Publications by authors named "Jia Wang"

2,028 Publications

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Exact reconstruction condition for angle-limited computed tomography of chemiluminescence.

Appl Opt 2021 May;60(15):4273-4281

Computed tomography of chemiluminescence (CTC) is an effective technique for three-dimensional (3D) combustion diagnostics. It reconstructs the 3D concentrations of intermediate species or 3D images of flame topology by multiple chemiluminescence projections captured from different perspectives. In the previous studies of CTC systems, it was assumed that projections from arbitrary perspectives are available. However, for some practical applications, the range of view angles and the number of projections might be restricted due to the optical access limitation, greatly affecting the reconstruction quality. In this paper, the exact reconstruction condition for angle-limited computed tomography of chemiluminescence was studied based on Mojette transform theories, and it was demonstrated by numerical simulations and experiments. The studies indicate that the object tested within limited angles can be well reconstructed when the number of grids, the number of projections, and the sampling rate of projections satisfy the exact reconstruction condition. By increasing the sampling rate of projections, high-quality tomographic reconstruction can be achieved by a few projections in a small angle range. Although this technique is discussed under combustion diagnostics, it can also be used and adapted for other tomography methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.420223DOI Listing
May 2021

The complete mitogenome of Matsumura (Diptera: Chloropidae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Jun 3;6(7):1844-1846. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

College of Plant Protection, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

Matsumura is an important pest of rice plants throughout Asia, and has even become a major pest in some regions. Here, we present the complete mitogenome of for the first time. The complete mitogenome is 17,313 bp in length and contains 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs) and a control region. The overall base composition is 42.04% for A, 37.18% for T, 12.59% for C, and 8.29% for G, with a bias toward A + T (79.22%). Protein-coding genes features an atypical ACG start codon and , , and have incomplete stop codons T or TA. All tRNA genes present the typical clover leaf secondary structure except (AGN), where the DHU arm is replaced by a loop. Phylogeny showed that was placed as the basal lineage in Brachycera clade, and shared a closer relationship to Acalyptrate species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1934171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183556PMC
June 2021

Information Matching: How Regulatory Focus Affects Information Preference and Information Choice.

Front Psychol 2021 28;12:618537. Epub 2021 May 28.

School of Media Studies and Humanities, Zhejiang University City College, Hangzhou, China.

Individuals often prefer information that matches their needs. In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship between regulatory focus and information preference. Specifically, we investigated the effects of promotion-focused information and prevention-focused information on explicit and implicit information preferences and choice behavior, and examined the mediating roles of information preference. In Experiment 1, we found that prevention-focused individuals were more likely to choose functional information, whereas promotion-focused people were more likely to choose hedonic information. However, there was no significant relationship between regulatory focus and explicit preference and no mediating effect of explicit information preference. In Experiment 2, we found that promotion-focused individuals had a greater implicit preference for hedonic information than did prevention-focused individuals. Implicit information preference mediated the influence of regulatory focus on information choice. The findings of this study may help us understand the psychological mechanism underlying information preference and have important implications for information dissemination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.618537DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192962PMC
May 2021

Molecular mechanism of anti-SARS-CoV2 activity of Ashwagandha-derived withanolides.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jun 9;184:297-312. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

AIST-INDIA DAILAB, DBT-AIST International Center for Translational & Environmental Research (DAICENTER), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science & Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305 8565, Japan. Electronic address:

COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 corona virus has become a global pandemic. In the absence of drugs and vaccine, and premises of time, efforts and cost required for their development, natural resources such as herbs are anticipated to provide some help and may also offer a promising resource for drug development. Here, we have investigated the therapeutic prospective of Ashwagandha for the COVID-19 pandemic. Nine withanolides were tested in silico for their potential to target and inhibit (i) cell surface receptor protein (TMPRSS2) that is required for entry of virus to host cells and (ii) viral protein (the main protease M) that is essential for virus replication. We report that the withanolides possess capacity to inhibit the activity of TMPRSS2 and M. Furthermore, withanolide-treated cells showed downregulation of TMPRSS2 expression and inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro, suggesting that Ashwagandha may provide a useful resource for COVID-19 treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.06.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8188803PMC
June 2021

Distinct basal brain functional activity and connectivity in the emotional-arousal network and thalamus in patients with functional constipation associated with anxiety and/or depressive disorders.

