Publications by authors named "Jia-jia Wang"

125 Publications

The Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio Is Positively Correlated with Aggression in Schizophrenia.

Biomed Res Int 2022 23;2022:4040974. Epub 2022 Apr 23.

Department of Psychiatry, The Affiliated Xuzhou Eastern Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China.

To find biomarkers to assess the risk of aggression, we looked at the association between aggression and levels of body inflammation in patients with schizophrenia. The Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) score was used to divide the aggressive ( = 72) and nonaggressive ( = 141) groups. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) is a tool for determining the severity of a patient's condition. After measuring the number of inflammatory cells in the peripheral blood, the platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and monocyte-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) were estimated. We investigated the relationship between aggressive behavior, bodily inflammation, and BPRS. Before therapy, the aggressive group's BPRS score, white blood cell (WBC) count, neutrophil count, monocyte count, NLR, and MLR were considerably more significant than the nonaggressive group's. After therapy, statistically significant variations in total BPRS score and neutrophil count between the two groups. According to correlation analysis before and after treatment, aggressive behavior was positively connected with neutrophil count, NLR, and BPRS score. The presence of aggressive behavior in schizophrenic patients indicates the severity of the disorder to some degree. NLR can be used as an objective biomarker to quickly assess the risk of aggression in schizophrenic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/4040974DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9056227PMC
May 2022

Comparison of mitogenomes of three Petalocephala species (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Ledrinae) and their phylogenetic analysis.

Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 2022 Apr 11:e21902. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Institute of Entomology, The Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management Mountainous Region, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou, China.

Ledrinae is a unique group of leafhoppers with a distinct appearance. Petalocephala is the largest Ledrinae genus that is difficult to identify except by dissecting the male genitals. To date, research on Ledrinae is relatively less compared with other leafhoppers. Therefore, to better understand this group, we sequenced and analyzed three complete Petalocephala mitochondrial genomes. We comparatively analyzed these general Petalocephala genomic features (including size, AT content, AT/GC skew, 13 protein-coding gene nucleotide compositions, etc.), and predicted 22 transfer RNA secondary structures. We obtained highly consistent phylogenetic results within Cicadellidae based on mitogenomic data using the maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. Our results showed that all subfamilies were monophyletic and had a high node support rate, and there was a sister group relationship between Ledrinae and all other leafhopper groups. Furthermore, treehoppers were found to originate from leafhoppers and showed sister group relationships with Megophthalminae. Within Ledrinae, all phylogenetic trees supporting phylogenetic relationships were as follows: ([P. dicondylica + P. gongshanensis] + [Tituria pyramidata + [Ledra auditura + P. gongshanensis]]) Based on the complete mitogenome phylogenetic analysis and the comparison of morphological characteristics, we propose that Petalocephala is not monophyletic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/arch.21902DOI Listing
April 2022

Discovery of a novel nonsteroidal selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator by virtual screening and bioassays.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2022 Feb 2. Epub 2022 Feb 2.

Innovation Institute for Artificial Intelligence in Medicine of Zhejiang University, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

Synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) have been widely used in the treatment of a broad range of inflammatory diseases, but their clinic use is limited by undesired side effects such as metabolic disorders, osteoporosis, skin and muscle atrophies, mood disorders and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression. Selective glucocorticoid receptor modulators (SGRMs) are expected to have promising anti-inflammatory efficacy but with fewer side effects caused by GCs. Here, we reported HT-15, a prospective SGRM discovered by structure-based virtual screening (VS) and bioassays. HT-15 can selectively act on the NF-κB/AP1-mediated transrepression function of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and repress the expression of pro-inflammation cytokines (i.e., IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2, and CCL-2) as effectively as dexamethasone (Dex). Compared with Dex, HT-15 shows less transactivation potency that is associated with the main adverse effects of synthetic GCs, and no cross activities with other nuclear receptors. Furthermore, HT-15 exhibits very weak inhibition on the ratio of OPG/RANKL. Therefore, it may reduce the side effects induced by normal GCs. The bioactive compound HT-15 can serve as a starting point for the development of novel therapeutics for high dose or long-term anti-inflammatory treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-021-00855-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8809242PMC
February 2022

Sapidolide A alleviates acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2022 Jan 12. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Center for Drug Safety Evaluation and Research, Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Anti-Cancer Drug Research, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

Macrophages play a critical role in the pathogenesis of acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury (AILI), a major cause of acute liver failure or even death. Sapidolide A (SA) is a sesquiterpene lactone extracted from Baccaurea ramiflora Lour., a folk medicine used in China to treat inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated whether SA exerted protective effects on macrophages, thus alleviated the secondary hepatocyte damage in an AILI. We showed that SA (5-20 μM) suppressed the phosphorylated activation of NF-κB in a dose-dependent manner, thereby inhibiting the expression and activation of the NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and pyroptosis in LPS/ATP-treated mouse bone marrow-derived primary macrophages (BMDMs). In human hepatic cell line L02 co-cultured with BMDMs, SA (10 μM) protected macrophages from the pyroptosis induced by APAP-damaged L02 cells. Moreover, SA treatment reduced the secondary liver cell damage aggravated by the conditioned medium (CM) taken from LPS/ATP-treated macrophages. The in vivo assessments conducted on mice pretreated with SA (25, 50 mg/kg, ip) then with a single dose of APAP (400 mg/kg, ip) showed that SA significantly alleviated inflammatory responses of AILI by inhibiting the expression and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. In general, the results reported herein revealed that SA exerts anti-inflammatory effects by regulating NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages, which suggests that SA has great a potential for use in the treatment of AILI patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-021-00842-xDOI Listing
January 2022

A Novel Age-Related Circular RNA Circ-ATXN2 Inhibits Proliferation, Promotes Cell Death and Adipogenesis in Rat Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal Cells.

