Publications by authors named "Jiafu Wang"

117 Publications

Systematic review & meta-analysis of positron emission tomography/computed tomography and bone scan in the diagnosis of prostate lesions.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Nov;10(11):4231-4240

Department of Nuclear Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Background: To date, the results of studies into the effectiveness of positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (CT) and bone scan (BS) in the diagnosis of malignant prostate lesions have been inconsistent, and the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods cannot be accurately judged.

Methods: Articles were retrieved from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database, Wan Fang Medical Network, PubMed, Excerpta Medica data BASE (EMBASE), Medline, and Cochrane database. The keywords used in the search were: Ga-prostate specific membrane antibody (Ga-PSMA), PET/CT, prostate lesions, prostate adenocarcinoma, bone metastasis, and BS.

Results: Ultimately, 3 publications were selected for inclusion in the meta-analysis. A total of 215 patients were considered in the 3 articles that met the inclusion criteria. All of the included articles were small sample studies, with sample sizes ranging from 28 to 113 cases. In this study, from the 3 randomized controlled trials, only 2 (66.67%) randomized controls described the correct randomized allocation method, and only 1 (33.33%) described the hidden allocation scheme in detail. The highest sensitivity for Ga-PSMA PET/CT was 0.96, with 95% CI: 0.87, 1.00, and the highest specificity was 1.00, with 95% CI: 0.96, 1.00. The highest sensitivity and specificity of BS were 0.92 with 95% CI: 0.81, 0.98 and 0.96 with 95% CI: 0.78, 1.00, respectively. The results of meta-analysis of Ga-PSMA PET/CT diagnosis with confirmation by surgical and histopathological examination showed that the area under the summary receiver operating characteristics (SROC) curve (AUC) =0.826 and standard error (SE) (AUC) =0.0425. The results of meta-analysis of BS diagnosis with confirmation by surgical and histopathological examination showed that the area under the SROC curve (AUC) =0.714 and SE (AUC) =0.0034.

Discussion: The meta-analysis showed that Ga-PSMA PET/CT has clear advantages over BS in the diagnosis of bone metastases of malignant prostate tumors, and could improve the diagnostic accuracy of bone metastases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-21-912DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8661258PMC
November 2021

Manganese Stress Adaptation Mechanisms of Strain ST7 From Mine Soil.

Front Microbiol 2021 25;12:758889. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Key Laboratory of Plant Resource Conservation and Germplasm Innovation in Mountainous Region (Ministry of Education), College of Animal Science/Institute of Agro-Bioengineering, Guizhou University, Guiyang, China.

The mechanism of bacterial adaption to manganese-polluted environments was explored using 50 manganese-tolerant strains of bacteria isolated from soil of the largest manganese mine in China. Efficiency of manganese removal by the isolated strains was investigated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. strain ST7 was the most effective manganese-oxidizing bacteria among the tested isolates, achieving up to 82% removal at a Mn(II) concentration of 2,200 mg/L. Bacteria-mediated manganese oxide precipitates and high motility were observed, and the growth of strain ST7 was inhibited while its biofilm formation was promoted by the presence of Mn(II). In addition, strain ST7 could grow in the presence of high concentrations of Al(III), Cr(VI), and Fe(III). Genome-wide analysis of the gene expression profile of strain ST7 using the RNA-seq method revealed that 2,580 genes were differently expressed under Mn(II) exposure, and there were more downregulated genes ( = 2,021) than upregulated genes ( = 559) induced by Mn stress. KAAS analysis indicated that these differently expressed genes were mainly enriched in material metabolisms, cellular processes, organism systems, and genetic and environmental information processing pathways. A total of twenty-six genes from the transcriptome of strain ST7 were involved in lignocellulosic degradation. Furthermore, after 15 genes were knocked out by homologous recombination technology, it was observed that the transporters, multicopper oxidase, and proteins involved in sporulation and flagellogenesis contributed to the removal of Mn(II) in strain ST7. In summary, ST7 adapted to Mn exposure by changing its metabolism, upregulating cation transporters, inhibiting sporulation and flagellogenesis, and activating an alternative stress-related sigB pathway. This bacterial strain could potentially be used to restore soil polluted by multiple heavy metals and is a candidate to support the consolidated bioprocessing community.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.758889DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8656422PMC
November 2021

Detection of genomic structure variants associated with wrinkled skin in Xiang pig by next generation sequencing.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 11 27;13(22):24710-24739. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

Institute of Agro-Bioengineering, Key Laboratory of Plant Resource Conservative and Germplasm Innovation in Mountainous Region (Ministry of Education), College of Life Science and College of Animal Science, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China.