Psychosom Med 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Center for Brain Imaging, School of Life Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710071, China State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, National Clinical Research Center for Digestive Diseases and Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032, China Department of Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710038, China Department of Psychiatry, Xijing Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032, China.

Objective: Functional constipation (FC) is a common gastrointestinal disorder. Anxiety and/or depressive disorders are common in patients with FC (FCAD). Brain dysfunction may play a role in FC, but the contribution of comorbid anxiety and/or depression in patients with FC is poorly understood.

Methods: Sixty-five FC patients and forty-two healthy controls (HC) were recruited, and hierarchical-clustering algorithm was used to classify FC patients into FCAD and patients without anxiety/depressive status (FCNAD) based on neuropsychological assessment. Resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging measures including fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and functional connectivity were employed to investigate brain functional differences.

Results: 37 patients were classified as FCAD and 28 patients were classified as FCNAD; both groups showed decreased activity (fALFF) than HC in the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC), dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) and precuneus; enhanced precentral gyrus (PreCen)-thalamus connectivity and attenuated precuneus-thalamus connectivity in FCAD/FCNAD highlighted the thalamus as a critical connectivity node in the brain network (PFWE < .05). FCAD also had decreased fALFF than FCNAD/HC in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and thalamus, and increased OFC-hippocampus connectivity. In the FCNAD group, brain activities (pACC/DMPFC) and connection (precuneus-thalamus) had correlations only with symptoms; in the FCAD group, brain activities (OFC, pACC/DMPFC) and connectivities (OFC-hippocampus/PreCen-thalamus) showed correlations with both constipation symptoms and anxiety/depressive status ratings. Mediation analysis indicated the relationship between abdominal distension and OFC activity was completely mediated by anxiety in FCAD.

Conclusions: These findings provide evidence of differences in brain activity and functional connectivity between FCAD and FCNAD. It might help portray important clues for improving new treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000958DOI Listing
June 2021

Stroke Risk Prediction with Hybrid Deep Transfer Learning Framework.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 Jun 11;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Stroke has become a leading cause of death and long-term disability in the world, and there is no effective treatment.Deep learning-based approaches have the potential to outperform existing stroke risk prediction models, they rely on large well-labeled data. Due to the strict privacy protection policy in health-care systems, stroke data is usually distributed among different hospitals in small pieces. In addition, the positive and negative instances of such data are extremely imbalanced. Transfer learning solves small data issue by exploiting the knowledge of a correlated domain, especially when multiple source are available.In this work, we propose a novel Hybrid Deep Transfer Learning-based Stroke Risk Prediction (HDTL-SRP) scheme to exploit the knowledge structure from multiple correlated sources (i.e.,external stroke data, chronic diseases data, such as hypertension and diabetes). The proposed framework has been extensively tested in synthetic and real-world scenarios, and it outperforms the state-of-the-art stroke risk prediction models. It also shows the potential of real-world deployment among multiple hospitals aided with 5G/B5G infrastructures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JBHI.2021.3088750DOI Listing
June 2021

Influence of the Different Types of Auxiliary Noncarboxylate Organic Ligands on the Topologies and Magnetic Relaxation Behavior of Zn-Dy Heterometallic Single Molecule Magnets.

Inorg Chem 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for NSLSCS, School of Physical Science and Technology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, P. R. China.

