Publications by authors named "Jian Chen"

4,280 Publications

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Microstructure and Tensile Property of Laser Cladding Assisted with Multidimensional High-Frequency Vibration.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Jun 17;15(12). Epub 2022 Jun 17.

College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310023, China.

Laser cladding is a promising surface modification technology to fabricate high-performance parts. However, defects such as porosity, cracks and residual tensile stress are easily produced in laser cladding, leading to significant property reduction and poor reliability. In this study, laser cladding with multidimensional high-frequency vibration was investigated. The effects of multidimensional high-frequency vibration on the improvement of microstructure and mechanical properties were analyzed and discussed based on the vibration-assisted laser cladding experiments. In addition, a numerical model was conducted to help understand the significance of the vibration on flow field and temperature field. Results show that 3D vibration led to the primary dendrite spacing reduction from 11.1 to 6.8 μm, microhardness increase from 199 to 221 HV, and a nearly 110% improvement in the elongations. The findings of this study confirmed the significant benefits of multidimensional high-frequency vibration applied in laser cladding and provided a basis to uncover the underlying mechanisms of multidimensional vibration on the rapid melting and solidification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15124295DOI Listing
June 2022

DNA Methylation Difference between Female and Male Ussuri Catfish () in Brain and Gonad Tissues.

Life (Basel) 2022 Jun 10;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Fisheries Research Institute, Wuhan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan 430207, China.

DNA methylation has been found to be involved in sex determination and differentiation in many aquaculture species. The Ussuri catfish () is a popular aquaculture fish in China with high economic value in which male-biased sex dimorphism was observed in terms of body size and body weight. In this study, DNA methylation-sensitive RAD sequencing (Methyl-RAD) was used to explore the epigenetic difference between adult male and female samples in brain and gonad tissues. In brain tissues, 5,442,496 methylated cytosine sites were found and 9.94% of these sites were from symmetric CCGG or CCWGG sites. Among these sites, 321 differential DNA methylation sites (DMSs) in 171 genes were identified, while in gonad tissues, 4,043,053 methylated cytosines sites were found in total and 11.70% of them were from CCGG or CCWGG. Among these sites, 78 differential DNA methylation sites were found which were located in 64 genes. We also found several sex-determination genes among these differential methylated genes, such as , and in brain tissues and , and in gonad tissues. These results provided evidence for understanding the function of DNA methylation in the sex differentiation in , which further deepens the relationship between gene regulation and epigenetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life12060874DOI Listing
June 2022

NbN films on flexible and thickness controllable dielectric substrates.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 23;12(1):10662. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Research Institute of Superconductor Electronics, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, People's Republic of China.

A simple method for preparing superconducting NbN thin films on flexible dielectric substrates with controllable thickness was developed. The structure and surface characteristics and superconducting properties of the flexible film were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and physical property measurement system (PPMS). We found that NbN films on the flexible substrate show certain preferred orientations through the self-buffering effect of the amorphous NbN layer. The zero resistance superconducting transition temperature (T) for 10 nm thick NbN films is 8.3 K, and the T for 30 nm thick NbN films in a magnetic field of 9 T remains above 7 K. This flexible film can be transferred to any substrate and adapted to different shape applications. It can also be further processed into single-layer or multilayer flexible superconducting devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-14861-zDOI Listing
June 2022

Dual-color terahertz spatial light modulator for single-pixel imaging.

Light Sci Appl 2022 Jun 23;11(1):191. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Research Institute of Superconductor Electronics (RISE), School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, China.

Spatial light modulators (SLM), capable of dynamically and spatially manipulating electromagnetic waves, have reshaped modern life in projection display and remote sensing. The progress of SLM will expedite next-generation communication and biomedical imaging in the terahertz (THz) range. However, most current THz SLMs are adapted from optical alternatives that still need improvement in terms of uniformity, speed, and bandwidth. Here, we designed, fabricated, and characterized an 8 × 8 THz SLM based on tunable liquid crystal metamaterial absorbers for THz single-pixel compressive imaging. We demonstrated dual-color compressive sensing (CS) imaging for dispersive objects utilizing the large frequency shift controlled by an external electric field. We developed auto-calibrated compressive sensing (ACS) algorithm to mitigate the impact of the spatially nonuniform THz incident beam and pixel modulation, which significantly improves the fidelity of reconstructed images. Furthermore, the complementary modulation at two absorption frequencies enables Hadamard masks with negative element values to be realized by frequency-switching, thereby halving the imaging time. The demonstrated imaging system paves a new route for THz single-pixel multispectral imaging with high reliability and low cost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41377-022-00879-5DOI Listing
June 2022

Rapid identification of the storage duration and species of sliced boletes using near-infrared spectroscopy.

J Food Sci 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Institute of Medicinal Plants, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Kunming, China.

Boletes are recognized as a worldwide delicacy. Adulteration of the expired and low-value sliced boletes is a pressing problem in the supply chain of commercial sliced boletes. This study aimed at developing a rapid method to identify the storage duration and species of sliced boletes, using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. In the study, 1376 fruiting bodies of wild-grown boletes were collected from 2017 to 2020 in Yunnan, containing four common species of edible boletes. A NIR spectroscopy-based strategy was proposed, that is, identify the storage duration of sliced boletes to ensure that they are within the shelf life firstly; then identify the species of sliced boletes within the shelf life to evaluate their economic value. Three supervised methods, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), extreme learning machine (ELM), and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) images with residual convolutional neural network (ResNet) model were applied to identify. The results showed that PLS-DA model cannot accurately identify the storage duration and species of sliced boletes, and the ELM model can identify the storage duration of boletes samples, but cannot accurately discriminate different species of samples. And ResNet model established by 2DCOS images showed superiority in classification performance, 100% accuracy was obtained for both the storage duration and species classification. Moreover, compared to traditional methods, the 2DCOS images with ResNet model was free of complicated data preprocessing. The results obtained in the present study indicated a promising way of combining 2DCOS images with ResNet methods, in tandem with NIR for the rapid identification of the storage duration and species of sliced boletes. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: In the boletes supply chain, the method can be considered as a reliable method for testing the authenticity of boletes slices. The current study can also provide a reference for quality control of other edible mushroom.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.16220DOI Listing
June 2022

Clinical anatomy of superior laryngeal artery via transoral approach.

Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol 2022 Jun 19;7(3):702-706. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Peking University First Hospital Beijing China.

Objective: Hemorrhage is the most common complication caused by transoral laryngopharyngeal surgery. It is believed that proper management of the superior laryngeal artery (SLA), the main feeding artery for the larynx and pharynx, may reduce intra- and postoperative hemorrhage incidence. The aim of this study was to illustrate the anatomy of the SLA via transoral endoscopic approach.

Methods: Fourteen sides of SLA from heads of seven fresh-frozen and silicone-injected cadavers were dissected. Transoral dissections were performed for the intra-laryngeal segment of SLA, and transcervical dissections were performed to confirm the anatomical measurements.

Results: SLA had a slightly descending course from the origin to the larynx, and there was a major branch supplying the epiglottis, named pharyngo-epiglottic artery (PEA). Parallel with the internal superior laryngeal nerve (ISLN), SLA passed through the thyrohyoid membrane and ended into the hypopharynx. The distance from SLA to the superior horn of thyroid cartilage (SHTC) was (9.11 ± 0.58)mm on the left and (9.01 ± 0.37)mm on the right; the distance from SLA to the inferior margin of the hyoid bone (IMHB) was (2.00 ± 0.11)mm on the left and (1.95 ± 0.08)mm on the right; the distance from SLA to ISLN was (5.98 ± 0.48)mm on the left and (5.78 ± 0.36)mm on the right. No significant difference was found between bilateral sides ( > 0.05). Moreover, the distance from SLA to superior margin of thyroid cartilage (SMTC) was (5.52 ± 0.24)mm on the left and (5.80 ± 0.15)mm on the right. A significant difference was also found between bilateral sides ( = 0.03), which might suggest the SLA is located further from the SMTC on the right side.

Conclusion: SHTC, SMTC, and IMHB could be regarded as anatomical landmarks to locate SLA when applying a transoral approach. Moreover, a complete understanding of the detailed anatomy of the superior laryngeal artery may improve the detection of hemostasis in transoral laryngeal or hypo-pharyngeal surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lio2.781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9194964PMC
June 2022

Direct recognition of pathogen effectors by plant NLR immune receptors and downstream signalling.

Essays Biochem 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Agriculture and Food, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.

Plants deploy extracellular and intracellular immune receptors to sense and restrict pathogen attacks. Rapidly evolving pathogen effectors play crucial roles in suppressing plant immunity but are also monitored by intracellular nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat immune receptors (NLRs), leading to effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Here, we review how NLRs recognize effectors with a focus on direct interactions and summarize recent research findings on the signalling functions of NLRs. Coiled-coil (CC)-type NLR proteins execute immune responses by oligomerizing to form membrane-penetrating ion channels after effector recognition. Some CC-NLRs function in sensor-helper networks with the sensor NLR triggering oligomerization of the helper NLR. Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-type NLR proteins possess catalytic activities that are activated upon effector recognition-induced oligomerization. Small molecules produced by TIR activity are detected by additional signalling partners of the EDS1 lipase-like family (enhanced disease susceptibility 1), leading to activation of helper NLRs that trigger the defense response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/EBC20210072DOI Listing
June 2022

Nifuroxazide in combination with CpG ODN exerts greater efficacy against hepatocellular carcinoma.

Int Immunopharmacol 2022 Jul 1;108:108911. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, Henan 453000, PR China. Electronic address:

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant tumour in China that remains a major challenge to the medical community, and effective treatment is urgently needed. Due to complex tumorigenesis, monotherapy shows poor therapeutic effects, and combined treatment becomes a necessary option. YW002, a CpG ODN-containing sequence, has been proven to enhance antitumor effects in tumour-bearing mouse models. Moreover, as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial drug, nifuroxazide exhibited an anti-HCC effect through activation of p-Stat3. Here, we tested the effect of nifuroxazide on HCC in vitro and then explored the therapeutic effect of combined nifuroxazide and CpG ODN on HCC in vivo. Nifuroxazide inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis and suppressed migration and invasion in HepG2 cells in vitro. The combination therapy using nifuroxazide and CpG ODN significantly suppressed the growth of tumours in tumour-bearing mice with few side effects and achieved better therapeutic effects on HCC than monotherapy. Moreover, combined nifuroxazide and CpG ODN therapy significantly induced apoptosis, enhanced the infiltration of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes and macrophages in tumour tissue, and increased the ratio of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in the spleens of tumour-bearing mice. The introduction of this combination therapy combining nifuroxazide and CpG ODN provided a new strategy for HCC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2022.108911DOI Listing
July 2022

Rapid titration of recombinant baculoviruses based on NanoLuc secretion in early infection.

J Virol Methods 2022 Jun 18:114565. Epub 2022 Jun 18.

Department of Biopharmacy, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, China. Electronic address:

The baculovirus expression vector system has become a powerful tool for recombinant protein production and gene delivery. However, existing titration methods for baculovirus are not economical in terms of test time and cost. A titration method based on NanoLuc secretion that allows for titration of recombinant baculoviruses at 4h post infection (hpi) is described. In the assay, the envelop protein GP64 signal peptide-guided NanoLuc was secreted into the culture medium in proportion to the virus amount during early infection under combined control by the homologous region 5 (hr5) enhancer and the promoter of immediate early gene 1 (ie1) plus L21. Two timepoint standard curves of luciferase activity to virus titers of 5 to 9 logs were established with excellent linearity and correlation coefficients (slope = 1.050, R ≥ 0.9969) using a secretory Nanoluc (secrNluc) - inserted standard baculovirus. Through the assay, the titers of three recombinant viruses prepared independently were calculated by directly measuring luciferase activity in the supernatant at 4 and 6 hpi, with greater accuracy compared to the endpoint dilution assay. These results show the efficacy of this proposed method as a streamlined assay for rapidly titrating recombinant baculoviruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2022.114565DOI Listing
June 2022

Salicylic acid-based hypoxia-responsive chemodynamic nanomedicines boost antitumor immunotherapy by modulating immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.

