Publications by authors named "Jian Gong"

586 Publications

Incidence and risk factors of female urinary incontinence: a 4-years longitudinal study among 24985 adult women in China.

BJOG 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191, China.

Objective: To estimate the incidence of urinary incontinence (UI), including its subtype: stress UI (SUI), urgency UI (UUI), and mixed UI (MUI), and to examine risk factors for de novo SUI and UUI in Chinese women.

Design: Nationwide longitudinal study.

Setting: Six geographic regions of China PARTICIPANTS: Women aged ≥20 years old were included using a multistage, stratified, cluster sampling method.

Methods: This study was conducted between May 2014 and March 2016, with follow-up in 2018. Data on demographics, medical history, lifestyle, physiological and anthropometric information were collected.

Main Outcome Measurements: incidence, rate ratio (RR) RESULTS: Analyses included 24,985 women ( mean age, 41.9 years old).The follow-up response rate was 55.5%, median follow-up time was 3.7 years. The standardized incidence of UI, SUI, UUI and MUI were 21.2, 13.1, 3.0, and 5.1/1000 person-years, respectively. Risk factors for de novo SUI included delivery pattern (vaginal spontaneous delivery (RR 2.12, 95% confidence interval 1.62-2.78), instrumental delivery (3.30, 1.99-5.45)), high body -mass index (BMI) (overweight (1.52, 1.33-1.74), obesity (1.67, 1.32-2.11)), cigarette smoking (1.54, 1.12-2.12), chronic cough (1.44, 1.17-1.76), diabetes (1.33, 1.10-1.60), and older age (50-59 years (1.49, 1.16-1.90), 60-69 years (1.61, 1.22-2.13)).The risk factors significantly associated with de novo UUI were age (RR increased from 1.21 (0.74-1.99) at 30-39 years to 6.3 (3.85-10.30) at >70 years) and diabetes (1.48, 1.05-2.09).

Conclusions: The incidence of female UI is 21.2/1000 person-years in China. Delivery (vaginal spontaneous delivery, instrumental delivery), high BMI, cigarette smoking, chronic cough, diabetes, and older age were risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.16936DOI Listing
September 2021

Bioinspired Underwater Adhesives.

Adv Mater 2021 Sep 17:e2102983. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Institute for Chemical Reaction Design and Discovery (WPI-ICReDD), Hokkaido University, N21W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 001-0021, Japan.

Underwater adhesives are in high demand in both commercial and industrial sectors. Compared with adhesives used in dry (air) environments, adhesives used for wet or submerged surfaces in aqueous environments have specific challenges in development and performance. In this review, focus is on adhesives demonstrating macroscopic adhesion to wet/underwater substrates. The current strategies are first introduced for different types of underwater adhesives, and then an overview is provided of the development and performance of underwater adhesives based on different mechanisms and strategies. Finally, the possible research directions and prospects of underwater adhesives are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202102983DOI Listing
September 2021

Removal efficiencies and risk assessment of endocrine-disrupting chemicals at two wastewater treatment plants in South China.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Sep 8;225:112758. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Dongguan Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Guangdong Medical University, Guangdong 523808, China. Electronic address:

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the effluent from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are an important pollutant sources of the aquatic system. In this study, the removal efficiencies of eight typical EDCs at two domestic WWTPs in Dongguan City, China, are reported based on instrumental analysis and bioassay results. Bioactivities, including steroidogenesis-disrupting effects, estrogen receptor (ER)-binding activity, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-binding activity were evaluated using the H295R, MVLN, and H4IIE cell bioassays, respectively. The potential environmental risks of these residual EDCs were also evaluated. The results of instrumental analysis showed that nonylphenol was the major chemical type present among the eight tested EDCs. Meanwhile, concentrations of estrogen compounds including estrone, 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol, 17α-ethinyl estradiol, and diethylstilbestrol were relatively low. The removal rates of all eight EDCs were relatively high. Although the chemical analysis indicated high removal efficiency, the bioassay results showed that steroidogenesis-disrupting effects as well as ER-binding and AhR-binding activities remained, with E2-equivalent values of effluent samples ranging from 0.16 to 0.9 ng·L, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-equivalent values ranging from 0.61 to 4.09 ng L. Principal component analysis combined with regression analysis suggests that the chemicals analyzed in this study were partly responsible for these ER and AhR activities. Ecological risk assessment of the residual EDCs showed that estrone was the most hazardous chemical among the eight EDCs tested, with a risk quotient of 1.44-5.50. Overall, this study suggests that, despite high apparent removal efficiencies of typical EDCs, their bioactivities and potential ecological risks cannot be ignored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112758DOI Listing
September 2021

Identification of candidate genes and pathways in limonin-mediated cardiac repair after myocardial infarction.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Aug 28;142:112088. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Clinical Research, Ziyang People's Hospital, Ziyang Hospital of Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Ziyang, Sichuan, China; Department of Emergency Intensive Care Unit, Ziyang People's Hospital, Ziyang Hospital of Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Ziyang, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) resulting from acute coronary ischemia may cause significant morbidity and mortality, and microRNAs play a vital role in this pathophysiology. Limonin (LIM) is a natural medicine from citrus fruit that protects organs against ischemic diseases, but the candidate genes and pathways associated with cardioprotection are unknown.