Front Genet 2021 9;12:761926. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Department of Basic Medicine Sciences and Department of Orthopaedics of Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells are promising candidates investigating the stem cell-related treatment. However, their proportion and utility in the human body decline with time, rendering stem cells incompetent to complete repair processes . The involvement of circRNAs in the aging process is poorly understood. Rat subcutaneous adipose tissue from 10-week-old and 27-month-old rats were used for hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining, TUNEL staining, and circRNA sequencing. Rat adipose tissue-derived stromal cells were cultured and overexpressed with circ-ATXN2. Proliferation was examined using xCELLigence real-time cell analysis, EdU staining, and cell cycle assay. Apoptosis was induced by CoCl2 and examined using flow cytometry. RT-PCR assay and Oil Red O staining were used to measure adipogenesis at 48 h and 14 days, respectively. H and E staining showed that the diameter of adipocytes increased; however, the number of cells decreased in old rats. TUNEL staining showed that the proportion of apoptotic cells was increased in old rats. A total of 4,860 and 4,952 circRNAs was detected in young and old rats, respectively. Among them, 67 circRNAs exhibited divergent expression between the two groups (fold change ≥2, ≤ 0.05), of which 33 were upregulated (49.3%) and 34 were downregulated (50.7%). The proliferation of circ-ATXN2-overexpressing cells decreased significantly , which was further validated by xCELLigence real-time cell analysis, EdU staining, and cell cycle assay. Overexpression of circ-ATXN2 significantly increased the total apoptotic rate from 5.78 ± 0.46% to 11.97 ± 1.61%, early apoptotic rate from 1.76 ± 0.22% to 5.50 ± 0.66%, and late apoptosis rate from 4.02 ± 0.25% to 6.47 ± 1.06% in adipose tissue-derived stromal cells. Furthermore, in circ-ATXN2-overexpressing cells, RT-PCR assay revealed that the expression levels of adipose differentiation-related genes and were increased and the Oil Red O staining assay showed more lipid droplets. Our study revealed the expression profile of circRNAs in the adipose tissue of old rats. We found a novel age-related circular RNA-circ-ATXN2-that inhibits proliferation and promotes cell death and adipogenesis in rat adipose tissue-derived stromal cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.761926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8630790PMC
November 2021

Description of three new species of the leafhopper genus Idioscopus Baker, (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Eurymelinae) from Yunnan, China.

Zootaxa 2021 Jun 30;4995(2):375-381. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University; Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management of the Mountainous Region, Guiyang 550025. P. R. China..

Three new species of the leafhopper genus Idioscopus Baker, 1915 from China: I. furcaprocessus sp. nov., I. longiprocessus sp. nov., and I. serratastylus sp. nov. are described and photographed based on specimens collected in Yunnan Province of southern China. These three new species can be recognised mainly by the coloration and male genitalia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4995.2.10DOI Listing
June 2021

Reply to comment on 'the comparison of two exhaled nitric oxide analyzers: NIOX VERO and SUNVOU-CA2122'.

J Breath Res 2021 11 1;16(1). Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1752-7163/ac3195DOI Listing
November 2021

Changes in Serum Calcium and Treatment of Hypoparathyroidism During Pregnancy and Lactation: A Single-center Case Series.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 11;106(12):e5054-e5063

Department of Endocrinology, Key Laboratory of Endocrinology, National Health Commission, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100730, China.

Background: Hypoparathyroidism (hypo-PT) is rare, and studies on hypo-PT, especially during pregnancy and lactation, are limited.

Design And Setting: This was a retrospective study on a relatively large case series in a single center from mainland China.

Methods: A total of 19 patients with 25 pregnancies, diagnosed with hypo-PT before pregnancy, were enrolled. Data on clinical characteristics and treatment strategies at onset time and around pregnancy period were collected.

Results: During pregnancy, except for 2 patients with missing data, 5 patients with 6 pregnancies (6/23, 26.1%) experienced improved hypo-PT condition, defined as an increased serum calcium level; 4 patients with 4 pregnancies (4/23, 17.4%) experienced worsened hypo-PT condition, defined as a more than 0.2 mmol/L decline in the serum calcium level; and 3 patients with 3 pregnancies (3/23, 13.0%) remained in stable hypo-PT condition. The prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcomes was 30.4% (4/23 for preterm delivery; 3/23 for miscarriage). The serum calcium and 24-hour urine calcium levels significantly increased during lactation compared with pregnancy (2.57 ± 0.34 vs 1.99 ± 0.11 mmol/L, P < 0.001; 12.28 ± 5.41 vs 8.63 ± 3.22 mmol/L, P = 0.013), and 5 patients with 5 lactations (5/12, 41.7%) developed hypercalcemia in the first 2 months after delivery.

