Publications by authors named "Jiaming Xu"

39 Publications

Effect of Notch1 on neural tube defects and neural stem cell differentiation induced by all‑trans retinoic acid.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Mar 21;23(3). Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250021, P.R. China.

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most serious and common birth defects in the clinical setting. The Notch signaling pathway has been implicated in different processes of the embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) during neural tube development. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression pattern and function of Notch1 (N1) in all‑trans retinoic acid (atRA)‑induced NTDs and NSC differentiation. A mouse model of brain abnormality was established by administering 28 mg/kg atRA, and then brain development was examined using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The N1 expression pattern was detected in the brain of mice embryos via immunohistochemistry and western blotting. NSCs were extracted from the fetal brain of C57 BL/6 embryos at 18.5 days of pregnancy. N1, Nestin, neurofilament (NF), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and galactocerebroside (GALC) were identified using immunohistochemistry. Moreover, N1, presenilin 1 (PS1), Nestin, NF, GFAP and GALC were detected via western blotting at different time points in the NSCs with control media or atRA media. H&E staining identified that the embryonic brain treated with atRA was more developed compared with the control group. N1 was downregulated in the embryonic mouse brain between days 11 and 17 in the atRA‑treated group compared with the untreated group. The distribution of N1, Nestin, NF, GFAP and GALC was positively detected using immunofluorescence staining. Western blotting results demonstrated that there were significantly, synchronous decreased expression levels of N1 and PS1, but increased expression levels of NF, GFAP and GALC in NSCs treated with atRA compared with those observed in the controls (P<0.05). The results suggested that the N1 signaling pathway inhibited brain development and NSC differentiation. Collectively, it was found that atRA promoted mouse embryo brain development and the differentiation of NSCs by inhibiting the N1 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.11859DOI Listing
March 2021

The roles of microbial products in the development of colorectal cancer: a review.

Bioengineered 2021 Dec;12(1):720-735

Department of General Surgery, Institute of General Surgery, Clinical Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.

A large number of microbes exist in the gut and they have the ability to process and utilize ingested food. It has been reported that their products are involved in colorectal cancer development. The molecular mechanisms which underlie the relationship between gut microbial products and CRC are still not fully understood. The role of some microbial products in CRC is particularly controversial. Elucidating the effects of gut microbiota products on CRC and their possible mechanisms is vital for CRC prevention and treatment. In this review, recent studies are examined in order to describe the contribution metabolites and toxicants which are produced by gut microbes make to CRC, primarily focusing on the involved molecular mechanisms.: CRC: colorectal cancer; SCFAs: short chain fatty acids; HDAC: histone deacetylase; TCA cycle: tricarboxylic acid cycle; CoA: cytosolic acyl coenzyme A; SCAD: short chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase; HDAC: histone deacetylase; MiR-92a: microRNA-92a; KLF4: kruppel-like factor; PTEN: phosphatase and tensin homolog; PI3K: phosphoinositide 3-kinase; PIP2: phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-biphosphate; PIP3: phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate; Akt1: protein kinase B subtype α; ERK1/2: extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2; EMT: epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; NEDD9: neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated9; CAS: Crk-associated substrate; JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase; PRMT1: protein arginine methyltransferase 1; UDCA: ursodeoxycholic acid; BA: bile acids; CA: cholic acid; CDCA: chenodeoxycholic acid; DCA: deoxycholic acid; LCA: lithocholic acid; CSCs: cancer stem cells; MHC: major histocompatibility; NF-κB: NF-kappaB; GPR: G protein-coupled receptors; ROS: reactive oxygen species; RNS: reactive nitrogen substances; BER: base excision repair; DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid; EGFR: epidermal growth factor receptor; MAPK: mitogen activated protein kinase; ERKs: extracellular signal regulated kinases; AKT: protein kinase B; PA: phosphatidic acid; TMAO: trimethylamine n-oxide; TMA: trimethylamine; FMO3: flavin-containing monooxygenase 3; HS: Hydrogen sulfide; SRB: sulfate-reducing bacteria; IBDs: inflammatory bowel diseases; NSAID: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; BFT: fragile bacteroides toxin; ETBF: enterotoxigenic fragile bacteroides; E-cadherin: extracellular domain of intercellular adhesive protein; CEC: colonic epithelial cells; SMOX: spermine oxidase; SMO: smoothened; Stat3: signal transducer and activator of transcription 3; Th17: T helper cell 17; IL17: interleukin 17; AA: amino acid; TCF: transcription factor; CDT: cytolethal distending toxin; PD-L1: programmed cell death 1 ligand 1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2021.1889109DOI Listing
December 2021

Beyond Proteostasis: Lipid Metabolism as a New Player in ER Homeostasis.

Metabolites 2021 Jan 14;11(1). Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Graduate Program in Cell and Developmental Biology, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.

