Publications by authors named "Jian Feng"

547 Publications

Ingeniously Designed Yolk-Shell-Structured [email protected] Nanoboxes as an Excellent Long-Life and High-Rate Anode for Half/Full Na-Ion Batteries.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Oct 21. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, PR China.

Thanks to their high conductivity and theoretical capacity, transition metal selenides have demanded significant research attention as prospective anodes for sodium-ion batteries. Nevertheless, their practical applications are hindered by finite cycle life and inferior rate performance because of large volume expansion, polyselenide dissolution, and sluggish dynamics. Herein, the nitrogen-doped carbon (NC)-coated FeSe nanoparticles encapsulated in NC nanoboxes (termed [email protected] NBs) are fabricated through the facile thermal selenization of polydopamine-wrapped Prussian blue precursors. In this composite, the existing nitrogen-doped dual carbon layer improves the intrinsic conductivity and structural integrity, while the unique porous yolk-shell architecture significantly mitigates the volume swelling during the sodium/desodium process. Moreover, the derived Fe-N-C bonds can effectively capture polyselenide, as well as promote Na transportation and good reversible conversion reaction. As expected, the [email protected] NBs deliver remarkable rate performance (374.9 mA h g at 10.0 A g) and long-cycling stability (403.3 mA h g over 2000 loops at 5.0 A g). When further coupled with a self-made NaV(PO)@C cathode in sodium-ion full cells, [email protected] NBs also exhibit considerably high and stable sodium-storage performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c16957DOI Listing
October 2021

Asymmetric, Flexible Supercapacitor Based on Fe-Co [email protected] with High Energy and Power Density.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Oct 15. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

School of New Energy, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013, Liaoning, People's Republic of China.

Electrode materials with high conductivities that are compatible with flexible substrates are important for preparing high-capacitance electrode materials and improving the energy density of flexible supercapacitors. Here, we report the design and fabrication of a new type of flexible electrode based on nanosheet architectures of a Co-Fe alloy (FeCo-A) coated with ternary metal sulfide composites (FeCo-Ss) on silver-sputtered carbon cloth. The high conductivity of the flexible substrate and the iron-cobalt alloy skeleton enables good electron transmission through the material. In particular, the outer FeCo-S layer has an average thickness of ∼30 nm, providing many active sites. This layer also inhibits the oxidation of the alloy. The electrode material is close to 20 nm thick, which limits inaccessible volumes and promotes high utilization of [email protected] (FeCo-A-S). The additive-free FeCo-A-S electrode has a high specific capacitance of 2932.2 F g at 1.0 A g and a superior rate capability. All-solid-state supercapacitors based on these electrodes have a high power density of 8000 W kg and a high energy density of 46.1 W h kg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c14537DOI Listing
October 2021

TGF-Beta Receptor II Is Critical for Osteogenic Progenitor Cell Proliferation and Differentiation During Postnatal Alveolar Bone Formation.

Front Physiol 2021 24;12:721775. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Dentistry, Texas A&M University, Dallas, TX, United States.

Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling plays an important role during osteogenesis. However, most research in this area focuses on cortical and trabecular bone, whereas alveolar bone is largely overlooked. To address the role of TGFβR2 (the key receptor for TGFβ signaling) during postnatal alveolar bone development, we conditionally deleted β in early mesenchymal progenitors by crossing ; β ; mice (named early cKO) or in osteoblasts by crossing β mice (named late cKO). Both cKO lines were induced at postnatal day 5 (P5) and mice were harvested at P28. Compared to the control littermates, early cKO mice exhibited significant reduction in alveolar bone mass and bone mineral density, with drastic defects in the periodontal ligament (PDL); conversely, the late cKO mice displayed very minor changes in alveolar bone. Mechanism studies showed a significant reduction in PCNA+ PDL cell numbers and OSX+ alveolar bone cell numbers, as well as disorganized PDL fibers with a great reduction in periostin (the most abundant extracellular matrix protein) on both mRNA and protein levels. We also showed a drastic reduction in β-catenin in the early cKO PDL and a great increase in SOST (a potent inhibitor of Wnt signaling). Based on these findings, we conclude that TGFβ signaling plays critical roles during early alveolar bone formation via the promotion of PDL mesenchymal progenitor proliferation and differentiation mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.721775DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8497707PMC
September 2021

Effect of sitting and lying Liuzijue exercise for pulmonary rehabilitation in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with non-invasive ventilation: a randomized controlled trial.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Sep;10(9):9914-9926

Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

Background: Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) will lead to the aggravation of respiratory symptoms and accelerate the progression of the disease. So early pulmonary rehabilitation is essential for patients with AECOPD. We aimed to investigate the effect of sitting and lying Liuzijue in AECOPD patients with non-invasive ventilation.

Methods: A total of 80 AECOPD patients with non-invasive ventilation were randomly divided into two groups. The controlled group (CG) (n=40) received AECOPD conventional treatment and nursing, and the sitting and lying Liuzijue exercise group (LG) (n=40) received sitting and lying Liuzijue therapy. Participants in the LG were required to take this training for 3 months, 30 minutes once every morning and evening. Pulmonary function test, 6-minute walking test (6MWT), Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scales (mMRC), and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) were evaluated before and after the intervention. Blood gas was measured before treatment, 3 days, and 5 days after treatment. In addition, the length of hospital stay, the duration of non-invasive ventilation, and the frequency of acute exacerbation within 6 months after the intervention were compared.