In this work, we first synthesized a Zn-Dy complex, [ZnDy(L)(tea)(CHOH)]·6CHOH·8HO (HL = -3-methoxysalicylidene-2-amino-3-hydroxypyridine, teaH = triethanolamine, ), by employing HL, anhydrous ZnCl, and Dy(NO)·5HO reacting with auxiliary ligand teaH in the mixture of CHOH and DMF. When teaH and the solvent CHOH in the reaction system of were replaced by the auxiliary ligand 2,6-pyridinedimethanol (pdmH) and the solvent MeCN, another Zn-Dy complex, [ZnDy(L)(pdm)(pdmH)]·10CHCN·5HO (), was obtained. For , its crystal structure can be viewed as a dimer of two ZnDy units. However, for , four Dy form a zigzag arrangement, and each of its terminals linked two Zn ions. Interestingly, although the structural topologies of and are different, the coordination geometries of Dy in and are all triangular dodecahedron (TDD-8). The difference is that the continuous shape measure (CShM) values of Dy in are larger than the corresponding values in . Magnetic investigation revealed that the diluted sample exhibits two magnetic relaxation processes, while only exhibits a single relaxation process. calculations indicated that, in the crystal lattice of , two complexes exhibiting slightly different CShM values of Dy result in the double relaxation behavior of . However, for , one of two Dy fragments possesses a fast quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM), resulting in its magnetic process presented at < 1.8 K, so exhibits single relaxation behavior. More importantly, the theoretical calculations also clearly indicated that the weak ligation at equatorial sites of Dy in and ensure and possess SMM behavior, although the coordination geometry of Dy (TDD-8) in and severely deviates from the ideal polyhedron and its axial symmetry is low.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c01217DOI Listing
June 2021

Prevalence of Left Atrial Thrombus in Anticoagulated Patients With Atrial Fibrillation.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Jun;77(23):2875-2886

Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Hamilton Health Sciences Centre, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: The prevalence of left atrial (LA) thrombus in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (AFL) on guideline-directed anticoagulation is not well known, yet this may inform transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) use before cardioversion or catheter ablation.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to quantify LA thrombus prevalence among patients with AF/AFL on guideline-directed anticoagulation and to identify high-risk subgroups.

Methods: EMBASE, MEDLINE, and CENTRAL were systematically searched from inception to July 2020 for studies reporting on LA thrombus prevalence among patients with AF/AFL undergoing TEE following at least 3 weeks of continuous therapeutic oral anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Meta-analysis was performed using random effects models.

Results: Thirty-five studies describing 14,653 patients were identified. The mean-weighted LA thrombus prevalence was 2.73% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.95% to 3.80%). LA thrombus prevalence was similar for VKA- and DOAC-treated patients (2.80%; 95% CI: 1.86% to 4.21% vs. 3.12%; 95% CI: 1.92% to 5.03%; p = 0.674). Patients with nonparoxysmal AF/AFL had a 4-fold higher LA thrombus prevalence compared with paroxysmal patients (4.81%; 95% CI: 3.35% to 6.86% vs. 1.03%; 95% CI: 0.52% to 2.03%; p < 0.001). LA thrombus prevalence was higher among patients undergoing cardioversion versus ablation (5.55%; 95% CI: 3.15% to 9.58% vs. 1.65%; 95% CI: 1.07% to 2.53%; p < 0.001). Patients with CHADS-VASc scores ≥3 had a higher LA thrombus prevalence compared with patients with scores ≤2 (6.31%; 95% CI: 3.72% to 10.49% vs. 1.06%; 95% CI: 0.45% to 2.49%; p < 0.001).

Conclusions: LA thrombus prevalence is high in subgroups of anticoagulated patients with AF/AFL, who may benefit from routine pre-procedural TEE use before cardioversion or catheter ablation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.04.036DOI Listing
June 2021

Unraveling synonymous and deep intronic variants causing aberrant splicing in two genetically undiagnosed epilepsy families.

BMC Med Genomics 2021 Jun 9;14(1):152. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Cipher Gene, Ltd., Beijing, 100080, China.

Background: Variants identified through parent-child trio-WES yield up to 28-55% positive diagnostic rate across a variety of Mendelian disorders, there remain numerous patients who do not receive a genetic diagnosis. Studies showed that some aberrant splicing variants, which are either not readily detectable by WES or could be miss-interpreted by regular detecting pipelines, are highly relevant to human diseases.