Conclusions: Female patients with hypo-PT had different changes in calcium homeostasis and a high prevalence of adverse outcomes during pregnancy. Thus, they should be monitored closely to maintain the optimal serum calcium level. Decreasing drug dosage during the lactation period should be considered to avoid hypercalcemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgab530DOI Listing
November 2021

Utility of process capability indices in assessment of quality control processes at a clinical laboratory chain.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Aug 24;35(8):e23878. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Laboratory Diagnosis Department, Guangzhou KingMed Center for Clinical Laboratory, Guangzhou, China.

Background: To evaluate the utility of the process capability indices C and C for assessing the quality control processes at chain laboratory facilities.

Methods: In April 2020, the minimum C and C values for 33 assays of a laboratory chain with 19 facilities were collected for further analysis and a total of 627 datasets (C and C ) were compared. In addition, standard values for C and C , defined as the lowest of the top 20%, were obtained for comparison and the indices were used to determine whether precision or trueness improvements were required for the corresponding assay.

Results: A total of 627 datasets of 33 assays from 19 laboratory facilities were collected for further analysis. Based on the C results, 329 (52.5%), 211 (33.7%), 65 (10.3%), and 22 (3.5%) were rated as excellent, good, marginal, and poor, respectively. While the corresponding results for C were 300 (47.8%), 216 (34.4%), 79 (12.6%), and 32 (5.1%). In addition, it was noteworthy that eight (C criteria) and six assays (C criteria) were rated as excellent or good at all 19 facilities. Comparison of the process capability indices at the Jinan KingMed Center with the standard values revealed that total protein, albumin, and urea showed trueness individual improvement, precision individual improvement, and precision common improvement, respectively, while the results of other assays were stable.

Conclusion: Process capability indices are useful for evaluating the quality control procedures in laboratory facilities and can help improve the precision and trueness of laboratory tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.23878DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8373361PMC
August 2021

Prenylaromadendrane-type diterpenoids from the gum resin of flueck and their cytotoxic effects.

Nat Prod Res 2021 Jun 14:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Two new prenylaromadendrane-type diterpenoids, and three known analogues, were isolated from the ethanol extract of the gum resin of Flueck. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated using 1 D and 2 D NMR spectroscopic analyses, mass spectrometric data, circular dichroism spectra, and comparison with the other compounds in the literature. One diterpenoid represents the first example of an acetoxyl-substituted prenylaromadendranoid in frankincense. All compounds exhibited notable cytotoxicity against human malignant glioma (U87-MG) cell line, with inhibitory rates exceeding that of the positive control 5-fluorouracil. However, nitric oxide inhibition induced by lipopolysaccarides was not observed in primary mouse peritoneal macrophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2021.1939331DOI Listing
June 2021

Clinical Features and Lymphocyte Subsets in Recovered COVID-19 Patients With Prolonged Viral RNA Shedding Duration.

Am J Ther 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University Suzhou, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MJT.0000000000001293DOI Listing
May 2021

Single-cell transcriptomic analyses of cardiac immune cells reveal that Rel-driven CD72-positive macrophages induce cardiomyocyte injury.

Cardiovasc Res 2022 03;118(5):1303-1320

The First Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510407, China.

Aims: The goal of our study was to investigate the heterogeneity of cardiac macrophages (CMφs) in mice with transverse aortic constriction (TAC) via single-cell sequencing and identify a subset of macrophages associated with heart injury.

Methods And Results: We selected all CMφs from CD45+ cells using single-cell mRNA sequencing data. Through dimension reduction, clustering, and enrichment analyses, CD72hi CMφs were identified as a subset of pro-inflammatory macrophages. The pseudo-time trajectory and ChIP-Seq analyses identified Rel as the key transcription factor that induces CD72hi CMφ differentiation. Rel KD and Rel-/- bone marrow chimaera mice subjected to TAC showed features of mitigated cardiac injury, including decreased levels of cytokines and ROS, which prohibited cardiomyocyte death. The transfer of adoptive Rel-overexpressing monocytes and CD72hi CMφ injection directly aggravated heart injury in the TAC model. The CD72hi macrophages also exerted pro-inflammatory and cardiac injury effects associated with myocardial infarction. In humans, patients with heart failure exhibit increased CD72hi CMφ levels following dilated cardiomyopathy and ischaemic cardiomyopathy.

Conclusion: Bone marrow-derived, Rel-mediated CD72hi macrophages play a pro-inflammatory role, induce cardiac injury and, thus, may serve as a therapeutic target for multiple cardiovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvab193DOI Listing
March 2022

The Short-term Effects of Temperature on Infectious Diarrhea among Children under 5 Years Old in Jiangsu, China: A Time-series Study (2015-2019).

Curr Med Sci 2021 Apr 20;41(2):211-218. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210009, China.

