Publications by authors named "Jiajun Zhu"

57 Publications

SARS-CoV-2 Infection Causes Dopaminergic Neuron Senescence.

Res Sq 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

COVID-19 patients commonly present with neurological signs of central nervous system (CNS) and/or peripheral nervous system dysfunction. However, which neural cells are permissive to infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been controversial. Here, we show that midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are selectively permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection both in vitro and upon transplantation in vivo, and that SARS-CoV-2 infection triggers a DA neuron inflammatory and cellular senescence response. A high-throughput screen in hPSC-derived DA neurons identified several FDA approved drugs, including riluzole, metformin, and imatinib, that can rescue the cellular senescence phenotype and prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. RNA-seq analysis of human ventral midbrain tissue from COVID-19 patients, using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded autopsy samples, confirmed the induction of an inflammatory and cellular senescence signature and identified low levels of SARS-CoV-2 transcripts. Our findings demonstrate that hPSC-derived DA neurons can serve as a disease model to study neuronal susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 and to identify candidate neuroprotective drugs for COVID-19 patients. The susceptibility of hPSC-derived DA neurons to SARS-CoV-2 and the observed inflammatory and senescence transcriptional responses suggest the need for careful, long-term monitoring of neurological problems in COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-513461/v1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8142658PMC
May 2021

Mitochondrial NADP(H) generation is essential for proline biosynthesis.

Science 2021 05 22;372(6545):968-972. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA.

The coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) and its reduced form (NADPH) regulate reductive metabolism in a subcellularly compartmentalized manner. Mitochondrial NADP(H) production depends on the phosphorylation of NAD(H) by NAD kinase 2 (NADK2). Deletion of in human cell lines did not alter mitochondrial folate pathway activity, tricarboxylic acid cycle activity, or mitochondrial oxidative stress, but rather led to impaired cell proliferation in minimal medium. This growth defect was rescued by proline supplementation. NADK2-mediated mitochondrial NADP(H) generation was required for the reduction of glutamate and hence proline biosynthesis. Furthermore, mitochondrial NADP(H) availability determined the production of collagen proteins by cells of mesenchymal lineage. Thus, a primary function of the mitochondrial NADP(H) pool is to support proline biosynthesis for use in cytosolic protein synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abd5491DOI Listing
May 2021

Long-Term Outcomes of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Under Two Different Diagnostic Criteria: A Retrospective Cohort Study at a Chinese Tertiary Center.

Front Pediatr 2021 30;9:648972. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Neonatology, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Unlike other complications among very low birth weight infants (VLBW), the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) has not decreased substantially, partly because of the different definitions of BPD applied by different researchers. In this retrospective cohort study, we aimed to compare the 2018 revised definition and the 2001 consensus definition of BPD proposed by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), as well as to identify which definition better predicts severe respiratory morbidities or death. We included 417 infants born at a gestational age <32 weeks and classified them as having BPD or without BPD based on the two definitions, with a final follow-up at 18-24 months. We performed between-group comparisons of death and respiratory outcomes. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, comparative tests, and receiver operating characteristic curves. The mean ± standard deviation gestational age and birth weight of the 417 eligible infants were 29.1 ± 1.4 weeks and 1186.6 ± 197.8 g, respectively. Among the included infants, five and three infants died before and after 36 weeks of post-menstrual age (PMA), respectively, with 68 and 344 infants evaluated at discharge and 36 weeks' PMA, respectively. We diagnosed 163 (39.1%) and 70 (16.8%) infants with BPD according to the 2001 and 2018 NICHD definitions, respectively. The 2001 NICHD definition displayed a higher sensitivity (0.60 vs. 0.28), better negative predictive value (0.89 vs. 0.85), and larger area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.66 vs. 0.57), but a lower specificity (0.65 vs. 0.87) and worse positive predictive value (0.26 vs. 0.31), than the 2018 definition for serious respiratory morbidity or mortality at a corrected age of 18-24 months. Compared with the 2018 NICHD definition of BPD, the 2001 NICHD consensus definition may result in more cases of false-positive or unclassified severity. However, it may be a better indicator of severe respiratory morbidities or death during the first 18-24 months. Nevertheless, there is a need for future studies to assess the validity of the new diagnostic criteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2021.648972DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8042161PMC
March 2021

An Immuno-Cardiac Model for Macrophage-Mediated Inflammation in COVID-19 Hearts.

Circ Res 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Surgery, Cornell University Medical Center, UNITED STATES.

