mb were assembled, and 228 contigs (99.13%) were anchored into 24 chromosomes. A total of 24,005 protein-coding genes were predicted, among which 23,862 (99.4%) predicted genes were annotated. Phylogenetic analysis showed that brown-marbled grouper and humpback grouper were clustered into one clade that separated approximately 11-23 million years ago. Collinearity analyses showed that there was no obvious duplication of large fragments between chromosomes in the brown-marbled grouper. Genomes of the humpback grouper and giant grouper showed a high collinearity with that of the brown-marbled grouper. A total of 305 expanded gene families were detected in the brown-marbled grouper genome, which is mainly involved in disease resistance. In addition, a genetic linkage map with 3061.88 cM was constructed. Based on the physical and genetic map, one growth-related quantitative trait loci was detected in 32,332,447 bp of chromosome 20, and meox1 and etv4 were considered candidate growth-related genes. This study provides pivotal genetic resources for further evolutionary analyses and artificial breeding of groupers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.13494DOI Listing
August 2021

Transcriptome analysis and response of three important detoxifying enzymes to Serratia marcescens Bizio (SM1) in Hyphantria cunea (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 Oct 31;178:104922. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, People's Republic of China; College of Forestry, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Hyphantria cunea (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a main pest of forest trees. In this study, the effects of Serratia marcescens Bizio (SM1) infection on the transcriptome of H. cunea were studied. The expression of 1068 unigenes in the transcriptome of H. cunea infected by S. marcescens was markedly different from that in the control of H. cunea; 474 genes were upregulated, and 594 genes were downregulated in the former. Among them, 8 cytochrome P450s (CYPs), 5 uridine diphosphate-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) and 3 glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) were significantly differentially expressed. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these differentially expressed detoxification enzyme genes were mainly involved in the drug metabolism pathway, glutathione metabolism pathway and ABC transporter pathway. Interestingly, we found that five UGTs were related to oestradiol metabolism in the steroid hormone biosynthesis pathway. Furthermore, the real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR results showed that SM1 could induce the expression of CYPs and UGTs, but inhibit the expression of GSTs. This research will identify the response of important detoxification enzymes to S. marcescens, which will provide a theoretical foundation for the development of new immunosuppressants for H. cunea control. Furthermore, H. cunea was performed transcriptome sequencing to explore the key metabolic pathways, signalling pathways and genes affected by S. marcescens, which will clarify the mechanisms of S. marcescens infection of H. cunea. In addition, this study also explored the relationship between H. cunea and S. marcescens, which will provide a theoretical basis for the biological control of H. cunea by using S. marcescens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2021.104922DOI Listing
October 2021

Self-Assembled Degradable Nanogels Provide Foliar Affinity and Pinning for Pesticide Delivery by Flexibility and Adhesiveness Adjustment.

ACS Nano 2021 Aug 24. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, Shandong 271018, P.R. China.

At present, it is highly important to develop a simple and compatible nano delivery system for pesticides for foliar application, which can improve their insecticidal efficacy and resistance to adverse climates while reducing the environmental risks. Polyethylene glycol and 4,4-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate are used as hydrophilic soft and hydrophobic hard segments, respectively, for polymer self-assembly and polyurethane gelation in a nanoreactor. The nanocarrier synthesis and the pesticide loading are realized by a one-step integration procedure and suited well for hydrophobic active compounds. Modifying the molecular structure of the soft segment can adjust the flexibility of the nanocarriers and result in viscosity and deformation characteristics. After foliar spray application, the foliar flattening state of the nanogels increases the foliar protection area by 2.21 times and improves both pesticide exposure area and target contact efficiency. Concurrently, the flexibility and viscosity of the nanogels increase the washing resistance and the retention rate of the pesticide by approximately 80 times under continuous washing. The encapsulation of the nanogels reduces the foliar ultraviolet (UV) degradation and aquatic pesticide exposure, which increase the security of λ-cyhalothrine by 9.33 times. Moreover, the degradability of nanogels is beneficial for pesticide exposure and reducing pollution. This system has simple preparation, good properties, and environmental friendliness, making the nanocarriers promising for delivering pesticides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c04317DOI Listing
August 2021

The Fibronectin-ILT3 Interaction Functions as a Stromal Checkpoint that Suppresses Myeloid Cells.

Cancer Immunol Res 2021 Aug 23. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

NGM Biopharmaceuticals, South San Francisco, California.