The association between meteorological factors and infectious diarrhea has been widely studied in many countries. However, investigation among children under 5 years old in Jiangsu, China remains quite limited. Data including infectious diarrhea cases among children under five years old and daily meteorological indexes in Jiangsu, China from 2015 to 2019 were collected. The lag-effects up to 21 days of daily maximum temperature (Tmax) on infectious diarrhea were explored using a quasi-Poisson regression with a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) approach. The cases number of infectious diarrhea was significantly associated with seasonal variation of meteorological factors, and the burden of disease mainly occurred among children aged 0-2 years old. Moreover, when the reference value was set at 16.7°C, Tmax had a significant lag-effect on cases of infectious diarrhea among children under 5 years old in Jiangsu Province, which was increased remarkably in cold weather with the highest risk at 8°C. The results of DLNM analysis implicated that the lag-effect of Tmax varied among the 13 cities in Jiangsu and had significant differences in 8 cities. The highest risk of Tmax was presented at 5 lag days in Huaian with a maximum RR of 1.18 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.29). Suzhou which had the highest number of diarrhea cases (15830 cases), had a maximum RR of 1.04 (95% CI:1.03, 1.05) on lag 15 days. Tmax is a considerable indicator to predict the epidemic of infectious diarrhea among 13 cities in Jiangsu, which reminds us that in cold seasons, more preventive strategies and measures should be done to prevent infectious diarrhea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11596-021-2338-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8056199PMC
April 2021

Leaf direction: Lamina joint development and environmental responses.

Plant Cell Environ 2021 08 20;44(8):2441-2454. Epub 2021 May 20.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou, China.

Plant architecture plays a major role in canopy photosynthesis and biomass production, and plants adjust their growth (and thus architecture) in response to changing environments. Leaf angle is one of the most important traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.) plant architecture, because leaf angle strongly affects leaf direction and rice production, with more-erect leaves being advantageous for high-density plantings. The degree of leaf bending depends on the morphology of the lamina joint, which connects the leaf and the sheath. In this review, we discuss cell morphology in different lamina joint tissues and describe the underlying genetic network that governs this morphology and thus regulates leaf direction. Furthermore, we focus on the mechanism by how environmental factors influence rice leaf angle. Our review provides a theoretical framework for the future genetic improvement of rice leaf orientation and plant architecture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pce.14065DOI Listing
August 2021

Effect of different reconstruction algorithms on coronary artery calcium scores using the reduced radiation dose protocol: a clinical and phantom study.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Apr;11(4):1504-1517

Central China Fuwai Hospital, Zhengzhou, China.

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms on coronary artery calcium (CAC) score quantification using the reduced radiation dose (RRD) protocol in an anthropomorphic phantom and in patients.

Methods: A thorax phantom, containing 9 calcification inserts with varying hydroxyapatite (HA) densities, was scanned with the reference protocol [120 kv, 80 mAs, filtered back projection (FBP)] and RRD protocol (120 kV, 20-80 mAs, 5 mAs interval) using a 256-slice computed tomography (CT) scanner. Raw data were reconstructed with different reconstruction algorithms [iDose levels 1-7 and iterative model reconstruction (IMR) levels 1-3]. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and Agatston score (AS) were calculated for each image series. The correction factor was derived from linear regression analysis between the reference image series and other image series with different parameters. Additionally, 40 patients were scanned with the RRD protocol (50 mAs) and reconstructed with FBP, iDose level 4, and IMR level 2. AS was calculated for the 3-group image series, and was corrected by applying a correction factor for the IMR group. The agreement of risk stratification with different reconstruction algorithms was also analyzed.

Results: For the phantom study, the iDose and IMR groups had significantly higher SNR and CNR than the FBP group (all P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the total AS after comparing image series reconstructed with iDose (level 1-7) and FBP (all P>0.05), while AS from the IMR (level 1-3) image series were lower than the FBP group (all P<0.05). The tube current of 50 mAs was determined for the clinical study, and the correction factor was 1.14. For the clinical study, the median AS from the iDose and IMR groups were both significantly lower compared to the FBP image series [(112.89 (63.01, 314.09), 113.22 (64.78, 364.95) . 118.59 (65.05, 374.48), both P<0.05]. After applying the correction factor, the adjusted AS from the IMR group was not significantly different from that of the FBP group [126.48 (69.62, 355.85) . 118.59 (65.05, 374.48), P=0.145]. Moreover, the agreement in risk stratification between FBP and IMR improved from 0.81 to 0.85.

Conclusions: The RRD CAC scoring scan using the IMR reconstruction algorithm is clinically feasible, and a correction factor can help reduce the AS underestimation effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-20-437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7930671PMC
April 2021

Hypseudohenrins I - K: three new polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol derivatives from .

J Asian Nat Prod Res 2021 Jun 27;23(6):536-544. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China.

Three previously unidentified polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs) derivatives, hypseudohenrins I-K (-), along with a known analogue hyphenrone X (), were isolated from the aerial part of . The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by NMR spectroscopy and ECD calculation. The anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was evaluated. Compounds - showed mild anti-inflammatory activity while hyphenrone X showed prominent anti-inflammatory activity.[Formula: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286020.2021.1906232DOI Listing
June 2021

A new genus and new species of the leafhopper tribe Idiocerini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Eurymelinae).

Zootaxa 2021 Mar 11;4942(1):zootaxa.4942.1.10. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University; The Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management Mountainous Region, Guiyang, Guizhou 550025 P. R. China..