While respiratory failure is a frequent and clinically significant outcome of COVID-19, cardiac complications are a common feature in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and are associated with worse patient outcomes. The cause of cardiac injury in COVID-19 patients is not yet known. Case reports of COVID-19 autopsy heart samples have demonstrated abnormal inflammatory infiltration of macrophages in heart tissues. Generate an immuno-cardiac co-culture platform to model macrophage-mediated hyper-inflammation in COVID-19 hearts and screen for drugs that can block the macrophage-mediated inflammation. We systematically compared autopsy samples from non-COVID-19 donors and COVID-19 patients using RNA-seq and immunohistochemistry. We observed strikingly increased expression levels of CCL2 as well as macrophage infiltration in heart tissues of COVID-19 patients. We generated an immuno-cardiac co-culture platform containing human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) and macrophages. We found that macrophages induce increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis in CMs by secreting IL-6 and TNF-α after SARS-CoV-2 exposure. Using this immuno-cardiac co-culture platform, we performed a high content screen and identified ranolazine and tofacitinib as compounds that protect CMs from macrophage-induced cardiotoxicity. We established an immuno-host co-culture system to study macrophage-induced host cell damage following SARS-CoV-2 infection and identified FDA-approved drug candidates that alleviate the macrophage-mediated hyper-inflammation and cellular injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.121.319060DOI Listing
April 2021

Gene expression profiling for the diagnosis of multiple primary malignant tumors.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 Jan 12;21(1):47. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Medical Oncology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, East Qinchun Road 3, Hangzhou, 310016, Zhejiang, China.

Background: The incidence of multiple primary malignant tumors (MPMTs) is rising due to the development of screening technologies, significant treatment advances and increased aging of the population. For patients with a prior cancer history, identifying the tumor origin of the second malignant lesion has important prognostic and therapeutic implications and still represents a difficult problem in clinical practice.

Methods: In this study, we evaluated the performance of a 90-gene expression assay and explored its potential diagnostic utility for MPMTs across a broad spectrum of tumor types. Thirty-five MPMT patients from Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University and Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center were enrolled; 73 MPMT specimens met all quality control criteria and were analyzed by the 90-gene expression assay.

Results: For each clinical specimen, the tumor type predicted by the 90-gene expression assay was compared with its pathological diagnosis, with an overall accuracy of 93.2% (68 of 73, 95% confidence interval 0.84-0.97). For histopathological subgroup analysis, the 90-gene expression assay achieved an overall accuracy of 95.0% (38 of 40; 95% CI 0.82-0.99) for well-moderately differentiated tumors and 92.0% (23 of 25; 95% CI 0.82-0.99) for poorly or undifferentiated tumors, with no statistically significant difference (p-value > 0.5). For squamous cell carcinoma specimens, the overall accuracy of gene expression assay also reached 87.5% (7 of 8; 95% CI 0.47-0.99) for identifying the tumor origins.

Conclusions: The 90-gene expression assay provides flexibility and accuracy in identifying the tumor origin of MPMTs. Future incorporation of the 90-gene expression assay in pathological diagnosis will assist oncologists in applying precise treatments, leading to improved care and outcomes for MPMT patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-021-01748-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7846996PMC
January 2021

SARS-CoV-2 Infected Cardiomyocytes Recruit Monocytes by Secreting CCL2.

Res Sq 2020 Nov 17. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Heart injury has been reported in up to 20% of COVID-19 patients, yet the cause of myocardial histopathology remains unknown. In order to study the cause of myocardial pathology in COVID-19 patients, we used a hamster model to determine whether following infection SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, can be detected in heart tissues. Here, we clearly demonstrate that viral RNA and nucleocapsid protein is present in cardiomyocytes in the hearts of infected hamsters. Interestingly, functional cardiomyocyte associated gene expression was decreased in infected hamster hearts, corresponding to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). This data using an animal model was further validated using autopsy heart samples of COVID-19 patients. Moreover, we show that both human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-derived CMs) and adult cardiomyocytes (CMs) can be infected by SARS-CoV-2 and that CCL2 is secreted upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, leading to monocyte recruitment. Increased CCL2 expression and macrophage infiltration was also observed in the hearts of infected hamsters. Using single cell RNA-seq, we also show that macrophages are able to decrease SARS-CoV-2 infection of CMs. Overall, our study provides direct evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infects CMs in vivo and proposes a mechanism of immune-cell infiltration and pathology in heart tissue of COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-94634/v1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685325PMC
November 2020

Oncogenic activation of PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling suppresses ferroptosis via SREBP-mediated lipogenesis.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 12 23;117(49):31189-31197. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Cell Biology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065;

Ferroptosis, a form of regulated necrosis driven by iron-dependent peroxidation of phospholipids, is regulated by cellular metabolism, redox homeostasis, and various signaling pathways related to cancer. In this study, we found that activating mutation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) function, highly frequent events in human cancer, confers ferroptosis resistance in cancer cells, and that inhibition of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling axis sensitizes cancer cells to ferroptosis induction. Mechanistically, this resistance requires sustained activation of mTORC1 and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)C1-dependent induction of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), a central transcription factor regulating lipid metabolism. Furthermore, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), a transcriptional target of SREBP1, mediates the ferroptosis-suppressing activity of SREBP1 by producing monounsaturated fatty acids. Genetic or pharmacologic ablation of SREBP1 or SCD1 sensitized ferroptosis in cancer cells with PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway mutation. Conversely, ectopic expression of SREPB1 or SCD1 restored ferroptosis resistance in these cells, even when mTORC1 was inhibited. In xenograft mouse models for PI3K-mutated breast cancer and PTEN-defective prostate cancer, the combination of mTORC1 inhibition with ferroptosis induction resulted in near-complete tumor regression. In conclusion, hyperactive mutation of PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling protects cancer cells from oxidative stress and ferroptotic death through SREBP1/SCD1-mediated lipogenesis, and combination of mTORC1 inhibition with ferroptosis induction shows therapeutic promise in preclinical models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2017152117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7733797PMC
December 2020

[Remote monitoring of neonatal jaundice in newborns with ABO hemolytic disease].

Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2020 Oct;49(5):651-655

Department of Neonatology, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310006, China.

Objective: To explore the feasibility of remote monitoring of neonatal jaundice in newborns with ABO hemolytic disease.

Methods: Forty six neonates of gestational age >35 weeks with ABO hemolytic disease admitted to Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine from January 20th, 2020 to February 29th, 2020 were enrolled in the study (study group). The newborns were followed up at home after discharge, the transcutaneous bilirubin (TCB) levels were measured by parents using the provided device and the results were sent to the doctor by smart phone using the installed APP. Fifty six newborns with ABO hemolytic disease admitted in 2018 who received conventional outpatient follow-up after discharge served as the control group. The demographic characteristics, total serum bilirubin (TSB) level during hospitalization, number of outpatient visit and rate of re-admission due to rebound hyperbilirubinemia were compared between the two groups.

Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in gestational age, birth weight, delivery mode, gender, length of the first hospitalization, TSB level before phototherapy and before discharge, and the managements during the first hospitalization (all >0.05). Compared with the control group, TSB level before readmission [(265±16) μmol/L vs. (295±15) μmol/L] and the number of outpatient visits (1.3±0.8 vs. 3.8±0.5) were significantly lower in the study group (all <0.01), while the rate of readmission (17.4%vs. 12.5%) and the weight at the time of readmission[(3398±452) g vs. (3477±324) g] were not significantly different (all >0.05). No cases of acute bilirubin encephalopathy occurred in both groups.

Conclusions: The remote follow-up for neonatal jaundice at home can effectively reduce the number of outpatient visits without increasing the risk of readmission and severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia for newborns with ABO hemolytic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.08.08DOI Listing
October 2020

Identification of SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors using lung and colonic organoids.

Nature 2021 01 28;589(7841):270-275. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Surgery, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

There is an urgent need to create novel models using human disease-relevant cells to study severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) biology and to facilitate drug screening. Here, as SARS-CoV-2 primarily infects the respiratory tract, we developed a lung organoid model using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC-LOs). The hPSC-LOs (particularly alveolar type-II-like cells) are permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and showed robust induction of chemokines following SARS-CoV-2 infection, similar to what is seen in patients with COVID-19. Nearly 25% of these patients also have gastrointestinal manifestations, which are associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes. We therefore also generated complementary hPSC-derived colonic organoids (hPSC-COs) to explore the response of colonic cells to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We found that multiple colonic cell types, especially enterocytes, express ACE2 and are permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Using hPSC-LOs, we performed a high-throughput screen of drugs approved by the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) and identified entry inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2, including imatinib, mycophenolic acid and quinacrine dihydrochloride. Treatment at physiologically relevant levels of these drugs significantly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection of both hPSC-LOs and hPSC-COs. Together, these data demonstrate that hPSC-LOs and hPSC-COs infected by SARS-CoV-2 can serve as disease models to study SARS-CoV-2 infection and provide a valuable resource for drug screening to identify candidate COVID-19 therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2901-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034380PMC
January 2021

Data of CEO power, chair-CEO age dissimilarity and pay gap of Chinese listed firms.

Data Brief 2020 Oct 8;32:106158. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Desautels Faculty of Management, McGill University, Canada.

This data describes the raw and processed information such as salary, power, and age of the CEO and the chairman between 2009 and 2018 in China's listed firms. The data set contains the data of variables based on the characteristic of the firm, personal, team, and supervision. The dissimilarities and similarities of the characteristics between the chairman and the CEO are the core of this data set. The dissimilarities refer to individual and team differences. Individual differences refer to differences in age, gender, tenure, experience, shareholding, and salary of the chairman and CEO, while team differences refer to differences in team size and the standard deviation of the management board members' age. The similarities refer to joint tenure and family relations between the chairman and CEO. These variables can be used to estimate the impact of chair-CEO age dissimilarity on the relationship between CEO power and chair-CEO pay gap of the Chinese listed firms through binary probit or multinomial regression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.106158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7452645PMC
October 2020

Epidemiology, prenatal diagnosis, and neonatal outcomes of congenital heart defects in eastern China: a hospital-based multicenter study.

BMC Pediatr 2020 09 2;20(1):416. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Department of Women's Health, Women's Hospital School of Medicine Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310006, Zhejiang Province, China.

Background: Congenital heart defect is the leading malformation in China. There may have been changes in congenital heart defect incidence because of birth policy shift in China over past years. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology, prenatal diagnosis, and outcomes of congenital heart disease to improve medical and policy decisions.

Methods: Data on cases of congenital heart disease identified during 2014-2018 were taken from the Zhejiang provincial birth defects surveillance system. Chi-square test, odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to explore epidemiology, prenatal diagnosis, and birth outcomes of congenital heart disease.

