Publications by authors named "Jian Kong"

369 Publications

Comparison of initial tumor responses to transarterial bland embolization and drug-eluting beads-transarterial chemoembolization in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma: a propensity-score matching analysis.

J Gastrointest Oncol 2021 Aug;12(4):1838-1850

Department of Interventional Radiology, Shenzhen People's Hospital (Second Clinical Medical College of Jinan University, First Affiliated Hospital of Southern University of Science and Technology), Shenzhen, China.

Background: Transarterial bland embolization (TABE) is widely used to treat the spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and can lead to ischemic necrosis of the tumor. In this study, we used the propensity-score matching (PSM) method to compare the initial responses of treatment-naïve HCC patients to TABE and drug-eluting beads-transarterial chemoembolization (DEB-TACE), and the safety of these treatments.

Methods: Patients with treatment-naïve HCC, who had been admitted to 2 medical centers from January 2016 to December 2020, were enrolled as the research subjects. The data of 26 patients treated with TABE for ruptured HCC and 52 patients treated with DEB-TACE for primary HCC were collected according to our inclusion and exclusion criteria, and a PSM analysis was conducted to assess the safety and effectiveness of these two interventional techniques 1 month postoperatively.

Results: In relation to ruptured HCC, TABE had a hemostatic success rate of 97.0%. Before PSM, the TABE group had a larger maximum tumor diameter (P<0.05), a higher proportion of multiple tumors (P<0.05), a higher proportion of Child-Pugh class B (P<0.05), and a higher proportion of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage B (P<0.05) than the DEB-TACE group. After PSM, the baseline characteristics of these two groups were well balanced, and there was no significant difference in patients' initial therapeutic responses and tumor recurrence rates (both P>0.05). The multivariate regression analysis showed that tumor size was an independent predictor of the objective response rate (ORR) [odds ratio (OR): 3.312; 95% CI: 0.152-5.944; P<0.05]. Tumor number and BCLC stage also affected ORR; however, ORR was not significantly correlated with the interventional technique (TABE DEB-TACE; P>0.05). The incidences of post-embolization syndrome (PES) and 48-h hepatotoxicity were significantly lower in the TABE group than the DEB-TACE group (both P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in hepatotoxicity after 1 month (P>0.05).

Conclusions: TABE is highly effective at managing hemorrhage from ruptured HCC. The initial therapeutic response of HCC to TABE is similar to that to DEB-TACE; however, TABE is associated with lower hepatotoxicity and fewer adverse effects, which paves the way for subsequent treatments and systemic therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jgo-21-370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8421872PMC
August 2021

Pulmonary Benefits of Intervention with Air Cleaner among Schoolchildren in Beijing: A Randomized Double-Blind Crossover Study.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Key Laboratory of Environment and Human Health, National Institute of Environmental Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100021, China.

We conducted a crossover study employing air cleaner intervention among 125 schoolchildren aged 9-12 years in a boarding school in Beijing, China. The PM concentrations were monitored, and 27 biomarkers were analyzed. We used the linear mixed-effects model to evaluate the association of intervention/time-weighted PM concentrations with biomarkers. The outcomes showed that air cleaner intervention was associated with FeNO, exhaled breath condensate (EBC) IL-1β, and IL-6, which decreased by 12.57%, 10.83%, and 4.33%, respectively. Similar results were observed in the associations with PMs. Lag 1 day PMs had the strongest relationship with biomarkers, and significant changes were observed in biomarkers such as FEV, FeNO, EBC 8-iso, and MCP-1. Boys showed higher percentage changes than girls, and the related biomarkers were FeNO, EBC 4-HNE, IL-1β, IL-6, and MCP-1. The results showed that biomarkers such as FeNO, EBC IL-6, MCP-1, and 4-HNE could sensitively reflect the early abnormal response of the respiratory system under short-term PM exposure among healthy schoolchildren and indicated that (1) air cleaners exert a protective effect on children's respiratory system. (2) PM had lag and cumulative effect, lag 1 day had the greatest effect. (3) The boys were more sensitive than the girls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c03146DOI Listing
September 2021

Different modulation effects of 1 Hz and 20 Hz transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation on the functional connectivity of the periaqueductal gray in patients with migraine.

J Transl Med 2021 08 17;19(1):354. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Background: A growing body of evidence suggests that transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) may relieve symptoms of migraineurs. Frequency is one of the key stimulation parameters. The aim of this study is to investigate the modulation effect of taVNS frequency on the descending pain modulation system (DPMS) in patients with migraine.

Methods: Twenty-four episodic migraineurs without aura (21 females) were recruited for the single-blind, crossover, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. Each participant attended two separate fMRI scan sessions, one for 1 Hz and another for 20 Hz taVNS, in a random order. Seed-based functional connectivity analysis was applied using the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (PAG) as the region of interest.