Biological membranes are not only essential barriers that separate cellular and subcellular structures, but also perform other critical functions such as the initiation and propagation of intra- and intercellular signals. Each membrane-delineated organelle has a tightly regulated and custom-made membrane lipid composition that is critical for its normal function. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) consists of a dynamic membrane network that is required for the synthesis and modification of proteins and lipids. The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER lumen activates an adaptive stress response known as the unfolded protein response (UPR-ER). Interestingly, recent findings show that lipid perturbation is also a direct activator of the UPR-ER, independent of protein misfolding. Here, we review proteostasis-independent UPR-ER activation in the genetically tractable model organism . We review the current knowledge on the membrane lipid composition of the ER, its impact on organelle function and UPR-ER activation, and its potential role in human metabolic diseases. Further, we summarize the bi-directional interplay between lipid metabolism and the UPR-ER. We discuss recent progress identifying the different respective mechanisms by which disturbed proteostasis and lipid bilayer stress activate the UPR-ER. Finally, we consider how genetic and metabolic disturbances may disrupt ER homeostasis and activate the UPR and discuss how using -omics-type analyses will lead to more comprehensive insights into these processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo11010052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7830277PMC
January 2021

Case Report: Gastrointestinal PEComa With Rearrangement Treated With Anti-VEGFR TKI Apatinib.

Front Oncol 2020 23;10:582087. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Medical Oncology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) are rare mesenchymal tumors. Unresectable malignant PEComas with rearrangement have no recommended therapy to date. Here, we report the first case of malignant gastrointestinal PEComa with rearrangement which has a response to the targeted therapy of an anti-VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), apatinib. A 31-year-old female was diagnosed with malignant gastrointestinal PEComa with rearrangement and hepatic metastases. A resection of the giant retroperitoneal mass was performed. The patient received the anti-VEGFR TKI apatinib to treat the hepatic metastasis. The tumor remained stable during apatinib treatment and the progression-free survival (PFS) lasted about 7 months. This case suggests that targeting the VEGF/VEGFR signaling pathway may be an essential new therapeutic choice for -associated malignant PEComas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.582087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7719820PMC
November 2020

Inhibitory effects of astilbin, neoastilbin and isoastilbin on human cytochrome CYP3A4 and 2D6 activities.

Biomed Chromatogr 2021 Apr 13;35(4):e5039. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

The College of pharmacy, ChangChun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, China.

Astilbin, neoastilbin and isoastilbin are three flavonoid isomers from Smilacis glabrae Roxb. (S. glabrae). Several studies have shown that consumption of flavonoids can increase the risk of food/drug-drug interaction by affecting the activities of human cytochrome CYP3A4 and 2D6. In the present study, an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of the interaction between three flavonoid isomers and two CYPs. Under the optimized reaction conditions, the K values were 18.9 and 36.4 μM and the V values were 0.02 and 0.20 μM/min for CYP3A4 and 2D6 in vitro, respectively. Astilbin showed the strongest inhibition on CYP3A4, followed by isoastilbin and neoastilbin with IC values of 2.63, 3.03 and 6.51 μM. Neoastilbin showed the strongest inhibition on CYP2D6, followed by isoastilbin and astilbin, with IC values of 1.48, 11.87 and 14.16 μM, respectively. The three isomers showed reversible inhibition on both enzymes. Neoastilbin and astilbin were noncompetitive type for CYP3A4 and 2D6, isoastilbin was a mixture and noncompetitive type for CYP3A4 and 2D6, respectively. Our study suggests that the three isomers may increase the risk of food/drug-drug interactions by affecting the activities of CYP3A4 and 2D6.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.5039DOI Listing
April 2021

Superior Mid- to Long-Term Clinical Outcomes of Mobile-Bearing Total Knee Arthroplasty Compared to Fixed-Bearing: A Meta-analysis Based on a Minimum of 5 Years of Study.

J Knee Surg 2020 Jun 5. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China.

As more patients undergo total knee arthroplasty (TKA) each year, and the average age of patients gets younger, the patients are generally more active requiring a greater physiological demand and increasing range of motion on the prosthesis than the previous patients. However, there is no consensus on the optimal TKA tibial bearing design. We performed this systematic review to compare the clinical differences between mobile and fixed bearing constructs used in contemporary TKA. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases, identifying 515 total publications, including 17 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A meta-analysis was performed, while the quality and bias of the evidence were rated according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines and the Cochrane Database questionnaire. The meta-analysis was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Seventeen studies were included, with a total of 1505 knees receiving a mobile bearing TKA and 1550 knees receiving a fixed bearing TKA. The meta-analysis compared clinical outcomes between mobile bearing (MB)-TKA and fixed bearing (FB)-TKA using postoperative Knee Society Score, postoperative ROM, and survivorship and showed that there was a distinct difference in Knee Society Score between the mobile-bearing and fixed-bearing groups (overall standardized mean difference = 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50-2.25;  = 0.002; I = 60%). Patients treated with mobile-bearing prostheses were more likely to report good or excellent range of motion results (overall standardized mean difference = 2.06; 95% CI: 0.65-3.47;  = 0.004). No difference in implant survivorship or reoperation rate were identified. The fixed-bearing and mobile-bearing TKA designs are both capable of producing excellent long-term results with excellent clinical outcomes if properly implanted; however, the mobile-bearing TKA have superiority in mid- to long-term clinical results. Trial registration number for PROSPERO was CRD42019126402.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1709490DOI Listing
June 2020