Methods: We retrospectively investigated the negative molecular diagnostics through trio-WES for 15 genetically undiagnosed patients whose clinical manifestations were highly suspected to be genetic disorders with well-established genotype-phenotype relationships. We scrutinized the synonymous variants from WES data and Sanger sequenced the suspected intronic region for deep intronic variants. The functional consequences of variants were analyzed by in vitro minigene experiments.

Results: Here, we report two abnormal splicing events, one of which caused exon truncating due to the activation of cryptic splicing site by a synonymous variant; the other caused partial intron retention due to the generation of splicing sites by a deep intronic variant.

Conclusions: We suggest that, despite initial negative genetic test results in clinically highly suspected genetic diseases, the combination of predictive bioinformatics and functional analysis should be considered to unveil the genetic etiology of undiagnosed rare diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12920-021-01008-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8188693PMC
June 2021

Targeted RNA N -Methyladenosine Demethylation Controls Cell Fate Transition in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 06 18;8(11):e2003902. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

The Seventh Affiliated Hospital, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong, 510080, P.R. China.

Deficiency of the N -methyladenosine (m A) methyltransferase complex results in global reduction of m A abundance and defective cell development in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, it's unclear whether regional m A methylation affects cell fate decisions due to the inability to modulate individual m A modification in ESCs with precise temporal control. Here, a targeted RNA m A erasure (TRME) system is developed to achieve site-specific demethylation of RNAs in human ESCs (hESCs). TRME, in which a stably transfected, doxycycline-inducible dCas13a is fused to the catalytic domain of ALKBH5, can precisely and reversibly demethylate the targeted m A site of mRNA and increase mRNA stability with limited off-target effects. It is further demonstrated that temporal m A erasure on a single site of SOX2 is sufficient to control the differentiation of hESCs. This study provides a versatile toolbox to reveal the function of individual m A modification in hESCs, enabling cell fate control studies at the epitranscriptional level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202003902DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8188216PMC
June 2021

Palladium-Catalyzed C-H Allylation of Electron-Deficient Polyfluoroarenes with gem-Difluorinated Cyclopropanes.

Org Lett 2021 Jun 4;23(12):4920-4924. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, 453000, P. R. China.

A palladium-catalyzed C-H allylation of electron-deficient polyfluoroarenes with gem-difluorinated cyclopropanes is reported. It provides a useful and facile approach to 2-fluoroallylic polyfluoroarenes in moderate to excellent yields with high Z-selectivity. In addition, this new approach has good functional group compatibility and broad substrate scope.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c01699DOI Listing
June 2021

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) moonlights as an adhesin in Mycoplasma hyorhinis adhesion to epithelial cells as well as a plasminogen receptor mediating extracellular matrix degradation.

Vet Res 2021 Jun 3;52(1):80. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biological Engineering and Technology, Ministry of Agriculture, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, China.

Mycoplasma hyorhinis infects pigs causing polyserositis and polyarthritis, and has also been reported in a variety of human tumor tissues. The occurrence of disease is often linked with the systemic invasion of the pathogen. Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH), one of the key enzymes of glycolysis, was reported as a surface multifunctional molecule in several bacteria. Here, we investigated whether GAPDH could manifest binary functions; as an adhesin to promote colonization as well as a plasminogen receptor functioning in extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation to promote systemic invasion. The surface localization of GAPDH was observed in M. hyorhinis with flow cytometry and colony blot analysis. Recombinant GAPDH (rGAPDH) was found to be able to bind porcine-derived PK-15 and human-derived NCI-H292 cells. The incubation with anti-GAPDH antibody significantly decreased the adherence of M. hyorhinis to both cell lines. To investigate its function in recruiting plasminogen, firstly, the interaction between rGAPDH and plasminogen was demonstrated by ELISA and Far-Western blot assay. The activation of the rGAPDH-bound plasminogen into plasmin was proved by using a chromogenic substrate, and furtherly confirmed to degrade extracellular matrix by using a reconstituted ECM. Finally, the ability of rGAPDH to bind different ECM components was demonstrated, including fibronectin, laminin, collagen type IV and vitronectin. Collectively, our data imply GAPDH as an important adhesion factor of M. hyrohinis and a receptor for hijacking host plasminogen to degrade ECM. The multifunction of GAPDH to bind both plasminogen and ECM components is believed to increase the targeting of proteolysis and facilitate the dissemination of M. hyorhinis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13567-021-00952-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8173509PMC
June 2021

The joint toxicity of polyethylene microplastic and phenanthrene to wheat seedlings.