Results: Compared with the pre-taVNS resting state, continuous 1 Hz taVNS (during) produced a significant increase in functional connectivity between the PAG and the bilateral middle cingulate cortex (MCC), right precuneus, left middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and left cuneus. Compared with 20 Hz taVNS, 1 Hz taVNS produced greater PAG connectivity increases with the MCC, right precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, left insula, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). A significant negative correlation was observed between the number of migraine attacks in the previous 4 weeks and the PAG-MCC functional connectivity in the pre-taVNS resting-state before 1 Hz taVNS.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that taVNS with different frequencies may produce different modulation effects on the descending pain modulation system, demonstrating the important role of stimulation frequency in taVNS treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-021-03024-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371886PMC
August 2021

Potential scalp stimulation targets for mental disorders: evidence from neuroimaging studies.

J Transl Med 2021 08 10;19(1):343. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, 02129, USA.

Mental disorders widely contribute to the modern global disease burden, creating a significant need for improvement of treatments. Scalp stimulation methods (such as scalp acupuncture and transcranial electrical stimulation) have shown promising results in relieving psychiatric symptoms. However, neuroimaging findings haven't been well-integrated into scalp stimulation treatments. Identifying surface brain regions associated with mental disorders would expand target selection and the potential for these interventions as treatments for mental disorders. In this study, we performed large-scale meta-analyses separately on eight common mental disorders: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorder, autism spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, compulsive disorder, major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and schizophrenia; utilizing modern neuroimaging literature to summarize disorder-associated surface brain regions, and proposed neuroimaging-based target protocols. We found that the medial frontal gyrus, the supplementary motor area, and the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex are commonly involved in the pathophysiology of mental disorders. The target protocols we proposed may provide new brain targets for scalp stimulation in the treatment of mental disorders, and facilitate its clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-021-02993-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8353731PMC
August 2021

The N-terminus of Lactobacillus amylovorus feruloyl esterase plays an important role in its secretion by Lactobacillus plantarum and Escherichia coli.

Microb Cell Fact 2021 Aug 3;20(1):152. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, No.72, Binhai Road, Qingdao, 266237, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

Background: Feruloyl esterase is a multifunctional esterase with potential industrial applications. In the present study, we found the Lactobacillus amylovorus feruloyl esterase (FaeLam) could be secreted by L. plantarum and Escherichia coli. However, no signal peptide was detected in this protein as predicted by SignalP-5.0. Therefore, experiments were carried out to propose an explanation for the extracellular release of FaeLam.

Results: Here, we identified that the FaeLam could be secreted to the culture medium of L. plantarum CGMCC6888 and E. coli DH5α, respectively. To exclude the possibility that FaeLam secretion was caused by its hydrolytic activity on the cell membrane, the inactive FaeLam was constructed and it could still be secreted out of L. plantarum and E. coli cells. Furthermore, the truncated version of the FaeLam without the N-terminal residues was constructed and demonstrated the importance of the 20 amino acids of N-terminus (N20) on FaeLam secretion. In addition, fusion of heterologous proteins with N20 or FaeLam could carry the target protein out of the cells. These results indicated the N-terminus of FaeLam played the key role in the export process.

Conclusions: We proved the N-terminus of L. amylovorus FaeLam plays an important role in its secretion by L. plantarum and E. coli. To our best knowledge, this is the first reported protein which can be secreted out of the cells of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, the results of this study may provide a new method for protein secretion in L. plantarum and E. coli through fusion the target protein to N20 of FaeLam.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12934-021-01645-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8335865PMC
August 2021

A qPCR-based method for rapid quantification of six intestinal homeostasis-relevant bacterial genera in feces.

Future Microbiol 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, Qingdao, 266237, China.

Developing efficient methods for monitoring the complex microbial community to rapidly assess the health status. The qPCR-based method was developed, verified and applied in fecal samples. Six primer pairs with high specificity were designed to perform qPCR assays under a unified reaction condition within 2.5 h. The limits of detection, amplification efficiency and feasibility of the qPCR-based method established here were verified. application of 18 fecal samples showed that the amounts of , and in colorectal cancer patient feces were obviously lower than those of healthy volunteers. This qPCR-based method was a reliable tool for rapid quantification of the six intestinal homeostasis relevant bacterial genera in feces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fmb-2020-0269DOI Listing
August 2021

Modulatory effects of actual and imagined acupuncture on the functional connectivity of the periaqueductal grey and ventral tegmental area.

Psychosom Med 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA Martinos Brain Imaging Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA.

Objective: Both acupuncture and guided imagery hold promise for treating pain. The mechanisms underlying these alternative interventions remain unclear. The reported study aimed to comparatively investigate the modulation effect of actual and imagined acupuncture on the functional connectivity of descending pain modulation system and reward network.

Methods: Twenty-four healthy participants (mean [SE], 25.21 [0.77] years of age; 66.67% female) completed a crossover study that included five sessions, a training session and four intervention sessions administered in randomized order. We investigated the modulation effect of real acupuncture, sham acupuncture, video-guided acupuncture imagery treatment (VGAIT) and VGAIT control on the resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of periaqueductal gray (PAG) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). These are key regions of the descending pain modulatory system (DPMS) and dopaminergic reward system, respectively.