Suppressive myeloid cells inhibit antitumor immunity by preventing T-cell responses. Immunoglobulin-like transcript 3 (ILT3; also known as LILRB4) is highly expressed on tumor-associated myeloid cells and promotes their suppressive phenotype. However, the ligand that engages ILT3 within the tumor microenvironment and renders tumor-associated myeloid cells suppressive is unknown. Using a screening approach, we identified fibronectin as a functional ligand for ILT3. The interaction of fibronectin with ILT3 polarized myeloid cells toward a suppressive state, and these effects were reversed with an ILT3-specific antibody that blocked the interaction of ILT3 with fibronectin. Furthermore, treatment of human tumor explants with anti-ILT3 reprogrammed tumor-associated myeloid cells toward a stimulatory phenotype. Thus, the ILT3-fibronectin interaction represents a "stromal checkpoint" through which the extracellular matrix actively suppresses myeloid cells. By blocking this interaction, tumor-associated myeloid cells may acquire a stimulatory phenotype, potentially resulting in increased antitumor T-cell responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-21-0240DOI Listing
August 2021

Risk factors for developing peritoneal metastases after curative surgery for colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Colorectal Dis 2021 Aug 19. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Aim: Proactive detection and treatment strategies have achieved encouraging survival outcomes for patients with early peritoneal metastases (PM), but these costly and invasive approaches can only be applied to selected high-risk patients. This meta-analysis aimed to identify the risk factors for metachronous PM after curative surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC).

Method: This study was registered at PROSPERO (CRD42020219187). Databases were searched for studies comparing clinical and histopathological characteristics between patients with metachronous pmCRC and non-pmCRC.

Results: Thirty-six studies were included. Metachronous PM was positively associated with perforation (OR 1.920; 1.144 to 3.223; P = 0.014), poor differentiation (OR 2.291; 1.603 to 3.275; P < 0.001), T4 (OR 2.897; 1.248 to 6.726; P = 0.013), N1-2 (OR 3.429; 2.684 to 4.381; P < 0.001), mucinous adenocarcinoma (OR 4.175; 1.798 to 9.692; P = 0.001), obstruction (OR 4.467; 1.919 to 10.398; P = 0.001), synchronous ovarian metastases (OR 5.005; 1.140 to 21.977; P = 0.033), positive peritoneal CEA mRNA (OR 9.472; 3.643 to 24.631; P < 0.001), elevated serum CEA (preoperative group: OR 3.545; 1.486 to 8.459; P = 0.004; postoperative group: OR 13.673; 2.222 to 84.129; P = 0.005), elevated serum CA19-9 (preoperative group: OR 5.281; 2.146 to 12.994; P < 0.001; postoperative group: OR 18.646; 6.429 to 54.083; P < 0.001) and positive peritoneal cytology (OR 25.884; 11.372 to 58.913; P < 0.001).

Conclusion: These evidence-based risk factors are conducive to designing early detection and proactive treatment strategies, enabling precision medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/codi.15880DOI Listing
August 2021

Lambda-cyhalothrin-loaded nanocapsules pose an unacceptable acute toxicological risk to zebrafish (Danio rerio) at the adult and larval stages but present an acceptable risk to embryos.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Aug 8;422:126853. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Key Laboratory of Pesticide Toxicology & Application Technique, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, Shandong 271018, PR China; College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, Shandong 271018, PR China. Electronic address:

Recently, size-controlled pesticide microcapsule (MC) delivery systems have played an important role in precision farming development; however, the potential environmental hazards of MCs with different particle sizes have not been fully characterized. In this study, we prepared a series of lambda-cyhalothrin (LC)-MCs with nano and micron-scale capsule sizes (average diameters of 209.4 nm, MC-N; 2.41 µm, MC-S; 4.87 µm, MC-M; and 12.41 µm, MC-L). The assessment results showed that the release and sedimentation behavior of LC-MCs in water and toxicity to zebrafish at three life stages were all particle size-dependent. As the diameter distribution of approximately 100 nm extended to the micron scale (~27 µm), the capsules released more slowly and sunk more quickly in water. In addition, micron-sized LC-MC exposure resulted in significantly less fish mortality and malformations of larvae and embryos compared with nanosized LC-MC exposure. The highest accumulation of MC-N in the gill and the severest toxicity to larvae suggested that the smaller size and stronger permeability of nanocapsules would pose unpredictable consequences for nontargeted organisms. The obvious toxicological differences of LC-MCs toward aquatic organisms implies that regulating MC production in an appropriate size range is an important prerequisite for achieving efficient but safe pesticide applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126853DOI Listing
August 2021

Particles and corrected particles of LDL and non-HDL are stronger predicters of coronary lesion in postmenopausal women.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 08 2;21(1):369. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Special Medical Center of Chinese People's Armed Police Force, 220 Chenglin Road, Tianjin, 300162, China.

Background: The optimum lipid indexes, predicting the coronary lesion in postmenopausal women are not clear.

Objective: To evaluate the optimum lipid predicter for coronary lesion in routine and advanced lipid tests.

Method: 300 postmenopausal women were enrolled and assigned into coronary heart disease (CHD) Group (242), and non-CHD Group (58). Routine and advanced lipid indexes were measured with standard laboratory test and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The correlation and predictivities for CHD of routine and advanced lipid indexes were performed with Logistic regression, Spearman correlation analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC).