Chemosphere 2021 May 28;282:130967. Epub 2021 May 28.

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, 210095, PR China. Electronic address:

Due to wide distribution, easy production, and difficult degradation, microplastic pollution has become a new environmental problem that has attracted worldwide attention. However, there is little information about the effects of microplastics in soil and their combined pollution with other organic pollutants on crop growth. In this study, we conducted soil culture experiments to evaluate the effects of polyethylene microplastics (PE-MPs) (0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5%, 8% w/w) individual and combined with phenanthrene (100 mg kg) on wheat growth for 15 days. Under PE-MPs alone and combined with phenanthrene exposure, dose-dependent toxicities in biomass, shoot height and root length were observed. Over 1% PE-MPs stimulate wheat root elongation. Compared with single phenanthrene treatment, the co-contamination of PE-MPs and phenanthrene reduces the accumulation of phenanthrene in wheat roots and leaves. In the range of 0-5%, the activity of wheat root antioxidant enzymes increases with increasing PE-MP concentration; but both phenanthrene and high concentrations (8%) of PE-MPs cause damage to the antioxidant system in wheat roots. In the presence or absence of phenanthrene, the photosynthetic pigment concentration of wheat leaves shows a dual concentration effect of low promotion and high inhibition under PE-MPs stress. The single pollution of PE-MPs destroys the photosynthetic system of wheat leaves, while the co-contamination of PE-MPs and phenanthrene exacerbates this destruction. Therefore, the co-contamination of PE-MPs and phenanthrene causes greater damage to wheat growth. Our findings can help to evaluate the individual and comprehensive toxicity of microplastics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130967DOI Listing
May 2021

Binding between ROCK1 and DCTN2 triggers diabetes‑associated centrosome amplification in colon cancer cells.

Oncol Rep 2021 Jul 3;46(1). Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Institute of Biomedical Sciences of The School of Life Sciences, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116, P.R. China.

Type 2 diabetes increases the risk various types of cancer and is associated with a poor prognosis therein. There is also evidence that the disease is associated with cancer metastasis. Centrosome amplification can initiate tumorigenesis with metastasis and increase the invasiveness of cancer cells . Our previous study reported that type 2 diabetes promotes centrosome amplification via the upregulation and centrosomal translocation of Rho‑associated protein kinase 1 (ROCK1), which suggests that centrosome amplification is a candidate biological link between type 2 diabetes and cancer development. In the present study, functional proteomics analysis was used to further investigate the molecular pathways underlying centrosome amplification by targeting ROCK1 binding partners. High glucose, insulin and palmitic acid were used to induce centrosome amplification, and immunofluorescent staining was employed to visualize centrosomal alterations. Combined with immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry‑based proteomics analysis was used to identify ROCK1 binding proteins, and protein complex disruption was achieved by siRNA‑knockdown. In total, 1,148 ROCK1 binding proteins were identified, among which 106 proteins were exclusively associated with the treated samples, 193 were only associated with the control samples, and 849 were found in both the control and treated samples. Of the proteins with evidence of centrosomal localization, Dynactin subunit 2 (DCTN2) was confirmed to be localized to the centrosomes. Treating the cells with high glucose, insulin and palmitic acid increased the protein levels of ROCK1 and DCTN2, promoted their binding with each other, and triggered centrosome amplification. Disruption of the protein complex by knocking down ROCK1 or DCTN2 expression partially attenuated centrosome amplification, while simultaneous knockdown of both proteins completely inhibited centrosome amplification. These results suggested ROCK1‑DCTN2 binding as a signal for the regulation of centrosome homeostasis, which is key for diabetes‑associated centrosome amplification, and enriches our knowledge of centrosome biology. Therefore, the ROCK1‑DCTN2 complex may serve as a target for inhibiting centrosome amplification both in research or future therapeutic development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2021.8102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8185503PMC
July 2021

Discovery of lipid profiles of type 2 diabetes associated with hyperlipidemia using untargeted UPLC Q-TOF/MS-based lipidomics approach.