A new genus of the leafhopper tribe Idiocerini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Eurymelinae) Longiaedeagus gen. nov. with type species Longiaedeagus flavofasciatus sp. nov. from China is described and illustrated. This new genus can be distinguished from other leafhopper genera by the broad style with truncate apex, and aedeagus with a long, unpaired retrorse preapical process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4942.1.10DOI Listing
March 2021

Natural products: potential treatments for cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 Dec 9;42(12):1951-1969. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Center for Drug Safety Evaluation and Research, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

Cisplatin is a clinically advanced and highly effective anticancer drug used in the treatment of a wide variety of malignancies, such as head and neck, lung, testis, ovary, breast cancer, etc. However, it has only a limited use in clinical practice due to its severe adverse effects, particularly nephrotoxicity; 20%-35% of patients develop acute kidney injury (AKI) after cisplatin administration. The nephrotoxic effect of cisplatin is cumulative and dose dependent and often necessitates dose reduction or withdrawal. Recurrent episodes of AKI result in impaired renal tubular function and acute renal failure, chronic kidney disease, uremia, and hypertensive nephropathy. The pathophysiology of cisplatin-induced AKI involves proximal tubular injury, apoptosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular injury in the kidneys. At present, there are no effective drugs or methods for cisplatin-induced kidney injury. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies show that numerous natural products (flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, polysaccharide, phenylpropanoids, etc.) have specific antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties that regulate the pathways associated with cisplatin-induced kidney damage. In this review we describe the molecular mechanisms of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and summarize recent findings in the field of natural products that undermine these mechanisms to protect against cisplatin-induced kidney damage and provide potential strategies for AKI treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-021-00620-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8633358PMC
December 2021

Microbial community associated with ectomycorrhizal Russula symbiosis and dominated nature areas in southern China.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2021 04;368(6)

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops and Fujian Universities Key Laboratory of Plant-Microbe Interaction, College of Life Sciences and College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

Russula griseocarnosa is one of the uncultivable important mycorrhizal edible fungi. Currently, there is a limited insight into the dynamic composition of the microbial communities associated with Russula. Here, the microbiota in the root and mycorrhizosphere from Russula-Fagaceae nature areas of Fujian province were identified by Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing. First, we compared three types of fungal communities associated with Russula-Fagaceae root mycelia-running stage (stage-1), Russula sporocarping stage-2 (stage-2) and Russula-free Fagaceae root (stage-3). Fungal diversity negatively correlated with Russula. Russula, Tomentella and Lactarius were core EcM in Fagaceae roots. A total of eight genera, including Boletus, are likely a positive indicator of Russula sporocarp production in Russula-Fagaceae roots, while Tomentella and Elaphomyces for Russula symbiosis. Secondly, analysis of fungal and bacterial communities within rhizosphere soils from the three stages revealed six genera, including Dacryobolus and Acidocella, as possible indicator species associated with sporocarping in Russula. Elaphomyces, Tomentella, Sorangium, Acidicaldus, Acidobacterium and Haliangium occurred more frequently in the Russula rhizosphere. Furthermore, operational taxonomic unit (OTU) network analysis showed a positive correlation between Russula,Tomentella, Elaphomyces and Sorangium. Overall, our results revealed a relationship between micro-community and Russula, which may provide a new strategy for improving Russula symbiosis and sporocarp production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnab028DOI Listing
April 2021

Distribution of IgG subclass anti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs) in systemic lupus erythematosus.

Lupus 2021 May 23;30(6):901-912. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Center of Clinical Laboratory, Zhongshan Hospital, School of Medicine, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

Objectives: Our study purpose was to detect the distribution of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) IgG subclasses in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to evaluate their influence on the inflammatory process in SLE.

Methods: We determined the serum levels of ANA IgG subclasses from 70 SLE patients, 25 patients with other autoimmune diseases (OAD), and 25 healthy controls using ELISA. The serum level of total ANA IgG and the avidity of ANA IgG, dsDNA IgG, and dsDNA IgG subclasses were analysed by ELISA.

Results: The results indicated that levels of four ANA IgG subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4) and total IgG were significantly higher in SLE patients than in OAD patients and healthy controls ( < 0.001). Moreover, the level of each ANA IgG subclass and the prevalence of high-avidity IgG ANAs (HA IgG ANAs) were significantly higher in the active cases than in the inactive cases of SLE and LN. Furthermore, level of ANA IgG subclasses decreased as level of dsDNA IgG subclasses decreased in 30 patients with SLE. In comparison, ANA IgG3 was significantly effective in high-dose prednisone combined with hydroxychloroquine ( = 0.025). Additionally, it revealed that level of dsDNA IgG had a significant influence on four ANA IgG subclasses, especially on ANA IgG3 (β coefficient = 0.649,  < 0.001). Level of ANA IgG3 was also positively related to the serum level of dsDNA IgG (r = 0.729, ) and RAI of HA IgG ANAs (r = 0.504, ). However, the level of ANA IgG4 was positively related to the serum level of albumin (r = 0.572, ) and RAI of HA IgG ANAs (r = 0.549, ). Moreover, the results revealed that cutaneous and renal involvement were mainly associated with the ANA IgG1 and IgG4 subclasses. Although, arthritic involvement was mainly associated with ANA IgG3.