Results: Compared with sham acupuncture, real acupuncture produced decreased PAG-precuneus (Pcu) rsFC and increased VTA-amygdala/hippocampus rsFC. Heat pain threshold changes applied on the contralateral forearm were significantly associated with the decreased PAG-Pcu (r = 0.49, p = 0.016) and increased VTA-hippocampus rsFC (r = -0.77, p < 0.001).Compared to VGAIT control, VGAIT produced decreased PAG-paracentral lobule (PCL)/posterior cingulate cortex/Pcu, middle cingulate cortex (MCC), and medial prefrontal cortex rsFC, and decreased VTA-caudate and MCC rsFC.Direct comparison between real acupuncture and VGAIT showed that VGAIT decreased rsFC in PAG-PCL/MCC, VTA-caudate/anterior cingulate cortex/nucleus accumbens, and VTA-MCC.

Conclusions: Results suggest that both actual and imagined acupuncture can modulate key regions in DPMS and reward networks, but through different pathways. Identification of different pain-relief mechanisms may facilitate the development of new pain management methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000984DOI Listing
July 2021

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) over the Left Dorsal Lateral Prefrontal Cortex in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

Neural Plast 2021 19;2021:6627507. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA.

Recently, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been applied to relieve symptoms in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this prospective, parallel, single-blinded, randomized study, we investigate the modulation effect of three-week tDCS treatment at the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in children with ASD. 47 children with ASD were enrolled, and 40 (20 in each group) completed the study. The primary outcomes are Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R). We found that children with ASD can tolerate three-week tDCS treatment with no serious adverse events detected. A within-group comparison showed that real tDCS, but not sham tDCS, can significantly reduce the scores of CARS, Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and general impressions in CARS (15th item). Real tDCS produced significant score reduction in the CSHQ and in CARS general impressions when compared to the effects of sham tDCS. The pilot study suggests that three-week left DLPFC tDCS is well-tolerated and may hold potential in relieving some symptoms in children with ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6627507DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245257PMC
June 2021

Mind-Body Exercise Modulates Locus Coeruleus and Ventral Tegmental Area Functional Connectivity in Individuals With Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 14;13:646807. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, United States.

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a common global health problem. Recently, the potential of mind-body intervention for MCI has drawn the interest of investigators. This study aims to comparatively explore the modulation effect of Baduanjin, a popular mind-body exercise, and physical exercise on the cognitive function, as well as the norepinephrine and dopamine systems using the resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) method in patients with MCI. 69 patients were randomized to the Baduanjin, brisk walking, or healthy education control group for 6 months. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were applied at baseline and at the end of the experiment. Results showed that (1) compared to the brisk walking, the Baduanjin significantly increased MoCA scores; (2) Baduanjin significantly increased the right locus coeruleus (LC) and left ventral tegmental area (VTA) rsFC with the right insula and right amygdala compared to that of the control group; and the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) compared to that of the brisk walking group; (3) the increased right LC-right insula rsFC and right LC-right ACC rsFC were significantly associated with the corresponding MoCA score after 6-months of intervention; (4) both exercise groups experienced an increased effective connectivity from the right ACC to the left VTA compared to the control group; and (5) Baduanjin group experienced an increase in gray matter volume in the right ACC compared to the control group. Our results suggest that Baduanjin can significantly modulate intrinsic functional connectivity and the influence of the norepinephrine (LC) and dopamine (VTA) systems. These findings may shed light on the mechanisms of mind-body intervention and aid the development of new treatments for MCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.646807DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8236862PMC
June 2021

Genetic tools for the development of recombinant lactic acid bacteria.

Microb Cell Fact 2021 Jun 19;20(1):118. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, Qingdao, 266237, People's Republic of China.

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a phylogenetically diverse group with the ability to convert soluble carbohydrates into lactic acid. Many LAB have a long history of safe use in fermented foods and are recognized as food-grade microorganisms. LAB are also natural inhabitants of the human intestinal tract and have beneficial effects on health. Considering these properties, LAB have potential applications as biotherapeutic vehicles to delivery cytokines, antigens and other medicinal molecules. In this review, we summarize the development of, and advances in, genome manipulation techniques for engineering LAB and the expected future development of such genetic tools. These methods are crucial for us to maximize the value of LAB. We also discuss applications of the genome-editing tools in enhancing probiotic characteristics and therapeutic functionalities of LAB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12934-021-01607-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8214781PMC
June 2021

Can mind-body exercises be a solution for an aging / aged society?

Authors:
Jian Kong

Brain Behav Immun 2021 08 30;96:290-291. Epub 2021 May 30.

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2021.05.029DOI Listing
August 2021

Period doubling and merging of multiple dissipative-soliton-resonance pulses in a fiber laser.