Stress sensor Ire1 deploys a divergent transcriptional program in response to lipid bilayer stress.

J Cell Biol 2020 07;219(7)

Lipid Regulation and Cell Stress Group, School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

Membrane integrity at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is tightly regulated, and its disturbance is implicated in metabolic diseases. Using an engineered sensor that activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) exclusively when normal ER membrane lipid composition is compromised, we identified pathways beyond lipid metabolism that are necessary to maintain ER integrity in yeast and in C. elegans. To systematically validate yeast mutants that disrupt ER membrane homeostasis, we identified a lipid bilayer stress (LBS) sensor in the UPR transducer protein Ire1, located at the interface of the amphipathic and transmembrane helices. Furthermore, transcriptome and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses pinpoint the UPR as a broad-spectrum compensatory response wherein LBS and proteotoxic stress deploy divergent transcriptional UPR programs. Together, these findings reveal the UPR program as the sum of two independent stress responses, an insight that could be exploited for future therapeutic intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201909165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7337508PMC
July 2020

High-Performance Electromagnetic Wave Absorbing CNT/SiC Composites: Synthesis, Tuning, and Mechanism.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 May 21;12(18):20775-20784. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

High-performance electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbing materials are strongly desired in many fields like portable devices and aircraft. Introducing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to certain materials has been proved to be an effective method leading to good EM wave absorption capability. In this work, CNTs are successfully synthesized on SiC fibers with high speed by using a newly developed method which is far more efficient than the commonly used one. The obtained CNT/SiC composites exhibit high-performance EM wave absorption capability. With 0.72 wt % CNTs, the reflection loss of the 4 mm composite with only 20 wt % filler loading reaches -62.5 dB with the broad effective absorption bandwidth of 8.8 GHz, covering almost the entire Ku band and three-quarters X band. Moreover, the composites can be added to varying matrices so as to modify their EM wave absorption and other properties. The EM wave absorption performance can be easily tuned in a wide range by varying the CNT content, thickness, and filler loading. This work offers a new route for efficiently synthesizing CNTs but, more importantly, for designing high-performance and multifunctional EM wave absorbing materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b19281DOI Listing
May 2020

Reversible splenial lesion syndrome in children: clinical analysis and summary of a case series.

J Int Med Res 2020 Apr;48(4):300060520914202

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060520914202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7136950PMC
April 2020

Sec-O-glucosylhamaudol suppressed inflammatory reaction induced by LPS in RAW264.7 cells through inhibition of NF-κB and MAPKs signaling.

Biosci Rep 2020 02;40(2)

The College of ChangChun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun 130036, China.

As a major bioactive compound from the Saposhnikovia divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk, sec-O-glucosylhamaudol (SOG), has been reported to have anti-nociceptive activity and high 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) activity. Nevertheless, the mechanism of the potential anti-inflammatory effects of SOG is unclear. The anti-inflammatory impacts of SOG in RAW 264.7 cell lines stimulated by LPS were explored in the present study. It was found that SOG dose-dependently reduced the emergence of inflammation cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF-α in Raw264.7 murine macrophages stimulated by LPS. Real-time PCR assay demonstrated the SOG dose-dependently inhibited transcription of these cytokines as well. In addition, it was also found that NF-κB activation and MAPKs phosphorylation including p38, JNK and ERK1/2 induced by LPS were suppressed by SOG. Due to its anti-inflammatory activity, our results suggest that SOG might have therapeutic effects on inflammatory disease, such as acute lung injury or rheumatoid arthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20194230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7024844PMC
February 2020

Sample Balancing for Deep Learning-Based Visual Recognition.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2020 10 13;31(10):3962-3976. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Sample balancing includes sample selection and sample reweighting. Sample selection aims to remove some bad samples that may lead to bad local optima. Sample reweighting aims to assign optimal weights to samples to improve performance. In this article, we integrate a sample selection method based on self-paced learning into deep learning frameworks and study the influence of different sample selection strategies on training deep networks. In addition, most of the existing sample reweighting methods mainly take per-class sample number as a metric, which does not fully consider sample qualities. To improve the performance, we propose a novel metric based on the multiview semantic encoders to reweight the samples more appropriately. Then, we propose an optimization mechanism to embed sample weights into loss functions of deep networks, which can be trained in end-to-end manners. We conduct experiments on the CIFAR data set and the ImageNet data set. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed sample balancing method can improve the performances of deep learning methods in several visual recognition tasks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2019.2947789DOI Listing
October 2020

Permittivity-Regulating Strategy Enabling Superior Electromagnetic Wave Absorption of Lithium Aluminum Silicate/rGO Nanocomposites.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 May 22;11(20):18626-18636. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

School of Materials Science and Engineering , Shandong University of Technology , Zibo 255000 , China.