Acta Biomater 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, PR China. Electronic address:

The delivery of salicylic acid or its derivatives to tumor tissue in the form of nanomedicine is critical for the studies on their potential synergistic mechanism in tumor therapy and chemoprevention considering the dangerous bleeding in the high-dose oral administration. To deepen the understanding of their role in adjusting immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (ITM), herein, we firstly developed a hypoxia-sensitive Fe-5,5'-azosalicylic acid nanoscale coordination polymer nanomedicines (FeNCPs) via a "old drugs new tricks" strategy for synergistic chemodynamic therapy (CDT) and remodulation of ITM to elevate antitumor immunotherapy effect. PEGylated FeNCPs could be reductively cleaved to release 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and ferric ions by azo-reductase under hypoxic conditions, which could induce tumor cell death by Fenton reaction-catalysis enhanced CDT and 5-ASA-converted carboxylquinone to promote the production of •OH. Meanwhile, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its enzymatic product prostaglandin E (PGE), as immune negative regulatory molecules, can promote tumor progression and immune tolerance. The released 5-ASA as a COX inhibitor could suppress the expression of PGE, and Fe was employed to reeducate M2-like tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) to M1-like phenotype, which could initiate antitumor immune response to reach better antitumor immunotherapy. This work broadens the application of salicylic acid derivatives in antitumor immunotherapy, and provides a new strategy for their "old drugs new tricks". STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its enzymatic product prostaglandin E2 (PGE), as immune negative regulatory molecules, facilitate the differentiation of immune cells into immunosuppressive cells to build the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, which can promote tumor progression and immune tolerance. Thus, down-regulation of COX-2/PGE expression may be a key approach to tumor treatments. Meanwhile, as a class of inhibitors of COX-2/PGE, the potential mechanism of aspirin or 5-aminosalicylic acid has been a mystery in tumor therapy and chemoprevention. To expand the application of aspirin family nanomedicine in biomedicine, herein, we firstly developed a hypoxia-sensitive Fe-5,5'-azosalicylic acid nanoscale coordination polymer nanomedicines via a "old drugs new tricks" strategy for synergistic chemodynamic therapy and remodulation of immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment to elevate antitumor immunotherapy effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2022.06.026DOI Listing
June 2022

[Effects of Porphyra yezoensis extract on hepatic inflammatory factors and oxidative stress in type 1 diabetic mice].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2022 May;51(3):456-462

Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering of Ministry of Education/Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China.

Objective: To study the effect of Porphyra yezoensis extract on liver inflammation and oxidative stress in type 1 diabetics mice.

Methods: A total of ninety-one C57 BL/6 J male mice were adaptively fed for two weeks, and twelve C57 BL/6 J male mice were randomly reserved to be included in the blank control group. The rest of the mice were fasted overnight for twelve hours(except water), and they were given 170.00 mg/kg streptozotocin by intraperitoneal injection. Fasting blood glucose in type 1 diabetics mice were greater than or equal to 16.7 mmol/L after seven days, and polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria and weight loss appeared, which were judged to be the successful model of type 1 diabetes. Forty-eight successfully modeled mice were divided into the model control group, the low dose of Porphyra yezoensis extract group, the medium dose of Porphyra yezoensis extract and high dose of Porphyra yezoensis extract group according to the fasting blood glucose and body weight. The mice in the blank control group and the model group were given the same amount of normal saline. The low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose intervention groups were separately given the corresponding dose of Porphyra yezoensis extract by intragastric administration for six weeks. The body weight of type 1 diabetic mice, changes in body length, fasting blood glucose, insulin, liver inflammatory factors and oxidative stress indicators and pathological sections of liver and pancreas after the intervention of Porphyra yezoensis extract were observed. The glucose oxidase method was used to determine the fasting blood glucose level of type 1 diabetic mice. The serum insulin content, liver inflammatory factor levels and oxidative stress indicators were detected by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The hematoxylin-eosin staining method was used to observe histopathology of liver and pancreas paraffin sections.

Results: The weight of the model control group was significantly lower than that of the blank control group(P<0.05), and the fasting blood glucose value was significantly higher than that of the blank control group(P<0.05). There was no statistical difference. In terms of inflammatory factors, compared with the model control group, low-dose Porphyra yezoensis extract can increase serum insulin levels and reduce liver tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) levels(P<0.05) in T1DM mice, and medium-dose Porphyra yezoensis extract can reduce liver TNF-α level(P<0.05), high-dose Porphyra yezoensis extract can reduce the level of interleukin-1β(IL-1β)(P<0.05). The histopathological conditions of pancreas in different intervention groups were improved compared with the model control group, and the number of β cells increased compared with the model group. In terms of oxidative stress, compared with the model control group, low-dose Porphyra yezoensis extract can significantly reduce the levels of liver alanine aminotransferase(ALT) and malondialdehyde(MDA)(P<0.05), and high-dose Porphyra yezoensis extract can significantly increase the levels of glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px) and catalase(CAT)(P<0.05).