Wrinkling is prominent manifestation of aging skin. A mutant phenotype characterized by systemic wrinkles and thickened skin was discovered in Xiang pig populations with incidence about 1-3%. The feature in histological structure was epidermal hyperplasia and thickening, collagen fibers disorder. To uncover genetic mechanisms for the mutant phenotype of Xiang pigs with systemic wrinkle (WXP), a genome-wide of structural variations (SVs) in WXP was described by next generation resequencing, taking Xiang pigs (XP) and European pigs (EUP) as compares. Total of 32,308 SVs were detected from three pig groups and 965 SVs were identified specifically from WXP, involving 481 protein-coding genes. These genes were mainly enriched in nuclear structure, ECM components and immunomodulatory pathways. According to gene function and enrichment analysis, we found that 65 candidate SVs in 59 protein genes were probably related with the systemic wrinkle of WXP. Of these, several genes are reported to be associate with aging, such as , , , and so on. The insertion/deletion and duplication variations of SVs in these genes resulted in the loss of stop-codon or frameshift mutation, and aberrant alternative splicing of transcripts. These genes are involved in cell lamin filament, intermediate filament cytoskeleton, supramolecular complex, cell differentiation and regulation of macromolecule metabolic process etc. Our study suggested that the loss of function or aberrant expression of these genes lead to structural disorder of nuclear and the extracellular matrix (ECM) in skin cells, which probably was the genetic mechanisms for the mutant phenotype of systemic skin wrinkle of Xiang pig.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.203711DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8660620PMC
November 2021

Circular dichroism assisted metadevice for efficient transmission and broadband absorption.

Opt Express 2021 Oct;29(22):36061-36071

Owing to the intriguing capability of manipulating electromagnetic (EM) properties, the metasurface has aroused great attention of researchers and promoted its applications in EM invisibility. However, there are strong demands to provide an efficient transparent window for signals transmitting in EM invisibility devices. Here, we propose a scheme of a circular dichroism assisted metadevice to provide efficient transmission and broadband absorption in microwave frequencies. By employing chiral meta-atoms to introduce a strong asymmetric response for circularly polarized waves, a chiral metadevice for spin-selective absorption with an efficient transmission is presented. Then, we couple four chiral atoms into a polarization-insensitive atom pair, thus the achiral metadevice presents an identical high-efficiency absorption for both the x- and y-polarized wave. Here, both the chiral and achiral metadevices are realized by loading the metasurface-based absorber on a bandpass frequency selective surface. A proof-of-prototype is fabricated to verify the achiral design. The simulated and experimental results have demonstrated wideband, high-efficiency, polarization-insensitive absorption and high in-band transmission. Interestingly, the proposed paradigm can not only provide the potential for chirality-enhanced absorber design but also may trigger applications in spin-dependent systems, stealth antenna systems, and EM camouflage devices.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.442719DOI Listing
October 2021

Broadband surface wave coupler with low infrared emission and microwave reflection.

Opt Express 2021 Oct;29(22):35490-35500

Metasurfaces possess excellent capabilities to flexibly manipulate electromagnetic waves in multiple frequency domains, which show great potential application in multispectral stealth. Herein, a broadband surface waves coupler based on the design of thin Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phase gradient metasurfaces (PGMs) of thickness 0.12λ is proposed to reduce infrared emission and microwave reflection simultaneously. Low infrared emission results from the high filling ratio of the indium-tin-oxide (ITO) on the surface, and low microwave reflection results from the conversion from propagating waves to surface waves. Intriguingly, this design is also capable of acting as a simple circular polarized (CP) discriminator because orthogonal CP waves are coupled into surface waves propagating along opposite directions. A proof-of-concept prototype is simulated and measured to validate the effectiveness of our methodology. The results indicate that the broadband surface waves coupler shows low infrared emissivity less than 0.28 from 3 to 14 µm and has microwave reflection reduction larger than 10 dB in 7.3-9.5 GHz. The exceptional performances of the proposed broadband surface waves coupler make us believe that our design offers an alternative strategy for multispectral stealth and multifunctional application.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.440078DOI Listing
October 2021

Lupeol reduces M1 macrophage polarization to attenuate immunologic dissonance and fatty acid deposition in rats with diet-induced metabolic syndrome.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Oct;9(20):1534

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Background: This study aimed to investigate whether lupeol could inhibit the inflammatory mediators associated with the regulation of macrophage phenotypes and functions in rats with diet-induced metabolic syndrome (MS).

Methods: Forty specific-pathogen-free Sprague Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks to establish an MS model. Lupeol was prepared and administered to the rats intraperitoneally at 20, 50, or 100 mg/kg (the lupeol 20 mg/kg, lupeol 50 mg/kg, and lupeol 100 mg/kg groups respectively). After 28 days of continuous intraperitoneal administration, rats were anesthesia and euthanasia. The obesity index, blood glucose and lipid metabolism indexes of rats in each group were measured. The levels of insulin and inflammatory factors in each group were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The pathological changes of liver tissue in rats were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and oil red O staining. The polarization levels of M1 and M2 macrophages in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were analyzed by flow cytometry. The transcription levels of M1 and M2 macrophages markers were detected by qRT-PCR. The expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase-1 (Arg-1) proteins in heart tissues of rats in each group were analyzed by Western blotting.