Clin Chim Acta 2021 May 30;520:53-62. Epub 2021 May 30.

School of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China. Electronic address:

The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is rising rapidly and has become an important public health problem. According to reports, people with T2D often have hyperlipidemia. Hence, in the current study, a plasma non-targeted lipidomics method was used to study the differences in lipid profile between 36 T2D-associated hyperlipidemia patients and 43 healthy controls by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight high-definition mass spectrometry (UPLC Q-TOF/MS). Furthermore, we studied the differences in lipid profile between 36 T2D-associated hyperlipidemia patients and 41 T2D patients. Principal component analysis (PCA), orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), S-plot and heatmap were used to analyze the lipid changes between the groups. Compared with the healthy control group, 37 lipids were significantly altered in the T2D-associated hyperlipidemia group, and when compared with the T2D group, 22 lipids were significantly altered in the T2D-associated hyperlipidemia group. Of all the detected lipids categories which included sphingolipids, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, prenol lipids and saccharolipids, glycerophospholipids accounted for the largest proportion in the two groups. Also, this study found that glycerophospholipid metabolism pathway was the most relevant pathway for these lipid metabolisms. The identified lipids may enhance the disease prediction and provide a new tool to monitor the progression of T2D-associated hyperlipidemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2021.05.031DOI Listing
May 2021

Identification of the PmWEEP locus controlling weeping traits in Prunus mume through an integrated genome-wide association study and quantitative trait locus mapping.

Hortic Res 2021 Jun 1;8(1):131. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Tree Breeding by Molecular Design, Beijing Forestry University, 100083, Beijing, China.

Weeping Prunus mume (mei) has long been cultivated in East Asia for its specific ornamental value. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanism of the weeping trait in mei, which limits molecular breeding for the improvement of weeping-type cultivars. Here, we quantified the weeping trait in mei using nested phenotyping of 214 accessions and 342 F hybrids. Two major associated loci were identified from the genome-wide association study (GWAS), which was conducted using 3,014,409 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from resequencing, and 8 QTLs and 55 epistatic loci were identified from QTL mapping using 7,545 specific lengths amplified fragment (SLAF) markers. Notably, an overlapping PmWEEP major QTL was fine mapped within a 0.29 Mb region on chromosome 7 (Pa7), and a core SNP locus closely associated with the weeping trait was screened and validated. Furthermore, a total of 22 genes in the PmWEEP QTL region were expressed in weeping or upright mei based on RNA-seq analysis. Among them, only a novel gene (Pm024213) containing a thioredoxin (Trx) domain was found to be close to the core SNP and specifically expressed in buds and branches of weeping mei. Co-expression analysis of Pm024213 showed that most of the related genes were involved in auxin and lignin biosynthesis. These findings provide insights into the regulatory mechanism of the weeping trait and effective molecular markers for molecular-assisted breeding in Prunus mume.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-021-00573-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167129PMC
June 2021

Viral Gene Therapy for Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Promising Hope for the Current Dilemma.

Front Oncol 2021 13;11:678226. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), as one of the most common malignant brain tumors, was limited in its treatment effectiveness with current options. Its invasive and infiltrative features led to tumor recurrence and poor prognosis. Effective treatment and survival improvement have always been a challenge. With the exploration of genetic mutations and molecular pathways in neuro-oncology, gene therapy is becoming a promising therapeutic approach. Therapeutic genes are delivered into target cells with viral vectors to act specific antitumor effects, which can be used in gene delivery, play an oncolysis effect, and induce host immune response. The application of engineering technology makes the virus vector used in genetics a more prospective future. Recent advances in viral gene therapy offer hope for treating brain tumors. In this review, we discuss the types and designs of viruses as well as their study progress and potential applications in the treatment of GBM. Although still under research, viral gene therapy is promising to be a new therapeutic approach for GBM treatment in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.678226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8155537PMC
May 2021

Comparative transcriptomic analysis of seed coats with high and low lignin contents reveals lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis in Brassica napus.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 May 29;21(1):246. Epub 2021 May 29.