Conclusion: The protective effect of Porphyra yezoensis extract on liver oxidative damage in T1DM mice may be achieved by regulating the activity of CAT and GSH-Px and reducing the content of MDA. In addition, Porphyra yezoensis extract can reduce liver TNF-α and IL-1β levels to improve liver inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19813/j.cnki.weishengyanjiu.2022.03.019DOI Listing
May 2022

Janus bimetallic materials as efficient electrocatalysts for hydrogen oxidation and evolution reactions.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2022 Jun 7;625:128-135. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Siyuan Laboratory, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Vacuum Coating Technologies and New Energy Materials, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Vacuum Coating Technologies and New Energy Materials, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Fiber Sensing and Communications, Department of Physics, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632, PR China. Electronic address:

The development of hydrogen energy is limited by the high cost of platinum group metals (PGM). There is an urgent need to design efficient PGM-free electrocatalysts in the hydrogen electrode. Herein, Janus Ni/W bimetallic materials are proposed as an effective PGM-free bifunctional hydrogen electrocatalyst. By constructing the bimetallic materials, a synergistic effect is realized to enhance the reaction kinetics and improve the catalytic performance. In general, Ni can provide excellent H sites, and W serves as OH sites. Therefore, the synergistic effect of Ni and W can improve the kinetics of hydrogen evolution reaction and the hydroxide oxidation reaction. Ni/[email protected] can obtain the hydrogen evolution reaction current density of 10 mA cm with an overpotential of only 62.6 mV, and the exchange current density of hydroxide oxidation reaction can reach 1.83 mA cm. This work provides a new idea for the design of high-efficiency and low-cost PGM-free bifunctional hydrogen electrocatalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2022.06.029DOI Listing
June 2022

Facile Synthesis of Three Types of Mesoporous Silica Microspheres as Drug Delivery Carriers and Their Sustained-Release Properties.

Curr Drug Deliv 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

School of Chinese Materia Medica, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 301617, China.

Background: Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) are one of the most promising carriers for drug delivery. MSNs have been widely used in pharmaceutical research as drug carriers because of their large pore volume, high surface area, excellent biocompatibility, nontoxicity, ease to functionalize, and sustained release effects. MSNs have attracted much attention during drug delivery because of their special structure.

Objective: The present study aimed to synthesize mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN), dendritic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (DMSN) and hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSN) through facile methods, and to compare the drug release properties of nano-porous silica with different pore structures as a stroma for PUE drug.

Methods: MSN, DMSN, and HMSN were characterized by SEM, TEM, FT-IR, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, XRD, and zeta potential methods. Subsequently, puerarin (PUE) was used as the active ingredient and loaded into the three mesoporous materials, respectively. And the drug delivery behavior was measured in PBS solution with different pH values. The sustained-release properties of MSN, DMSN, and HMSN loaded with PUE were investigated. Finally, the biocompatibility and stability of MSN, DMSN, and HMSN were studied by MTT assay and hemolysis assay.

Results: Our results showed that MSN, DMSN, and HMSN were successfully synthesized and the three types of mesoporous silica nanoparticles had higher drug loading and encapsulation efficiency. According to the first-order release equation curve and Higuchi equation parameters, the results showed that the PUE-loaded MSN, DMSN, and HMSN exhibited sustained-release properties. Finally, MTT and hemolysis methods displayed that MSN, DMSN, and HMSN had good biocompatibility and stability.

Conclusion: In this study, MSN, DMSN, and HMSN were successfully synthesized, and to compare the drug release properties of nano-porous silica with different pore structures as a stroma for PUE drug, we provided a theoretical and practical basis for the application of PUE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567201819666220616121602DOI Listing
June 2022

MicroRNA-202 safeguards meiotic progression by preventing premature SEPARASE-mediated REC8 cleavage.

EMBO Rep 2022 Jun 17:e54298. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

State Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are believed to play important roles in mammalian spermatogenesis but the in vivo functions of single miRNAs in this highly complex developmental process remain unclear. Here, we report that miR-202, a member of the let-7 family, plays an important role in spermatogenesis by phenotypic evaluation of miR-202 knockout (KO) mice. Loss of miR-202 results in spermatocyte apoptosis and perturbation of the zygonema-to-pachynema transition. Multiple processes during meiosis prophase I including synapsis and crossover formation are disrupted, and inter-sister chromatid synapses are detected. Moreover, we demonstrate that Separase mRNA is a miR-202 direct target and provides evidence that miR-202 upregulates REC8 by repressing Separase expression. Therefore, we have identified miR-202 as a new regulating noncoding gene that acts on the established SEPARASE-REC8 axis in meiosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/embr.202154298DOI Listing
June 2022

Corrigendum: Wheat Microbiome: Structure, Dynamics, and Role in Improving Performance Under Stress Environments.

Front Microbiol 2022 31;13:940368. Epub 2022 May 31.

Plant Molecular Genetics Laboratory, School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.821546.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.940368DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9195292PMC
May 2022

Elevated pulsatility index is associated with poor functional outcome in stroke patients treated with thrombectomy: A retrospective cohort study.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Aims: To evaluate pulsatility index (PI) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) who underwent endovascular thrombectomy (EVT).

Methods: Patients were retrospectively recruited if their stroke were secondary to middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion and achieved full recanalization after EVT. Transcranial Doppler was performed within 24-hour post-EVT. The primary outcome was correlation between the MCA-PI on the affected side and 3-month functional outcome, with modified Rankin scale (mRS) ≥5 indicated extremely poor functional outcomes.

Results: Totally, 170 patients were included. High MCA-PI was positively related to the 3-month mRS score (r = 0.288, p < 0.001). The highest quartile of the MCA-PI was associated with a high incidence of extremely poor functional outcomes (adjusted OR, 13.33; 95% CI, 2.65-67.17; adjusted p = 0.002) after adjusting for confounding factors. The predictive capacity of the MCA-PI for extremely poor functional outcomes was good (area under the curve, 0.755; 95% CI, 0.655-0.854; p < 0.001), and its cutoff value for predicting extremely poor outcomes was 1.04, with a sensitivity of 65.6% and specificity of 78.3%.

Conclusion: The MCA-PI on the affected side is a prognostic biomarker in patients who have undergone stroke thrombectomy. An elevated MCA-PI may be prognostically valuable for predicting extremely poor functional outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cns.13888DOI Listing
June 2022

3D Visualization Analysis of Motion Trajectory of Knee Joint in Sports Training Based on Digital Twin.