Results: Age (hazard ratio (HR) 2.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-5.86, P = 0.03), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.15-1.59, P < 0.001), corrected particles of low-density lipoprotein (LDL-p-corr) (HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.06, P < 0.001) and corrected particles of non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL-p-corr) (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03, P < 0.001) were the risk factors of CHD. LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), LDL-p, LDL-p-corr, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C), non-HDL-p and non-HDL-p-corr were in linear correlation with Gensini score. Advanced lipid indexes LDL-p (area under curve (AUC) = 0.750, P = 0.02), LDL-p-corr (AUC = 0.759, P = 0.02), non-HDL-p (AUC = 0.693, P = 0.03) and non-HDL-p-corr (AUC = 0.699, P = 0.03) were more predictive for CHD than the routine ones (LDL-C and non-HDL-C).

Conclusion: In postmenopausal women, age, ApoB, LDL-p-corr and non-HDL-p-corr were risk factors of CHD. Compared with traditional lipid items, LDL-p, LDL-p-corr, non-HDL-p and non-HDL-p-corr may be better lipid indexes for CHD in postmenopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-021-02189-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8327454PMC
August 2021

The empirical decomposition and peak path of China's tourism carbon emissions.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

School of Statistics, Dongbei University of Finance and Economics, Dalian, 116025, China.

Carbon emissions from tourism are an important indicator to measure the impact of tourism on environmental quality. As the world's largest industry, tourism has many related industries and is a strong driver of energy consumption. The emission reductions it can achieve will directly determine whether China's overall carbon emission reduction target can be met. This paper analyzes the drivers of the evolution of carbon emissions from the tourism industry in China over the period 2000-2017 as a research sample using the Generalized Dividing Index Method (GDIM), and on this basis, it uses scenario analysis and Monte Carlo simulation to predict the carbon peak in tourism for the first time. The research results show that the scale of industry and energy consumption are the key factors leading to increased tourism carbon emissions, and the carbon intensity of tourism industry, energy consumption carbon intensity, investment efficiency, and energy intensity are the main factors leading to reduced carbon emissions from tourism. The scale of investment and the carbon intensity of investment have a dual effect; the scenario analysis and Monte Carlo simulation used to predict peak carbon in China's tourism industry show that the peak carbon will occur approximately in 2030. The government needs to further guide and encourage the tourism industry to increase investment activities targeting energy conservation and emission reduction. Under the conditions of strictly implementing energy conservation and emission reduction measures and vigorous promotion of the transformation and upgrading of tourism development methods, the tourism industry will have considerable potential to reduce carbon emissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14956-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8325416PMC
July 2021

High-Temperature Ultrafast Sintering: Exploiting a New Kinetic Region to Fabricate Porous Solid-State Electrolyte Scaffolds.

Adv Mater 2021 Aug 19;33(34):e2100726. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742, USA.

Solid-state batteries (SSBs) promise better safety and potentially higher energy density than the conventional liquid- or gel-based ones. In practice, the implementation of SSBs often necessitates 3D porous scaffolds made by ceramic solid-state electrolytes (SSEs). Herein, a general and facile method to sinter 3D porous scaffolds with a range of ceramic SSEs on various substrates at high temperature in seconds is reported. The high temperature enables rapid reactive sintering toward the desired crystalline phase and expedites the surface diffusion of grains for neck growth; meanwhile, the short sintering duration limits the coarsening, thus accurately controlling the degree of densification to preserve desired porous structures, as well as reducing the loss of volatile elements. As a proof-of-concept, a composite SSE with a good ionic conductivity (i.e., ≈1.9 × 10 S cm at room temperature) is demonstrated by integrating poly(ethylene oxide) with the 3D porous Li La Zr Ta O scaffold sintered by this method. This method opens a new door toward sintering a variety of ceramic-SSE-based 3D scaffolds for all-solid-state battery applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202100726DOI Listing
August 2021

Pre-existing asthma as a comorbidity does not modify cytokine responses and severity of COVID-19.

Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol 2021 Jul 8;17(1):67. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Respiratory Medicine Unit, and Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: A significant portion of COVID-19 sufferers have asthma. The impacts of asthma on COVID-19 progression are still unclear but a modifying effect is plausible as respiratory viruses are acknowledged to be an important trigger for asthma exacerbations and a different, potentially type-2 biased, immune response might occur. In this study, we compared the blood circulating cytokine response to COVID-19 infection in patients with and without asthma.

Methods: Plasma samples and clinical information were collected from 80 patients with mild (25), severe (36) or critical (19) COVID-19 and 29 healthy subjects at the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK. The concentrations of 51 circulating proteins in the plasma samples were measured with Luminex and compared between groups.

Results: Total 16 pre-existing asthma patients were found (3 in mild, 10 in severe, and 3 in critical COVID-19). The prevalence of asthma in COVID-19 severity groups did not suggest a clear correlation between asthma and COVID-19 severity. Within the same COVID-19 severity group, no differences were observed between patients with or without asthma on oxygen saturation, CRP, neutrophil counts, and length of hospital stay. The mortality in the COVID-19 patients with asthma (12.5%) was not higher than that in patients without asthma (17.2%). No significant difference was found between asthmatic and non-asthmatic in circulating cytokine response in different COVID-19 severity groups, including the cytokines strongly implicated in COVID-19 such as CXCL10, IL-6, CCL2, and IL-8.