College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, China.

Background: Brassica napus L. (2n = 38, AACC) is one of the most important oil crops and sources of protein for animal feed worldwide. Lignin is a large molecule aromatic polymer and a major cell wall component. However, lignin in the seed coat reduces the availability and restricts the development of rapeseed cake. Therefore, it is critical to reduce the lignin content of the seed coat. Here, high-lignin (H-lignin) and low-lignin (L-lignin) content recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were selected from an RIL population for analysis.

Results: The cross-section results indicated that the seed coat of the H-lignin lines was thicker than that of the L-lignin lines, especially the palisade layer. The seed coats and embryos at 35, 40 and 46 days after flowering (DAF) were subjected to RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), and the expression of the BnPAL and BnC4H gene families in the lignin pathway was significantly higher in the H-lignin seed coat than in the L-lignin seed coat. The Bn4CL gene family also showed this trend. In addition, among the genes related to plant hormone synthesis, BnaC02g01710D was upregulated and BnaA07g11700D and BnaC09g00190D were downregulated in H-lignin lines. Some transcription factors were upregulated, such as BnNAC080, BnNAC083, BnMYB9, BnMYB9-1, BnMYB60 and BnMYB60-1, while BnMYB91 was downregulated in H-lignin lines. Moreover, most genes of the flavonoid pathway, such as BnCHS and BnDFR, were strongly expressed in H-lignin seed coat.

Conclusions: In Our study, some key genes such as hormone synthesis genes, transcription factors and miRNAs related to lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis were identified. A regulatory model of B. napus seed coat lignin was proposed. These results provide new insight into lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis in B. napus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-021-03030-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8164251PMC
May 2021

3-Methyladenine but not antioxidants to overcome BACH2-mediated bortezomib resistance in mantle cell lymphoma.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 May 26;21(1):279. Epub 2021 May 26.

Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 935 Jiaoling Road, Kunming, 650118, Yunnan, China.

Background: Bortezomib (BTZ) is an inhibitor of the proteasome that has been used to treat patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), but the resistance to BTZ in clinical cases remains a major drawback. BACH2 is a lymphoid-specific transcription repressor recognized as a tumor suppressor in MCL. Reduced BACH2 levels contribute to BTZ resistance; however, the molecular events underlying BACH2-mediated BTZ resistance are largely unclear.

Methods: We silenced BACH2 in MCL cells using a lentiviral shRNA-mediated knockdown system. Bioinformatic, real-time RT-PCR, immunoblotting and a series of functional assays were performed to describe the molecular mechanisms underlying BTZ resistance in MCL. The therapeutic effects of chemicals were evaluated on numerous cellular and molecular processes in resistant MCL cell lines and xenografts.

Results: In resistant cells, BTZ-triggered mild oxidative stress induced a strong activation of PI3K-AKT signaling, which further blocked nuclear translocation of BACH2. Defective nuclear translocation of BACH2 or silencing BACH2 removed its transcriptional repression on HMOX1, leading to upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Increased HO-1 further maintained reactive oxygen species (ROS) within a minimal tumor-promoting level and enhanced cytoprotective autophagy. Interestingly, although mild increase in ROS exhibited a pro-tumorigenic effect on resistant cells, simply blocking ROS by antioxidants did not lead to cell death but aggravated BTZ resistance via stabilizing BACH1, the other member of BACH family. Instead, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), a dual inhibitor to suppress PI3K signaling and autophagosome formation, sensitized resistant MCL cells to BTZ, both in vitro and in vivo.