Results: Seventy patients completed the study. The pulmonary function, 6MWT, mMRC scores, SGRQ, and pH, were significantly improved in the LG. Meanwhile, the 6MWT of the CG was improved. The comparison between the groups showed that the improvement of the pulmonary function, 6MWD, mMRC scores, SGRQ, the duration of non-invasive ventilation, and the frequency of acute exacerbation within 6 months of the LG group differed significantly from the CG.

Conclusions: Sitting and lying Liuzijue exercise methods significantly improved lung function, exercise endurance, and quality of life in AECOPD patients with non-invasive ventilation.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2000034530.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-2157DOI Listing
September 2021

Solvent-controlled photocatalytic divergent cyclization of alkynyl aldehydes: access to cyclopentenones and dihydropyranols.

Chem Sci 2021 Sep 26;12(34):11420-11426. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Advanced Catalysis Materials, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang Normal University 688 Yingbin Road Jinhua 321004 P. R. China

Divergent synthesis is a powerful strategy for the fast assembly of different molecular scaffolds from identical starting materials. We describe here a solvent-controlled photocatalytic divergent cyclization of alkynyl aldehydes with sulfonyl chlorides for the direct construction of highly functionalized cyclopentenones and dihydropyranols that widely exist in bioactive molecules and natural products. Density functional theory calculations suggest that a unique ,-dimethylacetamide-assisted 1,2-hydrogen transfer of alkoxy radicals is responsible for the cyclopentenone formation, whereas a C-C cleavage accounts for the selective production of dihydropyranols in acetonitrile and water at 50 °C. Given the simple and mild reaction conditions, excellent functional group compatibility, forming up to four chemical bonds, and tunable selectivity, it may find wide applications in synthetic chemistry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1sc03416bDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8409468PMC
September 2021

Molecular Features of Parkinson's Disease in Patient-Derived Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons.

Mov Disord 2021 Sep 26. Epub 2021 Sep 26.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA.

Background: Despite intense efforts to develop an objective diagnostic test for Parkinson's disease, there is still no consensus on biomarkers that can accurately diagnose the disease.

Objective: Identification of biomarkers for idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) may enable accurate diagnosis of the disease. We tried to find molecular and cellular differences in dopaminergic (DA) neurons derived from healthy subjects and idiopathic PD patients with or without rest tremor at onset.

Methods: We measured the expression of genes controlling dopamine synthesis, sequestration, and catabolism as well as the levels of corresponding metabolites and reactive oxygen species in midbrain DA neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) of healthy subjects and PD patients with or without rest tremor.

Results: Significant differences in DA-related gene expression, metabolites, and oxidative stress were found between midbrain DA neurons derived from healthy subjects and patients with PD. DA neurons derived from PD patients with or without rest tremor at onset exhibited significant differences in the levels of some of these transcripts, metabolites, and oxidative stress.

Conclusion: The unique combination of these quantifiable molecular and cellular traits in iPSC-derived midbrain DA neurons can distinguish healthy subjects from idiopathic PD patients and segregate PD patients with or without rest tremor at onset. The strategy may be used to develop an objective diagnostic test for PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.28786DOI Listing
September 2021

Rational Design of Yolk-Shell ZnCo[email protected] Dual Carbon Architectures as Long-Life and High-Rate Anodes for Half/Full Na-Ion Batteries.

Small 2021 Sep 22:e2101887. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

School of New Energy, Bohai University, Jinzhou, 121013, P. R. China.

Transition-metal selenides (TMSs) have emerged as prospective anode materials for sodium ion batteries (SIBs), owing to their considerable theoretical capacity and intrinsic high electronic conductivity. Whereas, TMSs still suffer from poor rate capability and inferior cycling stability induced by sluggish kinetics and severe volume changes during de/sodiation processes. Herein, a hierarchical composite consisting of a zinc-cobalt bimetallic selenide yolk and nitrogen-doped double carbon shell (denoted as ZnCo[email protected]) is engineered and fabricated successfully. The architecture of the as-fabricated material improves the Na-ion storage performance via increasing the electron transfer kinetics, accommodating volume expansion, and mitigating the generation of by-products. As expected, the ZnCo[email protected] electrode delivers superior sodium storage performance with long cycling stability (344.5 mAh g at 5.0 A g over 2000 long-term cycles) and high-rate performance (319.2 mAh g at 10.0 A g ). Meanwhile, the [email protected]//ZnCo[email protected] full SIB cells are constructed successfully, retaining 96.3% of its initial capacity at 0.5A g after 200 loops. The outstanding electrochemical performance and the construction of hybrid SIBs will have far-reaching influences on the development of the various rechargeable batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202101887DOI Listing
September 2021

Spatial Pattern Evaluation of Rural Tourism via the Multifactor-Weighted Neural Network Model in the Big Data Era.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2021 27;2021:5845545. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

School of Culture and Tourism, Ningxia University, Zhongwei 755000, China.