Conclusions: Pre-existing asthma was not associated with an enhanced cytokine response after COVID-19 infection, disease severity or mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13223-021-00569-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264490PMC
July 2021

Resveratrol, a novel inhibitor of GLUT9, ameliorates liver and kidney injuries in a D-galactose-induced ageing mouse model the regulation of uric acid metabolism.

Food Funct 2021 Sep 20;12(18):8274-8287. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510515, China.

Accumulating evidence has shown that chronic injection of D-galactose (D-gal) can mimic natural ageing and induce liver and kidney injury. Previous studies showed that D-gal increased uric acid (UA) levels in mice. The increase in UA levels caused inflammation, accelerated oxidative stress, and aggravated liver and kidney injury. Oxidative stress and inflammation play vital roles in the ageing process. Therefore, reducing the levels of UA in ageing mice improved liver and kidney injury. Glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9) is responsible for the reabsorption of UA in the body, and its inhibition helps downregulate UA levels. The present study investigated the UA-lowering activity of the GLUT9 inhibitor resveratrol (RSV) using the patch clamping technique established in our laboratory . This research is the first study to demonstrate that RSV effectively inhibits UA uptake GLUT9 (IC = 68.77 μM) . An study was also performed to investigate the possible protective effect of RSV on D-gal-induced liver and kidney injury. RSV significantly reduced serum UA levels the downregulation of GLUT9 mRNA and protein expression and promoted the excretion of excess UA through urine. Biochemical analysis showed that RSV significantly downregulated abnormal increases in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CRE) caused by long-term D-gal treatment, which effectively improved pathological damage, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and decreased the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver and kidneys. RSV also downregulated the expression of the inflammatory cytokines, interleukin IL-6, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the liver and kidneys of ageing mice. Our findings provide new insights into the treatment strategies for ageing-induced liver and kidney injury and reveal a new mechanism of RSV-induced reduction in UA levels in ageing individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo00538cDOI Listing
September 2021

Vertical migration of microplastics in porous media: Multiple controlling factors under wet-dry cycling.

J Hazard Mater 2021 10 17;419:126413. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Electronic address:

Terrestrial soils are not only a large reservoir for Microplastics (MPs), but also a possible entrance to the subsurface environment, posing potential risks to the subterranean habitats and groundwater. In this study, we examined the vertical transport of MPs of four polymers, i.e., polyethylene (PE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polypropylene (PP) and polyamide (PA), in porous sand media driven by wet-dry cycling. The effects of polymer properties, MP size, sand particle size, wet-dry cycles, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) on their migration behavior were investigated. Surface hydrophobicity showed a strong positive correlation with MP mobility, with PA exhibiting the greatest movement potential, followed by PE, PET, and PP. The penetration depth of MP particles increased with decreasing MP particle size (d) and increasing sand diameter (d). MP particles migrated deeper in sand media when d/d < 0.11. Furthermore, frequent wet-dry cycles and the presence of DOM promoted the vertical migration of MPs in the sand. The results revealed multiple factors influencing the vertical migration of MPs in sand, which is instructive for understanding the ecological risk of MPs in potentially contaminated soil (e.g., farmland with long-term mulching) to the subsurface environment and potential negative impact to public health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126413DOI Listing
October 2021

Small molecule-mediated co-assembly of amyloid-β oligomers reduces neurotoxicity through promoting non-fibrillar aggregation.

Chem Sci 2020 Jun 22;11(27):7158-7169. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing University Nanjing 210093 P. R. China

Amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers, particularly low molecular weight (LMW) oligomers, rather than fibrils, contribute very significantly to the onset and progression of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). However, due to the inherent heterogeneity and metastability of oligomers, most of the conventional anti-oligomer therapies have indirectly modulated oligomers' toxicity through manipulating Aβ self-assembly to reduce oligomer levels, which are prone to suffering from the risk of regenerating toxic oligomers from the products of modulation. To circumvent this disadvantage, we demonstrate, for the first time, rational design of rigid pincer-like scaffold-based small molecules with blood-brain barrier permeability that specifically co-assemble with LMW Aβ oligomers through directly binding to the exposed hydrophobic regions of oligomers to form non-fibrillar, degradable, non-toxic co-aggregates. As a proof of concept, treatment with a europium complex (EC) in such a structural mode can rescue Aβ-mediated dysfunction in models of AD . This small molecule-mediated oligomer co-assembly strategy offers an efficient approach for AD treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sc00392aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8159368PMC
June 2020

Von Willebrand Factor Facilitates Intravascular Dissemination of Microsporidia .

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 21;11:694957. Epub 2021 May 21.