Appl Opt 2021 Apr;60(12):3322-3326

Period doubling (PD) and the merging of multiple dissipative-soliton-resonance (DSR) pulses are investigated in a fiber laser. Depending on the initial conditions and operation settings, various PDs of multiple DSR pulses are achieved. For two coexisting DSR pulses, we observe PD on both pulses or PD on a single pulse while the other pulse maintains period one. For three coexisting DSR pulses, PD on all pulses or PD on one/two pulse(s) are achieved when the other pulses maintain period one. It is observed that excessively increasing the pump power could destroy the PD behavior. Within certain parameters, PD behavior can be maintained by increasing the pump power. Apart from the appearance of PD, it is found that two DSR pulses may merge into a single DSR pulse if the pulse interval is small enough during pump power increase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.420725DOI Listing
April 2021

Manipulating placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia by changing brain excitability.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(19)

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129;

Harnessing placebo and nocebo effects has significant implications for research and medical practice. Placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia, the most well-studied placebo and nocebo effects, are thought to initiate from the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and then trigger the brain's descending pain modulatory system and other pain regulation pathways. Combining repeated transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), an expectancy manipulation model, and functional MRI, we investigated the modulatory effects of anodal and cathodal tDCS at the right DLPFC on placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia using a randomized, double-blind and sham-controlled design. We found that compared with sham tDCS, active tDCS could 1) boost placebo and blunt nocebo effects and 2) modulate brain activity and connectivity associated with placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia. These results provide a basis for mechanistic manipulation of placebo and nocebo effects and may lead to improved clinical outcomes in medical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2101273118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126770PMC
May 2021

Perturbing fMRI brain dynamics using transcranial direct current stimulation.

Neuroimage 2021 08 29;237:118100. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, United States; Department of Radiology, Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, United States. Electronic address:

The dynamic nature of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain activity and connectivity has drawn great interest in the past decade. Specific temporal properties of fMRI brain dynamics, including metrics such as occurrence rate and transitions, have been associated with cognition and behaviors, indicating the existence of mechanism distruption in neuropsychiatric disorders. The development of new methods to manipulate fMRI brain dynamics will advance our understanding of these pathophysiological mechanisms from native observation to experimental mechanistic manipulation. In the present study, we applied repeated transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFC) and the left orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC), during multiple simultaneous tDCS-fMRI sessions from 81 healthy participants to assess the modulatory effects of stimulating target brain regions on fMRI brain dynamics. Using the rDLPFC and the lOFC as seeds, respectively, we first identified two reoccurring co-activation patterns (CAPs) and calculated their temporal properties (e.g., occurrence rate and transitions) before administering tDCS. The spatial maps of CAPs were associated with different cognitive and disease domains using meta-analytical decoding analysis. We then investigated how active tDCS compared to sham tDCS in the modulation of the occurrence rates of these different CAPs and perturbations of transitions between CAPs. We found that by enhancing neuronal excitability of the rDLPFC and the lOFC, the occurrence rate of one CAP was significantly decreased while that of another CAP was significantly increased during the first 6 min of stimulation. Furthermore, these tDCS-associated changes persisted over subsequent testing sessions (both during and before/after tDCS) across three consecutive days. Active tDCS could perturb transitions between CAPs and a non-CAP state (when the rDLPFC and the lOFC were not activated), but not the transitions within CAPs. These results demonstrate the feasibility of modulating fMRI brain dynamics, and open new possibilities for discovering stimulation targets and dynamic connectivity patterns that can ensure the propagation of tDCS-induced neuronal excitability, which may facilitate the development of new treatments for disorders with altered dynamics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8291729PMC
August 2021

Altered Extended Locus Coeruleus and Ventral Tegmental Area Networks in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Resting-State Functional Connectivity Study.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2021 22;17:1207-1216. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Introduction: Previous studies have suggested that cerebral projections of the norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) systems have important etiology and treatment implications for autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Methods: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate spontaneous resting state functional connectivity in boys aged 7-15 years with ASD (n=86) and age-, intelligence quotient-matched typically developing boys (TD, n=118). Specifically, we investigated functional connectivity of the locus coeruleus (LC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), the main source projection of neurotransmitters NE and DA, respectively.

Results: 1) Both the LC and VTA showed reduced connectivity with the postcentral gyrus (PoCG) in boys with ASD, reflecting the potential roles of NE and DA in modulating the function of the somatosensory cortex in boys with ASD. 2) The VTA had increased connectivity with bilateral thalamus in ASD; this alteration was correlated with repetitive and restrictive features. 3) Altered functional connectivity of both the LC and VTA with brain regions such as the angular gyrus (AG), middle temporal gyrus visual area (MT/V5), and occipital face area (OFA) in ASD group.

Discussion: Our findings implicate the role of LC-NE and VTA-DA systems from the perspective of functional neuroimaging and may shed light on pharmacological studies targeting NE and DA for the treatment of autism in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S301106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8075355PMC
April 2021

Preparation of Al-Si alloys with silicon cutting waste from diamond wire sawing process.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jul 17;290:112548. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, 110819, PR China. Electronic address:

Large amounts of silicon cutting waste (SCW) are generated during Si wafers producing process. In this paper, SCW was mixed with Al powder to prepare Al-Si alloys by a one-step smelting process in corundum crucibles. The influences of smelting temperature (1000 °C, 1200 °C and 1500 °C) on the products of each zone (surface layer zone, loose granular zone and blocky products zone) were investigated. Al-Si alloys in the form of granular and blocky were prepared and the blocky Al-Si alloys mainly concentrated in the blocky products zone. The increase of smelting temperature can promote the aggregation of Al-Si alloy particles. The yields of Al-Si alloy blocks obtained at 1000 °C, 1200 °C and 1500 °C were 0%, 58% and 69%, respectively. The Si contents of Al-Si alloy blocks at 1200 °C and 1500 °C were 15.8 wt% and 17.1 wt% respectively. After compacting the raw materials, the yields of the blocky Al-Si alloys obtained at 1000 °C, 1200 °C and 1500 °C were increased to 65%, 72% and 79% and the corresponding Si contents of the blocky Al-Si alloys were increased to 16.0 wt%, 16.5 wt% and 17.3 wt% respectively. The reaction mechanism of the alloying process was also investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112548DOI Listing
July 2021

Study of Spatial and Temporal Variations of Ionospheric Total Electron Content in Japan, during 2014-2019 and the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 19;21(6). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Chinese Antarctic Center of Surveying and Mapping, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China.