Results: Lupeol significantly recovered fasting blood glucose and serum insulin levels, and reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), in the liver. It also elevated the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-4 and IL-10, in the MS model. Further, after treatment with lupeol, the levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were decreased, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were increased. Importantly, in the MS model group, lupeol remarkably inhibited M1 macrophages polarization (F4/80iNOS) while elevating M2 macrophages polarization (F4/80CD206) remarkably. At the same time, the levels of M1 markers, including inducible nitric oxide synthase, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, were markedly inhibited, while those of M2 markers, such as arginase-1, IL-10, CD206, and TGF-β, were markedly elevated in the MS model rats.

Conclusions: Lupeol might promote M2 polarization of macrophages to relieve damage caused by MS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-4561DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8576680PMC
October 2021

Active meta-device for angular dispersion elimination of dual-polarized transmission windows.

Opt Express 2021 Aug;29(17):26598-26607

Metasurface-based strategy of tailoring electromagnetic waves has aroused huge attention in both academic and engineering communities owing to great potential in a large portfolio of applications. Commonly, however, the artificially designed metasurfaces are sensitive to the oblique incident waves which results in the angular dispersion and inevitably deteriorates the performances. Here, we propose a paradigm of an active meta-device to effectively eliminate the angular dispersion in two orthogonal polarization states of transmission waves. By loading varactor diodes into a transmissive meta-atom, the transmission responses for traverse electric (TE) and traverse magnetic (TM) waves are actively tunable by a voltage-driven manner. Accordingly, the blue shifts of transmission windows can be ingeniously compensated via tailoring the corresponding dispersion characteristics of varactor diodes. A triple-layer meta-atom loaded with varactor diodes is designed as a dual-polarization proof-of-principle, in which the varactor diodes can be applied to independently control two polarization states. The numerical simulations and experimental verification are in good agreement, indicating the proposed paradigm possesses the potential in versatile applications, including radome, wireless communications, and other dispersionless systems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.432231DOI Listing
August 2021

Active circular dichroism coding meta-mirror for flexible beam-forming and dynamic amplitude control.

Opt Express 2021 Aug;29(17):26586-26597

Equipped with the capability of simultaneous phase and amplitude modulation, the chiral metasurfaces have broken through the weak chiroptical responses of natural media, giving birth to a number of unprecedented phenomena. However, the performance of passive metasurface is inadequate to realize dynamic manipulation to fit the diverse and changeable operation requirements, which would damage their engineering applications. Here, a circular dichroism meta-mirror consisting of Archimedean spiral-based meta-atoms is proposed to achieve dynamic scattering modulation. Combining the strategy of loading active element, the chiroptical responses of a metasurface is smoothly controlled. By controlling bias voltages, continuous scattered reflection amplitude steering can be achieved for the designated spin state while the orthogonal spin state can hardly be influenced. With the assistance of Pancharatnam-Berry phase principle, the metasurface possesses the capability of tailoring waves in coded manner. We experimentally verify the proposed strategy by a 1-bit checkerboard meta-mirror for four-beam scattering pattern. Importantly, the proposed paradigm may find applications in spin-sensitive systems and adaptive camouflage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.432197DOI Listing
August 2021

Compatible stealth design of infrared and radar based on plasmonic absorption structure.

Opt Express 2021 Aug;29(18):28767-28777

In this paper, a metamaterial structure with radar and infrared (IR) compatible stealth characteristics is designed based on the principle of plasmonic absorbing structure (PAS). Due to the lack of reports on PAS-based IR radar compatible stealth, this article combines PAS and IR frequency selective surfaces to achieve the desired purpose. Through mathematical modeling and dispersion engineering of the unit cell proposed, a PAS with ultra-wideband wave absorption is realized. The low emissivity of the IR atmospheric window band is realized by means of the simulation and analysis of the IR frequency selective surface with different indium tin oxide (ITO) occupation ratios. The absorptivity of designed structure is higher than 90% from 4GHz to 28.6GHz, and the emissivity of the IR atmospheric window is only 0.3. The experience of the fabricated sample is consistent with the theoretical analysis and the simulation. Our method enriches the implementation strategies of radar-IR compatibility and has reference significance for multi-spectrum compatible stealth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.432703DOI Listing
August 2021

Orbital angular momentum generator with multiple retroreflection channels enabled by an angle-selective metasurface.

Opt Express 2021 Aug;29(16):25022-25031

Vortex beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) have aroused great attention on account of the remarkable potential in the field of communication. It has the characteristics of higher spectrum efficiency, greater channel capacity and stronger anti-interference, which will revolutionize the wireless communications in the future. However, target tracking on a vortex generator in practical applications is becoming a challenge because the backscattering of electromagnetic (EM) waves under oblique incidence is too small for detection. Currently, the main way to solve this problem is to load an extra retroreflector such as Luneburg lens, which in turn leads to increased weights and bulky volumes. In this paper, we propose a vortex generator simultaneously with retroreflective characteristics utilizing an angle-selective metasurface. The meta-atom can achieve broadband polarization conversion under normal incidence and efficient retroreflection under oblique incidence. Without the need for an additional retroreflection phase arrangement, an OAM generator composed of such meta-atoms can be achieved in 15.0-21.0GHz under both x- and y-polarized normal incidence. Meanwhile, four retroreflection channels are opened under oblique illumination of both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) waves at 20.0GHz. Both the simulated and measured results show excellent performances. The integration of an OAM generator and retroreflector will greatly reduce the weight and volume and save in the cost of production, which will promote the development of miniaturized, multi-role, and even intelligent functional devices.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.432496DOI Listing
August 2021

Differences in gene expression and variable splicing events of ovaries between large and small litter size in Chinese Xiang pigs.