State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

Microsporidia are a group of spore-forming, fungus-related pathogens that can infect both invertebrates and vertebrates including humans. The primary infection site is usually digestive tract, but systemic infections occur as well and cause damages to organs such as lung, brain, and liver. The systemic spread of microsporidia may be intravascular, requiring attachment and colonization in the presence of shear stress. Von Willebrand Factor (VWF) is a large multimeric intravascular protein and the key attachment sites for platelets and coagulation factors. Here in this study, we investigated the interactions between VWF and microsporidia (), and the modulating effects on after VWF binding. Microfluidic assays showed that binds to ultra-large VWF strings under shear stress. germination assay and infection assay proved that significantly increased the rates of germination and infection, and these effects would be reversed by VWF blocking antibody. Mass spectrometry analysis further revealed that VWF-incubation altered various aspects of including metabolic activity, levels of structural molecules, and protein maturation. Our findings demonstrated that VWF can bind microsporidia in circulation, and modulate its pathogenicity, including promoting germination and infection rate. VWF facilitates microsporidia intravascular spreading and systemic infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.694957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176104PMC
July 2021

Proteomic Identification of Organelles Using the Engineered Ascorbate Peroxidase APEX and Development of Silkworm Organelle Proteome Database (SilkOrganPDB).

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 10;22(9). Epub 2021 May 10.

State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China.

Silkworm is an economically important insect and a lepidopteran model. Organelle proteome is vital to understanding gene functions; however, it remains to be identified in silkworm. Here, using the engineered ascorbate peroxidase APEX, we constructed transgenic embryo cells (BmE) expressing APEX-NLS, COX4-APEX, APEX-Rev, and APEX-KDEL in nucleus, mitochondrial matrix (MM), cytosol, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and isolated the biotin-labeled proteins using streptavidin-affinity purification, respectively. The isolated proteins were determined using LC-MS/MS and annotated by searching genomes downloaded from GenBank, SilkBase, SilkDB 2.0, and SilkDB 3.0, resulting in 842, 495, 311, and 445 organelle proteins identified, respectively. We mapped the 296 MM proteins annotated in the GenBank data to mitochondrial protein databases of the fly, human, and mouse, and found that 140 (47%) proteins are homologous to 80 fly proteins, and 65 (22%) proteins match to 31 and 29 human and mouse proteins, respectively. Protein orthology was predicted in multiple insects using OrthoMCL, producing 460 families containing 839 proteins we identified. Out of 460 families, 363 were highly conserved and found in all insects, leaving only three proteins without orthology in other insects, indicating that the identified proteins are highly conserved and probably play important roles in insects. A gene ontology enrichment analysis by clusterProfiler revealed that the nucleus proteins significantly enriched in cellular component terms of nucleus and nucleolus, the MM proteins markedly enriched in molecular function terms of nucleotide binding, and the cytosol proteins mainly enriched in biological process terms of small molecule metabolism. To facilitate the usage and analysis of our data, we developed an open-access database, Silkworm Organelle Proteome Database (SilkOrganPDB), which provides multiple modules for searching, browsing, downloading, and analyzing these proteins, including BLAST, HMMER, Organelle Proteins, Protein Locations, Sequences, Gene Ontology, Homologs, and Phylogeny. In summary, our work revealed the protein composition of silkworm BmE organelles and provided a database resource helpful for understanding the functions and evolution of these proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22095051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126250PMC
May 2021

Apigenin ameliorates hyperuricemic nephropathy by inhibiting URAT1 and GLUT9 and relieving renal fibrosis via the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

Phytomedicine 2021 Jul 24;87:153585. Epub 2021 May 24.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510515, China. Electronic address:

Background: Hyperuricemia (HUA) is characterized by abnormal serum uric acid (UA) levels and demonstrated to be involved in renal injury leading to hyperuricemic nephropathy (HN). Apigenin (API), a flavonoid naturally present in tea, berries, fruits, and vegetables, exhibits various biological functions, such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity.

Purpose: To investigate the effect of API treatment in HN and to reveal its underlying mechanisms.

Methods: The mice with HN were induced by potassium oxonate intraperitoneally and orally administered for two weeks. The effects of API on renal function, inflammation, fibrosis, and uric acid (UA) metabolism in mice with HN were evaluated. The effects of API on urate transporters were further examined in vitro.

Results: The mice with HN exhibited abnormal renal urate excretion and renal dysfunction accompanied by increased renal inflammation and fibrosis. In contrast, API reduced the levels of serum UA, serum creatinine (CRE), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and renal inflammatory factors in mice with HN. Besides, API ameliorated the renal fibrosis via Wnt/β-catenin pathway suppression. Furthermore, API potently promoted urinary UA excretion and inhibited renal urate transporter 1 (URAT1) and glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9) in mice with HN. In vitro, API competitively inhibited URAT1 and GLUT9 in a dose-dependent manner, with IC values of 0.64 ± 0.14 μM and 2.63 ± 0.69 μM, respectively.

Conclusions: API could effectively attenuate HN through co-inhibiting UA reabsorption and Wnt/β-catenin pathway, and thus it might be a potential therapy to HN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153585DOI Listing
July 2021

miR-33a-5p Suppresses ox-LDL-Stimulated Calcification of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Targeting METTL3.

Cardiovasc Toxicol 2021 Sep 24;21(9):737-746. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Xuhui Central Hospital, No. 966 Middle Huaihai Road, Shanghai, 200031, China.

Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) accumulation in the vascular wall plays a pivotal role in the development of atherosclerosis and vascular calcification. However, few studies focus on the regulatory roles of microRNAs in ox-LDL stimulated vascular calcification. The aim of the present study was to investigate how miR-33a-5p regulated vascular calcification stimulated by ox-LDL. In the present study, miR-33a-5p was downregulated during vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) calcification and upon ox-LDL treatment. ox-LDL significantly stimulated VSMCs calcification, while miR-33a-5p overexpression by its mimics transfection inhibited alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralization and marker genes associated with VSMCs calcification even in the presence of ox-LDL. Methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3) was the target gene of miR-33a-5p. METTL3 was upregulated during VSMCs calcification and upon ox-LDL treatment. When VSMCs were transfected with miR-33a-5p mimics, METTL3 was downregulated. METTL3 downregulation by siRNA method decreased VSMCs calcification even in the presence of ox-LDL. Taken together, these results suggest miR-33a-5p suppresses VSMCs calcification stimulated by ox-LDL via targeting METTL3, highlighting the critical role of miR-33a-5p/METTL3 in vascular calcification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12012-021-09663-0DOI Listing
September 2021

Application of a crisis management nursing system in the novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(4):3689-3695. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Director of The Hospital, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Qiqihar Medical University Qiqihar, Heilongjiang Province, China.

Objective: To explore the application of a nursing crisis management system in the novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic.

Methods: A retrospective nursing method was implemented. A total of 280 cases of patients were diagnosed with coronavirus pneumonia in the isolation ward of our hospital. The 280 cases of newly diagnosed pneumonia were divided into two groups: the nursing crisis management system group (n=150, the nursing crisis management was given) and the non-nursing crisis management system (n=130, routine nursing management was given). The psychological status (profile of mood states (POMS) score) of nursing staff before and after the implementation of the nursing crisis management, the psychological status of patients after the implementation of nursing crisis management (POMS score), emotion, cognition, behavior severity, patients' satisfaction with nursing, treatment compliance (Morisky Medication Compliance Scale (MMAS) score) of patients, the rate of cure of patients and the infection rate of nursing staff were compared.

Results: Compared with the non-nursing crisis management system group, the POMS scores of patients and nurses in the nursing crisis management system group decreased (all P<0.05). Compared with the non-nursing crisis management system group, the emotional, cognitive and behavioral scores of patients in the nursing crisis management system group were lower, while the MMAS score, satisfaction with nursing and cure rate were significantly increased (all P<0.05). The 142 nursing staff did not catch coronavirus.

Conclusion: During the novel coronavirus pneumonia outbreak and the current normal epidemic prevention and control periods, our crisis management mode was introduced into nursing work. The construction of the nursing crisis management mode under the epidemic situation can improve the psychological state and improve the management efficiency of the patients and nurses. The patients' satisfaction is high and the treatment compliance is good.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8129237PMC
April 2021

Prediction models for acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: a protocol for systematic review and critical appraisal.

BMJ Open 2021 05 19;11(5):e046274. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Anorectal Surgery, Anorectal Disease Institute of Shuguang Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China

Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) has high morbidity and mortality in intensive care units, which can lead to chronic kidney disease, more costs and longer hospital stay. Early identification of AKI is crucial for clinical intervention. Although various risk prediction models have been developed to identify AKI, the overall predictive performance varies widely across studies. Owing to the different disease scenarios and the small number of externally validated cohorts in different prediction models, the stability and applicability of these models for AKI in critically ill patients are controversial. Moreover, there are no current risk-classification tools that are standardised for prediction of AKI in critically ill patients. The purpose of this systematic review is to map and assess prediction models for AKI in critically ill patients based on a comprehensive literature review.

Methods And Analysis: A systematic review with meta-analysis is designed and will be conducted according to the CHecklist for critical Appraisal and data extraction for systematic Reviews of prediction Modelling Studies (CHARMS). Three databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library and EMBASE from inception through October 2020 will be searched to identify all studies describing development and/or external validation of original multivariable models for predicting AKI in critically ill patients. Random-effects meta-analyses for external validation studies will be performed to estimate the performance of each model. The restricted maximum likelihood estimation and the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method under a random-effects model will be applied to estimate the summary C statistic and 95% CI. 95% prediction interval integrating the heterogeneity will also be calculated to pool C-statistics to predict a possible range of C-statistics of future validation studies. Two investigators will extract data independently using the CHARMS checklist. Study quality or risk of bias will be assessed using the Prediction Model Risk of Bias Assessment Tool.

Ethics And Dissemination: Ethical approval and patient informed consent are not required because all information will be abstracted from published literatures. We plan to share our results with clinicians and publish them in a general or critical care medicine peer-reviewed journal. We also plan to present our results at critical care international conferences.

Osf Registration Number: 10.17605/OSF.IO/X25AT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-046274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8137185PMC
May 2021

The Roles of Type 2 Cytotoxic T Cells in Inflammation, Tissue Remodeling, and Prostaglandin (PG) D Production Are Attenuated by PGD Receptor 2 Antagonism.