Results: The average incidence of congenital heart disease was 16.0 per 1000 births, which increased by 62.2% during 2014-2018(χ = 181.41, P < 0.001). However, the average critical congenital heart incidence was 1.6 per 1000 births, which remained stable over time. Women aged ≤20 years (OR2.1, 95% CI 1.9-2.3) or ≥ 35 years (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.2-1.3) were at higher risk of having babies with congenital heart disease than women aged 21-34 years. Women who gave birth in urban areas (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.2-1.3), had a son (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.3-1.4), or had multiple births (OR 4.0, 95% CI 3.7-4.4) were also at higher risk than those giving birth in rural areas, to girls, or single births, respectively. The three major subtypes of congenital heart disease were atrial septal defect (67.9%), patent ductus arteriosus (34.7%), and ventricular septal defect (6.4%). The prenatal detection rate of critical congenital heart disease was 90.0%, which was far higher than total congenital heart disease, at 22.2% (χ = 1687.67, P < 0.001). There were 1457 (17.1%) stillbirths, 106 (1.2%) early neonatal deaths, and 6983 (81.7%) live births associated with congenital heart disease.

Conclusions: The high incidence of congenital heart disease in Zhejiang might be attributable to the large proportion of mild congenital heart disease. The incidence of critical congenital heart disease, the prenatal detection rate, and perinatal deaths from congenital heart disease are comparable to those in other studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-020-02313-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7466801PMC
September 2020

Role of Smad3 inhibitor and the pyroptosis pathway in spinal cord injury.

Exp Ther Med 2020 Aug 3;20(2):1675-1681. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Heping, Shenyang, Liaoning 110000, P.R. China.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of Smad3 inhibitors and the pyroptosis pathway in spinal cord injury, and to determine the underlying mechanism. The pyroptosis signaling pathway may be involved in spinal cord injury during the recovery period. Smad3 inhibitor may serve a role in alleviating spinal cord injury by reducing the pyroptosis of neurons, which is induced by caspase-1, absent in melanoma-2 or NOD-like receptors protein-1 during the recovery period of spinal cord injury. In the present study, spinal cord injury was alleviated by caspase-1 and Smad3 inhibitors. Therefore, a Smad3 inhibitor could relieve spinal cord injury in mice by directly downregulating caspase-1 and reducing neuron pyroptosis following spinal cord injury during the recovery period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.8832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7388327PMC
August 2020

Novel NiCl Nanosheets Synthesized via Chemical Vapor Deposition with High Specific Energy for Thermal Battery.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Aug 24;12(31):34755-34762. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

College of Material Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China.

Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials possessing a unique sheet structure, compared to correlative bulk materials, exhibit excellent properties, especially in the energy storage and energy conversion field. In this case, NiCl nanosheets with thicknesses of 2-8 nm are first prepared by a simple chemical vapor deposition method. For the Li-B/LiF-LiCl-LiBr/NiCl thermal battery, the specific energy of NiCl nanosheets increases from 510 W h kg (NiCl rods) to 616 W h kg at an operation temperature of 500 °C and a current density of 0.2 A cm. The 2D morphology and large numbers of defects not only improve the redox reaction rates and the lithium storage capacity, but also enhance the adsorption capacity with the flake-like binder MgO, which prolong the discharge time by suppressing the discharge product diffusion to the electrolyte. These results indicate that NiCl nanosheets have a great possibility to become a desirable candidate of cathode materials for assisting in the development of high energy output and provide a new way to restrain the immersion between the electrode and electrolyte.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c05751DOI Listing
August 2020

A Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-based Platform to Study SARS-CoV-2 Tropism and Model Virus Infection in Human Cells and Organoids.

Cell Stem Cell 2020 07 19;27(1):125-136.e7. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

The Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering, the Ben May Department for Cancer Research, the University of Chicago, IL, USA.

SARS-CoV-2 has caused the COVID-19 pandemic. There is an urgent need for physiological models to study SARS-CoV-2 infection using human disease-relevant cells. COVID-19 pathophysiology includes respiratory failure but involves other organ systems including gut, liver, heart, and pancreas. We present an experimental platform comprised of cell and organoid derivatives from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). A Spike-enabled pseudo-entry virus infects pancreatic endocrine cells, liver organoids, cardiomyocytes, and dopaminergic neurons. Recent clinical studies show a strong association with COVID-19 and diabetes. We find that human pancreatic beta cells and liver organoids are highly permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection, further validated using adult primary human islets and adult hepatocyte and cholangiocyte organoids. SARS-CoV-2 infection caused striking expression of chemokines, as also seen in primary human COVID-19 pulmonary autopsy samples. hPSC-derived cells/organoids provide valuable models for understanding the cellular responses of human tissues to SARS-CoV-2 infection and for disease modeling of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2020.06.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303620PMC
July 2020

Less invasive surfactant administration versus endotracheal surfactant instillation followed by limited peak pressure ventilation in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome in China: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2020 Jun 11;21(1):516. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Linyi People's Hospital, Linyi, 276003, China.

Background: Less invasive surfactant administration (LISA) is a way of giving surfactant without endotracheal intubation and has shown to be promising in reducing the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. However, the mechanism underlying its beneficial effect and variations in the technique of administration may prevent its widespread use. This trial aims to evaluate the effects of two methods of surfactant administration, LISA or endotracheal surfactant administration followed by low peak pressure (LPPSA) ventilation, in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS).