Methods: MI was induced by ligating the left anterior descending coronary in male Sprague-Dawley rats. LIM was orally administered for 7 days after the induction of MI. Subsequently, the hearts were collected to examine significant changes in microRNAs and mRNAs among the control (CON), MI, and LIM + MI groups. Gene Ontology (GO) terms, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were used to identify the biological functions and signaling pathways of differentially expressed mRNAs. Candidate genes were validated by RT-qPCR.

Results: Compared to the CON group, MI caused significant changes in the expression of 26 microRNAs and 1979 mRNAs. The bioinformatics analysis showed that inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidation were enriched in GO terms, while RAP1, PI3K/AKT, RAS, and cGMP-PKG were enriched in KEGG pathways. In addition, compared to the MI group, LIM induced significant changes in the expression of 4 microRNAs and 173 mRNAs. The differentially expressed mRNAs were related to collagen biosynthesis, the immune response, extrinsic apoptosis, and tight junctions. One microRNA (rno-miR-10a-5p) and 2 mRNAs (IGLON5 and LMX1A) were differentially expressed among the CON, MI, and LIM + MI groups.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that the rno-miR-10a-5p-IGLON5/LMX1A axis may be a candidate pathway and promising target through which LIM alleviates MI-induced cardiac dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.112088DOI Listing
August 2021

[A 1-hour Bundle compliance survey of the "Surviving Sepsis Campaign" and its impact on the prognosis of sepsis patients: a multicenter, prospective observational cohort study].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2021 Jun;33(6):671-675

Department of Critical Care, Yanjiang District People's Hospital, Ziyang 641300, Sichuan, China. Corresponding author: Liao Lankai, Email:

Objective: To investigate clinicians' compliance with the 2018 Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) update "1-hour sepsis Bundle therapy" (1-hour Bundle) when treating patients with Sepsis 3 in the intensive care unit (ICU), and to analyze its impact on patient outcomes.

Methods: A multicenter, prospective observational cohort study was conducted. A total of 153 ICU patients in Ziyang First People's Hospital, Ziyang People's Hospital and Yanjiang District People's Hospital who were diagnosed of sepsis by the definition and diagnostic criteria of Sepsis 3 from January 2019 to December 2020 were selected. Among them, 95 patients who had completed 1-hour Bundle were divided into the Bundle compliance group. 58 patients who did not complete the Bundle within 1 hours were classified as the Bundle non-compliance group. The distribution of pathogenic bacteria and infected sites, 1-hour Bundle compliance and 28-day survival in the 3 hospitals were analyzed. Univariate analysis was used to analyze the risk factors affecting the prognostic between the two groups of sepsis patients. Cox regression model was used to draw a 28-day survival curve to evaluate the survival of the patients in the two groups.

Results: Among 153 sepsis patients in 3 hospitals, the detection rate of pathogenic bacteria was 61.44% (94/153), and Gram-negative bacteria accounted for 79.79% (75/94). The top 3 infection sites were respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract and urinary system, accounted for 32.0%, 28.1% and 18.3%, respectively. In the 3 hospitals, 62.09% (95/153) of patients fully implemented the 1-hour Bundle. The poorly implemented indicators in the 1-hour Bundle were 1-hour blood microbial culture [77.78% (119/153)] and 1-hour antimicrobial application [79.74% (122/153)]. There was no significant difference in the baseline indicators between Bundle compliance and non-compliance groups. Univariate analysis showed that the main prognostic indicators: 28-day survival rate in the Bundle compliance group was significantly higher than that in the Bundle non-compliance group [80.00% (76/95) vs. 62.06% (36/58), χ = 6.447, P = 0.014]. Secondary evaluation indicators: mean arterial pressure (MAP) at 6 hours and 24 hours in the Bundle compliance group were significantly higher than those in the Bundle non-compliance group [mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa): 78.22±11.25 vs. 69.86±14.04, 79.78±11.45 vs. 75.35±12.90]. However, the median length of in hospital stay in the Bundle compliance group was significantly longer than that in the Bundle non-compliance group [days: 13 (17) vs. 6 (11)], with statistically significant differences (all P < 0.05). Bivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that 6 hours and 24 hours MAP were risk factors affecting the prognosis of patients with sepsis [odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.064 (0.994-1.102), 1.032 (1.003-1.063), both P < 0.05].

Conclusions: The 1-hour Bundle compliance rate of ICU patients with sepsis in 3 hospitals of Ziyang City was 62.09%, and the compliance is still to be improved, especially for the 2 aspects of empirical antimicrobial use and microbial culture retention before antimicrobial use. The 28-day survival rate in the Bundle compliance group was significantly higher than that in the Bundle non-compliance group, suggesting that the 1-hour Bundle regimen can improve the prognosis of patients with sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn121430-20210408-00520DOI Listing
June 2021

Unusual foreign body spontaneously discharged from the submandibular gland: A case report.

J Clin Ultrasound 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Ultrasound, West China School of Public Health and West China. Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Obstructive sialadenitis of the submandibular gland is most often caused by sialolithiasis and rarely by a foreign body. Here, we describe a patient with acute submandibular inflammation caused by a bamboo splinter. Transcutaneous and transoral ultrasound precisely located the splinter within Wharton's duct. Shortly thereafter, the bamboo splinter was spontaneously discharged while eating, which allowed complete remission of pain and swelling. Ultrasound confirmed the absence of the foreign body within Wharton's duct and relief of sialadenitis. Combined use of transcutaneous and transoral ultrasound can provide detailed information regarding the submandibular gland and foreign bodies, which enables proper treatment planning and adequate follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcu.23045DOI Listing
July 2021

A surface flattening method for characterizing the surface stress, drained Poisson's ratio and diffusivity of poroelastic gels.