There are a large number of excellent research cases in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning and disaster prediction in Japan region, where the simulation and prediction of total electron content (TEC) is a powerful research method. In this study, we used the data of the GNSS Earth Observation Network (GEONET) established by the Geographical Survey Institute of Japan (GSI) to compare the performance of two regional ionospheric models in Japan, in which the spherical cap harmonic (SCH) model has the best performance. In this paper, we investigated the spatial and temporal variations of ionospheric TEC in Japan and their relationship with latitude, longitude, seasons, and solar activity. The results show that the TEC in Japan increases as the latitude decreases, with the highest average TEC in spring and summer and the lowest in winter, and has a strong correlation with solar activity. In addition, the observation and analysis of ionospheric disturbances over Japan before the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake and geomagnetic storms showed that GNSS observing of ionospheric TEC seems to be very effective in forecasting natural disasters and monitoring space weather.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21062156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8003414PMC
March 2021

How expectations of pain elicited by consciously and unconsciously perceived cues unfold over time.

Neuroimage 2021 07 21;235:117985. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA; Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Expectation can shape the perception of pain within a fraction of time, but little is known about how perceived expectation unfolds over time and modulates pain perception. Here, we combine magnetoencephalography (MEG) and machine learning approaches to track the neural dynamics of expectations of pain in healthy participants with both sexes. We found that the expectation of pain, as conditioned by facial cues, can be decoded from MEG as early as 150 ms and up to 1100 ms after cue onset, but decoding expectation elicited by unconsciously perceived cues requires more time and decays faster compared to consciously perceived ones. Also, results from temporal generalization suggest that neural dynamics of decoding cue-based expectation were predominately sustained during cue presentation but transient after cue presentation. Finally, although decoding expectation elicited by consciously perceived cues were based on a series of time-restricted brain regions during cue presentation, decoding relied on the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex after cue presentation for both consciously and unconsciously perceived cues. These findings reveal the conscious and unconscious processing of expectation during pain anticipation and may shed light on enhancing clinical care by demonstrating the impact of expectation cues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.117985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8248481PMC
July 2021

Uncinate fasciculus and its cortical terminals in aphasia after subcortical stroke: A multi-modal MRI study.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 23;30:102597. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Aphasia, one of the most common cognitive impairments after stroke, is commonly considered to be a cortical deficit. However, many studies have reported cases of post subcortical stroke aphasia (PSSA). The pathology and recovery mechanism of PSSA remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate PSSA mechanism through a multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach and a two-session study design (baseline and one month after treatment). Thirty-six PSSA patients and twenty-four matched healthy controls (HC) were included. All patients had subcortical infarctions involving left subcortical white matter for 1 to 6 months. The patients underwent MRI scan and Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) examination before and after one month's comprehensive treatment. Region-wise lesion-symptom mapping (RLSM), tractography, fractional anisotropy (FA), and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) analysis were conducted. After MRI preprocessing and exclusion, FA analysis included 35 patients pre-treatment and 16 patients post-treatment. ALFF analysis included 30 patients pre-treatment and 14 patients post-treatment. We found: 1) the amount of damage in the left uncinate fasciculus (UF) was associated with WAB aphasia quotient (AQ); 2) the left UF FA and left temporal pole (TP) ALFF were decreased and positively correlated with WAB-AQ, spontaneous speech, and naming in PSSA patients; and 3) PSSA patients showed increased left TP ALFF when their language ability recovered after treatment. The left TP ALFF change was positively correlated with AQ change. Our results demonstrate the importance of left UF and left TP (one of the cortical terminals of the left UF) in PSSA pathology and recovery. These results may further provide support for the disconnection theory in the mechanism of PSSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2021.102597DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7941046PMC
July 2021

Accuracy Analysis of International Reference Ionosphere 2016 and NeQuick2 in the Antarctic.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Feb 23;21(4). Epub 2021 Feb 23.

School of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China.

Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) can provide dual-frequency observation data, which can be used to effectively calculate total electron content (TEC). Numerical studies have utilized GNSS-derived TEC to evaluate the accuracy of ionospheric empirical models, such as the International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI) and the NeQuick model. However, most studies have evaluated vertical TEC rather than slant TEC (STEC), which resulted in the introduction of projection error. Furthermore, since there are few GNSS observation stations available in the Antarctic region and most are concentrated in the Antarctic continent edge, it is difficult to evaluate modeling accuracy within the entire Antarctic range. Considering these problems, in this study, GNSS STEC was calculated using dual-frequency observation data from stations that almost covered the Antarctic continent. By comparison with GNSS STEC, the accuracy of IRI-2016 and NeQuick2 at different latitudes and different solar radiation was evaluated during 2016-2017. The numerical results showed the following. (1) Both IRI-2016 and NeQuick2 underestimated the STEC. Since IRI-2016 utilizes new models to represent the F2-peak height (hmF2) directly, the IRI-2016 STEC is closer to GNSS STEC than NeQuick2. This conclusion was also confirmed by the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) occultation data. (2) The differences in STEC of the two models are both normally distributed, and the NeQuick2 STEC is systematically biased as solar radiation increases. (3) The root mean square error (RMSE) of the IRI-2016 STEC is smaller than that of the NeQuick2 model, and the RMSE of the two modeling STEC increases with solar radiation intensity. Since IRI-2016 relies on new hmF2 models, it is more stable than NeQuick2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21041551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7926740PMC
February 2021

ICAM-1 Activates Platelets and Promotes Endothelial Permeability through VE-Cadherin after Insufficient Radiofrequency Ablation.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Feb 4;8(4):2002228. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

The Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences and Institute of Systems Biomedicine School of Basic Medical Sciences Peking University Health Science Center Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences of Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Molecular Biology and Regulatory Peptides of Ministry of Health Beijing Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Receptors Research Beijing 100191 P. R. China.

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) often leads to aggressive local recurrence and increased metastasis, and vascular integrity and platelets are implicated in tumor metastasis. However, whether interactions between endothelial cells and platelets induce endothelial permeability in HCC after insufficient RFA remains unclear. Here, significantly increased CD62P-positive platelets and sP-selectin in plasma are observed in HCC patients after RFA, and tumor-associated endothelial cells (TAECs) activate platelets and are susceptible to permeability after heat treatment in the presence of platelets in vitro. In addition, tumors exhibit enhanced vascular permeability after insufficient RFA in mice; heat treatment promotes platelets-induced endothelial permeability through vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, and ICAM-1 upregulation in TAECs after heat treatment results in platelet activation and increased endothelial permeability in vitro. Moreover, the binding interaction between upregulated ICAM-1 and Ezrin downregulates VE-cadherin expression. Furthermore, platelet depletion or ICAM-1 inhibition suppresses tumor growth and metastasis after insufficient RFA in an orthotopic tumor mouse model, and vascular permeability decreases in ICAM-1 mouse tumor after insufficient RFA. The findings suggest that ICAM-1 activates platelets and promotes endothelial permeability in TAECs through VE-cadherin after insufficient RFA, and anti-platelet and anti-ICAM-1 therapy can be used to prevent progression of HCC after insufficient RFA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202002228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7887603PMC
February 2021

Altered functional connectivity between hypothalamus and limbic system in fibromyalgia.

Mol Brain 2021 01 20;14(1):17. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Tufts Medical Center / Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, 02111, USA.

The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system and plays a crucial role in maintaining the human body's homeostasis. This study aims to investigate the resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) changes of the hypothalamus in fibromyalgia patients. 24 Fibromyalgia patients and 24 matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. Resting state fMRI data were collected from the fibromyalgia patients and HC's. Fibromyalgia patients went through a second scan after 12 weeks of Tai Chi mind-body intervention. Data analysis showed that fibromyalgia patients displayed less medial hypothalamus (MH) rsFC with the thalamus and amygdala when compared to the functional connectivity in the HCs. After the Tai Chi mind-body intervention, fibromyalgia patients showed increased MH rsFC with the thalamus and amygdala accompanied by clinical improvement. Effective connectivity analysis showed disrupted MH and thalamus interaction in the fibromyalgia patients, which was altered by mind-body exercise. Our findings suggest that fibromyalgia is associated with altered functional connectivity within the diencephalon and limbic system. Elucidating the roles of the diencephalon and limbic system in the pathophysiology and development of fibromyalgia may facilitate the development of a new biomarker and effective treatment methods for this prevalent disorder.Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02407665. Registered: 3 April 2015, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02407665?term=NCT02407665&draw=2&rank=1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13041-020-00705-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7816461PMC
January 2021

Compressive Behavior of (CuZrAl)Dy Bulk Metallic Glass at Different Strain Rates.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Dec 21;13(24). Epub 2020 Dec 21.

School of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China.

The mechanical properties of (CuZrAl)Dy bulk metallic glass (BMG) were characterized under various strain rates by quasi-static and dynamic compressive tests. In the quasi-static compressive tests, the yield stress of (CuZrAl)Dy BMG increased from 1234 MPa to 1844 MPa when the strain rate was increased from 0.001 s to 0.01 s, and the yield stress decreased to 1430 MPa at the strain rate of 0.1 s. In the dynamic compressive tests, when the strain rate increased from 1550 s to 2990 s, the yield stress of (CuZrAl)Dy BMG first decreased from 1508 MPa to 1404 MPa, and then increased to 1593 MPa. The fracture behaviors of (CuZrAl)Dy BMG were studied by using scanning electron microscopy to examine the fracture surface. Fracture occurred in the pure shear mode with strain rates below 2100 s, whereas shear fracture and normal fracture occurred simultaneously under strain rates of 2650 s and 2990 s.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13245828DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767388PMC
December 2020

Applying the Power of the Mind in Acupuncture Treatment of Pain.