Porcine Health Manag 2021 Sep 1;7(1):52. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, 100193, Beijing, China.

Background: Although lots of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and genes present roles in litter size of some breeds, the information might not make it clear for the huge diversity of reproductive capability in pig breeds. To elucidate the inherent mechanisms of heterogeneity of reproductive capability in litter size of Xiang pig, we performed transcriptome analysis for the expression profile in ovaries using RNA-seq method.

Results: We identified 1,419 up-regulated and 1,376 down-regulated genes in Xiang pigs with large litter size. Among them, 1,010 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were differently spliced between two groups with large or small litter sizes. Based on GO and KEGG analysis, numerous members of genes were gathered in ovarian steroidogenesis, steroid biosynthesis, oocyte maturation and reproduction processes.

Conclusions: Combined with gene biological function, twelve genes were found out that might be related with the reproductive capability of Xiang pig, of which, eleven genes were recognized as hub genes. These genes may play a role in promoting litter size by elevating steroid and peptide hormones supply through the ovary and facilitating the processes of ovulation and in vivo fertilization.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40813-021-00226-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8411529PMC
September 2021

Selective Expression of a SNARE-Cleaving Protease in Peripheral Sensory Neurons Attenuates Pain-Related Gene Transcription and Neuropeptide Release.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 17;22(16). Epub 2021 Aug 17.

School of Life Sciences, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, China.

Chronic pain is a leading health and socioeconomic problem and an unmet need exists for long-lasting analgesics. SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) are required for neuropeptide release and noxious signal transducer surface trafficking, thus, selective expression of the SNARE-cleaving light-chain protease of botulinum neurotoxin A (LCA) in peripheral sensory neurons could alleviate chronic pain. However, a safety concern to this approach is the lack of a sensory neuronal promoter to prevent the expression of LCA in the central nervous system. Towards this, we exploit the unique characteristics of Pirt (phosphoinositide-interacting regulator of TRP), which is expressed in peripheral nociceptive neurons. For the first time, we identified a Pirt promoter element and cloned it into a lentiviral vector driving transgene expression selectively in peripheral sensory neurons. Pirt promoter driven-LCA expression yielded rapid and concentration-dependent cleavage of SNAP-25 in cultured sensory neurons. Moreover, the transcripts of pain-related genes (      and and in pro-inflammatory cytokines stimulated sensory neurons were downregulated by viral mediated expression of LCA. Furthermore, viral expression of LCA yielded long-lasting inhibition of pain mediator release. Thus, we show that the engineered Pirt-LCA virus may provide a novel means for long lasting pain relief.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22168826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8396265PMC
August 2021

Innate immune regulates cutaneous sensory IL-13 receptor alpha 2 to promote atopic dermatitis.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 11 13;98:28-39. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

School of Life Sciences, Henan University, China; National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Health, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Ireland. Electronic address:

The clinical significance and regulators of IL-13Rα2 in itch and atopic dermatitis (AD) remain unclear. To identify disease-driven regulatory circuits of IL-13Rα2, transcriptomic/pathological analysis was performed in skin from patients with AD, psoriasis, healthy subjects, and murine AD model. Functionality was investigated in sensory neurons, keratinocytes and animal model, by using knockdown (KD), calcium imaging, RNA-seq, cytokine arrays, pharmacological assays, and behavioural investigations. In our study, an upregulated IL-13Rα2 expression was revealed in skin of AD patients, but not psoriasis, in a disease activity-dependent manner. In cultured human keratinocytes, IL-13 increased IL-13Rα2 transcription levels, and this were downregulated by IL-13Rα1KD. IL-13Rα2KD reduced transcription levels of EDNRA, CCL20, CCL26. In contrast, sensory neuron-derived IL-13Rα2 was upregulated by TLR2 heterodimer agonists, Pam3CSK4 and FSL-1. In a mouse cheek model, pre-administration of Pam3CSK4 and FSL-1 enhanced IL-13-elicited scratching behaviour. Consistently, in cultured sensory neurons Pam3CSK4 enhanced IL-13-elicted calcium transients, increased number of responders, and orchestrated chemerin, CCL17 and CCL22 release. These release was inhibited by IL-13Rα2KD. Collectively, IL-13 regulates keratinocyte-derived IL-13Rα2 and TLR2 to modulate neuronal IL-13Rα2, thereby promoting neurogenic inflammation and exacerbating AD and itch. Thus, the cutaneous IL-13-IL-13Rα2 and neuronal TLR2-IL-13Rα2 pathway represent important targets to treat AD and itch.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2021.08.211DOI Listing
November 2021

Th2 Modulation of Transient Receptor Potential Channels: An Unmet Therapeutic Intervention for Atopic Dermatitis.