Soft Matter 2021 Aug 21;17(31):7332-7340. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Field of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

When a poroelastic gel is released from a patterned mold, surface stress drives deformation and solvent migration in the gel and flattens its surface profile in a time-dependent manner. Specifically, the gel behaves like an incompressible solid immediately after removal from the mold, and becomes compressible as the solvent is able to squeeze out of the polymer network. In this work, we use the finite element method (FEM) to simulate this transient surface flattening process. We assume that the surface stress is isotropic and constant, the polymer network is linearly elastic and isotropic, and that solvent flow obeys Darcy's law. The short-time and long-time surface profiles can be used to determine the surface stress and drained Poisson's ratio of the gel. Our analysis shows that the drained Poisson's ratio and the diffusivity of the gel can be obtained using interferometry and high-speed video microscopy, without mechanical measurement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1sm00513hDOI Listing
August 2021

An analysis of clinical characteristics and postoperative complications in children craniopharyngioma.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Outpatient Department, Beijing Children's Hospital Affiliated To Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100045, China.

Objective: Children treated for craniopharyngioma (CP) experience significant morbidity. We aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and postoperative complications of pediatric CP and to determine risk factors for complications to provide a theoretical basis for postoperative treatment.

Methods: In this retrospective analysis, we screened clinical data concerning children with CP who had undergone surgery at our hospital from December 2011 to June 2015. We statistically analyzed the relationship between age, sex, disease course, tumor location, extent of tumor resection, and neuroendocrine axis dysfunction.

Results: Of 240 patients (males, n = 144; females, n = 96; mean age, 8.33 ± 4.64 years), the main clinical presentations were headache (n = 151, 62.92%), vomiting (n = 84, 35%), vision changes (n = 101, 42.08%), polydipsia and polyuria (n = 47, 19.58%), and growth retardation (n = 42, 17.5%). Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction was the most common postoperative complication. There were 216 (90.00%) and 181 (75.42%) patients with pituitary-thyroid and pituitary-adrenal axis injuries, respectively. Being a prepubescent girl was a risk factor for impaired pituitary-thyroid and pituitary-adrenal axis function (P < 0.05). No correlation was found between sex (male), age, disease course, tumor location, extent of tumor resection, and impaired pituitary-thyroid and pituitary-adrenal axis function (P > 0.05). Pituitary-gonad axis injury was observed in 91 (37.92%) patients. Saddle and suprasellar region tumors were risk factors for impaired pituitary-gonad axis function (P < 0.05). No statistically significant correlation was found between sex, disease course, extent of resection, and impaired pituitary-gonad axis function (P > 0.05).

Conclusions: Routine screening for complications during treatment is indicated for children with CP, to optimize the timing of interventions and reduce long-term morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-021-05277-7DOI Listing
July 2021

Modification of interface and electronic transport in van der Waals heterojunctions by UV/O.

Nanotechnology 2021 Jul 20;32(41). Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, CAS Key Laboratory of Nanosystem and Hierarchy Fabrication, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190, People's Republic of China.

Two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals heterojunctions have many unique properties, and energy band modulation is central to applying these properties to electronic devices. Taking the 2D graphene/MoSheterojunction as a model system, we demonstrate that the band structure can be finely tuned by changing the graphene structure of the 2D heterojunction via ultraviolet/ozone (UV/O). With increasing UV/Oexposure time, graphene in the heterojunction has more defect structures. The varied defect levels in graphene modulate the interfacial charge transfer, accordingly the band structure of the heterojunction. And the corresponding performance change of the graphene/MoSfield effect transistor indicates the shift of the Schottky barrier height after UV/Otreatment. The result further proves the effective band structure modulation of the graphene/MoSheterojunction by UV/O. This work will be beneficial to both fundamental research and practical applications of 2D van der Waals heterojunction in electronic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ac1095DOI Listing
July 2021

Multi-omics analysis of intertumoral heterogeneity within medulloblastoma uncharted-pathway subtypes.

Brain Tumor Pathol 2021 Jul 28;38(3):234-242. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100070, China.

Medulloblastoma is a common pediatric malignant brain tumor. There were four consensus molecular subgroups (WNT, SHH, Group3 and Group4). Group 3 and Group 4 tumors exhibited a great degree of transcriptional overlap, and were neither derived from exact pathway aberration. We investigated transcriptional and chromatin accessibility of medulloblastoma by multi-omics single-cell analysis. Our work identified inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity within the Group 3, Group 4 and Group 3/4 intermediate subgroups. Unsupervised cluster of each tumor identified 9 cell clusters with transcriptional profiles and 6 cell clusters with chromatin accessibility profiles. OTX2 had the highest activity and expression level across the clusters in a special cluster based on open chromatin single-cell profilings. We identified multiple genes as a significant targeted gene within the OTX2 target genes, which made sense in prognosis. We analyzed the copy-number-variations which presented with expected subgroup distribution from transcriptional and chromatin accessibility profiles. Collectively, these data provide novel insights into Group 3 and Group 4 medulloblastoma and provide a potential therapeutic target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10014-021-00400-7DOI Listing
July 2021

Applicability of boosting techniques in calibrating safety performance functions for freeways.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Sep 22;159:106193. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Traffic Police Headquarters of Jiangsu Public Security Bureau, Nanjing, 215129, China.