Methods: The LISA Or Low Peak Pressure trial is to be conducted in 14 tertiary neonatal intensive care units in China. A total of 600 preterm infants born with gestational age between 25 and 31 weeks and with a primary diagnosis of RDS will be involved in the study. Infants will be randomized to the LISA or LPPSA group when surfactant therapy is indicated. Primary outcomes include mortality, severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia at 36 weeks of postmenstrual age (PMA), and mechanical ventilation (MV) in the first 72 h of life. Secondary outcomes include the days of MV, duration of all sorts of non-invasive respiratory support, fraction of inspired oxygen, oxygen saturation before and after surfactant administration, and time required to perform the procedure for surfactant administration. The incidence of comorbidities, including retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA), pneumothorax, and massive pulmonary hemorrhage within 48 h of surfactant administration, and the failure rates of each technique will be determined.

Discussion: Data from recent systematic review and meta-analysis have suggested a possible improvement in outcomes of preterm infants with RDS by the LISA technique. However, robust evidence is lacking. Why LISA plays a potential role in reducing respiratory morbidity, mainly BPD in preterm infants, remains unclear. The possible explanations are the active and uninterrupted delivery of continuous positive airway pressure during the LISA procedure and the avoidance of complications caused by intubation and relatively high pressure/volume ventilation following surfactant administration. We hypothesized that LISA's effectiveness lies mainly in avoiding relatively high-pressure positive ventilation immediately following surfactant administration. Thus, this multicenter randomized controlled trial will focus on issues of endotracheal intubation and the pressure/volume used during conventional surfactant administration. The effectiveness, safety and comorbidities of preterm infants following LISA or LPPSA will be evaluated.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR1900020970. Registered on 23 January 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04390-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7289227PMC
June 2020

Time- and Dose-Resolved Proteome of PM-Exposure-Induced Lung Injury and Repair in Rats.

J Proteome Res 2020 08 22;19(8):3162-3175. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering and Collaborative Innovation Center for Genetics and Development, School of Life Sciences, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Human Phenome Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.

In recent years, airborne fine particulate matter (PM) is drawing more public attention due to its various physicochemical features and causing pathological harm, as proven by epidemiological and clinical studies. However, the mechanism of PM-exposure-induced lung injury has not been fully characterized. Here, we established a PM-induced rat injury model for both short-term and long-term exposures at different concentrations. We employed the Fast-seq technique to profile 6316 proteins and the catTFRE approach to profile 387 transcription factors (TFs) in the lung tissue. In short-term exposure, we elucidated gradually upregulated proteins enriched in response to oxidative stress, phagosome, and the extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction pathway. Long-term exposure mainly showed the immune response pathway to be consisting of increased lymphocytes and cytokines. Intriguingly, we found that immune-related proteins were recoverable during short-term exposure. During the process of PM exposure, upregulated proteins presented dose-dependence in the lung, including stress response at low dose, minor immune response at middle dose, and severe inflammatory response at high dose. This data set provides a rich resource to facilitate the understanding of PM-induced lung damage and repair mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.0c00155DOI Listing
August 2020

Neonatal Management During the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Outbreak: The Chinese Experience.

Neoreviews 2020 05;21(5):e293-e297

Department of Neonatology, The Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health, Hangzhou, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/neo.21-5-e293DOI Listing
May 2020

Knockdown Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Cell Apoptosis, and Is Negatively Regulated by miR-4779 in Osteosarcoma Cells.

DNA Cell Biol 2020 May 17;39(5):747-755. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Department of Orthopaedics, The 4th Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is a ubiquitous serine/threonine protein kinase. It is reported to be involved in the occurrence and progression of various human cancers. In the present study, we explored the role and molecular mechanism of in the proliferation of osteosarcoma (OS) cells. We found that expression was higher in MG63/Dox cells than in MG63 cells, while inhibiting or interfering with the level of suppressed cell proliferation of MG63/Dox cells. TargetScan analysis predicted that miR-4779 would interact with the 3'-UTR of PLK1 mRNAs and also inhibit cell autophagy of MG63/Dox cells. The data demonstrated that miR-4779 negatively regulates the expression of , and both miR-4779 and regulate cell proliferation and cell apoptosis of MG63/Dox cells, processes that are involved in the drug resistance of OS cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dna.2019.5002DOI Listing
May 2020

Proline biosynthesis is a vent for TGFβ-induced mitochondrial redox stress.

EMBO J 2020 04 5;39(8):e103334. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Cancer Biology and Genetics Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

The production and secretion of matrix proteins upon stimulation of fibroblasts by transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) play a critical role in wound healing. How TGFβ supports the bioenergetic cost of matrix protein synthesis is not fully understood. Here, we show that TGFβ promotes protein translation at least in part by increasing the mitochondrial oxidation of glucose and glutamine carbons to support the bioenergetic demand of translation. Surprisingly, we found that in addition to stimulating the entry of glucose and glutamine carbon into the TCA cycle, TGFβ induced the biosynthesis of proline from glutamine in a Smad4-dependent fashion. Metabolic manipulations that increased mitochondrial redox generation promoted proline biosynthesis, while reducing mitochondrial redox potential and/or ATP synthesis impaired proline biosynthesis. Thus, proline biosynthesis acts as a redox vent, preventing the TGFβ-induced increase in mitochondrial glucose and glutamine catabolism from generating damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) when TCA cycle activity exceeds the ability of oxidative phosphorylation to convert mitochondrial redox potential into ATP. In turn, the enhanced synthesis of proline supports TGFβ-induced production of matrix proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/embj.2019103334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7156964PMC
April 2020

Multiple environmental factors analysis of flash flood risk in Upper Hanjiang River, southern China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Oct 30;27(30):37218-37228. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, China.