Lithium aluminum silicate (LAS) nanoparticles have been successfully loaded on graphene nanosheets by adding a silane coupling agent KH-550 by sol-gel process, hydrothermal reaction, and heat treatment process. By regulating the complex permittivity of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by LAS nanoparticles and KH-550, LAS/rGO-KH-550 possesses excellent microwave absorption performance. The maximum reflection loss of LAS/rGO-KH-550 reaches -62.25 dB at 16.48 GHz with thickness of only 2.7 mm, and the widest bandwidth is up to 6.64 GHz below -10 dB. The LAS/rGO-KH-550 has effective absorption (99.9%) below -20 dB at all X and Ku bands (8-18 GHz). Also, the added quantity of composites in the paraffin matrix is only 20 wt %. The results demonstrate that the interfacial polarization, the Debye dipolar relaxation, the well-matched characteristic impedance, and the quarter-wavelength matching all play important roles in improving the microwave absorption properties of LAS/rGO-KH-550 nanocomposites. Consequently, the LAS/rGO-KH-550 nanocomposites can be readily applied as an ultra-wide-band, light weight, and ultra-high-performance microwave-absorbing material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b00348DOI Listing
May 2019

Long non-coding RNA HIF1A-AS1 is upregulated in intracranial aneurysms and participates in the regulation of proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells by upregulating TGF-β1.

Exp Ther Med 2019 Mar 28;17(3):1797-1801. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medicine, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310009, P.R. China.

Long non-coding (lnc)RNA hypoxia inducible factor 1α-antisense RNA 1 (HIF1A-AS1) not only participates in different types of malignancies, but also serves pivotal roles in thoracic aortic aneurysms, which suggests its possible involvement in intracranial aneurysms. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate its involvement in intracranial aneurysms. Expression levels of HIF1A-AS1 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in the blood of patients with intracranial aneurysms and healthy controls were detected using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The diagnostic value of blood HIF1A-AS1 for intracranial aneurysms was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. A HIF1A-AS1 expression vector was constructed and transfected into human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the effects on cell proliferation and TGF-β1 expression were explored using the Cell Counting kit-8 assay and western blot analysis, respectively. Upregulated HIF1A-AS1 expression levels in blood were observed in patients with intracranial aneurysms when compared with controls. Notably, upregulated HIF1A-AS1 expression effectively distinguished patients with intracranial aneurysms from healthy controls. Furthermore, HIF1A-AS1 and TGF-β1 expression levels were positively correlated with intracranial aneurysms. HIF1A-AS1 overexpression also upregulated TGF-β1 expression and inhibited VSMC proliferation. Although TGF-β1 treatment had no significant effect on HIF1A-AS1 expression, TGF-β inhibitor significantly reduced the effects of HIF1A-AS1 overexpression on cell proliferation. It was therefore concluded that HIF1A-AS1 may participate in intracranial aneurysms by regulating VSMC proliferation through the upregulation of TGF-β1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2018.7144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6395997PMC
March 2019

Concept learning through deep reinforcement learning with memory-augmented neural networks.

Neural Netw 2019 Feb 12;110:47-54. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CASIA), Beijing, China; Research Center for Brain-inspired Intelligence, CASIA, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, CAS, China.

Deep neural networks have shown superior performance in many regimes to remember familiar patterns with large amounts of data. However, the standard supervised deep learning paradigm is still limited when facing the need to learn new concepts efficiently from scarce data. In this paper, we present a memory-augmented neural network which is motivated by the process of human concept learning. The training procedure, imitating the concept formation course of human, learns how to distinguish samples from different classes and aggregate samples of the same kind. In order to better utilize the advantages originated from the human behavior, we propose a sequential process, during which the network should decide how to remember each sample at every step. In this sequential process, a stable and interactive memory serves as an important module. We validate our model in some typical one-shot learning tasks and also an exploratory outlier detection problem. In all the experiments, our model gets highly competitive to reach or outperform those strong baselines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2018.10.018DOI Listing
February 2019

The role of microbiota in the development of colorectal cancer.