Safety performance functions (SPFs) are indispensable analytical tools that usually play a crucial role in estimating crash frequencies, identifying hotspots, analyzing crash contributing factors, and assessing the effectiveness of safety countermeasures. Due to the limited availability of safety data, municipalities tended to adopt SPFs from Highway Safety Manual or other neighboring jurisdictions. Recently, boosting algorithms have been frequently exploited for data analysis and statistical regression modeling problems. This research, therefore, aims to examine the efficiency of boosting calibration techniques to transfer the SPF using the limited region data in an international context. To this end, AdaBoost.R2, an adaptive boosting algorithm, Two-stage TrAdaBoost.R2, an instance-based transfer learning algorithm, and Gradient Boosting algorithm were employed to investigate their efficiencies in acquiring knowledge from the available source domain data to predict crashes in the target domain. As a comparison, the calibration factor method was adopted to transfer the traditional negative binomial (NB) regression model. Two training dataset groups were developed to train the four calibration techniques. The first group was used to examine the adaptability of the employed calibration techniques to the limited target region data. While the second group was utilized to further investigate the influence of larger vital information on the performance of transferred models. This study was conducted between two U.S. states, Florida and New York, and two Chinese cities, Shanghai and Suzhou. According to the goodness-of-fit results, boosting calibration techniques showed better prediction accuracy than the calibrated NB-based model using the limited target region data. In addition, the amount and distribution of the training dataset were considered the two significant factors that influence the proficiency of the boosting calibration techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2021.106193DOI Listing
September 2021

Improving the strength and toughness of macroscale double networks by exploiting Poisson's ratio mismatch.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 24;11(1):13280. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Faculty of Advanced Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 001-0021, Japan.

We propose a new concept that utilizes the difference in Poisson's ratio between component materials as a strengthening mechanism that increases the effectiveness of the sacrificial bond toughening mechanism in macroscale double-network (Macro-DN) materials. These Macro-DN composites consist of a macroscopic skeleton imbedded within a soft elastic matrix. We varied the Poisson's ratio of the reinforcing skeleton by introducing auxetic or honeycomb functional structures that results in Poisson's ratio mismatch between the skeleton and matrix. During uniaxial tensile experiments, high strength and toughness were achieved due to two events: (1) multiple internal bond fractures of the skeleton (like sacrificial bonds in classic DN gels) and (2) significant, biaxial deformation of the matrix imposed by the functional skeleton. The Macro-DN composite with auxetic skeleton exhibits up to 4.2 times higher stiffness and 4.4 times higher yield force than the sum of the component materials. The significant improvement in mechanical performance is correlated to the large mismatch in Poisson's ratio between component materials, and the enhancement is especially noticeable in the low-stretch regime. The strengthening mechanism reported here based on Poisson's ratio mismatch can be widely used for soft materials regardless of chemical composition and will improve the mechanical properties of elastomer and hydrogel systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92773-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8225664PMC
June 2021

Increasing rates of methamphetamine/amphetamine-involved overdose hospitalizations in Washington State, 2010-2017.

Addict Behav Rep 2021 Dec 28;14:100353. Epub 2021 May 28.

Washington State Department of Health, United States.

Background And Aims: In the United States, overdose deaths resulting from methamphetamine and other amphetamine-type stimulants (METH/AMPH) have been increasing. We describe rates and characterize patients hospitalized after a METH/AMPH-involved overdose in Washington State, to guide prevention and control measures.

Design Setting Participants: We conducted a trend analysis of hospitalized Washington State residents aged ≥15 years who received a METH/AMPH-involved overdose diagnosis in Washington's civilian hospitals and reported in the Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System.

Measurements: We used Joinpoint regression analysis to study trends in rates of hospitalized patients who received a METH/AMPH-involved overdose diagnosis during 2010-2017. We used 2016-2017 data to describe characteristics of patients with nonfatal and fatal outcomes and used chi-square test (for categorical variables) and Wilcoxon rank-sum test (for continuous variables) to compare characteristics of patients by outcome.

Findings: During 2010-2017, 3587 patients were hospitalized and received a METH/AMPH-involved overdose diagnosis. The age-adjusted rate for METH/AMPH-involved overdose hospitalization increased from 6.3/100,000 persons in 2010 to 8.5/100,000 persons in 2017. Patients aged ≥55 years had the greatest increase in rate of overdose hospitalizations. Among these patients, 86% also had a substance use disorder diagnosis involving substances other than METH/AMPH, and 35% experienced a polysubstance overdose.

Conclusions: We observed increasing rates of METH/AMPH-involved overdose hospitalizations in Washington State, particularly among persons aged ≥55 years. Approximately a third of patients also experienced a polysubstance overdose, which can be considered when designing interventions to address increasing rates of overdose hospitalizations in Washington State.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abrep.2021.100353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8185143PMC
December 2021

Ultrapurified Alginate Gel Containing Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate Enhances Cartilage and Bone Regeneration on Osteochondral Defects in a Rabbit Model.

Am J Sports Med 2021 07 1;49(8):2199-2210. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Background: Ultrapurified alginate (UPAL) gel implantation has been demonstrated as effective in cartilage repair for osteochondral defects; however, cell transplantation within UPAL gels would be required to treat larger defects.

Hypothesis: The combination of UPAL gel and bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) would enhance cartilage repair and subchondral bone repair for large osteochondral defects.

Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.