Authors:
Jian Chen

Comput Intell Neurosci 2022 6;2022:3988166. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Physical Education, The Engineering & Technical College of Chengdu University of Technology, Leshan 614000, Sichuan, China.

With the development of China's social economy, the pace of people's life is also accelerating. Therefore, in the face of the increasing pressure of life and work, people have begun to pay more and more attention to improving their physical fitness and they also pay more and more attention to sports in their spare time. The knee joint is a very important body part that will be involved in sports. Therefore, in sports, it is very important for healthy sports to pay attention to the state of the knee joint at all times and avoid injury to the knee joint during sports. The three-dimensional visual analysis of the knee joint movement trajectory in sports training refers to the trajectory capture and three-dimensional visual analysis of the knee joint movement in sports training based on the computer-based description and understanding of model technology. The three-dimensional visual analysis of the motion trajectory of the knee joint in sports training is conducive to the attention and analysis of the motion state of the knee joint in sports training, so as to help find problems and avoid knee joint damage during sports training as much as possible. This paper aims to study the 3D visualization analysis of knee joint motion trajectory in sports training based on digital twin and establish a 3D visualization system of knee joint motion trajectory based on digital twin technology, and based on this system, the three-dimensional visualization experiment of knee joint movement trajectory in sports training is carried out. The experiment concluded that the signal-to-noise ratio of the three-dimensional visualization image of the knee joint movement trajectory in sports training based on the three-dimensional visualization system established by the digital twin is 68% and the clarity is 89%. It shows that the system has a good 3D visualization effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/3988166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9192271PMC
June 2022

YAP knockdown in combination with ferroptosis induction increases the sensitivity of HOS human osteosarcoma cells to Pyropheophorbide-α methyl ester-mediated photodynamic therapy.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2022 Jun 12:102964. Epub 2022 Jun 12.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Yuzhong, Chongqing, 400016, China; Orthopedic Laboratory of Chongqing Medical University, Yuzhong, Chongqing, 400016, China. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: This study was designed to explore the effects of Yes-associated protein (YAP) knockdown on human osteosarcoma (HOS) cell sensitivity to Pyropheophorbide-α methyl ester-mediated photodynamic therapy (MPPa-PDT), and to assess how YAP silencing in combination with treatment with the ferroptosis inducer Erastin improves HOS cell sensitivity to MPPa-PDT in an effort to better clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying these phenotypes.

Methods: At 12 h post-MPPa-PDT, Hoechst staining and flow cytometry were conducted to evaluate the apoptotic death of HOS cells. The expression of YAP in these cells at 12 h post-MPPa-PDT treatment was assessed via Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. BODIPY-C11 was used to evaluate lipid peroxidation. Following shYAP lentiviral transduction, Western blotting was conducted to assess the expression of proteins associated with proliferation, apoptosis, and ferroptosis. EdU assays and clonogenic assays were performed to analyze cellular proliferation. Erastin-treated HOS cells were used to establish a ferroptosis model. Western blotting was used to measure ferroptosis-associated protein levels following shYAP and erastin treatment, while changes in proliferation and MDA levels in each group were examined using an MDA kit.

Results: At 12 h post-MPPa-PDT, HOS cells exhibited apoptotic characteristics including nuclear fragmentation and pyknosis, with concomitant increases in apoptosis-associated proteins as detected via Western blotting and apoptotic induction as measured via flow cytometry. Phosphorylated YAP levels fell and non-phosphorylated YAP levels rose following such treatment. Transfection with shYAP was successful as a means of generating stable HOS cell lines, and Western blotting analyses of these cells revealed reductions in proteins associated with cellular proliferation together with the upregulation of apoptosis-related proteins.  MDA assays indicated that erastin combined with YAP knockdown enhanced the sensitivity of HOS cells to MPPa-PDT treatment.

Conclusions: These data indicate that ferroptosis and YAP knockdown can enhance osteosarcoma cell sensitivity to MPPa-PDT therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2022.102964DOI Listing
June 2022

Excise taxes and pricing activities of e-liquid products sold in online vape shops.

Tob Control 2022 Jun 13. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Internal Medicine and Center for Tobacco Research, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio, USA

Background: Although e-cigarette excise taxes have great potential to prevent the initiation and escalation of e-cigarette use, little information is available on pricing activities of online vape shops, and how well taxation is implemented during web-based sales remains unclear.

Objectives: We examine e-liquid pricing activities in popular online vape shops that sell nationwide in the USA and present how those stores charge excise taxes based on shipping addresses in states and local jurisdictions that have e-cigarette taxation in place.

Methods: We collect e-liquid sales prices from five online vape shops using web data extraction, standardise prices for e-liquid products, and present e-liquid price distribution in the whole sample and in each store, as well as variations of excise taxes across states/local jurisdictions and between stores. The price data were scraped from the store websites from February to May in 2021.

Results: We collected data on 14 477 e-liquid products from five stores. The average price of e-liquids is $0.25/mL, and the median price is $0.20/mL in our sample. E-liquid products sold online are very affordable and the average prices are lower compared with price estimates using other sources (eg, self-reports, sales data). In addition, online stores charge state excise taxes inconsistently and fail to comply with county-level or city-level excise taxes.

Conclusion: E-liquid products sold online are priced low, and stricter enforcement of e-cigarette excise tax is needed in online purchasing channels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2021-057033DOI Listing
June 2022

Water-Phase Lateral Interconnecting Quantum Dots as Free-Floating 2D Film Assembled by Hydrogen-Bonding Interactions to Acquire Excellent Electrocatalytic Activity.

ACS Nano 2022 Jun 13. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, China.