Int J Cancer 2019 10 15;145(8):2032-2041. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of General Surgery, Institute of General Surgery, Clinical Medical College, Yangzhou University, Northern Jiangsu People's Hospital, Yangzhou, China.

Colorectal cancer is the third largest cancer in worldwide and has been proven to be closely related to the intestinal microbiota. Many reports and clinical studies have shown that intestinal microbial behavior may lead to pathological changes in the host intestines. The changes can be divided into epigenetic changes and carcinogenic changes at the gene level, which ultimately promote the production and development of colorectal cancer. This article reviews the pathways of microbial signaling in the intestinal epithelial barrier, the role of microbiota in inflammatory colorectal tumors, and typical microbial carcinogenesis. Finally, by gaining a deeper understanding of the intestinal microbiota, we hope to achieve the goal of treating colorectal cancer using current microbiota technologies, such as fecal microbiological transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6899977PMC
October 2019

Novel block glycopolymers prepared as delivery nanocarriers for controlled release of bortezomib.

Colloid Polym Sci 2018 24;296(11):1827-1839. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai, 201620 People's Republic of China.

To explore block glycopolymers as novel polymeric delivery nanocarriers for anticancer drug bortezomib (BTZ), three types of block glycopolymers, poly(ethylene glycol)--poly(gluconamido ethyl methacrylate) (PEG--PGAMA), poly(ethylene glycol)--poly(styrene)--poly(gluconamido ethyl methacrylate) (PEG--PS--PGAMA), and poly(ethylene glycol)--poly(2-(diethyl amino) ethyl methacrylate)--poly(gluconamido ethyl methacrylate) (PEG--PDEA--PGAMA), were synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) using a PEG-based ATRP macroinitiator. Three glycopolymers possess the capacity to load BTZ via pH-induced dynamic covalent bonding and/or hydrophobic interaction with their specific self-assembly behaviors, and PEG--PS--PGAMA carrier maintains the sustain release behavior of BTZ due to the stable micellar structure; PEG--PDEA--PGAMA carrier realizes the abrupt release at pH 5.5 by collapse of micellar structure, while PEG--PGAMA carrier exhibits the fastest release at studied solution pHs. This study would provide a light to develop novel block glycopolymer carrier for the delivery of anticancer drug bearing boronic acid groups. Graphical abstractᅟᅟ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00396-018-4406-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6208697PMC
September 2018

Distant supervision for relation extraction with hierarchical selective attention.

Neural Netw 2018 Dec 29;108:240-247. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS), China; Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, CAS, China.

Distant supervised relation extraction is an important task in the field of natural language processing. There are two main shortcomings for most state-of-the-art methods. One is that they take all sentences of an entity pair as input, which would result in a large computational cost. But in fact, few of most relevant sentences are enough to recognize the relation of an entity pair. To tackle these problems, we propose a novel hierarchical selective attention network for relation extraction under distant supervision. Our model first selects most relevant sentences by taking coarse sentence-level attention on all sentences of an entity pair and then employs word-level attention to construct sentence representations and fine sentence-level attention to aggregate these sentence representations. Experimental results on a widely used dataset demonstrate that our method performs significantly better than most of existing methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2018.08.016DOI Listing
December 2018

Learning to activate logic rules for textual reasoning.

Neural Netw 2018 Oct 3;106:42-49. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CASIA), Beijing, China; Research Center for Brain-inspired Intelligence, CASIA, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, CAS, China.

Most current textual reasoning models cannotlearn human-like reasoning process, and thus lack interpretability and logical accuracy. To help address this issue, we propose a novel reasoning model which learns to activate logic rules explicitly via deep reinforcement learning. It takes the form of Memory Networks but features a special memory that stores relational tuples, mimicking the "Image Schema" in human cognitive activities. We redefine textual reasoning as a sequential decision-making process modifying or retrieving from the memory, where logic rules serve as state-transition functions. Activating logic rules for reasoning involves two problems: variable binding and relation activating, and this is a first step to solve them jointly. Our model achieves an average error rate of 0.7% on bAbI-20, a widely-used synthetic reasoning benchmark, using less than 1k training samples and no supporting facts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2018.06.012DOI Listing
October 2018

Review of CRISPR/Cas9 sgRNA Design Tools.

Interdiscip Sci 2018 Jun 11;10(2):455-465. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

College of Computer, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, 410073, China.

The adaptive immunity system in bacteria and archaea, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, CRISPR-associate (CRISPR/Cas), has been adapted as a powerful gene editing tool and got a broad application in genome research field due to its ease of use and cost-effectiveness. The performance of CRISPR/Cas relies on well-designed single-guide RNA (sgRNA), so a lot of bioinformatic tools have been developed to assist the design of highly active and specific sgRNA. These tools vary in design specifications, parameters, genomes and so on. To help researchers to choose their proper tools, we reviewed various sgRNA design tools, mainly focusing on their on-target efficiency prediction model and off-target detection algorithm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12539-018-0298-zDOI Listing
June 2018

A 63 signature genes prediction system is effective for glioblastoma prognosis.