Methods: A total of 104 osteochondral defects (1 defect per knee) of 52 rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups (26 defects per group): defects without any treatment (Defect group), defects treated using UPAL gel alone (UPAL group), defects treated using UPAL gel containing allogenic bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (UPAL-MSC group), and defects treated using UPAL gel containing BMAC (UPAL-BMAC group). At 4 and 16 weeks postoperatively, macroscopic and histologic evaluations and measurements of repaired subchondral bone volumes of reparative tissues were performed. Collagen orientation and mechanical properties of the reparative tissue were assessed at 16 weeks.

Results: The defects in the UPAL-BMAC group were repaired with hyaline-like cartilage with well-organized collagen structures. The histologic scores at 4 weeks were significantly higher in the UPAL-BMAC group (16.9 ± 2.0) than in the Defect group (4.7 ± 1.9; < .05), the UPAL group (10.0 ± 3.3; < .05), and the UPAL-MSC group (12.2 ± 2.9; < .05). At 16 weeks, the score in the UPAL-BMAC group (24.4 ± 1.7) was significantly higher than those in the Defect group (9.0 ± 3.7; < .05), the UPAL group (14.2 ± 3.9; < .05), and the UPAL-MSC group (16.3 ± 3.6; < .05). At 4 and 16 weeks, the macroscopic evaluations were significantly superior in the UPAL-BMAC group compared with the other groups, and the values of repaired subchondral bone volumes in the UPAL-BMAC group were significantly higher than those in the Defect and UPAL groups. The mechanical properties of the reparative tissues were significantly better in the UPAL-BMAC group than in the other groups.

Conclusion: The implantation of UPAL gel containing BMAC-enhanced hyaline-like cartilage repair and subchondral bone repair of osteochondral defects in a rabbit knee model.

Clinical Relevance: These data support the potential clinical application of 1-step treatment for large osteochondral defects using biomaterial implantation with cell transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465211014186DOI Listing
July 2021

All five COVID-19 outbreaks during epidemic period of 2020/2021 in China were instigated by asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic individuals.

J Biosaf Biosecur 2021 Jun 21;3(1):35-40. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi Province 030001, PR China.

Introduction: The significance of asymptomatic or pre-asymptomatic individuals in driving the COVID-19 epidemic in China or other countries remains uncertain.

Method: We collected and analyzed all the epidemiologic and virological diagnostic details of the infected individuals released by public health authorities and reiterated every episode of outbreak on a timeline. All individuals associated with the five outbreaks had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Results: In this study, all five COVID-19 outbreaks reported in China since October 2020 were analyzed. The Kashgar outbreak in Xinjiang province came into light for the first time on October 22, 2020. However, it was initiated before October 11, 2020, by a local asymptomatic import and export worker, who was infected at the working place. Subsequently, his wife caught the infection, which led to 430 more infections reported in the outbreak. The Beijing outbreak with 41 cases was noticed for the first time on December 22, 2020. However, our analysis revealed that it was initiated by an asymptomatic individual from Indonesia on December 10, 2020. The Shenyang outbreak, with 38 cases, noticed for the first time on December 23, 2020, was initiated by a pre-symptomatic individual from South Korea on December 13, 2020.

Conclusion: The asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic individuals during the asymptomatic period were unsuspectingly infected by SARS-CoV-2, and unintentionally transmitted the virus to a large number of people. These findings suggest that early detection of asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic individuals is of critical importance in preventing future outbreaks or epidemics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jobb.2021.04.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8139231PMC
June 2021

CN and CNS monolayers as promising anchoring materials for lithium-sulfur batteries: weakening the shuttle effect optimizing lithium bonds.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Jun;23(23):12958-12967

Department of Chemistry, The Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan, PR 00931, USA.

The notorious polysulfide shuttle effect is a crucial factor responsible for the degradation of Li-S batteries. A good way to suppress the shuttle effect is to effectively anchor dissoluble lithium polysulfides (LPSs, Li2Sn) on appropriate substrates. Previous studies have revealed that Li of Li2Sn is prone to interact with the N of N-containing materials to form Li-N bonds. In this work, by means of density functional theory (DFT) computations, we explored the possibility to form Li bonds on ten different N-containing monolayers, including BN, C2N, C2N6S3, C9N4, a covalent triazine framework (CTF), g-C3N4, p-C3N4, C3N5, S-N2S, and T-N2S, by examining the adsorption behavior of Li2Sn (n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8) on these two-dimensional (2D) anchoring materials (AMs), and investigated the performance of the formed Li bonds (if any) in inhibiting the shuttle effect. By comparing and analyzing the nitrogen content, the N-containing pore size, charge transfer, and Li bonds, we found that the N content and N-containing pore size correlate with the number of Li bonds, and the formed Li-N bonds between LPSs and AMs correspond well with the adsorption energies of the LPSs. The C9N4 and C2N6S3 monolayers were identified as promising AMs in Li-S batteries. From the view of Li bonds, this work provides guidelines for designing 2D N-containing materials as anchoring materials to reduce the shuttle effect in Li-S batteries, and thus improving the performance of Li-S batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp01022kDOI Listing
June 2021

Quantitative evaluation of macromolecular crowding environment based on translational and rotational diffusion using polarization dependent fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

Sci Rep 2021 May 19;11(1):10594. Epub 2021 May 19.

Laboratory of Molecular Cell Dynamics, Faculty of Advanced Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 001-0021, Japan.