Supramolecular self-assembly of nanoparticles in two orthogonal directions would potentially allow one to fabricate nanomaterials with fascinating properties. In this study of a hydrothermal polycondensation of melamine/cyanuric acid, graphitic carbon nitride-based quantum dots (CNQD, ∼2 nm) are in situ arranged along two orthogonal directions through lateral hydrogen bonding, and free-floating two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded films of CNQD (2D CNQD) are built. On the basis of the universality of this hydrothermal in situ supramolecular self-assembly technique, 2D films linked by other quantum dots such as sulfur-doped graphitic carbon nitride and CdTe are also constructed. With the benefits of stimuli responsiveness and the reversibility of hydrogen bonds, controllable assembly/disassembly of the 2D CNQD film is feasibly achieved by external stimuli such as inletting CO/N, which endows the assembled 2D CNQD films optimal electrochemical superiorities of both 2D film and zero-dimensional (0D) quantum dots. Accordingly, the 2D CNQD film delivers a high bifunctional activity in both a nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) and an oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Especially in NRR, it exhibits the high yield rate of NH reaching 75.07 μg h mg at -0.85 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode at ambient condition. Strikingly, the power density of the rechargeable Zn-N battery using 2D CNQD film as cathode reaches 31.94 mW cm, outperforming the majority of Zn-N batteries. Density functional theory calculations proved the promoted adsorption of N and stabilized NRR intermediates on 2D CNQD cooperated by multiply hydrogen-bonding interactions are the main reasons for the excellent NRR electrocatalytic performances. This work hints that hydrothermal in situ supramolecular self-assembly is a feasible and direct way to integrate 0D quantum dots into 2D directional arrays, and the hydrogen bond that interlinks enables this free-floating 2D structure to maintain the electrochemical superiority of both 0D and 2D structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.2c00507DOI Listing
June 2022

Cell division cycle associated 2 (CDCA2) upregulation promotes the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma in a p53-dependant manner.

PeerJ 2022 6;10:e13535. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Medical Oncology, The Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, Yantai, Shandong, China.

Background: Elevated expression and oncogenic functions of cell division cycle associated 2 (CDCA2), an important mitotic regulator, have been demonstrated in several cancer types, however their involvement in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been elucidated, and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. This study aims to determine the role of CDCA2 in HCC and the underlying molecular mechanism.

Methods: The expression of CDCA2 in HCC was studied in 40 pairs of frozen and 48 pairs of paraffin-embedded HCC samples and paracancerous normal samples by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively, and using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets. The cellular function of CDCA2 was studied in the HepG2, Huh7 and SK-Hep1 HCC cell lines.

Results: We found significantly upregulated CDCA2 expression in HCC, which was correlated with higher clinical stage, tumor grade and Glypican-3 (+). High CDCA2 expression was correlated with worse overall survival. CDCA2 promoted the proliferation of HCC cells by promoting G1/S transition through the upregulation and activation of CCND1/CDK4/6 and CCNE1/CDK2, enhanced the clonogenic ability, inhibited apoptosis in a p53/p21-dependent manner by inhibiting the p38 MAPK pathway and activating the JNK/c-Jun pathway, and promoted the migration of p53-mutant Huh7 cells by activating the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Targeting CDCA2 reduced the chemoresistance of HCC cells to cisplatin. CDCA2 expression was also regulated by cyclophilin J.

Conclusions: This study revealed elevated expression of CDCA2 in HCC, possibly as a result of p53 dysregulation, which was associated with worse prognosis of patients. We confirmed the oncogenic role of CDCA2 in HCC and revealed some of the underlying molecular mechanisms. This study indicated the potential value of CDCA2 as a future target for the treatment of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.13535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9179591PMC
June 2022

The ecological roles of assembling genomes for Bacillales and Clostridiales in coal seams.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2022 Jun 10. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

China National Coal Xinji Group Corporation, Huainan, Anhui Province, China.

Biogenic coalbed methane is produced by biological processes mediated by synergistic interactions of microbial complexes in coal seams. However, the ecological role of functional bacteria in biogenic coalbed methane remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) of Bacillales and Clostridiales from coal seams, revealing further expansion of hydrogen and acetogen producers involved in organic matter decomposition. In this study, Bacillales and Clostridiales were dominant orders (91.85 ± 0.94%) in cultured coal seams, and a total of 16 MAGs from 6 families, including Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus, Anaerosalibacter, Hungatella and Paeniclostridium, were reconstructed. These microbial groups possessed multiple metabolic pathways (glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate, β-oxidation, TCA cycle, assimilatory sulfate reduction, nitrogen metabolism and encoding hydrogenase) that provided metabolic substrates (acetate and/or H2) for the methanogenic processes. Therein, the hydrogenase-encoding gene and hydrogenase maturation factors were merely found in all the Clostridiales MAGs. β-oxidation was the main metabolic pathway involved in short-chain fatty acid degradation and acetate production, and most of these pathways were detected and exhibited different operon structures in Bacillales MAGs. In addition, assimilatory sulfate reduction and nitrogen metabolism processes were also detected in some MAGs, and these processes were also closely related to acetate production and/or organic matter degradation according to their operon structures and metabolic pathways. In summary, this study enabled a better understanding of the ecological roles of Bacillales and Clostridiales in biogenic methane in coal seams based on a combination of bioinformatic techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnac053DOI Listing
June 2022

Room-Temperature Solid-State UV Cross-Linkable Vitrimer-like Polymers for Additive Manufacturing.

Polymers (Basel) 2022 May 29;14(11). Epub 2022 May 29.

College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu 610066, China.