The exploration of the evaluation effect of rural tourism spatial pattern based on the multifactor-weighted neural network model in the era of big data aims to optimize the spatial layout of rural tourist attractions. There are plenty of problems such as improper site selection, layout dispersion, and market competition disorder of rural tourism caused by insufficient consideration of planning and tourist market. Hence, the multifactor model after simple weighting is combined with the neural network to construct a spatiotemporal convolution neural network model based on multifactor weighting here to solve these problems. Moreover, the simulation experiment is conducted on the spatial pattern of rural tourism in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region to verify the evaluation performance of the constructed model. The results show that the prediction accuracy of the model is 97.69%, which is at least 2.13% higher than that of the deep learning algorithm used by other scholars. Through the evaluation and analysis of the spatial pattern of rural tourist attractions, the spatial distribution of scenic spots in Ningxia has strong stability from 2009 to 2019. Meanwhile, the number of scenic spots in the seven plates has increased and the time cost of scenic spot accessibility has changed significantly. Besides, the change rate of the one-hour isochronous cycle reaches 41.67%. This indicates that the neural network model has high prediction accuracy in evaluating the spatial pattern of rural tourist attractions, which can provide experimental reference for the digital development of the spatial pattern of rural tourism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5845545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8419508PMC
September 2021

Vertical distribution and occurrence state of the residual leaching agent (ammonium sulfate) in the weathered crust elution-deposited rare earth ore.

J Environ Manage 2021 Dec 28;299:113642. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Hubei Novel Reactor & Green Chemical Technology Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan, 430074, China.

Weathered crust elution-deposited rare earth ore (WCE-DREO) are rich in middle and heavy rare earth, and ammonium sulfate ((NH)SO) was often used as leaching agent to leach rare earths by in-situ leaching method. However, much of (NH)SO would remained in the ore body during the leaching process, and release of it would cause seriously environmental pollution after the mine closure. To efficiently remove it, the rare earth ore properties and vertical distribution and occurrence state of the residual leaching agent at mine roof (GP1), mine waist (GP2), and mine foot (GP3) with different depth were investigated and efficient elution method was proposed in this study. Results showed that the rare earth ore mainly consist of quartz, clay minerals (halloysite, illite, and kaolinite) and rock-forming minerals, and pH and moisture contents of them were ranged from 4.0 to 5.0 and 10-20%, respectively. Residual agent was mainly enriched in the middle and deep layer of the ore body with the main form of ammonium nitrogen (NH-N), and content of it at the three sites followed the order of GP1>GP3>GP2, which was related to the content of the clay minerals and the moisture. Occurrence state experimental results illustrated that about 95% of the NH-N existed as water-soluble ammonium (WS-AN) and adsorbable ammonium (AS-AN), and 5% of it existed as fixed ammonium (FX-AN), and concentration ratio of them was in order: WS-AN > AS-AN ≫ FX-AN. Based on the results above, MgCl solution was used as an eluent to remove the leaching agent from the ore, and results showed that higher than 90% of residual ammonium could be removed from the ore by it. This study provided a valuable guidance for the residual leaching agent removal from the WCE-DREO body.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113642DOI Listing
December 2021

Comprehensive analysis of prognostic predictors for patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer who underwent resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jul;9(14):1169

Department of Science and Education, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: The prognosis of patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) who undergo resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) is uncertain. Thus, we combined clinicopathological characteristics and next-generation sequencing (NGS) to answer this question.

Methods: In total, the data of 51 LS-SCLC patients who had undergone complete surgical resection and postoperative ACT were retrospectively collected. NGS examinations with a 68-gene panel were performed for each specimen. Patients' genetic status and potentially clinical correlations were statistically evaluated. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were plotted using Kaplan-Meier curves. The independent prognostic factors for the primary cohort were investigated using univariable and multivariable cox proportional hazard regression analyses. Subgroup analyses were also conducted based on retinoblastoma protein 1 () status.

Results: Combined SCLC (c-SCLC) had similar clinical and pathological characteristics to that of pure SCLC (p-SCLC). and were 2 major genetic mutations present in both p-SCLC and c-SCLC. c-SCLC had a unique genetic profile that was related to the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and WNT/β-catenin signaling pathways. There was no prognostic difference between c-SCLC and p-SCLC. However, the pathological node (N) stage of lymphovascular invasion (LVI), which was related to PFS and age, corelated with OS. Neither pathological subtypes nor genetic mutations affected the survival outcomes. Notably, RB1 mutated c-SCLC resulted in poorer DFS compared to that of p-SCLC among LS-SCLC patients who underwent resection followed by ACT.

Conclusions: Our examination of LS-SCLC patients who underwent resection followed by ACT showed that c-SCLC and p-SCLC had a clinical and prognostic similarity and a genetic peculiarity. Thus, it is essential that a new classification system be proposed for SCLC. Such a system is especially needed for LS-SCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-3353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8350675PMC
July 2021

Three-Dimensional-Printed Silica Aerogels for Thermal Insulation by Directly Writing Temperature-Induced Solidifiable Inks.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 23;13(34):40964-40975. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Science and Technology on Advanced Ceramic Fibers and Composites Laboratory, College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, 109 De Ya Rd, Changsha, Hunan 410073, P.R. China.