Macromolecular crowding (MMC) in cells is a hot topic in biology; therefore, well-characterized measurement standards for the evaluation of the nano-environment in MMC solutions are necessary. We propose to use polarization-dependent fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (Pol-FCS) for evaluation of macromolecular crowding in solutions. Pol-FCS can simultaneously measure the relaxation times of rotational and translational diffusion of fluorescent molecules at the same position, even in living cells with low damage. In this report, the differences in the nano-environment among solutions of small molecules, gels, and MMC solutions were evaluated by comparing their rotational and translational diffusion using Pol-FCS. Moreover, this method could distinguish the phase shift in the polyethylene glycol solution. Finally, we separately evaluated the nano-environment in the cytosol and nucleus of living cells in different cell lines and cell cycles. We expect this evaluation method to be useful in characterizing the nano-environment in MMC studies. In addition, the proposed method may be useful for other nano-environments such as liquid-liquid phase separation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89987-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8134472PMC
May 2021

Strategic Design of a Bifunctional [email protected] Hybrid to Replace the Noble Platinum for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells and Hydrogen Evolution Reactions.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 19;13(21):25010-25023. Epub 2021 May 19.

Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalate and Reticular Material Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, P. R. China.

High-performance triiodide reduction reaction (IRR) catalysts in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysts in electrochemical water splitting are extremely compelling for renewable energy conversion and storage. The best IRR and HER catalysts generally rely on the use of noble metal platinum (Pt), which suffers obstacles in real-world implementation. The rational design of efficient bifunctional IRR and HER catalysts based on inexpensive and earth-abundant elements to replace scarce Pt could enable low-cost photoelectric conversion and hydrogen production but is challenging and rarely reported. Herein, we present a bifunctional [email protected] hybrid with the unique architecture of WC loaded on the in situ formed carbon nanotubes embedded with Co-doped FeNi nanoparticles based on the anisotropic integration design principle, which operates efficiently for DSSCs and hydrogen evolution. The assembled DSSCs using the designed multimetal-based [email protected] counter electrode delivered a high power conversion efficiency of 6.92% and long-term stability superior to bimetal-based [email protected], [email protected], and Pt counterparts. It also exhibited eminent hydrogen evolution performance with a low overpotential of 127.8 mV to drive a 10 mA cm current density, a Tafel slope of 60.4 mV dec, and satisfactory durable stability in 0.5 M HSO. This work provides a design principle for low-cost and highly active bifunctional catalysts to replace Pt for DSSCs and hydrogen evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c06032DOI Listing
June 2021

A new model for silicification of cyanobacteria in Proterozoic tidal flats.

Geobiology 2021 09 12;19(5):438-449. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Microbial fossils preserved by early diagenetic chert provide a window into the Proterozoic biosphere, but seawater chemistry, microbial processes, and the interactions between microbes and the environment that contributed to this preservation are not well constrained. Here, we use fossilization experiments to explore the processes that preserve marine cyanobacterial biofilms by the precipitation of amorphous silica in a seawater medium that is analogous to Proterozoic seawater. These experiments demonstrate that the exceptional silicification of benthic marine cyanobacteria analogous to the oldest diagnostic cyanobacterial fossils requires interactions among extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), photosynthetically induced pH changes, magnesium cations (Mg ), and >70 ppm silica.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gbi.12447DOI Listing
September 2021

Clinical Features and Surgical Results of Pediatric Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma: Analysis of 17 Cases with a Literature Review.

World Neurosurg 2021 07 6;151:e778-e785. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Pediatric pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare brain tumor. To date, there are few studies dedicated to this kind of pediatric tumor. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics of pediatric PXA.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 17 pediatric patients diagnosed with PXA histologically between July 2009 and December 2018. We also reviewed the relevant literature.

Results: The majority of pediatric PXAs had cystic components and peritumoral edema, and approximately 40% of the tumors had calcifications. All large tumors (≥5 cm) were located in the nontemporal lobes except 1 (P = 0.05). Furthermore, the large tumors were primarily solid-cystic or cystic with mural nodules radiologically, while tumors measuring <5 cm were mainly solid or solid with cystic changes (P = 0.02). All patients underwent surgery, and 15 patients experienced complete tumor removal. Histologically, 11 patients had grade II PXAs and 6 patients had grade III PXAs. After the operation, most of the patients recovered uneventfully and the seizures were well controlled. The mean follow-up time was 43 months. Five patients received radiotherapy or chemotherapy. One patient had tumor recurrence 5 years after the first operation and underwent repeat surgery.

Conclusions: Cystic components and peritumoral edema could be seen in most pediatric PXAs, and calcification was also not uncommon. The size of the tumor was correlated with the tumor site and radiologic subtype. Maximal safe resection of pediatric PXA is recommended and was shown to be beneficial for seizure control and survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2021.04.129DOI Listing
July 2021

Experimental Verification of the Balance between Elastic Pressure and Ionic Osmotic Pressure of Highly Swollen Charged Gels.

Gels 2021 Apr 1;7(2). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Faculty of Advanced Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021, Japan.

The equilibrium swelling degree of a highly swollen charged gel has been thought to be determined by the balance between its elastic pressure and ionic osmotic pressure. However, the full experimental verification of this balance has not previously been conducted. In this study, we verified the balance between the elastic pressure and ionic osmotic pressure of charged gels using purely experimental methods. We used tetra-PEG gels created using the molecular stent method (St-tetra-PEG gels) as the highly swollen charged gels to precisely and separately control their network structure and charge density. The elastic pressure of the gels was measured through the indentation test, whereas the ionic osmotic pressure was determined by electric potential measurement without any strong assumptions or fittings. We confirmed that the two experimentally determined pressures of the St-tetra-PEG gels were well balanced at their swelling equilibrium, suggesting the validity of the aforementioned relationship. Furthermore, from single-strand level analysis, we investigated the structural requirements of the highly swollen charged gels in which the elasticity and ionic osmosis are balanced at their swelling equilibrium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/gels7020039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167773PMC
April 2021

Nanoarray Structures for Artificial Photosynthesis.