Int J Mol Med 2018 Apr 25;41(4):2070-2078. Epub 2018 Jan 25.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310009, P.R. China.

The present study aimed to explore possible prognostic marker genes in glioblastoma (GBM). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened by comparing microarray data of tumor and normal tissue samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) dataset GSE22866. Subsequently, the prognosis‑associated DEGs were screened via Cox regression analysis, followed by construction of gene/protein/pathway interaction networks of these DEGs by calculating the correlation coefficient between the DEGs. Next, a prognostic prediction system was constructed using Bayes discriminant analysis, which was validated by the microarray data of samples from patients with good and bad prognosis from the TCGA and Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA), as well as the GEO dataset. Finally, a co‑expression network of the signature genes in the prediction system was constructed in combination with the significant pathways. A total of 288 overlapping DEGs (false discovery rate <0.5 and |log2 of fold change|>1) were screened, 123 of which were identified to be associated with the prognosis of GBM patients. The co‑expression network of these prognosis‑associated DEGs included 1405 interactions and 112 DEGs, and 6 functional modules were identified in the network. The prognostic prediction system was comprised of 63 signature genes with a specificity value of 0.929 and a sensitivity value of 0.948. GBM samples with good and bad prognosis in the TCGA, CGGA and GEO datasets were distinguishable by these signature genes (P=1.33x10‑6, 1.63x10‑4 and 0.00534, respectively). The co‑expression network of signature genes with significant pathways was comprised of 56 genes and 361 interactions. Protein kinase Cγ (PRKCG), protein kinase Cβ (PRKCB) and calcium/calmodulin‑dependent protein kinase IIα (CAMK2A) were important genes in the network, and based on the expression of these genes, it was possible to distinguish between samples with significantly different survival risks. In the present study, an effective prognostic prediction system for GBM patients was constructed and validated. PRKCG, PRKCB and CAMK2A may be potential prognostic factors for GBM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2018.3422DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5810221PMC
April 2018

Galectin-1 expression in activated pancreatic satellite cells promotes fibrosis in chronic pancreatitis/pancreatic cancer via the TGF-β1/Smad pathway.

Oncol Rep 2018 Mar 9;39(3):1347-1355. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

Department of General Surgery, Institute of General Surgery, Northern Jiangsu Provincial People's Hospital, Clinical Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225001, P.R. China.

Chronic pancreatitis/pancreatic cancer (CP/PC) is characterized by fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). Galectin-1 is upregulated in activated PSCs and is important for the continuing activation of PSCs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of galectin-1 derived from activated PSCs on the progression of fibrosis in CP/PC. To this end, the expression of desmin, α-SMA, galectin-1, fibronectin and collagen type I in normal pancreatic, CP and PC tissues, as well as quiescent/activated PSCs, was investigated. The proliferation rate and migration ability of control, galectin-1-overexpressing and galectin-1-silenced PSCs were also evaluated, as well as the mRNA and protein expression of fibronectin, collagen type I, α-SMA, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1, MMP-2, Smad2 and TGF-β1. Furthermore, the effect of adding a TGF-β1 receptor inhibitor on the expression of these proteins was examined. The results revealed that the expression profile of desmin, α-SMA, galectin-1, fibronectin and collagen type I in the normal pancreas was similar to that of quiescent PSCs and the expression profile in CP/PC tissues was similar to that of activated PSCs. Furthermore, galectin-1-overexpressing PSCs exhibited a significantly higher proliferation rate and migration ability, while galectin-1-silenced PSCs exhibited a significantly lower proliferation rate and migration ability than the control PSCs. The expression of fibronectin, collagen type I, α-SMA, MMP-2 and TIMP-1 was also significantly higher in the galectin-1-overexpressing PSCs than the control PSCs and this effect was found to be mediated by the TGF-β1/Smad pathway. The trends in the expression of these factors were reversed in the galectin-1-silenced PSCs. From these findings, it can be concluded that overexpression of galectin-1 promotes PSC activity (proliferation and migration) and stimulates fibrosis by increasing extracellular matrix synthesis and decreasing the MMP/TIMP ratio via the TGF-β1/Smad pathway. Thus, galectin-1 may be a novel candidate for reversing or halting fibrosis progression in CP/PC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2018.6202DOI Listing
March 2018

Deep Manifold Learning Combined With Convolutional Neural Networks for Action Recognition.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2018 09 15;29(9):3938-3952. Epub 2017 Sep 15.