Front Immunol 2021 30;12:696784. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

School of Life Sciences, Henan University, Kaifeng, China.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifaceted, chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease that affects people of all ages. It is characterized by chronic eczema, constant pruritus, and severe discomfort. AD often progresses from mild annoyance to intractable pruritic inflammatory lesions associated with exacerbated skin sensitivity. The T helper-2 (Th2) response is mainly linked to the acute and subacute phase, whereas Th1 response has been associated in addition with the chronic phase. IL-17, IL-22, TSLP, and IL-31 also play a role in AD. Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels play a significant role in neuroinflammation, itch and pain, indicating neuroimmune circuits in AD. However, the Th2-driven cutaneous sensitization of TRP channels is underappreciated. Emerging findings suggest that critical Th2-related cytokines cause potentiation of TRP channels, thereby exaggerating inflammation and itch sensation. Evidence involves the following: (i) IL-13 enhances TRPV1 and TRPA1 transcription levels; (ii) IL-31 sensitizes TRPV1 transcriptional and channel modulation, and indirectly modulates TRPV3 in keratinocytes; (iii) The Th2-cytokine TSLP increases TRPA1 synthesis in sensory neurons. These changes could be further enhanced by other Th2 cytokines, including IL-4, IL-25, and IL-33, which are inducers for IL-13, IL-31, or TSLP in skin. Taken together, this review highlights that Th2 cytokines potentiate TRP channels through diverse mechanisms under different inflammatory and pruritic conditions, and link this effect to distinct signaling cascades in AD. This review strengthens the notion that interrupting Th2-driven modulation of TRP channels will inhibit transition from acute to chronic AD, thereby aiding the development of effective therapeutics and treatment optimization.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.696784DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8278285PMC
December 2021

Genetic-algorithm-empowered metasurface design: simultaneous realization of high microwave frequency-selection and low infrared surface-emissivity.

Opt Express 2021 Jun;29(13):20150-20159

With the improvement of equipment integration, it is difficult to meet the increasing functional requirements with the function of a single spectrum. In this work, a multispectral functional metasurface (MFM) is designed to achieve multispectral compatibility between microwave and infrared using multi-optimization. For microwaves, a frequency selective surface (FSS) is designed to achieve frequency selectivity. And for infrared, a twice genetic algorithm (GA) is employed to further increase the metallic filling ratio, thus reducing the infrared emissivity while maintaining the performance of microwave FSS. In order to verify our design and method, the MFM is fabricated and measured, and all the results are consistent with the theoretical design. The performance of FSS can achieve 3dB bandwidth in 7.2-11.2GHz with low insertion losses and stability, and meanwhile the mean infrared emissivity has been reduced to 0.24 in 3-14μm. In summary, the designed multispectral compatible metasurface has wide application value in radome. What's more, the multi-optimization method for designing the multispectral metasurface can also be extended to other fields.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.427492DOI Listing
June 2021

Ultra-wideband flexible transparent metamaterial with wide-angle microwave absorption and low infrared emissivity.

Opt Express 2021 Jul;29(14):22108-22116

Optically transparent metamaterials with the performance of infrared radar compatible stealth have been designed and manufactured on the basis of the continuous in-depth research on single-band stealth technology. In this paper, metamaterials are designed through theoretical calculations and modeling simulations. The designed structure can achieve higher than 90% broadband (8.7-32 GHz) absorption at wide-angle (45 degrees), emissivity of 0.3 in infrared atmospheric window, and optical transparency. In addition, the material can be bent, which greatly expands its application scenarios. The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical calculation and simulation results.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.428184DOI Listing
July 2021

Phase-to-pattern inverse design paradigm for fast realization of functional metasurfaces via transfer learning.

Nat Commun 2021 May 20;12(1):2974. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Basic Sciences, Air Force Engineering University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China.

Metasurfaces have provided unprecedented freedom for manipulating electromagnetic waves. In metasurface design, massive meta-atoms have to be optimized to produce the desired phase profiles, which is time-consuming and sometimes prohibitive. In this paper, we propose a fast accurate inverse method of designing functional metasurfaces based on transfer learning, which can generate metasurface patterns monolithically from input phase profiles for specific functions. A transfer learning network based on GoogLeNet-Inception-V3 can predict the phases of 2 meta-atoms with an accuracy of around 90%. This method is validated via functional metasurface design using the trained network. Metasurface patterns are generated monolithically for achieving two typical functionals, 2D focusing and abnormal reflection. Both simulation and experiment verify the high design accuracy. This method provides an inverse design paradigm for fast functional metasurface design, and can be readily used to establish a meta-atom library with full phase span.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23087-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8137937PMC
May 2021

Quasi-continuous linear phase-gradient metamaterial based on conformal spoof surface plasmon polaritons.