In this paper, a UV cross-linkable vitrimer-like polymer, ureidopyrimidinone functionalized telechelic polybutadiene, is reported. It is synthesized in two steps. First, 2(6-isocyanatohexylaminocarbonylamino)-6-methyl-4[1H]-pyrimidinone (UPy-NCO) reacts with hydroxy-functionalized polybutadiene (HTPB) to obtain UPy-HTPB-UPy, and then the resulted UPy-HTPB-UPy is cross-linked under 365 nm UV light (photo-initiator: bimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone, DMPA). Further investigation reveals that the density of cross-linking and mechanical properties of the resulting polymers can be tailored via varying the amount of photo-initiator and UV exposure time. Before UV cross-linking, UPy-HTPB-UPy is found to be vitrimer-like due to the quadruple hydrogen-bonding interactions. The UPy groups at the end of the chain also enable for rapid solidification upon the evaporation of the solvent. The unsaturated double bonds in the HTPB chains enable UPy-HTPB-UPy to be UV cross-linkable in the solid state at room temperature. After cross-linking, the polymers have good shape memory effect (SME). Here, we demonstrate that this type of polymer can have many potential applications in additive manufacturing. In the cases of fused deposition modelling (FDM) and direct ink writing (DIW), not only the strength of the interlayer bonding but also the strength of the polymer itself can be enhanced via UV exposure (from thermoplastic to thermoset) either during printing or after printing. The SME after cross-linking further helps to achieve rapid volumetric additive manufacturing anytime and anywhere.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym14112203DOI Listing
May 2022

Methylation of arsenic differs with substrates in Arcticibacter tournemirensis R1 from an As-contaminated paddy soil.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Sep 6;838(Pt 4):156527. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Cellular Biology and Pharmacology, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, United States. Electronic address:

Arsenic can be methylated by arsenite (As(III)) S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferases (ArsMs) among various kingdoms of life. The intermediate product methylarsenite (MAs(III)) is highly toxic and can be utilized as an antibiotic by some microbes. ArsM gene is widely distributed in the members of every kingdom from bacteria to humans and displays a high diversity of sequence. Based on arsenic methylating capacity, ArsM proteins can be divided into two phylogenetically distinct clades (Groups 1 and 2). In this study, we show that Arcticibacter tournemirensis R1 isolated from arsenic contaminated paddy soil is resistant to both As(III) and MAs(III), but exhibits different methylation activities for As(III) and MAs(III). The A. tournemirensis R1 shows low As(III) methylation activity and produces an unknown arsenic compound. In contrast, it shows high methylation activity with MAs(III), with the main product of dimethylarsenate (DMAs(V)). An AtarsM gene is found in ars operon of A. tournemirensis R1 genome and is regulated by an atypical transcriptional repressor ArsR. Expressed in Escherichia coli AtArsM confers resistance to As(III) and MAs(III). Both in vivo and in vitro assays show that AtArsM methylates As(III) and MAs(III) to dimethyl- and trimethyl‑arsenicals. AtArsM has four conserved cysteine residues, which are present in most ArsMs and can be classified into phylogenetic group 2 family, producing trimethylated arsenic metabolites. The high arsenic methylation and volatilization activity of AtArsM provides a potential strategy for arsenic bioremediation. The methylation activity differs with As(III) and MAs(III) in A. tournemirensis R1 indicates that there may have different detoxification mechanisms for As(III) and MAs(III), which are worth investigating in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156527DOI Listing
September 2022

Inhibition of ALG3 stimulates cancer cell immunogenic ferroptosis to potentiate immunotherapy.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2022 Jun 8;79(7):352. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

The Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, Molecular Cancer Research Center, School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 66, Gongchang Rd, Shenzhen, 518107, Guangdong, China.

Immune checkpoint blockade therapy has drastically improved the prognosis of certain advanced-stage cancers. However, low response rates and immune-related adverse events remain important limitations. Here, we report that inhibiting ALG3, an a-1,3-mannosyltransferase involved in protein glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), can boost the response of tumors to immune checkpoint blockade therapy. Deleting N-linked glycosylation gene ALG3 in mouse cancer cells substantially attenuates their growth in mice in a manner depending on cytotoxic T cells. Furthermore, ALG3 inhibition or N-linked glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin treatment synergizes with anti-PD1 therapy in suppressing tumor growth in mouse models of cancer. Mechanistically, we found that inhibiting ALG3 induced deficiencies of post-translational N-linked glycosylation modification and led to excessive lipid accumulation through sterol-regulated element-binding protein (SREBP1)-dependent lipogenesis in cancer cells. N-linked glycosylation deficiency-mediated lipid hyperperoxidation induced immunogenic ferroptosis of cancer cells and promoted a pro-inflammatory microenvironment, which boosted anti-tumor immune responses. In human subjects with cancer, elevated levels of ALG3 expression in tumor tissues are associated with poor patient survival. Taken together, we reveal an unappreciated role of ALG3 in regulating tumor immunogenicity and propose a potential therapeutic strategy for enhancing cancer immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00018-022-04365-4DOI Listing
June 2022

A pathway independent multi-modular ordered control system based on thermosensors and CRISPRi improves bioproduction in Bacillus subtilis.

Nucleic Acids Res 2022 Jun 7. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China.

Dynamic regulation is an effective strategy for control of gene expression in microbial cell factories. In some pathway contexts, several metabolic modules must be controlled in a time dependent or ordered manner to maximize production, while the creation of genetic circuits with ordered regulation capacity still remains a great challenge. In this work, we develop a pathway independent and programmable system that enables multi-modular ordered control of metabolism in Bacillus subtilis. First, a series of thermosensors were created and engineered to expand their thresholds. Then we designed single-input-multi-output circuits for ordered control based on the use of thermosensors with different transition points. Meanwhile, a repression circuit was constructed by combining CRISPRi-based NOT gates. As a proof-of-concept, these genetic circuits were applied for multi-modular ordered control of 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL) biosynthesis, resulting in a production of 1839.7 mg/l in shake flask, which is 5.16-times that of the parental strain. In a 5-l bioreactor, the 2'-FL titer reached 28.2 g/l with down-regulation of autolysis. Taken together, this work provides programmable and versatile thermosensitive genetic toolkits for dynamic regulation in B. subtilis and a multi-modular ordered control framework that can be used to improve metabolic modules in other chassis cells and for other compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkac476DOI Listing
June 2022

Loss of E-cadherin Induces IGF1R Activation and Reveals a Targetable Pathway in Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma.