Identifying the environmental factors and analyzing the causal mechanism of flash floods help to manage the risk. Maximum 24-h precipitation (MP), digital elevation (DE), slope degree (SD), soil type (ST), drainage density (DD), and vegetation cover (VC) are selected as the risk factors of flash floods in this study. Precipitation is the important meteorological components in flash floods; thus spatial characteristics of precipitation trend have been analyzed by using Mann-Kendall tests, and a positive trend of precipitation in Upper Hanjiang River is detected. Then, association rule mining approach is proposed to investigate the multiple environmental factors of flash floods, in which both single and multiple dimension data mining have been conducted by Apriori algorithm. Considering the high rate of 5-year return period floods in the flash flood inventory, further association rule mining after sampling has been conducted in order to deeply mine the causal patterns of flash floods in different risk magnitudes. Results show that soil type, slope degree, and digital elevation are the dominant environmental factors of flash floods in the study area, and precipitation is one of the important causal factors in severe flash flood hazards. It is also highlighted that flash floods might easily occur even with a slight rainfall present due to the instability of sand clay and saturated soil moisture. The proposed novel use of field data and data mining has the potential for providing procedures and solutions for an effective interpretation of flash flood mechanism. The results are expected to be applicable for decision-making and sustainable management in flooding risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-07270-9DOI Listing
October 2020

Transsulfuration Activity Can Support Cell Growth upon Extracellular Cysteine Limitation.

Cell Metab 2019 11 10;30(5):865-876.e5. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Cysteine acts both as a building unit for protein translation and as the limiting substrate for glutathione synthesis to support the cellular antioxidant system. In addition to transporter-mediated uptake, cellular cysteine can also be synthesized from methionine through the transsulfuration pathway. Here, we investigate the regulation of transsulfuration and its role in sustaining cell proliferation upon extracellular cysteine limitation, a condition reported to occur in human tumors as they grow in size. We observed constitutive expression of transsulfuration enzymes in a subset of cancer cell lines, while in other cells, these enzymes are induced following cysteine deprivation. We show that both constitutive and inducible transsulfuration activities contribute to the cellular cysteine pool and redox homeostasis. The rate of transsulfuration is determined by the cellular capacity to conduct methylation reactions that convert S-adenosylmethionine to S-adenosylhomocysteine. Finally, our results demonstrate that transsulfuration-mediated cysteine synthesis is critical in promoting tumor growth in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2019.09.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6961654PMC
November 2019

Enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of g-CN decorated ZrO nanotubes heterostructure for degradation of tetracycline hydrochloride.

J Hazard Mater 2020 02 26;384:121275. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082, China. Electronic address:

Photocatalytic degradation is considered as a promising strategy to address the environmental threat caused by antibiotics abuse. Visible light driven g-CN decorated ZrO nanotubes heterostructure photocatalysts for antibiotic degradation were successfully synthesized by anodic oxidation and following a thermal vapor deposition method. Compared with pure g-CN or ZrO nanotubes, the composite photocatalysts exhibited more extended visible light response and higher separation rate of photo-generated electron-holes pairs. The optimized heteroctructure with 7.1 wt.% g-CN exhibited 90.6% degradation of tetracycline hydrochloride (TC-H) under 1 h visible light irradiation. The mainly active species of TC-H degradation were photo-generated h and O. The pathway of charge migration in the g-CN/ZrO NTs system was also studied and a possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed for TC-H degradation. Constructing the g-CN/ZrO nanotubes heterostructure is anticipated to be an effective strategy for photocatalytic degradation of antibiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.121275DOI Listing
February 2020

Unconventional inner-TL electric polarization in TL-LaOBiS with ultrahigh carrier mobility.

Nanoscale 2019 Oct;11(39):18436-18443

College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Center for Computational Sciences, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu, 610068, China.

Based on first principles calculations, we propose a new 2D ferroelectric material, triple-layer (TL) LaOBiS2, with an ultrahigh carrier mobility over 40 000 cm2 V-1 s-1 and large sunlight absorption. TL-LaOBiS2 is composed of a middle LaO layer and top-and-bottom BiS2 layers that can be possibly exfoliated from its bulk counterpart. We reveal that each BiS2 layer can hold spontaneous in-plane ferroelectric polarization that can be further enhanced by imposing extensive strain. Furthermore, we discover that TL-LaOBiS2 possesses unconventional inner-TL ferroelectric (FE), antiferroelectric (AFE) and orthogonal polarizations. The ground inner-TL AFE state can be flexibly driven into a nearly degenerate FE state. Moreover, the direct band gaps, optical absorption and the carrier mobilities of TL-LaOBiS2 can be effectively regulated by different ferroelectric polarization configurations. This finding of various ferroelectric states with ultrahigh mobility and excellent optical absorption in TL-LaOBiS2 provides a promising platform for future realization of two-dimensional ferroelectric photovoltaic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9nr05282hDOI Listing
October 2019

Metabolic regulation of cell growth and proliferation.