Silica aerogels are attractive materials for various applications due to their exceptional performances and open porous structure. Especially in thermal management, silica aerogels with low thermal conductivity need to be processed into customized structures and shapes for accurate installation on protected parts, which plays an important role in high-efficiency insulation. However, traditional subtractive manufacturing of silica aerogels with complex geometric architectures and high-precision shapes has remained challenging since the intrinsic ceramic brittleness of silica aerogels. Comparatively, additive manufacturing (3D printing) provides an alternative route to obtain custom-designed silica aerogels. Herein, we demonstrate a thermal-solidifying 3D printing strategy to fabricate silica aerogels with complex architectures via directly writing a temperature-induced solidifiable silica ink in an ambient environment. The solidification of silica inks is facilely realized, coupling with the continuous ammonia catalysis by the thermolysis of urea. Based on our proposed thermal-solidifying 3D printing strategy, printed objects show excellent shape retention and have a capacity to subsequently undergo the processes of in situ hydrophobic modification, solvent replacement, and supercritical drying. 3D-printed silica aerogels with hydrophobic modification show a super-high water contact angle of 157°. Benefiting from the low density (0.25 g·cm) and mesoporous silica network, optimized 3D-printed specimens with a high specific surface area of 272 m·g possess a low thermal conductivity of 32.43 mW·m·K. These outstanding performances of 3D-printed silica aerogels are comparable to those of traditional aerogels. More importantly, the thermal-solidifying 3D printing strategy brings hope to the custom design and industrial production of silica aerogel insulation materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c12020DOI Listing
September 2021

Clinical efficacy and safety of using calcipotriol-betamethasone compounding agent for psoriasis treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Arch Dermatol Res 2021 Aug 20. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Dermatology, Tianjin Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated Hospital, Tianjin, China.

The main objective is to evaluate clinical efficacy and safety of using calcipotriol-betamethasone compounding agent for psoriasis treatment through a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, The Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), and WanFang Data from inception till July 31, 2020. Efficacy was evaluated based on primary outcome indicators including skin lesion improvement and overall adverse reaction rate. Secondary outcome indicators included degree of life quality improvement, clinical effectiveness rate, and specific adverse reaction rates. RevMan5.3 was used to perform the meta-analysis. 22 studies finally met our inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. The results indicated that for short-term treatment, a sequential therapy that uses calcipotriol betamethasone compounding agent and calcipotriol improves PASI score (MD = -0.94, 95% CI - 1.38 ~ - 0.49, P < 0.0001, I = 49%), comparing with using only calcipotriol. From a drug safety perspective, the difference in overall adverse reaction rate is not significant between the calcipotriol group and the sequential treatment group (RR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.22 ~ 1.14, P = 0.10, I = 33%). Calcipotriol betamethasone compounding agent may be more effective in plaque psoriasis treatment compared to use only calcipotriol, with no significant difference in adverse reaction rate between the two groups. Although the data were collected from 13 comparison groups, each group may not have sufficient data for a thorough and comprehensive analysis. Further research may be necessary for a more detailed evaluation of effectiveness of using calcipotriol betamethasone compounding agent for plaque psoriasis treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00403-021-02272-5DOI Listing
August 2021

Associated factors with constipation and health-related quality of life in lung cancer patients with platinum-based chemotherapy: A cross-sectional study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jul;100(30):e26547

Department of Respiratory, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University.

Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to investigate current state of constipation for lung cancer (LC) patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy. The relationships between social demography, clinical variables, psychological status, and constipation were analyzed. In addition, quality of life (QoL) in LC patients with constipation was also analyzed. One hundred LC patients participated in this cross-sectional study. Under the guidance of the researchers, Functional Living Index-Emesis, Piper Fatigue Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 (version 3.0), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, General Well-being Scale, Social Support Rate Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and other related questionnaires were completed. The result showed the symptom of constipation was observed in 41 (41%) LC patients. The occurrence and development of constipation were associated with gender, food intake, exercise, nausea, fatigue, anxiety, depression, sleep disorders, and happiness. The study also found patients with constipation had significant lower QoL scores, especially the score in the general state. Constipation was very common in LC patients undergoing platinum-based chemotherapy. Reduced food intake and fatigue were the independent factors. Constipation significantly affects the QoL of the patients. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the risk factors of constipation in LC patients undergoing platinum-based chemotherapy, the earlier intervention was done to these patients, the better to improve their QoL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8322559PMC
July 2021

Electrooxidative dearomatization of biaryls: synthesis of tri- and difluoromethylated spiro[5.5]trienones.

Chem Sci 2021 Jul 24;12(29):10092-10096. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Institut für Organische und Biomolekulare Chemie, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen Germany

Radical spirocyclization dearomatization has emerged as an attractive strategy for the rapid synthesis of structurally diverse spiro molecules. We report the use of electrochemistry to perform an oxidative dearomatization of biaryls leading to tri- and difluoromethylated spiro[5.5]trienones in a user friendly undivided cell set-up and a constant current mode. The catalyst- and chemical oxidant-free dearomatization procedure features ample scope, and employs electricity as the green and sole oxidant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1sc02682hDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8317667PMC
July 2021

Osteocytes but not osteoblasts directly build mineralized bone structures.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 11;17(10):2430-2448. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University College of Dentistry, Dallas, TX 75246, USA.

Bone-forming osteoblasts have been a cornerstone of bone biology for more than a century. Most research toward bone biology and bone diseases center on osteoblasts. Overlooked are the 90% of bone cells, called osteocytes. This study aims to test the hypothesis that osteocytes but not osteoblasts directly build mineralized bone structures, and that defects in osteocytes lead to the onset of hypophosphatemia rickets. The hypothesis was tested by developing and modifying multiple imaging techniques, including both and models plus two types of hypophosphatemia rickets models (-null and Hyp, Phex mutation mice), and -Cre induced high level of β-catenin models. Our key findings were that osteocytes (not osteoblasts) build bone similar to the construction of a high-rise building, with a wire mesh frame (i.e., osteocyte dendrites) and cement (mineral matrices secreted from osteocytes), which is a lengthy and slow process whose mineralization direction is from the inside toward the outside. When osteoblasts fail to differentiate into osteocytes but remain highly active in -1-null or Hyp mice, aberrant and poor bone mineralization occurs, caused by a sharp increase in Wnt-β-catenin signaling. Further, the constitutive expression of β-catenin in osteocytes recaptures a similar osteomalacia phenotype as shown in null or mice. Thus, we conclude that osteocytes directly build bone, and osteoblasts with a short life span serve as a precursor to osteocytes, which challenges the existing dogma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.61012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315029PMC
June 2021

SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infectivity and expression of viral entry-related factors ACE2, TMPRSS2, Kim-1, and NRP-1 in human cells from the respiratory, urinary, digestive, reproductive, and immune systems.