Conclusions: First, we demonstrated that the ANA IgG subclasses were diagnostic tools in SLE patients. Furthermore, HA IgG ANAs might affect the distribution of ANA IgG3 and IgG4. Moreover, ANA IgG3 might play a particular role in the activity of SLE disease and therapy. Therefore, an altered ANA IgG subclass distribution might be a risk factor influencing the inflammatory process in SLE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0961203321995242DOI Listing
May 2021

Two new polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols derivatives from .

J Asian Nat Prod Res 2021 Nov 10;23(11):1068-1076. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Medical College, Shenyang 110034, China.

Polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs) were mainly obtained from the plants of genus of Guttiferae family, and possessed intriguing chemical structures and appealing biological activities. Two new PPAPs derivatives, hyperacmosin C () and hyperacmosin D () were isolated from . Their structures were established by NMR, HREIMS, and experimental electronic circular dichroism spectra. Besides, compound showed significant hepatoprotective activity at 10 µM against paracetamol-induced HepG2 cell damage and compound could moderately increase the relative glucose consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286020.2021.1880395DOI Listing
November 2021

A highly-sensitive "turn on" probe based on coumarin β-diketone for hydrazine detection in PBS and living cells.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 May 29;252:119510. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Key Laboratory of Optic-electric Sensing and Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, MOE, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042, China. Electronic address:

Herein, a new "turn on" fluorescent probe C-1 is developed to specifically detect hydrazine using coumarin nucleus as the fluorophore and β-diketone as the recognition group. The probe shows high selectivity towards hydrazine over other common ions and amine-containing species, as well as good water solubility and quantitative detectability of hydrazine in concentration range of 1-200 μM. The detection limit is as low as 1.89 ppb, which is lower than the threshold set by EPA (10 ppb). Probe-coated filter papers are confirmed to detect gaseous hydrazine successfully through obvious fluorescence color changes. In addition, the probe has been verified to detect hydrazine in actual water environment and living cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.119510DOI Listing
May 2021

Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer in Patients with Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) in the Gray Area: Construction of 2 Predictive Models.

Med Sci Monit 2021 Feb 8;27:e929913. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Sino-German Tongji-Caritas Research Center of Ultrasound in Medicine, Department of Medical Ultrasound, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Two diagnostic models of prostate cancer (PCa) and clinically significant prostate cancer (CS-PCa) were established using clinical data of among patients whose prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels are in the gray area (4.0-10.0 ng/ml). MATERIAL AND METHODS Data from 181 patients whose PSA levels were in the gray area were retrospectively analyzed, and the following data were collected: age, digital rectal examination, total PSA, PSA density (PSAD), free/total PSA (f/t PSA), transrectal ultrasound, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI), and pathological reports. Patients were diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and PCa by pathology reports, and PCa patients were separated into non-clinically significant PCa (NCS-PCa) and CS-PCa by Gleason score. Afterward, predictor models constructed by above parameters were researched to diagnose PCa and CS-PCa, respectively. RESULTS According to the analysis of included clinical data, there were 109 patients with BPH, 44 patients with NCS-PCa, and 28 patients with CS-PCa. Regression analysis showed PCa was correlated with f/t PSA, PSAD, and mpMRI (P<0.01), and CS-PCa was correlated with PSAD and mpMRI (P<0.01). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves of 2 models for PCa (sensitivity=73.64%, specificity=64.23%) and for CS-PCa (sensitivity=71.41%, specificity=81.82%) were 0.79 and 0.87, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The prediction models had satisfactory diagnostic value for PCa and CS-PCa among patients with PSA in the gray area, and use of these models may help reduce overdiagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.929913DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7879585PMC
February 2021

The comparison of two exhaled nitric oxide analyzers: NIOX VERO and SUNVOU-CA2122.

J Breath Res 2021 01 22;15(2). Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province 215006, People's Republic of China.

As a marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) was widely used in clinical practice. NIOX VERO (VERO) and SUNVOU-CA2122 (CA2122) are two commonly used eNO analyzers in China. However, what's the difference and agreement between the two devices and whether the two types of devices can be replaced by each other in the application of common respiratory diseases have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare the two types of devices and to evaluate the difference between them in clinical use and whether they could be replaced. FeNO levels in 244 respiratory patients (including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic cough) were measured by CA2122 analyzer and VERO analyzer, respectively. The FeNO values obtained by the two devices were compared and the differences were analyzed. The success rate, the number of attempts and the total time required for a successful measurement by CA2122 and VERO were compared. The FeNO values measured by CA2122 online and offline were also compared. FeNO values obtained by CA2122 were slightly higher than those of VERO [median(range): 29.0(9-271) parts per billion (ppb) vs 25.5 (5-263) ppb,= 0.000]. There was a high correlation between FeNO values measured by the two types of devices (= 0.964,= 0.000). By comparison, there was a high degree of agreement between the FeNO values measured by two devices, in all patients with different respiratory diseases. FeNO values measured online and offline by CA2122 were highly correlated and there was a high degree of agreement between online and offline methods. The success rate of CA2122 was higher than VERO, and the number of attempts (2.1 vs 2.4) and the total time (110.5 ± 35.7 vs 117.5 ± 48.1 s) required for a successful measurement by CA2122 were lower than those of VERO. CA2122 and VERO can be replaced by each other, and FeNO values can be converted if necessary. CA2122 has some advantages in success rate, the mean attempts and time required for successful measurement of FeNO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1752-7163/abd193DOI Listing
January 2021

Roles of autophagy-related genes in conidiogenesis and blastospore formation, virulence, and stress response of Beauveria bassiana.