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2019 07;20(7):436-450

Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Cellular metabolism is at the foundation of all biological activities. The catabolic processes that support cellular bioenergetics and survival have been well studied. By contrast, how cells alter their metabolism to support anabolic biomass accumulation is less well understood. During the commitment to cell proliferation, extensive metabolic rewiring must occur in order for cells to acquire sufficient nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, lipids and nucleotides, which are necessary to support cell growth and to deal with the redox challenges that arise from the increased metabolic activity associated with anabolic processes. Defining the mechanisms of this metabolic adaptation for cell growth and proliferation is now a major focus of research. Understanding the principles that guide anabolic metabolism may ultimately enhance ways to treat diseases that involve deregulated cell growth and proliferation, such as cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41580-019-0123-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6592760PMC
July 2019

Vitamin D Regulates the Expressions of AQP-1 and AQP-4 in Mice Kidneys.

Biomed Res Int 2019 27;2019:3027036. Epub 2019 Jan 27.

Department of Clinical Nutrition, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, No. 36 Sanhao St., Heping District, Shenyang, China.

Aim: Vitamin D plays an important role in water and salt homeostasis. The aim of our study was to investigate the underlying relationship of Vitamin D and Aquaporins (AQP).

Methods: The behaviors of 1 (OH)-ase knockout mice and wild type mice were observed before analysis. The ICR mice were treated with vehicle or paricalcitol, a vitamin D analogue, followed by animals receiving a standard diet and free access to drinking water either with aliskiren (renin blocker; 37.5 mg aliskiren in 100 ml water), or telmisartan (a angiotensin II type I receptor blocker; 40 mg telmisartan in 100 ml water) a week before study. The expressions of AQP-1, AQP-4, and renin in mice kidneys were detected by western bolting, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence.

Results: Diuresis and polydipsia were observed in 1 (OH)-ase knockout mice, and a decreased water intake and urine output in ICR mice was observed after paricalcitol treatment. Compared with wild type, the AQP-1 expressions were increased in renal papilla and AQP-4 expressions were decreased in renal proximal tubule of 1(OH) ase knockout mice. In addition, AQP-1 was decreased in renal papilla and AQP-4 expressions were increased in proximal tubule by suppressing renin activity or supplement of Vitamin D analogue. After injecting renin into the lateral ventricle of the 1(OH)ase knockout mice, the renin expression level was decreased in the kidney, followed by the decrease of AQP-1 in renal papilla and increase of AQP-4 in proximal tubule.

Conclusions: Overall, Vitamin D and renin inhibitors have synergistic effects in regulating water channels in mice kidneys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/3027036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369492PMC
June 2019

Febuxostat inhibits TGF‑β1‑induced epithelial‑mesenchymal transition via downregulation of USAG‑1 expression in Madin‑Darby canine kidney cells in vitro.

Mol Med Rep 2019 Mar 2;19(3):1694-1704. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Department of Pharmacology, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221004, P.R. China.

Our previous study demonstrated that febuxostat, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, can alleviate kidney dysfunction and ameliorate renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in a rat unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Increasing evidence has revealed that epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the key mechanisms mediating the progression of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Uterine sensitization‑associated gene‑1 (USAG‑1), a kidney‑specific bone morphogenetic protein antagonist, is involved in the development of numerous types of CKDs. The present study aimed to investigate the role of febuxostat in the process of EMT in Madin‑Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in vitro. Western blotting, reverse transcription‑semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis and immunofluorescence staining were used to evaluate the expression levels of bone morphogenetic protein 7, USAG‑1, α‑smooth muscle actin (α‑SMA) and E‑cadherin, respectively. The results demonstrated that the expression of USAG‑1 and α‑SMA increased, and that of E‑cadherin decreased significantly in MDCK cells following treatment with transforming growth factor‑β1 (TGF‑β1). The application of small interfering RNA‑USAG‑1 potently inhibited TGF‑β1‑induced EMT. Subsequently, the effects of febuxostat on TGF‑β1‑induced EMT was investigated. The results demonstrated that febuxostat downregulated the expression of USAG‑1, and reversed TGF‑β1‑induced EMT in MDCK cells. Furthermore, pretreatment with febuxostat significantly restored the decreased expression levels of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 induced by TGF‑β1 in MDCK cells. The results of the present study suggested that USAG‑1 may be involved in the EMT process of MDCK cells induced by TGF‑β1, and febuxostat inhibited EMT by activating the Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway via downregulating the expression of USAG‑1 in MDCK cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2019.9806DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6390060PMC
March 2019

Role of Mitochondria in Ferroptosis.