J Med Virol 2021 12 4;93(12):6671-6685. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Cancer Virology Program, UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a wide spectrum of syndromes involving multiple organ systems and is primarily mediated by viral spike (S) glycoprotein through the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and numerous cellular proteins including ACE2, transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1), and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1). In this study, we examined the entry tropism of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV using S protein-based pseudoviruses to infect 22 cell lines and 3 types of primary cells isolated from respiratory, urinary, digestive, reproductive, and immune systems. At least one cell line or type of primary cell from each organ system was infected by both pseudoviruses. Infection by pseudoviruses is effectively blocked by S1, RBD, and ACE2 recombinant proteins, and more weakly by Kim-1 and NRP-1 recombinant proteins. Furthermore, cells with robust SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection had strong expression of either ACE2 or Kim-1 and NRP-1 proteins. ACE2 glycosylation appeared to be critical for the infections of both viruses as there was a positive correlation between infectivity of either SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV pseudovirus with the level of glycosylated ACE2 (gly-ACE2). These results reveal that SARS-CoV-2 cell entry could be mediated by either an ACE2-dependent or -independent mechanism, thus providing a likely molecular basis for its broad tropism for a wide variety of cell types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8426707PMC
December 2021

[Application of "door-shaft method" in limited open reduction and internal fixation with locking plate for two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Jul;35(7):818-822

Department of Upper Limb, No.1 Orthopedics Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu Qingyang District Medical Center Hospital, Chengdu Sichuan, 610073, P.R.China.

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of limited open reduction via "door-shaft method" and internal fixation with locking plate for two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus.

Methods: The clinical data of 64 patients with proximal humeral fractures who were admitted between January 2013 and December 2016 and met the selection criteria were retrospectively analyzed. There were 23 males and 41 females, with an average age of 68.0 years (range, 50-89 years). The injuries were caused by falling in 57 cases, traffic accident in 5 cases, and falling from height in 2 cases. The interval between injury and operation was 1-7 days (mean, 2.1 days). According to Neer classification, there were 28 cases of two-part fractures and 36 cases of three-part fractures. According to the angulation direction of the proximal humeral neck shaft angle, there were 21 cases of adduction fractures and 43 cases of abduction fractures. The fractures were treated with limited open reduction via "door-shaft method" and proximal humerus internal locking systems for internal fixation. The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, number of fluoroscopy, hospital stay, and complications were recorded. The fracture healing was reviewed by X-ray film and the healing time was recorded. The shoulder joint function was evaluated by Neer score standard.

Results: The operation time was 45-127 minutes, with an average of 82.3 minutes. The intraoperative blood loss was 30-125 mL, with an average of 62.7 mL. Intraoperative fluoroscopy was performed 30-69 times, with an average of 37.0 times. The hospital stay was 6-23 days, with an average of 10.3 days. All incisions healed by first intention. All patients were followed up 12-37 months, with an average of 18.3 months. X-ray film re-examination showed that all fractures healed, the healing time was 12-21 weeks, with an average of 14.3 weeks. After operation, 3 cases had shoulder stiffness and 1 case had fracture malunion. At last follow-up, the Neer score of shoulder joint function was 49-97, with an average of 83.1. Among them, 38 cases were excellent, 13 cases were good, 10 cases were fair, and 3 cases were poor. The excellent and good rate was 79.7%. The excellent and good rate of patients with two-part fractures was 82.1% (23/28), and the excellent and good rate of patients with three-part fractures was 77.8% (28/36).

Conclusion: The "door-shaft method" not only reduces the difficulty of the Joystick technique in the reduction of proximal humerus fractures, but also provides auxiliary stability. It is used for limited open reduction and internal fixation with locking plate to treat the two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus, which can achieve good effectiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1002-1892.202103173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8311200PMC
July 2021

Facile Preparation of High Strength Silica Aerogel Composites via a Water Solvent System and Ambient Pressure Drying without Surface Modification or Solvent Replacement.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 16;14(14). Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Science and Technology on Advanced Ceramic Fibers and Composites Laboratory, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, China.

To further reduce the manufacturing cost and improve safety, silica aerogel composites (SAC) with low density and low thermal conductivity synthesized via ambient pressure drying (APD) technology have gradually become one of the most focused research areas. As a solvent, ethanol is flammable and needs to be replaced by other low surface tension solvents, which is dangerous and time-consuming. Therefore, the key steps of solvent replacement and surface modification in the APD process need to be simplified. Here, we demonstrate a facile strategy for preparing high strength mullite fiber reinforced SAC, which is synthesized by APD using water as a solvent, rather than using surface modification or solvent replacement. The effects of the fiber density on the physical properties, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivities of SAC are discussed in detail. The results show that when the fiber density of SAC is 0.24 g/cm, the thermal conductivity at 1100 °C is 0.127 W/m·K, and the compressive strength at 10% strain is 1.348 MPa. Because of the simple synthesis process and excellent thermal-mechanical performance, the SAC is expected to be used as an efficient and economical insulation material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14143983DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8303778PMC
July 2021

Generation of mouse-human chimeric embryos.