Learning deep representations have been applied in action recognition widely. However, there have been a few investigations on how to utilize the structural manifold information among different action videos to enhance the recognition accuracy and efficiency. In this paper, we propose to incorporate the manifold of training samples into deep learning, which is defined as deep manifold learning (DML). The proposed DML framework can be adapted to most existing deep networks to learn more discriminative features for action recognition. When applied to a convolutional neural network, DML embeds the previous convolutional layer's manifold into the next convolutional layer; thus, the discriminative capacity of the next layer can be promoted. We also apply the DML on a restricted Boltzmann machine, which can alleviate the overfitting problem. Experimental results on four standard action databases (i.e., UCF101, HMDB51, KTH, and UCF sports) show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2017.2740318DOI Listing
September 2018

Multi-Gait Recognition Based on Attribute Discovery.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2018 07 12;40(7):1697-1710. Epub 2017 Jul 12.

Gait recognition is an important topic in biometrics. Current works primarily focus on recognizing a single person's walking gait. However, a person's gait will change when they walk with other people. How to recognize the gait of multiple people walking is still a challenging problem. This paper proposes an attribute discovery model in a max-margin framework to recognize a person based on gait while walking with multiple people. First, human graphlets are integrated into a tracking-by-detection method to obtain a person's complete silhouette. Then, stable and discriminative attributes are developed using a latent conditional random field (L-CRF) model. The model is trained in the latent structural support vector machine (SVM) framework, in which a new constraint is added to improve the multi-gait recognition performance. In the recognition process, the attribute set of each person is detected by inferring on the trained L-CRF model. Finally, attributes based on dense trajectories are extracted as the final gait features to complete the recognition. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves better recognition performance than traditional gait recognition methods under the condition of multiple people walking together.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2017.2726061DOI Listing
July 2018

Self-Taught convolutional neural networks for short text clustering.

Neural Netw 2017 Apr 12;88:22-31. Epub 2017 Jan 12.

Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing, PR China; Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, CAS, PR China.

Short text clustering is a challenging problem due to its sparseness of text representation. Here we propose a flexible Self-Taught Convolutional neural network framework for Short Text Clustering (dubbed STC), which can flexibly and successfully incorporate more useful semantic features and learn non-biased deep text representation in an unsupervised manner. In our framework, the original raw text features are firstly embedded into compact binary codes by using one existing unsupervised dimensionality reduction method. Then, word embeddings are explored and fed into convolutional neural networks to learn deep feature representations, meanwhile the output units are used to fit the pre-trained binary codes in the training process. Finally, we get the optimal clusters by employing K-means to cluster the learned representations. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed framework is effective, flexible and outperform several popular clustering methods when tested on three public short text datasets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2016.12.008DOI Listing
April 2017

Chemical and isotopic constrains on the origin of brine and saline groundwater in Hetao plain, Inner Mongolia.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2016 Aug 15;23(15):15003-14. Epub 2016 Apr 15.

Laboratory of Groundwater Sciences and Engineering, Institute of Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China.

The origin and evolution of brine and saline groundwater have always been a challenged work for geochemists and hydrogeologists. Chemical and isotopic data of brine and saline waters were used to trace the sources of salinity and therefore to understand the transport mechanisms of groundwater in Xishanzui, Inner Mongolia. Both Cl/Br (molar) versus Na/Br (molar) and Cl (meq/L) versus Na (meq/L) indicated that salinity was from halite dissolution or at least a significant impact by halite dissolution. The logarithmic plot of the concentration trends of Cl (mg/L) versus Br (mg/L) for the evaporation of seawater and the Qinghai Salt Lake showed that the terrestrial halite dissolution was the dominated contribution for the salinity of this brine. The stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen suggested that the origin of brine was from paleorecharge water which experienced mixing of modern water in shallow aquifer. δ(37)Cl values ranged from -0.02 to 3.43 ‰ (SMOC), and reflecting mixing of different sources. The Cl isotopic compositions suggest that the dissolution of halite by paleometeoric water had a great contribution to the salinity of brine, and the contributions of the residual seawater and the dissolution of halite by the Yellow River water could be excluded.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-6617-1DOI Listing
August 2016

Development of a validated LC-APCI-MS/MS method to study the plasma and tumor distribution of CHO-PTX intravenous lipid emulsion.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2016 Jan 28;117:532-43. Epub 2015 May 28.

Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, 1 Xiannongtan Street, Beijing, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Drug Delivery Technology and Novel Formulation, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, 1 Xiannongtan Street, Beijing, China; State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, 1 Xiannongtan Street, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Conjugation of a cholesterol moiety to active compounds for cancer treatment or diagnosis is an attractive approach for increasing lipophilicity and improving loading into lipid carriers. We developed a highly sensitive and specific liquid chromatography atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS/MS) analytical method to investigate the in vivo plasma and tumor distribution characteristic of a cholesterol-paclitaxel conjugate (CHO-PTX) in nude mice with MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts. The samples were analyzed in positive ion, multiple reaction monitoring mode. The plasma and tumor tissue samples were processed by liquid-liquid extraction with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Docetaxel was used as the internal standard (IS) for sample processing and analysis. MS/MS detection was carried out by monitoring the transitions of m/z 1266.7→369.4 and 330.3 for CHO-PTX, and m/z 808.7→226.4 and 509.1 for IS. The calibration curves were linear over 100-25,000 ng/mL in mouse plasma and tumor homogenate samples. The limit of quantitation of CHO-PTX was 100 ng/mL in both matrices. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were less than 15%, and the accuracy was between -8.0% and 8.6% for both matrices. The developed method was successfully applied to measure CHO-PTX levels in plasma and tumor tissues in nude mice. The mean tumor concentrations in mice tumor tissues after intravenous administration of CHO-PTX emulsion at a dose equivalent to 20 mg/kg paclitaxel were 2022±630 ng/mL ng/mL, 2516±982 ng/mL, 3056±1438 ng/mL, and 2367±1029 ng/mL at 0.25, 3, 24, and 120 h, respectively. The accumulation of CHO-PTX in the tumor suggests that cholesteryl drug conjugates are a promising approach for medical treatment of various human cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2015.05.023DOI Listing
January 2016

Enhanced removal of naproxen and carbamazepine from wastewater using a novel countercurrent seepage bioreactor immobilized with Phanerochaete chrysosporium under non-sterile conditions.

Bioresour Technol 2015 Dec 3;197:465-74. Epub 2015 Sep 3.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macau SAR, China. Electronic address:

A countercurrent seepage bioreactor immobilized with Phanerochaete chrysosporium was continuously operated under non-sterile conditions to treat a synthetic wastewater spiked with naproxen and carbamazepine (1000μg/L each) for 165days. There were no serious bacterial contaminations occurred during the operational period. Naproxen was always removed to the undetectable level regardless of the experimental conditions, while the average removal efficiency for carbamazepine, a well-known recalcitrant pharmaceutically active compound, reached around 80%. The excellent removal performance was mainly attributed to the application of countercurrent seepage mode and the cardhouse fabric of the carriers, which provided the high efficiency in the transfer of oxygen and nutrients inside the bioreactor. From the fungal immobilization combined with the temperature adjustment, the fungal activity including the enzyme production was protected as well as the bacterial contamination inside the reactor was suppressed effectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.08.118DOI Listing
December 2015

In vitro evaluation of random and aligned polycaprolactone/gelatin fibers via electrospinning for bone tissue engineering.

J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2015 17;26(15):989-1001. Epub 2015 Aug 17.

a Department of Materials Science and Engineering , Jinan University , 601 W Huangpu Ave, Guangzhou , P.R. China.

Scaffold, as an essential element of tissue engineering, should provide proper chemical and structural cues to direct tissue regeneration. In this study, aligned and random polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin fibrous scaffolds with different mass ratio were electrospun. Chemical, structural, and mechanical properties of PCL/gelatin fibrous scaffolds were characterized by FTIR and tensile measurements. The average diameters of different groups were between 334.96 ± 41.43 nm and 363.78 ± 50.49 nm. Blending PCL with gelatin increased the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. The cell culture results demonstrated that the mass ratio of PCL and gelatin showed no obvious effects on cell behavior, whereas the cell growth behavior was affected by the fibers orientation. Higher elongation ratio, enhanced cell proliferation and elevated alkaline phosphatase activity were observed for cells cultured on aligned fibers. The findings in our research provide insightful information for the design and fabrication of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09205063.2015.1065598DOI Listing
May 2016

Controllable multiband terahertz notch filter based on a parallel plate waveguide with a single deep groove.

Opt Lett 2014 Aug;39(15):4541-4

The influence of the air gap on the response of transmission for a transverse-electric mode parallel plate waveguide with a single deep groove has been experimentally studied. As the air gap is larger than the resonant wavelength of a high-order cavity mode in a single deep grooved waveguide, only the fundamental cavity mode can be excited and the single resonance (band) can be observed in a transmission spectrum. The decrease of the air gap can not only efficiently push the radiation of the fundamental cavity mode into the deep groove but also excite the high-order cavity modes, resulting in multiple resonances (multiband) in the corresponding spectrum. Based on the above observations, a tunable multiband terahertz notch filter has been proposed and the variation of the air gap has turned out to be an effective method to select band number. Experimental data and simulated results verify this band number tunability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.39.004541DOI Listing
August 2014

Health related quality of life and influencing factors among welders.

PLoS One 2014 21;9(7):e101982. Epub 2014 Jul 21.

Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL) of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders.

Methods: 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis) and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores.

Results: Six dimensions including role-physical (RP), bodily pain (BP), general health (GH), validity (VT), social function (SF), and mental health (MH) were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary.

Conclusions: Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0101982PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4105539PMC
April 2015