Opt Express 2021 Mar;29(6):8666-8675

In this work, we propose a method of achieving quasi-continuous linear phase gradient for transmitted waves based on conformal spoof surface plasmon polariton (SSPP). To this end, a SSPP structure with high transmission is firstly designed as the unit cell of the metamaterial. To obtain the phase gradient, SSPP structures are arranged delicately in a way that they are conformal to the brachistochrone curve. In this way, quasi-continuous linear Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phase profile can be realized strictly along one of the two transverse directions. To verify this idea, a dual-band transmissive metamaterial operating in X and Ku band was designed, fabricated and measured. Due to the phase gradient imparted by the conformal SSPP structures, high-efficiency anomalous refraction can be realized within the two bands. Different from the general PGM, the phase gradient of the conformal SSPP structure allows us to achieve the desired anomalous refraction angle without reconstructing the PB phase. Both the simulation and measurement results are well consistent with theoretical predictions. This work provides another strategy of achieving anomalous refraction and may find applications in beam steering, digital beam forming, etc.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.417325DOI Listing
March 2021

Absorptive frequency selective surface with two alternately switchable transmission/reflection bands.

Opt Express 2021 Feb;29(3):4219-4229

The traditional frequency selective surface (FSS) needs further improvement with the development of stealth technology, and the design of multifunctional FSSs is essential. In this letter, an active absorptive FSS (AFSS) has been designed based on the absorption structure of the spoof surface plasmon polariton (SSPP) and the switching activity of the active FSS. The active FSS embedded with PIN diodes realizes the shift of two transmission/reflection frequency bands by controlling the bias voltage of the feed network, which switches from one band-pass response (at around 3.06 GHz) to the other (at around 4.34 GHz). And when one of the transmission windows switches to the other, the original transmission window closes. The upper plasmonic structure achieves a continuous and efficient absorption band from 6.31 to 8.34 GHz. A sample was also fabricated and carried out to verify the numerical simulation, and the experimental and simulation results are consistent. This work provides new ideas for the design of active AFSS and promotes its application in common aperture radome, antenna isolation, and electromagnetic shielding.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.416266DOI Listing
February 2021

Multifunctional full-space metasurface controlled by frequency, polarization and incidence angle.

Opt Express 2021 Mar;29(5):7544-7557

Multifunctional metasurfaces have exhibited considerable abilities of manipulating electromagnetic (EM) waves, especially in full-space manipulation. However, most works are implemented with functions controlled by polarization or frequency and seldom involve the incidence angle. Herein, we propose a multifunctional full-space metasurface controlled by frequency, polarization and incidence angle. A meta-atom is firstly designed. When EM waves illumine normally in the C-band, it possesses the characteristic of asymmetric transmission with high-efficient polarization conversion. In the Ku-band, both x- and y-polarized EM waves along both sides will be reflected and achieve broadband and high-efficient cross-polarization conversion. Also, when illumined obliquely, both sides can achieve efficient retroreflection at a certain frequency. As a proof of concept, a metasurface consisting of the above meta-atoms is configured as a dual orbital angular momentum (OAM) vortex beam generator and different beam deflector when illumined normally. Meanwhile, it acts as a multi-channel retroreflector when illumined obliquely. Both the simulated and measured results show excellent performances. Our findings provide a new degree of freedom to design multifunctional metasurfaces that can further promote applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.419720DOI Listing
March 2021

Single-layer metasurface for ultra-wideband polarization conversion: bandwidth extension via Fano resonance.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 12;11(1):585. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Basic Science, Air Force Engineering University, Xi'an, 710051, Shanxi, People's Republic of China.

In this paper, we propose a method of designing ultra-wideband single-layer metasurfaces for cross-polarization conversion, via the introduction of Fano resonances. By adding sub-branches onto the unit cell structure, the induced surface currents are disturbed, leading to coexistence of both bright and dark modes at higher frequencies. Due to the strong interaction between the two modes, Fano resonance can be produced. In this way, five resonances in all are produced by the single-layer metasurface. The first four are conventional and are generated by electric and magnetic resonances, whereas the fifth one is caused by Fano resonance, which further extends the bandwidth. A prototype was designed, fabricated and measured to verify this method. Both the simulated and measured results show that a 1:4.4 bandwidth can be achieved for both x- and y-polarized waves, with almost all polarization conversion ratio (PCR) above 90%. This method provides an effective alternative to metasurface bandwidth extension and can also be extended to higher bands such as THz and infrared frequencies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79945-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7804130PMC
January 2021

Overcome chromatism of metasurface via Greedy Algorithm empowered by self-organizing map neural network.