Nat Protoc 2021 08 2;16(8):3954-3980. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Naive human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can be used to generate mature human cells of all three germ layers in mouse-human chimeric embryos. Here, we describe a protocol for generating mouse-human chimeric embryos by injecting naive hPSCs converted from the primed state. Primed hPSCs are treated with a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor (Torin1) for 3 h and dissociated to single cells, which are plated on mouse embryonic fibroblasts in 2iLI medium, a condition essentially the same for culturing mouse embryonic stem cells. After 3-4 d, bright, dome-shaped colonies with mouse embryonic stem cell morphology are passaged in 2iLI medium. Established naive hPSCs are injected into mouse blastocysts, which produce E17.5 mouse embryos containing 0.1-4.0% human cells as quantified by next-generation sequencing of 18S ribosomal DNA amplicons. The protocol is suitable for studying the development of hPSCs in mouse embryos and may facilitate the generation of human cells, tissues and organs in animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41596-021-00565-7DOI Listing
August 2021

Longitudinal Changes in Diet Cause Repeatable and Largely Reversible Shifts in Gut Microbial Communities of Laboratory Mice and Are Observed across Segments of the Entire Intestinal Tract.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 1;22(11). Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, 1 Research Link, Singapore 117604, Singapore.

Dietary changes are known to alter the composition of the gut microbiome. However, it is less understood how repeatable and reversible these changes are and how diet switches affect the microbiota in the various segments of the gastrointestinal tract. Here, a treatment group of conventionally raised laboratory mice is subjected to two periods of western diet (WD) interrupted by a period of standard diet (SD) of the same duration. Beta-diversity analyses show that diet-induced microbiota changes are largely reversible ( = 0.1501; PERMANOVA, weighted-UniFrac comparison of the treatment-SD group to the control-SD group) and repeatable ( = 0.032; PERMANOVA, weighted-UniFrac comparison of both WD treatments). Furthermore, we report that diet switches alter the gut microbiota composition along the length of the intestinal tract in a segment-specific manner, leading to gut segment-specific Firmicutes/Bacteroidota ratios. We identified prevalent and distinct Amplicon Sequencing Variants (ASVs), particularly in genera of the recently described , along the gut as well as ASVs that are differentially abundant between segments of treatment and control groups. Overall, this study provides insights into the reversibility of diet-induced microbiota changes and highlights the importance of expanding sampling efforts beyond the collections of fecal samples to characterize diet-dependent and segment-specific microbiome differences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115981DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8198505PMC
June 2021

Survival Outcomes of Lobectomy Versus Segmentectomy in Clinical Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

Adv Ther 2021 07 23;38(7):4130-4137. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Funing People's Hospital, No. 111 Fcheng Street Road, Funing County, Yancheng City, 224400, Jiangsu Province, China.

Introduction: The gold standard surgical therapy for patients with clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection. Meanwhile, segmentectomy has emerged as an alternative choice with the advantage of fewer postoperative complications. The acceptance of this procedure remains controversial, and conflicting results exist in the retrospective trials.

Objectives: The aim of this meta-analysis was to analyze the survival outcomes of lobectomy versus segmentectomy in clinical stage I NSCLC.

Methods: A computerized literature search was done on published trials in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library to June 2019 to identify clinical trials. Lung cancer-specific survival (LCSS) and overall survival (OS) were measured as outcomes. Statistical analysis was performed in the Meta-analysis Revman 5.3 software.

Results: A systematic literature search was conducted including seven studies. In this meta-analysis, the LCSS and OS in the lobectomy group were linked to a markedly lower trend in comparison to the segmentectomy group without significant statistical difference (P > 0.05), indicating that lobectomy confers an equivalent survival outcome compared with segmentectomy.

Conclusion: No significant differences were found in survival outcomes between lobectomy and segmentectomy. Further large-scale, prospective, randomized trials are needed to explore reasonable surgical treatments for early-stage lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-021-01793-9DOI Listing
July 2021

Feasibility and safety of "bridging" pancreaticogastrostomy for pancreatic trauma in Landrace pigs.

World J Gastrointest Surg 2021 May;13(5):419-428

Faculty of Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Surgery, Institute of Hepatobiliary Surgery of Chinese PLA, Key Laboratory of Digital Hepetobiliary Surgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China.

Background: In recent years, we created and employed a new anastomosis method, "bridging" pancreaticogastrostomy, to treat patients with extremely severe pancreatic injury. This surgery has advantages such as short length of surgery, low secondary trauma, rapid construction of shunts for pancreatic fluid, preventing second surgeries, and achieving good treatment outcomes in clinical practice. However, due to the limited number of clinical cases, there is a lack of strong evidence to support the feasibility and safety of this surgical procedure. Therefore, we carried out animal experiments to examine this procedure, which is reported here.

Aim: To examine the feasibility and safety of a new rapid method of pancreaticogastrostomy, "bridging" pancreaticogastrostomy.