Small 2021 Apr 25:e2006530. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, CAS Key Laboratory for Nanosystem and Hierarchical Fabrication, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing, 100190, P. R. China.

Conversion and storage of solar energy into fuels and chemicals by artificial photosynthesis has been considered as one of the promising methods to address the global energy crisis. However, it is still far from the practical applications on a large scale. Nanoarray structures that combine the advantages of nanosize and array alignment have demonstrated great potential to improve solar energy conversion efficiency, stability, and selectivity. This article provides a comprehensive review on the utilization of nanoarray structures in artificial photosynthesis of renewable fuels and high value-added chemicals. First, basic principles of solar energy conversion and superiorities of using nanoarray structures in this field are described. Recent research progress on nanoarray structures in both abiotic and abiotic-biotic hybrid systems is then outlined, highlighting contributions to light absorption, charge transport and transfer, and catalytic reactions (including kinetics and selectivity). Finally, conclusions and outlooks on future research directions of nanoarray structures for artificial photosynthesis are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202006530DOI Listing
April 2021

Constitutive modeling of strain-dependent bond breaking and healing kinetics of chemical polyampholyte (PA) gel.

Soft Matter 2021 Apr;17(15):4161-4169

Field of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA. and Soft Matter GI-CoRE, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021, Japan.

A finite strain nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive model is used to study the uniaxial tension behaviour of chemical polyampholyte (PA) gel. This PA gel is cross-linked by chemical and physical bonds. Our constitutive model attempts to capture the time and strain dependent breaking and healing kinetics of physical bonds. We compare model prediction by uniaxial tension, cyclic and relaxation tests. Material parameters in our model are obtained by least squares optimization. These parameters gave fits that are in good agreement with the experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1sm00110hDOI Listing
April 2021

Effect of mesoscale phase contrast on fatigue-delaying behavior of self-healing hydrogels.

Sci Adv 2021 Apr 14;7(16). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Global Station for Soft Matter, Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education (GSS, GI-CoRE), Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

We investigate the fatigue resistance of chemically cross-linked polyampholyte hydrogels with a hierarchical structure due to phase separation and find that the details of the structure, as characterized by SAXS, control the mechanisms of crack propagation. When gels exhibit a strong phase contrast and a low cross-linking level, the stress singularity around the crack tip is gradually eliminated with increasing fatigue cycles and this suppresses crack growth, beneficial for high fatigue resistance. On the contrary, the stress concentration persists in weakly phase-separated gels, resulting in low fatigue resistance. A material parameter, λ, is identified, correlated to the onset of non-affine deformation of the mesophase structure in a hydrogel without crack, which governs the slow-to-fast transition in fatigue crack growth. The detailed role played by the mesoscale structure on fatigue resistance provides design principles for developing self-healing, tough, and fatigue-resistant soft materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abe8210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046377PMC
April 2021

Increasing selenium supply during the close-up dry period improves nutrient metabolism and attenuates inflammatory response after calving in dairy cows.

Authors:
Jian Gong Min Xiao

Anim Sci J 2021 Jan;92(1):e13551

College of Life Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot, China.

The objective of this study was to investigate whether feeding selenium (Se)-replete cows a Se-yeast supplement in late pregnancy affects nutrient metabolism and inflammatory response during the periparturient period. Twenty cows were randomly assigned to two groups with 10 cows each. Cows in one group received Se-yeast at 0.3 mg Se/kg DM during the last 4 weeks before calving in addition to fed a TMR containing supplemented sodium selenite at 0.3 mg Se/kg DM (Se-yeast), while cows in another group were only fed a TMR containing supplemented sodium selenite at 0.3 mg Se/kg DM (Control). Blood samples were collected and analyzed for nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), glucose, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), and albumin. In control cows, plasma NEFA, IL-1β, IL-6, SAA, and Hp levels increased after calving, but glucose, insulin, and albumin levels decreased after parturition. Se-yeast supplemental cows had lower postpartum concentrations of NEFA, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, SAA, and Hp, and higher postpartum levels of glucose, insulin, and albumin compared with control cows. The results indicate that feeding Se-replete cows a Se-yeast supplement in late pregnancy improves nutrient metabolism and attenuates the inflammatory response after calving.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/asj.13551DOI Listing
January 2021

acts via the miR‑922/ axis to enhance malignant behavior of liver cancer cells.

Oncol Rep 2021 05 31;45(5). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Infectious Disease, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410013, P.R. China.