Opt Express 2020 Nov;28(24):35724-35733

Chromatism generally exists in most metasurfaces. Because of this, the deflected angle of metasurface reflectors usually varies with frequency. This inevitably hinders wide applications of metasurfaces to broadband signal scenarios. Therefore, it is of great significance to overcome chromatism of metasurfaces. With this aim, we firstly analyze necessary conditions for achromatic metasurface deflectors (AMD) and deduce the ideal dispersions of meta-atoms. Then, we establish a Self-Organizing Map (SOM) Neural Network as a prepositive model to obtain a diversified searching map, which is then applied to Greedy Algorithm to search meta-atoms with the required dispersions. Using these meta-atoms, an AMD was designed and simulated, with a thickness about 1/15 the central wavelength. A prototype was fabricated and measured. Both the simulation and measurement show that the proposed AMD can achieve an almost constant deflected angle of 22° under normal incidence within 9.5-10.5GHz. This method may find wide applications in designing functional metasurfaces for satellite communications, mobile wireless communications and others.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.405856DOI Listing
November 2020

Polarization-independent multi-channel retroreflective metasurfaces based on extraordinary optical diffraction.

Opt Express 2020 Dec;28(25):37276-37283

Retroreflection can be achieved by phase gradient imparted by super-cells of metasurfaces. Nevertheless, in most cases, retroreflection can only be achieved for one specific polarization. In this paper, we propose an alternative design strategy and reveal that a polarization-independent multi-channel metasurface based on extraordinary optical diffraction (EOD) can achieve high-efficient retroreflection. A unary unit cell, instead of binary unit cells, is employed to canalize impinging EM waves along targeted diffraction channels. Under oblique incidence, only the -1st diffraction order is maintained and the 0th order and others are suppressed through structural design while the reflection is unaffected under normal incidence. In this way, we can achieve retroreflection in three channels. A proof-of-principle prototype was designed, fabricated and measured to verify this design strategy. The prototype can operate at 20.0 GHz under the incident angle of ±48.6° and 0° with the efficiency of retroreflection about 90%. Both the simulated and measured results show an excellent performance of retroreflection along the three channels, regardless of the polarization state of incident waves. This method offers a fast implementation for retrodirective characteristics with facile planar fabrication and can also be easily extended to THz or optical regimes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.411381DOI Listing
December 2020

Planar multi-angle retro-reflectors based on the wave-vector-reversion of spoof surface plasmon polaritons.

Opt Express 2020 Dec;28(25):37236-37248

Spoof surface plasmon polariton (SSPP) is kind of sub-wavelength electromagnetic (EM) mode, which is favorable for miniaturization and thinning of EM devices. In this paper, we propose a method of designing thin planar retro-reflector that can operate under multiple incidence angles at the same frequency. The retro-reflector is composed of a transmissive phase gradient metasurface (TPGM) placed above a metallic patch array (MPA), where the former couples and decouples SSPPs while the latter supports eigen-mode propagation of SSPPs. Under oblique incident angles, the TGPM can impart 0 and π Pancharatnam-Berry (P-B) phases alternatively, producing P-B phase gradients along its surface. Incident waves can be coupled as SSPPs propagating on the MPA which will be reflected at the borders of the MPA, thus the wave-vector of SSPPs is reversed. In this way, retro-reflection can be realized under the two incidence angles θ=±45.0°. Moreover, due to mode mismatch between the TPGM and MPA under normal incidence, the retro-reflector acts like a planar metallic plate under θ=0°. To verify this method, a prototype was designed, fabricated and measured. Both the simulation and measurement results verify significant backscattering enhancement under θ=±45.0° and 0° at 10.0 GHz. This work provides an alternative method of designing planar retro-reflectors and may find applications in wireless communication, target tracking, etc.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.411043DOI Listing
December 2020

Novel insights into the TRPV3-mediated itch in atopic dermatitis.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 03 6;147(3):1110-1114.e5. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

School of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Health, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin, Ireland; School of Life Sciences, Henan University, Henan, China. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2020.09.028DOI Listing
March 2021

Genetic variation and selection in the major histocompatibility complex Class II gene in the Guizhou pony.

PeerJ 2020 18;8:e9889. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

College of Animal Sciences, Guizhou University, Guiyang, China.

The Guizhou pony (GZP) is an indigenous species of equid found in the mountains of the Guizhou province in southwest China. We selected four regions of the equine leukocyte antigen (ELA), including , , and and used them to assess the diversity of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II gene using direct sequencing technology. had the lowest / ratio (0.560) compared with the other three loci, indicating that was conserved and could be conserved after undergoing selective processes. Nine , five , nine and seven codons were under significant positive selection at the antigen binding sites (ABS), suggesting that the selected residues in ABS may play a significant role in the innate immune system of the GZP. Two GZP alleles were shared with Przewalski's horse, and six older GZP haplotypes had a better relationship with other horse species by one or two mutational steps, indicating that the GZP may be a natural ancient variety of equid. The specific diversity of ABS and the numbers of unique haplotypes in the evolutionary process affords this species a better genetic fitness and ability to adapt to the native environment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9889DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7505079PMC
September 2020

Optically transparent coding metasurface with simultaneously low infrared emissivity and microwave scattering reduction.