Mol Cancer Res 2022 Jun 6. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States.

No Special Type breast cancer (NST; commonly known as Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC)) and Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC) are the two major histological subtypes of breast cancer with significant differences in clinicopathological and molecular characteristics. The defining pathognomonic feature of ILC is loss of cellular adhesion protein, E-cadherin (CDH1). We have previously shown that E-cadherin functions as a negative regulator of the Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R) and propose that E-cadherin loss in ILC sensitizes cells to growth factor signaling which thus alters their sensitivity to growth factor signaling inhibitors and their downstream activators. To investigate this potential therapeutic vulnerability, we generated CRISPR-mediated CDH1 knockout (CDH1 KO) IDC cell lines (MCF7, T47D, ZR75.1) to uncover the mechanism by which loss of E-cadherin results in IGF pathway activation. CDH1 KO cells demonstrated enhanced invasion and migration that was further elevated in response to IGF1, serum and Collagen I. CDH1 KO cells exhibited increased sensitivity to IGF resulting in elevated downstream signaling. Despite minimal differences in membranous IGF1R levels between wildtype (WT) and CDH1 KO cells, significantly higher ligand-receptor interaction was observed in the CDH1 KO cells, potentially conferring enhanced downstream signaling activation. Critically, increased sensitivity to IGF1R, PI3K, Akt and MEK inhibitors was observed in CDH1 KO cells and ILC patient-derived organoids. Implications: Overall, this suggests that these targets require further exploration in ILC treatment and that CDH1 loss may be exploited as a biomarker of response for patient stratification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-22-0090DOI Listing
June 2022

De novo biosynthesis of rubusoside and rebaudiosides in engineered yeasts.

Nat Commun 2022 Jun 1;13(1):3040. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, 214122, Wuxi, China.

High-sugar diet causes health problems, many of which can be addressed with the use of sugar substitutes. Rubusoside and rebaudiosides are interesting molecules, considered the next generation of sugar substitutes due to their low-calorie, superior sweetness and organoleptic properties. However, their low abundance in nature makes the traditional plant extraction process neither economical nor environmental-friendly. Here we engineer baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a chassis for the de novo production of rubusoside and rebaudiosides. In this process, we identify multiple issues that limit the production, including rate-liming steps, product stress on cellular fitness and unbalanced metabolic networks. We carry out a systematic engineering strategy to solve these issues, which produces rubusoside and rebaudiosides at titers of 1368.6 mg/L and 132.7 mg/L, respectively. The rubusoside chassis strain here constructed paves the way towards a sustainable, large-scale fermentation-based manufacturing of diverse rebaudiosides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-30826-2DOI Listing
June 2022

Severity of COVID-19 after Vaccination among Hemodialysis Patients: An Observational Cohort Study.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2022 Jun;17(6):843-850

Department of Renal Medicine, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background And Objectives: Patients receiving hemodialysis are at high risk from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and demonstrate impaired immune responses to vaccines. There have been several descriptions of their immunologic responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination, but few studies have described the clinical efficacy of vaccination in patients on hemodialysis.

Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements: In a multicenter observational study of the London hemodialysis population undergoing surveillance PCR testing during the period of vaccine rollout with BNT162b2 and AZD1222, all of those positive for SARS-CoV-2 were identified. Clinical outcomes were analyzed according to predictor variables, including vaccination status, using a mixed effects logistic regression model. Risk of infection was analyzed in a subgroup of the base population using a Cox proportional hazards model with vaccination status as a time-varying covariate.

Results: SARS-CoV-2 infection was identified in 1323 patients of different ethnicities (Asian/other, 30%; Black, 38%; and White, 32%), including 1047 (79%) unvaccinated, 86 (7%) after first-dose vaccination, and 190 (14%) after second-dose vaccination. The majority of patients had a mild course; however, 515 (39%) were hospitalized, and 172 (13%) died. Older age, diabetes, and immune suppression were associated with greater illness severity. In regression models adjusted for age, comorbidity, and time period, prior two-dose vaccination was associated with a 75% (95% confidence interval, 56 to 86) lower risk of admission and 88% (95% confidence interval, 70 to 95) fewer deaths compared with unvaccinated patients. No loss of protection was seen in patients over 65 years or with increasing time since vaccination, and no difference was seen between vaccine types.

Conclusions: These data demonstrate a substantially lower risk of severe COVID-19 after vaccination in patients on dialysis who become infected with SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.16621221DOI Listing
June 2022

Restoration of appearance for women after aesthetic eyelash transplantation using a novel eyelash resection technique.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2022 May 30. Epub 2022 May 30.

Department of Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Hair transplantation based on the follicular unit extraction provides a new opportunity to improve the appearance of patients with congenital sparse eyelashes. However, disparity between transplanted grafts and original eyelashes and the physiological characteristics of upper eyelid skin cause difficulties with this technique and result in low satisfaction. Removal of unsatisfactory eyelashes is indispensable for restoration of appearance and a second transplantation. Unfortunately, existing methods for hair removal have variable success rates, and hairs frequently regrow.

Objective: This article introduces an effective method to remove unsatisfactory eyelashes in patients with congenital sparse eyelashes who have undergone eyelash transplantation.

Methods: We used a new technique, which involves resection of eyelashes with a composite strip, to remove unsatisfactory eyelashes in patients who underwent eyelash transplantation. The demographic and clinical characteristics of patients were recorded. Outcomes evaluated included patient satisfaction, hair regrowth, and long-term complications.

Results: From 2017 to 2021, 10 patients (20 sides) underwent eyelash removal. All patients were highly satisfied with the outcomes. Unsatisfactory eyelashes were thoroughly removed, and none regrew during 1 year of follow-up. No complications were observed.

Conclusion: Strip composite eyelash excision is a safe and effective method for patients who have undergone unsatisfactory eyelash transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.15130DOI Listing
May 2022
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