Methods: Ten Landrace pigs were randomized into the experimental and control groups, with five pigs in each group. "Bridging" pancreaticogastrostomy was performed in the experimental group, while routine mucosa-to-mucosa pancreaticogastrostomy was performed in the control group. After surgery, the general condition, amylase levels in drainage fluid on Days 1, 3, 5, and 7, fasting and 2-h postprandial blood glucose 6 mo after surgery, fasting, 2-h postprandial peripheral blood insulin, and portal vein blood insulin 6 mo after surgery were assessed. Resurgery was carried out at 1 and 6 mo after the former one to examine the condition of the abdominal cavity and firmness and tightness of the pancreaticogastric anastomosis and pancreas.

Results: After surgery, the general condition of the animals was good. One in the control group did not gain weight 6 mo after surgery, whereas significant weight gain was present in the others. There were significant differences on Days 1 and 3 after surgery between the two groups but no differences on Days 5 and 7. There were no differences in fasting and 2-h postprandial blood glucose and fasting and 2-h insulin values of postprandial peripheral blood and portal vein blood 6 mo after surgery between the two groups. One month after surgery, the sinus tract orifice/anastomosis was patent in the two groups. Six months after surgery, the sinus tract orifice/anastomosis was sealed, and pancreases in both groups presented with chronic pancreatitis.

Conclusion: "Bridging" pancreaticogastrostomy is a feasible and safe a means of damage control surgery during the early stage of pancreatic injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4240/wjgs.v13.i5.419DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167843PMC
May 2021

Amelioration of Endothelial Dysfunction in Diabetes: Role of Takeda G Protein-Coupled Receptor 5.

Front Pharmacol 2021 28;12:637051. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Cardiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Key Laboratory of Medical Electrophysiology, Ministry of Education and Medical Electrophysiological Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Institute of Cardiovascular Research, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) eventually leads to chronic vascular complications, resulting in cardiovascular diseases. DM-associated endothelial dysfunction (ED) plays an important role in the development of chronic vascular complications. Low endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, inflammation, and oxidative stress all contribute to ED. The G protein-coupled receptor Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) is a membrane receptor for bile acids that plays an important role in the regulation of glucose metabolism. Recent studies have shown that TGR5 is involved in the regulation of various mediators of ED, which suggests that TGR5 may represent a target for the treatment of DM-associated ED. In this review, we summarize the principal mechanisms of DM-associated ED, then propose TGR5 as a novel therapeutic target on the basis of its mechanistic involvement, and suggest potential directions for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.637051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113688PMC
April 2021

Remarkable Phytochemical Characteristics of Chi-Nan Agarwood Induced from New-Found Chi-Nan Germplasm of Compared with Ordinary Agarwood.

Int J Anal Chem 2021 10;2021:5593730. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education & National Engineering Laboratory for Breeding of Endangered Medicinal Materials, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China.

Wild Chi-Nan agarwood is regarded as the highest quality agarwood from spp. However, the comprehensive research on chemical composition of wild Chi-Nan agarwood is limited. An integrated strategy using SHS-GC-MS and UPLC-Q/Tof-MS was applied to explore the phytochemical characteristics of a kind of agarwood induced from a newly identified germplasm of Chi-Nan Progenesis QI and MS-Dial were used to preprocess the UPLC-Q/Tof-MS and GC-MS raw data, respectively. Principle component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares to latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) models were built to discriminate Chi-Nan agarwood from ordinary agarwood and to screen potential distinguishing components between them. In this study, we clarified the distinguishing differences between Chi-Nan agarwood and ordinary agarwood. The difference is mainly manifested in the average contents of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone and 2-[2-(4'-methoxybenzene)ethyl]chromone, which are 170 and 420 times higher in Chi-Nan agarwood than in ordinary agarwood, respectively, while the contents of 5,6,7,8-diepoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones(DEPECs), 5,6-epoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones(EPECs), and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones(THPECs) such as agarotetrol are extremely low. The content of the main sesquiterpenes in Chi-Nan agarwood was higher than that in ordinary agarwood, especially in regard to guaiane and eudesmane derivatives. In addition, there were significant differences in the contents of low-molecular-weight aromatic compounds such as 2-methyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, and 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde between Chi-Nan agarwood and ordinary agarwood. All the mentioned main chemical characteristics of this new Chi-Nan agarwood were coincident with those of the rare wild Chi-Nan agarwood from , , and . We reported differences in 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones, sesquiterpenes, and low-molecular-weight aromatic compounds between Chi-Nan agarwood and ordinary agarwood from for the first time; it is necessary to evaluate the agarwood from the new-found Chi-Nan germplasm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5593730DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8053051PMC
April 2021

Reduced-order improved generalized proportional integral observer based tracking control for full-state constrained systems with multi-uncertainties.

ISA Trans 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Information Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

In order to better understand the disturbance rejection principle of PID, the active disturbance rejection PID is derived based on the singular perturbation theory and bandwidth parameterization. However, the PID structure is not suitable for high order systems with state constraints. In addition, the adaptive neural network (ANN) method for the state constrained control is not facile for engineering applications. Therefore, based on the disturbance rejection ideas of PID, the reduced order improved generalized proportional integral observer (IGPIO) based state constrained control is proposed to reject the multi uncertainties actively, meanwhile, it can prevent the violation of the system state constraints. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by the state constrained control simulation for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) driven electric vehicle (EV).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2021.04.013DOI Listing
April 2021

Germline Saturation Mutagenesis Induces Skeletal Phenotypes in Mice.