J Immunol 2021 06 19;206(11):2714-2724. Epub 2021 May 19.

Respiratory Medicine Unit and National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom;

Human type 2 cytotoxic T (Tc2) cells are enriched in severe eosinophilic asthma and can contribute to airway eosinophilia. PGD and its receptor PGD receptor 2 (DP2) play important roles in Tc2 cell activation, including migration, cytokine production, and survival. In this study, we revealed novel, to our knowledge, functions of the PGD/DP2 axis in Tc2 cells to induce tissue-remodeling effects and IgE-independent PGD autocrine production. PGD upregulated the expression of tissue-remodeling genes in Tc2 cells that enhanced the fibroblast proliferation and protein production required for tissue repair and myofibroblast differentiation. PGD stimulated Tc2 cells to produce PGD using the routine PGD synthesis pathway, which also contributed to TCR-dependent PGD production in Tc2 cells. Using fevipiprant, a specific DP2 antagonist, we demonstrated that competitive inhibition of DP2 not only completely blocked the cell migration, adhesion, proinflammatory cytokine production, and survival of Tc2 cells triggered by PGD but also attenuated the tissue-remodeling effects and autocrine/paracrine PGD production in Tc2 induced by PGD and other stimulators. These findings further confirmed the anti-inflammatory effect of fevipiprant and provided a better understanding of the role of Tc2 cells in the pathogenesis of asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.2001245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610864PMC
June 2021

Survival and pretreatment prognostic factors for extensive-stage small cell lung cancer: A comprehensive analysis of 358 patients.

Thorac Cancer 2021 07 9;12(13):1943-1951. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing Key Laboratory of Clinical Study on Anticancer Molecular Targeted Drugs, Beijing, China.

Background: Extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) is deemed as a fatal malignancy with a poor prognosis. Although immunotherapy has gradually played an important role in the treatment of ES-SCLC since 2018, ES-SCLC treatment data and patient outcome before 2018, when chemotherapy served as a fundamental therapeutic strategy, is still meaningful as a summary of the situation regarding previous medical treatment and is a baseline for comparative data. In addition, the prognostic factors of ES-SCLC have failed to reach a consensus until now. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate survival and identify the prognostic factors in an ES-SCLC population.

Methods: We retrospectively collected the detailed medical records of 358 patients with ES-SCLC from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2018 in a Chinese top-level cancer hospital. The prognostic factors were evaluated by Cox univariate and multivariate analysis.

Results: The median overall survival (OS) of ES-SCLC patients (N = 358) was 14.0 months, the one- and two-year OS rates were 56.2% and 21.7%, respectively. Moreover, we identified two demographic characters (age ≥ 70, smoking index ≥ 400), one tumor burden factor (bone multimetastasis), two tumor biomarkers (cyfra211, CA125) and two laboratory indexes (decreased Na, PLR < 76) as independent prognostic factors for OS in this patient population. Progression-free survival (PFS) data of 238 patients was obtained for further analysis, and the median PFS was 6.2 months, and six-month and one-year PFS rates were 51.7% and 14.3%, respectively. Elevated cyfra211, decreased Hb and Na were identified as independent prognostic factors for PFS.

Conclusions: This study provides real-world evidence of the survival and prognosis of ES-SCLC patients which will enable better evaluation and clinical decision-making in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.13977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258353PMC
July 2021

Microsporidia infection upregulates host energy metabolism but maintains ATP homeostasis.

J Invertebr Pathol 2021 Apr 25:107596. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Microsporidia Infection and Control, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China; College of Life Science, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 400047, China. Electronic address:

Microsporidia are a group of obligate intracellular parasites which lack mitochondria and have highly reduced genomes. Therefore, they are unable to produce ATP via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Instead, they have evolved strategies to obtain and manipulate host metabolism to acquire nutrients. However, little is known about how microsporidia modulate host energy metabolisms. Here, we present the first targeted metabolomics study to investigate changes in host energy metabolism as a result of infection by a microsporidian. Metabolites of silkworm embryo cell (BmE) were measured 48 hours post infection by Nosema bombycis. Thirty metabolites were detected, nine of which were upregulated and mainly involved in glycolysis (glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate) and the TCA cycle (succinate, α-ketoglutarate, cis-aconitate, isocitrate, citrate, fumarate). Pathway enrichment analysis suggested that the upregulated metabolites could promote the synthesization of nucleotides, fatty acids, and amino acids by the host. ATP concentration in host cells, however, was not significantly changed by the infection. This ATP homeostasis was also found in Encephalitozoon hellem infected mouse macrophage RAW264.7, human monocytic leukemia THP-1, human embryonic kidney 293, and human foreskin fibroblast cells. These findings suggest that microsporidia have evolved strategies to maintain levels of ATP in the host while stimulating metabolic pathways to provide additional nutrients for the parasite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jip.2021.107596DOI Listing
April 2021

Discovery of electrochemically induced grain boundary transitions.