Med Acupunct 2020 Dec 16;32(6):367-372. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, MA, USA.

Healing is a complicated process that can have several components including the self-healing properties of the body, the nonspecific effects of treatment (e.g., the power of the mind), and the specific effects of an intervention. This article first discusses the brain imaging studies on placebo acupuncture analgesia and the modulation effects of expectancy on real acupuncture in healthy subjects. Then, it introduces some attempts to translate findings from healthy subjects to patient population using power of the mind as a way to enhance acupuncture's treatment effects on chronic pain. After that, a new alternative method which merges acupuncture and imagery, while also drawing on power of the mind, is presented. Finally, the specific effects of acupuncture are discussed. Elucidating the mechanism underlying power of the mind would provide new opportunities for boosting the therapeutic effect of acupuncture treatment and furthering the development of new alternative interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/acu.2020.1477DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7755847PMC
December 2020

Passive mode locking in fiber lasers due to the polarization-dependent losses.

Appl Opt 2020 Nov;59(33):10201-10206

Weak polarization dependence exists in most fiber components. We numerically demonstrated passive mode locking in fiber lasers based on weak polarization dependence down to polarization-dependent loss of 1.76 dB. Different polarization dependences are investigated to unveil its role for achieving passive mode locking. The anomalous dispersion region and the normal dispersion regime are both tested. It is found that, independent of operating dispersion regime, stronger gain is required for achieving mode locking with lower polarization dependence. Our numerical demonstration confirms previous experimental results and broadens the knowledge on additive-pulse mode locking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.411932DOI Listing
November 2020

Assessment of Antimicrobial Resistance Dissemination Dynamics during Multidrug-Resistant-Bacterium Invasion Events by Using a Continuous-Culture Device.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 02 26;87(6). Epub 2021 Feb 26.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Microbial Technology Institute, Shandong University, Qingdao, Shandong, China

Antimicrobial-resistant pathogens display significant public health threats by causing difficulties in clinical treatment of bacterial infection. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is transmissible between bacteria, significantly increasing the appearance of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens and aggravating the AMR problem. In this work, the dissemination dynamics of AMR from invading multidrug-resistant (MDR) to a community of pathogenic was investigated using a continuous-culture device, and the behaviors of dissemination dynamics under different levels of antibiotic stress were investigated. Three MDR invasion events were analyzed in this work: MDR - cocolonization, MDR invasion after antibiotic treatment of , and MDR invasion before antibiotic treatment of It was found that both horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and vertical gene transfer (VGT) play significant roles in AMR dissemination, although different processes contribute differently under different circumstances, that environmental levels of antibiotics promote AMR dissemination by enhancing HGT rather than leading to selective advantage for resistant bacteria, and that early invasion of MDR completely and quickly sabotages the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment. These findings contribute to understanding the drivers of AMR dissemination under different antibiotic stresses, the detrimental impact of environmental tetracycline contamination, and the danger of nosocomial presence and dissemination of MDR nonpathogens. Antimicrobial resistance poses a grave threat to public health and reduces the effectiveness of antimicrobial drugs in treating bacterial infections. Antimicrobial resistance is transmissible, either by horizontal gene transfer between bacteria or by vertical gene transfer following inheritance of genetic traits. The dissemination dynamics and behaviors of this threat, however, have not been rigorously investigated. In this work, with a continuous-culture device, we studied antimicrobial resistance dissemination processes by simulating antimicrobial-resistant invasion to a pathogenic community. Using this novel tool, we provide evidence on the drivers of antimicrobial resistance dissemination, on the detrimental impact of environmental antibiotic contamination, and on the danger of antimicrobial resistance in hospitals, even if what harbors the antimicrobial resistance is not a pathogen. This work furthers our understanding of antimicrobial resistance and its dissemination between bacteria and of antibiotic therapy, our most powerful tool against bacterial infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02659-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8104991PMC
February 2021

Comparison of Enzyme Secretion and Ferulic Acid Production by Expressing Different Feruloyl Esterases.

Front Microbiol 2020 3;11:568716. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

State Key Laboratory of Biobased Material and Green Papermaking, Qilu University of Technology, Shandong Academy of Science, Jinan, China.

Construction of recombinant strains carrying feruloyl esterase genes for secretory expression offers an attractive way to facilitate enzyme purification and one-step production of ferulic acid from agricultural waste. A total of 10 feruloyl esterases derived from nine species were expressed in BL21 (DE3) to investigate their secretion and ferulic acid production. Extracellular activity determination showed all these feruloyl esterases could be secreted out of cells. However, protein analysis indicated that they could be classified as three types. The first type presented a low secretion level, including feruloyl esterases derived from and . The second type showed a high secretion level, including feruloyl esterases derived from , , , and . The third type also behaved a high secretion level but easy degradation, including feruloyl esterases derived from , , and . Moreover, these recombinant strains could directly release ferulic acid from agricultural waste. The highest yield was 140 μg on the basis of 0.1 g de-starched wheat bran by using expressed feruloyl esterase. These results provided a solid basis for the production of feruloyl esterase and ferulic acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.568716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7732493PMC
November 2020

FOXK2 downregulation suppresses EMT in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Open Med (Wars) 2020 20;15(1):702-708. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100043, China.