Mol Cell 2019 01 20;73(2):354-363.e3. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Cell Biology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York City, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Ferroptosis is a regulated necrosis process driven by iron-dependent lipid peroxidation. Although ferroptosis and cellular metabolism interplay with one another, whether mitochondria are involved in ferroptosis is under debate. Here, we demonstrate that mitochondria play a crucial role in cysteine-deprivation-induced ferroptosis but not in that induced by inhibiting glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPX4), the most downstream component of the ferroptosis pathway. Mechanistically, cysteine deprivation leads to mitochondrial membrane potential hyperpolarization and lipid peroxide accumulation. Inhibition of mitochondrial TCA cycle or electron transfer chain (ETC) mitigated mitochondrial membrane potential hyperpolarization, lipid peroxide accumulation, and ferroptosis. Blockage of glutaminolysis had the same inhibitory effect, which was counteracted by supplying downstream TCA cycle intermediates. Importantly, loss of function of fumarate hydratase, a tumor suppressor and TCA cycle component, confers resistance to cysteine-deprivation-induced ferroptosis. Collectively, this work demonstrates the crucial role of mitochondria in cysteine-deprivation-induced ferroptosis and implicates ferroptosis in tumor suppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2018.10.042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6338496PMC
January 2019

Atypical CHARGE associated with a novel frameshift mutation of CHD7 in a Chinese neonatal patient.

BMC Pediatr 2018 06 26;18(1):203. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

Department of Neonatology, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310006, China.

Background: CHARGE syndrome is an autosomal dominant malformation disorder caused by heterozygous loss of function mutations in the chromatin remodeler CHD7, which has been estimated to occur in 1:10,000 births worldwide. It is a genetic disorder closely resembles other pattern of anomalies. Genetic testing should be pointed out as a useful method for clinical diagnosis.

Case Presentation: A female infant was the second child born to a 33-year-old, gravida 3, para 2 mother. The infant was born at 37 + 4 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 2440 g (- 1.1 S.D.). Clinical examination showed atypical CHARGE syndrome, with choanal atresia, a heart defect, and sensorineural deafness. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral venous blood sample using molecular biological technique. We used the Illumina TruSigt One sequencing panel on the MiSeq next- generation sequencing (NGS) platform for mutation screening and found a novel frameshift mutation in chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 7 (CHD7; c.4656dupT). This mutation results in a new reading frame ending in p.(Ile1553fs). At the first month of age, the patient had a posterior nostril plasty operation by nasal endoscope. At the second month of age, she had patent ductus arteriosus ligation surgery. At the 4th month of age, she was discharged from the hospital.

Conclusions: Our findings further reveal that patients should not be rejected for CHD7 mutational analysis even if they do not fulfill CHARGE syndrome Verloes criteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-018-1181-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6020284PMC
June 2018

[Comparison of effectiveness between SuperPATH approach and posterolateral approach in total hip arthroplasty].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2018 01;32(1):14-19

Department of Orthopedics, the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang Liaoning, 110032,

Objective: To compare the effectiveness between SuperPATH approach and posterolateral approach in total hip arthroplasty (THA).

Methods: Between January 2016 and December 2016, 84 patients with hip disease were included in the study and randomly divided into 2 groups. Forty patients were treated with THA via SuperPATH approach (SuperPATH group), and 44 patients were treated with THA via posterolateral approach (PSA group). There was no significant difference in gender, age, body mass index, the type of disease, the complicating diseases, and preoperative thrombosis of lower extremity and Harris score between 2 groups ( >0.05). The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, length of incision, postoperative drainage volume, unloaded activity time, Harris score, and short-form 36 health survey scale (SF-36) score were compared. The postoperative X-ray films were used to observe the position of joint prosthesis.

Results: All patients were followed up 6-18 months (mean, 10.3 months). The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, length of incision, postoperative drainage volume, and unloaded activity time in SuperPATH group were significantly superior to those in PSA group ( <0.05). The Harris score at 2 weeks and 1 month after operation were significantly higher in SuperPATH group than that in PSA group ( <0.05). But there was no significant difference in the Harris scores at 3 and 6 months after operation between 2 groups ( >0.05). At last follow-up, the SF-36 scores were higher in SuperPATH group than those in PSA group ( <0.05). Postoperative X-ray films showed the joint prosthesis was in good position.

Conclusion: THA via SuperPATH approach has the advantages of minimal invasion, safe, and rapid recovery, which is better than THA via posterolateral approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1002-1892.201707121DOI Listing
January 2018

Enhancement of the Adhesive Strength between Ag Films and Mo Substrate by Ag Implanted via Ion Beam-Assisted Deposition.

Materials (Basel) 2018 May 9;11(5). Epub 2018 May 9.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China.

Silver-coated molybdenum is an optimum material selection to replace pure silver as solar cell interconnector. However, the low adhesive strength between Ag films and Mo substrate hinders the application of the interconnector, because it is difficult to form metallurgical bonding or compound in the film/substrate interface using conventional deposition. In order to improve the adhesion, some Ag particles were implanted into the surface of Mo substrate by ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) before the Ag films were deposited by magnetron sputtering deposition (MD). The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of different assisted ion beam energy on the film/substrate adhesive properties. In addition, the fundamental adhesion mechanism was illustrated. The results revealed that the adhesion between Ag films and Mo substrate could be greatly enhanced by IBAD. With the increase of the assisting ion beam energy, the adhesive strength first increased and then decreased, with the optimum adhesion being able to rise to 25.29 MPa when the energy of the assisting ion beam was 30 keV. It could be inferred that the combination of “intermixing layer” and “implanted layer” formed by the high-energy ion bombardment was the key to enhancing the adhesion between Ag films and Mo substrate effectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma11050762DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5978139PMC
May 2018