J Bone Miner Res 2021 08 10;36(8):1548-1565. Epub 2021 May 10.

Center for Genetics of Host Defense, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Proper embryonic and postnatal skeletal development require coordination of myriad complex molecular mechanisms. Disruption of these processes, through genetic mutation, contributes to variation in skeletal development. We developed a high-throughput N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced saturation mutagenesis skeletal screening approach in mice to identify genes required for proper skeletal development. Here, we report initial results from live-animal X-ray and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) imaging of 27,607 G3 mice from 806 pedigrees, testing the effects of 32,198 coding/splicing mutations in 13,020 genes. A total of 39.7% of all autosomal genes were severely damaged or destroyed by mutations tested twice or more in the homozygous state. Results from our study demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo mutagenesis to identify mouse models of skeletal disease. Furthermore, our study demonstrates how ENU mutagenesis provides opportunities to create and characterize putative hypomorphic mutations in developmentally essential genes. Finally, we present a viable mouse model and case report of recessive skeletal disease caused by mutations in FAM20B. Results from this study, including engineered mouse models, are made publicly available via the online Mutagenetix database. © 2021 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.4323DOI Listing
August 2021

Nitrogen-Coordinated [email protected] Yolk-Shell Polyhedrons Catalysts Derived from a Metal-Organic Framework for a Highly Reversible Li-O Battery.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 7;13(15):17658-17667. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, PR China.

Transition-metal sulfides (TMS) are one of the most promising cathode catalysts for Li-O batteries (LOBs) owing to their excellent stabilities and inherent metallicity. In this work, a highly efficient mode has been used to synthesize [email protected] [pyrolysis products of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)]-derived CoS(CoS)@NC. Benefiting from the special yolk-shell hierarchical porous morphology, the existence of Co-N bonds, and dual-function catalytic activity (ORR/OER) of the open metal sites contributed by MOFs, the [email protected]/AB electrode illustrated excellent charge-discharge cycling for up to nearly 100 times at a current density of 0.1 mA cm under a limited capacity of 500 mA h g (based on the total weight of [email protected] and AB) with a high discharge voltage plateau and a low charge cut-off voltage. Meanwhile, the average transferred electron number () is around 3.7 per O molecule for [email protected], which is the chief approach for a four-electron pathway of the ORR under alkaline media. Therefore, we believe that the novel [email protected]/AB electrode could serve as an excellent catalyst in the LOBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c02564DOI Listing
April 2021

Efficacy of Liangxue Guyuan decoction on radiation-induced intestinal injury in rats via the toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation primary response 88/ nuclear factor-kappa B pathway.

J Tradit Chin Med 2021 04;41(2):254-261

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of Liangxue Guyuan decoction ( LGD) on radiation-induced intestinal injury in rats, and the possible underlying mechanism of action.

Methods: A total of 255 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. 15 rats were assigned to the control group and the remaining 240 rats were exposed to a 60Co source at a dose of 11 Gy. Irradiated rats were randomly divided into model, dexamethasone (DXM), low-dose LGD (LGDl), and high-dose LGD (LGDh) groups and treated for 11 d. The survival rate, weight of body, intestinal pathology and the expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) were recorded.

Results: Radiation reduced the survival rate and weight of rats, destroyed the intestinal structure, induced an inflammatory reaction, and increased both protein and mRNA expression of TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB in ileum. However, LGDh increased the survival rate, inhibited weight loss, alleviated inflammation and improve the expression of TLR4 pathway.

Conclusion: LGD increased the survival rate and inhibit weight loss of irradiated rats, and reduced inflammation and intestinal injury. The underlying mechanism may involve regulation of the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway.
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April 2021

Dielectrowetting Control of Capillary Force (Cheerios Effect) between Floating Objects and Wall for Dielectric Fluid.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Mar 23;12(3). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15237, USA.

A capillary interaction between floating objects and adjacent walls, which is known as "Cheerios effect", is a common phenomenon that generates capillary attraction or repulsion forces between them depending on their wettabilities, densities, geometries, and so on. This paper deals with controlling the capillary forces, specifically, acting on objects floating on a dielectric (non-conductive) fluid. A key control input parameter is the wettability (contact angle) of the sidewall adjacent to the floating object. By introducing dielectrowetting to the sidewall and actively changing the contact angle on the sidewall, the capillary force is controlled and easily reversed between attraction and repulsion. In this reversing process, the tilting angle of the sidewall is another critical parameter. A theoretical relation taking the titling angle into account is compared and in good agreement with experimental results obtained from the trajectory of the floating object. Finally, a continuous motion of the floating object is demonstrated using this control where an array of dielectrowetting electrode pads is sequentially activated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12030341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004620PMC
March 2021

The role of 14-3-3 proteins in cell signalling pathways and virus infection.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 05 1;25(9):4173-4182. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Fundamental Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, China.

14-3-3 proteins are highly conserved in species ranging from yeast to mammals and regulate numerous signalling pathways via direct interactions with proteins carrying phosphorylated 14-3-3-binding motifs. Recent studies have shown that 14-3-3 proteins can also play a role in viral infections. This review summarizes the biological functions of 14-3-3 proteins in protein trafficking, cell-cycle control, apoptosis, autophagy and other cell signal transduction pathways, as well as the associated mechanisms. Recent findings regarding the role of 14-3-3 proteins in viral infection and innate immunity are also reviewed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8093981PMC
May 2021
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