Forkhead box K2 (FOXK2) was first identified as an NFAT-like interleukin-binding factor. FOXK2 has been reported to act as either oncogene or tumor suppressor. However, functional and regulating mechanisms of FOXK2 in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. An FOXK2-specific siRNA was employed to decrease the endogenous expression of FOXK2. MTT assay, colony formation and transwell assay were used to evaluate proliferation, migration and invasion of Hep3B and HCCLM3 cells, respectively. The protein expression associated with EMT and Akt signaling pathways was evaluated using western blot. FOXK2 downregulation could inhibit cell proliferation and colony formation and suppress migration and invasion in Hep3B and HCCLM3 cells. The expression of E-cadherin was significantly upregulated, and the expression of snail and p-Akt was significantly downregulated in siFOXK2-transfected cells compared with control cells. SF1670 induced the expression of p-Akt and snail and suppressed the expression of E-cadherin in Hep3B and HCCLM3 cells. SF1670 promoted the invasion and colony formation of Hep3B and HCCLM3 cells. SF1670 partly inhibited the effect of FOXK2 suppression on Hep3B and HCCLM3 cells. In conclusion, this study revealed that FOXK2 downregulation suppressed the EMT in HCC partly through inhibition of the Akt signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/med-2020-0129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7706124PMC
July 2020

CT-guided localization techniques of small pulmonary nodules: a prospective non-randomized controlled study on pulmonary nodule localization needle and methylene blue staining with surgical glue.

J Thorac Dis 2020 Nov;12(11):6826-6835

Department of Interventional Radiology, Shenzhen People's Hospital (The Second Clinical Medical College, Jinan University; The First Affiliated Hospital, Southern University of Science and Technology), Shenzhen, China.

Background: Thoracoscopic resection of small pulmonary nodules (SPNs) is challenging. Accurate preoperative computed tomography-guided localization of SPNs is key to successful rection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical value of a novel localization needle and methylene blue staining combined with surgical glue (MBSG) and to explore the risk factors for post-localization complications.

Methods: This prospective, non-randomized controlled study was conducted on 110 patients who received either MBSG or novel needle localization prior to video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) from January 2019 to December 2019 at Shenzhen People's Hospital. The primary endpoints were the safety and the success rates of the 2 localization techniques. The secondary endpoints were operative time and feasibility.

Results: The 110 patients were categorized into 2 groups: the MBSG group (n=84) and the pulmonary nodule localization needle group (n=26). The success rate of pre-VATS localization was 100% in both groups. No deaths or serious complications occurred during localization. The rates of pneumothorax, pulmonary hemorrhage, and localization-induced cough were 38.1%, 25%, and 7.14%, respectively, in the MBSG group, and 26.92%, 19.23%, and 0%, respectively, in the pulmonary nodule localization needle group. Differences between the 2 groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Total complication rate and the incidence of pain were significantly lower in the pulmonary nodule localization needle group (χ=4.441 and 4.295, respectively; P<0.05). The difference in operative time between the 2 groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Dye diffusion occurred in 2 patients in the MBSG group; however, it had no impact on VATS or on the pathological analysis. Neither displacement nor dislocation was observed in the pulmonary nodule localization needle group. Logistic regression analysis showed that the localization technique was an independent risk factor for total complications (odds ratio: 2.634, 95% confidence interval: 1.022-6.789, P<0.05).

Conclusions: Both techniques can localize SPNs effectively prior to VATS. The pulmonary nodule localization needle technique has a lower incidence of complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-20-3147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7711370PMC
November 2020

Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) for migraine: an fMRI study.

Reg Anesth Pain Med 2021 02 1;46(2):145-150. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Background: Dysfunction of the thalamocortical connectivity network is thought to underlie the pathophysiology of the migraine. This current study aimed to explore the thalamocortical connectivity changes during 4 weeks of continuous transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) treatment on migraine patients.

Methods: 70 migraine patients were recruited and randomized in an equal ratio to receive real taVNS or sham taVNS treatments for 4 weeks. Resting-state functional MRI was collected before and after treatment. The thalamus was parceled into functional regions of interest (ROIs) on the basis of six priori-defined cortical ROIs covering the entire cortex. Seed-based functional connectivity analysis between each thalamic subregion and the whole brain was further compared across groups after treatment.

Results: Of the 59 patients that finished the study, those in the taVNS group had significantly reduced number of migraine days, pain intensity and migraine attack times after 4 weeks of treatment compared with the sham taVNS. Functional connectivity analysis revealed that taVNS can increase the connectivity between the motor-related thalamus subregion and anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex, and decrease the connectivity between occipital cortex-related thalamus subregion and postcentral gyrus/precuneus.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that taVNS can relieve the symptoms of headache as well as modulate the thalamocortical circuits in migraine patients. The results provide insights into the neural mechanism of taVNS and reveal potential therapeutic targets for migraine patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/rapm-2020-102088DOI Listing
February 2021
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