Fungal Biol 2020 12 8;124(12):1052-1057. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Institute of Microbiology, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

Autophagy is a conserved intracellular recycling mechanism, in which autophagy-related genes 12 and 16 (ATG12 and ATG16) function in a complex controlling the ubiquitin-like conjugation system. In the insect-pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, ATG12 and ATG16 were functionally characterized. Disruption of BbATG12 or BbATG16 resulted in the absence of autophagic bodies under starvation stress. ΔBbATG12 and ΔBbATG16 mutant strains displayed similar defects in asexual development (conidiation and blastospore formation) and tolerance to oxidative stress. ΔBbATG16 strain exhibited the impaired growth on the media with gelatin or chitin as a single nitrogen source, and ΔBbATG12 displayed decreased growth on the media with sucrose, fructose or maltose as a single carbon source. Both BbATG12 and BbATG16 were required for fungal virulence. BbATG16 mutation had more effects on fungal virulence than BbATG12 in topical infection assay, although both genes had similar contributions to fungal virulence in intrahemocoel injection assay. This study indicates that BbATG12 and BbATG16 mediate diverse biological functions in addition to their convergent roles in autophagy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2020.10.002DOI Listing
December 2020

HapX, an Indispensable bZIP Transcription Factor for Iron Acquisition, Regulates Infection Initiation by Orchestrating Conidial Oleic Acid Homeostasis and Cytomembrane Functionality in Mycopathogen Beauveria bassiana.

mSystems 2020 Oct 13;5(5). Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Institute of Microbiology, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China

In pathogenic filamentous fungi, conidial germination not only is fundamental for propagation in the environment but is also a critical step of infection. In the insect mycopathogen , we genetically characterized the role of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor HapX () in conidial nutrient reserves and pathogen-host interaction. Ablation of resulted in an almost complete loss of virulence in the topical inoculation and intrahemocoel injection assays. Comparative transcriptomic analysis revealed that is required for fatty acid (FA)/lipid metabolism, and biochemical analyses indicated that loss caused a significant reduction in conidial FA contents. Exogenous oleic acid could partially or completely restore the impaired phenotypes of the Δ mutant, including germination rate, membrane integrity, vegetative growth, and virulence. mediates fungal iron acquisition which is not required for desaturation of stearic acid. Additionally, inactivation of the Δ9-fatty acid desaturase gene () generated defects similar to those of the Δ mutant; oleic acid also had significant restorative effects on the defective phenotypes of the Δ mutant. A gel retarding assay revealed that BbHapX directly regulated the expression of Lipidomic analyses indicated that both and contributed to the homeostasis of phospholipids with nonpolar tails derived from oleic acid; therefore, exogenous phospholipids could significantly restore membrane integrity. These data reveal that the HapX-Ole1 pathway contributes to conidial fatty acid/lipid reserves and that there are important links between the lipid biology and membrane functionality involved in the early stages of infection caused by Conidial maturation and germination are highly coupled physiological processes in filamentous fungi that are critical for the pathogenicity of mycopathogens. Compared to the mechanisms involved in conidial germination, those of conidial reserves during maturation are less understood. The insect-pathogenic fungus , as a representative species of filamentous fungi, is important for applied and fundamental research. In addition to its conserved roles in fungal adaptation to iron status, the bZIP transcription factor HapX acts as a master regulator involved in conidial virulence and regulates fatty acid/lipid metabolism. Further investigation revealed that the Δ9-fatty acid desaturase gene () is a direct downstream target of HapX. This study reveals the HapX-Ole1 pathway involved in the fatty acid/lipid accumulation associated with conidial maturation and provides new insights into the startup mechanism of infection caused by spores from pathogenic fungi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00695-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7567583PMC
October 2020

Monocyte chemotactic protein-inducing protein 1 negatively regulating asthmatic airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion involving γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2020 Sep 30;134(1):88-97. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400010, China.

Background: Mounting evidence, consistent with our previous study, showed that γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR) played an indispensable role in airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion in asthma. Monocyte chemotactic protein-inducing protein 1 (MCPIP1) was a key negative regulator of inflammation. Recent studies showed that inflammation was largely suppressed by enhanced MCPIP1 expression in many inflammatory diseases. However, the role and potential mechanism of MCPIP1 in airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion in asthma were still not well studied. This study was to explore the role of MCPIP1 in asthmatic airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion in both mice and BEAS-2B cells, and its potential mechanism.

Methods: In vivo, mice were sensitized and challenged by ovalbumin (OVA) to induce asthma. Airway inflammation and mucus secretion were analyzed. In vitro, BEAS-2B cells were chosen. Interleukin (IL)-13 was used to stimulate inflammation and mucus hypersecretion in cells. MCPIP1 Lentiviral vector (LA-MCPIP1) and plasmid-MCPIP1 were used to up-regulate MCPIP1 in lung and cells, respectively. MCP-1, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), mucin 5AC (MUC5AC), MCPIP1, and GABAARβ2 expressions were measured in both lung and BEAS-2B cells. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to observe the expression of GABAARβ2 in cells.