There is little information on the role of microRNA (miR)‑922 in the malignant behavior of liver cancer. The present study investigated the regulation of miR‑922 expression levels by cAMP response element binding protein 1 () in liver cancer tissue, its role in regulating malignant behavior and its potential targets in liver cancer. miR‑922 expression in liver cancer cells and tissue was determined by reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR. The binding of to the promoter region of mir‑922 was tested by chromatin immunoprecipitation‑PCR. The predicted AT‑rich interactive domain 2 () and fidgetin, microtubule severing factor targets of miR‑922 were characterized by dual luciferase reporter assay. The effects of altered expression levels on miR‑922‑enhanced malignant behavior of liver cancer cells were tested. bound to the promoter region of miR‑922. Elevated miR‑922 transcripts were inversely associated with expression in liver cancer tissue and cells. miR‑922 inhibited ‑regulated luciferase expression and was present in the miR/argonaute RISC catalytic component 2 complex. significantly decreased malignant behavior of liver cancer MHCC97L cells. Similarly, over‑expression inhibited growth of xenograft liver cancer tumors and decreased miR‑922, Bcl‑2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin D1, and expression and serum VEGF and TNF‑α levels, but enhanced Bax expression levels in tumors. over‑expression abrogated malignant behavior promoted by miR‑922 over‑expression and enhanced miR‑922‑decreased malignant behavior of liver cancer cells. induced miR‑922 transcription, which targeted to enhance malignant behavior of liver cancer cells, indicating that the /miR‑922/ axis may be a potential target for liver cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2021.8030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020205PMC
May 2021

Rapid reprogramming of tumour cells into cancer stem cells on double-network hydrogels.

Nat Biomed Eng 2021 08 29;5(8):914-925. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Cancer Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Cancer recurrence can arise owing to rare circulating cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are resistant to chemotherapies and radiotherapies. Here, we show that a double-network hydrogel can rapidly reprogramme differentiated cancer cells into CSCs. Spheroids expressing elevated levels of the stemness genes Sox2, Oct3/4 and Nanog formed within 24 h of seeding the gel with cells from any of six human cancer cell lines or with brain cancer cells resected from patients with glioblastoma. Human brain cancer cells cultured on the double-network hydrogel and intracranially injected in immunodeficient mice led to higher tumorigenicity than brain cancer cells cultured on single-network gels. We also show that the double-network gel induced the phosphorylation of tyrosine kinases, that gel-induced CSCs from primary brain cancer cells were eradicated by an inhibitor of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and that calcium channel receptors and the protein osteopontin were essential for the regulation of gel-mediated induction of stemness in brain cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41551-021-00692-2DOI Listing
August 2021

Molecular mechanism of abnormally large nonsoftening deformation in a tough hydrogel.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(14)

Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education, Hokkaido University, 001-0021 Sapporo, Japan;

Tough soft materials usually show strain softening and inelastic deformation. Here, we study the molecular mechanism of abnormally large nonsoftening, quasi-linear but inelastic deformation in tough hydrogels made of hyperconnective physical network and linear polymers as molecular glues to the network. The interplay of hyperconnectivity of network and effective load transfer by molecular glues prevents stress concentration, which is revealed by an affine deformation of the network to the bulk deformation up to sample failure. The suppression of local stress concentration and strain amplification plays a key role in avoiding necking or strain softening and endows the gels with a unique large nonsoftening, quasi-linear but inelastic deformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2014694118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040646PMC
April 2021

Tough Double Network Hydrogel and Its Biomedical Applications.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2021 06 26;12:393-410. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Faculty of Advanced Life Science and Global Station for Soft Matter, Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education (GSS, GI-CoRE), Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-0021, Japan; email:

Soft and wet hydrogels have many similarities to biological tissues, though their mechanical fragility had been one of the biggest obstacles in biomedical applications. Studies and developments in double network (DN) hydrogels have elucidated how to create tough gels universally based on sacrificial bond principles and opened a path for biomedical application of hydrogels in regenerative medicine and artificial soft connective tissues, such as cartilage, tendon, and ligament, which endure high tension and compression. This review explores a universal toughening mechanism for and biomedical studies of DN hydrogels. Moreover, because the term sacrificial bonds has been mentioned often in studies of bone tissues, consisting of biomacromolecules and biominerals, recent studies of gel-biomineral composites to understand early-stage osteogenesis and to simulate bony sacrificial bonds are also summarized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-101220-080338DOI Listing
June 2021

Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration with primary closure is beneficial for patients with previous upper abdominal surgery.

Surg Endosc 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of General Surgery, Shanghai 10th People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200072, China.

Background: Previous upper abdominal surgery (PUAS) is considered a contraindication to laparoscopic surgery. Whether LCBDE-PC is feasible and beneficial for patients with PUAS remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and benefits of LCBDE-PC for patients with PUAS.

Methods: From June 2011 to September 2019, 1167 patients who underwent laparoscopic procedures for choledocholithiasis were reviewed retrospectively. Perioperative outcomes were compared between patients with and without PUAS in un-matched and matched cohorts.

Results: LCBDE-PC was performed successfully in 88.3% of patients with PUAS, and 92.5% of patients without PUAS (P > 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that PUAS was not a risk factor that affected successful performance of LCBDE-PC. Although a higher rate of conversion to open surgery and longer operative time were observed in patients with PUAS, no significant differences were found between patients with and without PUAS in multivariate and propensity score analysis (P > 0.05). A predictive nomogram for LCBDE-PC failure was developed based on potential predictors from the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression model. Successful performance of LCBDE-PC was associated with operative time. A linear regression model for operative time showed impacted stone in the CBD and intraoperative laser use was the most important factor in determining the operative time.

Conclusion: LCBDE-PC is feasible and beneficial for patients with PUAS. However, patients with PUAS with a high possibility of LCBDE-PC failure from the nomogram and a longer operative time from the linear regression model should be cautious when undergoing LCBDE-PC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-021-08371-8DOI Listing
March 2021
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