Opt Express 2020 Sep;28(19):27774-27784

In this paper, an optically transparent coding metasurface structure based on indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films with simultaneously low infrared (IR) emissivity and microwave scattering reduction is proposed. To this end, two ITO coding elements which can reflect 0° and 180° phase responses are firstly designed. Based on these two elements, four coding sequences with different scattering patterns are designed. Three of them can realize anomalous reflections and the fourth can realize random diffusion of normal incident electromagnetic (EM) waves. A prototype of the random diffusion coding metasurface was fabricated and measured. The experimental results show that for normal incident EM waves, at least 10dB backward scattering reduction from 3.8GHz to 6.8GHz can be achieved, and the structure is polarization insensitive. The averaged transmittance of visible light through the coding metasurface reaches up to 72.2%. In addition, due to the high occupation ratio of ITO on the outside of the coding metasurface, a low IR emissivity of about 0.275 is obtained. Good consistency between the experiment and simulation results convincingly verifies the coding metasurface. Due to its multispectral compatibility, the proposed coding metasurface may find potential applications in multi-spectral stealth, camouflage, etc.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.402326DOI Listing
September 2020

A new family of two-dimensional ferroelastic semiconductors with negative Poisson's ratios.

Nanoscale 2020 Jul 29;12(26):14150-14159. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China.

Two-dimensional (2D) materials with both ferroelasticity and negative Poisson's ratios have attracted intensive interest, but it is very rare to have both ferroelasticity and negative Poisson's ratios in a single material. Directional positive and negative Poisson's ratios in a switchable ferroelastic dielectric may enable non-destructive readout in ferroelastic data storage. Herein, we propose 14 kinds of stable 2D semiconductors: AB monolayers (A = Sc, Y, La; B = N, P, As, Sb, Bi) based on first-principles calculations. The band gaps of AB monolayers cover a wide range from 0.69 eV to 2.15 eV. Mechanical analysis reveals that these materials are flexible and 12 of 14 are predicted to possess an in-plane negative Poisson's ratio (NPR). Moreover, 10 of these 14 systems possess an out-of-plane NPR. More encouragingly, all AB monolayers are identified as 2D ferroelastic materials with reversible strains of around 5.94% to 20.30%. The ferroelastic switching barriers, mechanical properties and electronic structures of these materials are discussed in detail. Such outstanding properties make the AB monolayers very promising as switchable anisotropic 2D materials for nanoelectronics and micromechanical applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9nr10114dDOI Listing
July 2020

Negative differential resistance and unsaturated magnetoresistance effects based on avalanche breakdown.

J Phys Condens Matter 2020 Jul 18;32(30):305701. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, People's Republic of China.

The negative differential resistance (NDR) effect and magnetoresistance (MR) effect attract a lot of attention since they have been widely applied in fields such as circuit amplifiers and information storage, respectively. In general, the NDR and MR effects derive from different physical mechanisms, which makes it difficult to obtain both an NDR effect and a large unsaturated MR effect in a device based on the same physical mechanism. In this paper, the NDR and unsaturated MR effects were observed simultaneously in In/SiO/p-Si/SiO/In hetero junction devices, and their physical mechanisms were investigated. It is found that under zero magnetic field conditions, the NDR effect can be observed up to 25 K which is much higher than the temperature of NDR obtaining in intrinsic silicon. The NDR effect is significantly enhanced by applying a small magnetic field of 0.1 T. Meanwhile, the unsaturated positive MR effect is obtained when an external magnetic field is applied. Our analysis shows that the NDR effect and the unsaturated MR effect can be explained on the basis of the same physical mechanism of the avalanche breakdown in the In/SiO/p-Si hetero junction. The NDR effect mainly results from complex effects containing the carrier injection after avalanche breakdown in the hetero junction, the reduction of the Schottky barrier height and the Joule heating effect. The large unsaturated MR effect derives from the suppression of the plasma due to avalanche breakdown by the applied magnetic field. The largest value of MR based on avalanche breakdown can reach about 530%@1 T at 10 K, and MR sensitivity can be as high as about 29.4 T under 0.05 T.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/ab80f2DOI Listing
July 2020

PtSe Monolayer: A Highly Efficient Electrocatalyst toward Hydrogen and Oxygen Electrode Reactions.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Mar 13;12(12):13896-13903. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Department of Chemistry, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588, United States.

Electrocatalysts with high activities toward multiple electrode reactions are scarce and therefore highly sought. Here, we investigate the electrocatalytic performance of the two-dimensional (2D) PtSe monolayer toward hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), oxygen evolution reaction (OER), and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Our density functional theory calculations show that the PtSe monolayer can serve as a low-Pt-loading trifunctional electrocatalyst with good kinetic and thermal stabilities. Specifically, the HER performance of the PtSe basal plane is predicted to be superior to that of 2D layered Pd or Pt dichalcogenides. Even considering the solvent effect, the catalytic OER performance of the PtSe monolayer is predicted to be comparable to the prevalent OER catalyst-IrO, while the catalytic ORR performance of the PtSe monolayer is even higher than the predominating Pt(111) surface. Overall, the PtSe monolayer can be a promising trifunctional catalyst that exhibits high activities toward all hydrogen and oxygen electrode reactions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b22674DOI Listing
March 2020
-->