Results: MCPIP1 was up-regulated by LA-MCPIP1 (P < 0.001) and plasmid-MCPIP1 (P < 0.001) in lung and cells, respectively. OVA-induced airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion, OVA-enhanced MCP-1, TSLP, MUC5AC, and GABAARβ2 expressions, and OVA-reduced MCPIP1 were significantly blunted by LA-MCPIP1 in mice (all P < 0.001). IL-13-enhanced MCP-1, TSLP, MUC5AC, and GABAARβ2 expressions, and IL-13-reduced MCPIP1 were markedly abrogated by plasmid-MCPIP1 in BEAS-2B cells (all P < 0.001).

Conclusion: The results of this study suggested that OVA and IL-13-induced airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion were negatively regulated by MCPIP1 in both lung and BEAS-2B cells, involving GABAAR signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000001154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7862809PMC
September 2020

[PM Concentration Influencing Factors in China Based on the Random Forest Model].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2020 May;41(5):2057-2065

College of Geography and Tourism, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241002, China.

In this paper, aerosol optical depth (AOD), elevation (DEM), annual precipitation (PRE), annual average temperature (TEM), annual average wind speed (WS), population density (POP), gross domestic product density (GDP), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were selected as factors influencing PM concentration. The random forest model, order of feature importance, and partial dependency plots were applied to investigate these factors and their regional differences in PM spatial pattern. The results showed that:① The random forest model was more accurate than multiple regression, generalized additive, and back propagation neural network models in estimating PM concentration, which can be applied to quantifying PM influencing factors. ② PM concentration initially increased and then remained stable with increases in AOD, POP, and GDP, and initially decreased and then stabilized with increases in PRE, WS, and NDVI. The responses of DEM and TEM to PM concentration changed from decline to ascend and then changed to decline again. ③ AOD had the largest influence on PM annual concentrations with a spatial influencing magnitude of 37.96%, whereas PRE had the least influence with a merely individual spatial influencing magnitude of 5.75%. ④ The relationships between PM pollution and influencing variables vary with geography and thus exhibit significant spatial heterogeneity. The same factor had different spatial influencing magnitudes on PM annual concentrations in seven geographical subareas. AOD had the greatest influence on PM concentration in the south of China, with the least influence in the northeast.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.201910126DOI Listing
May 2020

Ten undescribed cembrane-type diterpenoids from the gum resin of Boswellia sacra and their biological activities.

Phytochemistry 2020 Sep 11;177:112425. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100050, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Ten undescribed cembrane-type diterpenes boscartins AL-AU, as well as five known analogues were isolated from Boswellia sacra Flueck. The relative configurations of these boscartins were established by extensive spectroscopic analysis of NMR spectra, IR and MS. The absolute configurations of boscartin AL, boscartin AN and isoincensole oxide were unequivocally assigned by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Meanwhile, the absolute configurations of boscartin AM, boscartin AP and boscartin AQ were determined by an empirical in situ formed Rh-complex ECD method. Biological evaluations showed that four compounds exhibited obvious hepatoprotective activities against paracetamol-induced HepG2 cell damage at 10 μM. Regarding neuroprotective activity, some isolates displayed moderate to evident protective effects against glutamate-induced toxicity in primary cultured fetal rat cortical neurons or oxygen-glucose deprivation toxicity in SK-N-SH Cells at 10 μM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2020.112425DOI Listing
September 2020

The Phylogenetic Implications of the Mitochondrial Genomes of and .

Front Genet 2020 20;11:443. Epub 2020 May 20.

The Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management Mountainous Region, Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, China.

Macropsinae are forest pests that feed on woody plants. They can damage the growth of trees and crops, and some species can also spread plant pathogens. Due to their widespread effects, these leafhoppers are of great economic significance, which is why there is a need to study their genomes. To fill the gap in the mitochondrial genomic data of the subfamily Macropsinae, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of and (which were 16,323 and 15,927 bp long, respectively). These two species are representative species of the leafhoppers group (Cicadellidae); the mitochondrial genomes of these species range from a length of 15,131 bp () to 16,811 bp (). Both mitogenomes contained 37 typical insect mitochondrial genes and a control region; there were no long non-coding sequences. The genes within the mitogenome were very compact. The mitogenomes from both species contained two kinds of parallel repeat units in the control region. The whole mitogenomes of Macropsinae showed a heavy AT nucleotide bias ( 76.8% and 79.0%), a positive AT Skew (0.15 and 0.12), and a negative GC Skew (-0.14 and -0.08). Upon comparative ML and BI analysis, some clade relationships were consistent among the six trees. Most subfamilies were reconstructed into monophyletic groups with strong support in all analyses, with the exception of Evacanthinae and Cicadellinae. Unlike the results of previous research, it was shown that although all Deltocephalinae species are grouped into one clade, they were not the sister group to all other leafhoppers. Further, Cicadellinae and Evacanthinae were occasionally reconstructed as a polyphyletic and a paraphyletic group, respectively, possibly due to the limited numbers of samples and sequences. This mitogenome information for and could facilitate future studies on the mitogenomic diversity and evolution of the related Membracoidea, and eventually help to control their effects on plants for the betterment of society at large.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.00443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7251781PMC
May 2020
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