Nat Commun 2021 Apr 22;12(1):2374. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Nanoengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Electric fields and currents, which are used in innovative materials processing and electrochemical energy conversion, can often alter microstructures in unexpected ways. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Using ZnO-BiO as a model system, this study uncovers how an applied electric current can change the microstructural evolution through an electrochemically induced grain boundary transition. By combining aberration-corrected electron microscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, first-principles calculations, a generalizable thermodynamic model, and ab initio molecular dynamics, this study reveals that electrochemical reduction can cause a grain boundary disorder-to-order transition to markedly increase grain boundary diffusivities and mobilities. Consequently, abruptly enhanced or abnormal grain growth takes place. These findings advance our fundamental knowledge of grain boundary complexion (phase-like) transitions and electric field effects on microstructural stability and evolution, with broad scientific and technological impacts. A new method to tailor the grain boundary structures and properties, as well as the microstructures, electrochemically can also be envisioned.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22669-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8062690PMC
April 2021

Modeling the Conditional Fragmentation-Induced Microplastic Distribution.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 05 11;55(9):6012-6021. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Microplastics (MPs) are drawing increasing attention from the international community due to their potential threats to the ecosystem and human health. Although their occurrence and spatial distribution have been extensively studied in recent years, the relationship between their abundance and sizes remains unclear. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms dominating their size distribution have rarely been explored. In the present study, we developed a novel conditional fragmentation model to describe MP size distribution in the soil environment. It is proposed that the distribution of MPs is not a coincidence but controlled by conditional aging. The applicability of this model was tested using data collected from different land use settings in Beijing, China. A distinct downsizing phenomenon from fibers, films, and fragments to granules is observed. Undisturbed land use types accumulated larger sized MPs with higher stability, while human interference accelerated the fragmentation of MPs. Both morphological analysis and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) observations provided direct evidence for the conditional fragmentation process. Furthermore, the model has proven to be suitable for describing the size distribution of MPs from various sources (including atmospheric deposition, transportation, and agriculture) and aging processes (such as mechanical abrasion, chemical oxidation, and photochemical transformation). It is proposed that this model can be used for various purposes in MP-related studies, especially source identification, transport modeling, and risk assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c01042DOI Listing
May 2021

[Effects of Heat Treatment Conditions on Shape Memory Recovery of NiTi Self-expanding Vascular Stents].

Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi 2021 Apr;45(2):119-124

Shanghai MicroPort Medical(Group) Co. Ltd., Shanghai, 201203.

Effects of heat treatment conditions (including temperature and time) on the shape memory recovery and corrosion resistance of NiTi self-expanding vascular stents were studied based on working mechanism and clinical use. The temperature, dimensional recovery, crush resistance with radially applied load and point applied load of stents and corrosion resistance were characterized in diffident heat treatment conditions. The research results allow the conclusion that the stent treated at 500 ℃ for 10 min has optimum performance, and corrosion resistance meets the requirements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1671-7104.2021.02.001DOI Listing
April 2021

The prediction of asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis with electronic health records: a comparative study of six machine learning models.

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2021 04 5;21(1):115. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, No. 157 West Five Road, Xi'an, 710004, Shaanxi, China.

Background: Screening carotid B-mode ultrasonography is a frequently used method to detect subjects with carotid atherosclerosis (CAS). Due to the asymptomatic progression of most CAS patients, early identification is challenging for clinicians, and it may trigger ischemic stroke. Recently, machine learning has shown a strong ability to classify data and a potential for prediction in the medical field. The combined use of machine learning and the electronic health records of patients could provide clinicians with a more convenient and precise method to identify asymptomatic CAS.

Methods: Retrospective cohort study using routine clinical data of medical check-up subjects from April 19, 2010 to November 15, 2019. Six machine learning models (logistic regression [LR], random forest [RF], decision tree [DT], eXtreme Gradient Boosting [XGB], Gaussian Naïve Bayes [GNB], and K-Nearest Neighbour [KNN]) were used to predict asymptomatic CAS and compared their predictability in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCROC), accuracy (ACC), and F1 score (F1).

Results: Of the 18,441 subjects, 6553 were diagnosed with asymptomatic CAS. Compared to DT (AUCROC 0.628, ACC 65.4%, and F1 52.5%), the other five models improved prediction: KNN + 7.6% (0.704, 68.8%, and 50.9%, respectively), GNB + 12.5% (0.753, 67.0%, and 46.8%, respectively), XGB + 16.0% (0.788, 73.4%, and 55.7%, respectively), RF + 16.6% (0.794, 74.5%, and 56.8%, respectively) and LR + 18.1% (0.809, 74.7%, and 59.9%, respectively). The highest achieving model, LR predicted 1045/1966 cases (sensitivity 53.2%) and 3088/3566 non-cases (specificity 86.6%). A tenfold cross-validation scheme further verified the predictive ability of the LR.

Conclusions: Among machine learning models, LR showed optimal performance in predicting asymptomatic CAS. Our findings set the stage for an early automatic alarming system, allowing a more precise allocation of CAS prevention measures to individuals probably to benefit most.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12911-021-01480-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020544PMC
April 2021
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