Conclusion: Our results dissected the interconnected molecular network in resistant MCL cells in which 3-MA represents an effective therapeutic strategy to overcome BTZ resistance. Notably, BACH1 and BACH2, albeit from the same family, are likely to play opposite roles in pathogenesis and progression of MCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-021-01980-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8157467PMC
May 2021

Phase separation of OCT4 controls TAD reorganization to promote cell fate transitions.

Cell Stem Cell 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

RNA Biomedical Institute, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China; Center for Stem Cell Biology and Tissue Engineering, Key Laboratory for Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering, Ministry of Education, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China; Department of Cell Biology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China. Electronic address:

Topological-associated domains (TADs) are thought to be relatively stable across cell types, although some TAD reorganization has been observed during cellular differentiation. However, little is known about the mechanisms through which TAD reorganization affects cell fate or how master transcription factors affect TAD structures during cell fate transitions. Here, we show extensive TAD reorganization during somatic cell reprogramming, which is correlated with gene transcription and changes in cellular identity. Manipulating TAD reorganization promotes reprogramming, and the dynamics of concentrated chromatin loops in OCT4 phase separated condensates contribute to TAD reorganization. Disrupting OCT4 phase separation attenuates TAD reorganization and reprogramming, which can be rescued by fusing an intrinsically disordered region (IDR) to OCT4. We developed an approach termed TAD reorganization-based multiomics analysis (TADMAN), which identified reprogramming regulators. Together, these findings elucidate a role and mechanism of TAD reorganization, regulated by OCT4 phase separation, in cellular reprogramming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2021.04.023DOI Listing
May 2021

Molecular basis of cross-species ACE2 interactions with SARS-CoV-2-like viruses of pangolin origin.

EMBO J 2021 May 21:e107786. Epub 2021 May 21.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Jinzhong, China.

Pangolins have been suggested as potential reservoir of zoonotic viruses, including SARS-CoV-2 causing the global COVID-19 outbreak. Here, we study the binding of two SARS-CoV-2-like viruses isolated from pangolins, GX/P2V/2017 and GD/1/2019, to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), the receptor of SARS-CoV-2. We find that the spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) of pangolin CoVs binds to hACE2 as efficiently as the SARS-CoV-2 RBD in vitro. Furthermore, incorporation of pangolin CoV RBDs allows entry of pseudotyped VSV particles into hACE2-expressing cells. A screen for binding of pangolin CoV RBDs to ACE2 orthologs from various species suggests a broader host range than that of SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, cryo-EM structures of GX/P2V/2017 and GD/1/2019 RBDs in complex with hACE2 show their molecular binding in modes similar to SARS-CoV-2 RBD. Introducing the Q498H substitution found in pangolin CoVs into the SARS-CoV-2 RBD expands its binding capacity to ACE2 homologs of mouse, rat, and European hedgehog. These findings suggest that these two pangolin CoVs may infect humans, highlighting the necessity of further surveillance of pangolin CoVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/embj.2021107786DOI Listing
May 2021

Attractin Gene Deficiency in Rats Leads to Impairments in Both Activity and Spatial Learning and Memory.

Neuroscience 2021 07 14;466:101-108. Epub 2021 May 14.

School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu Province, PR China. Electronic address:

Attractin (ATRN), an autosomal recessive gene that is widely distributed in the brain, is involved in the execution of a variety of brain functions and associated with certain neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we introduce a novel rat strain harboring a mutation in ATRN that was generated by knocking in ATRN-G505C via the CRISPR/Cas9 system. We assessed the behavioral performance of these mutant ATRN knock-in rats. The G505C mutation was introduced into exon 9, and a synthetic primer was inserted into introns 8-9 for genotyping. The 505th amino acid, a Gly (G) residue, was mutated to a Cys (C) residue, i.e., GGC was mutated to TGC. Behavioral experiments showed that homozygous ATRN rats spent significantly more time searching for the escape platform in the acquisition trial and significantly less time in the target area in the probe trial in the Morris water maze (MWM) test and traveled a significantly shorter distance in the open field test (OFT) than wild-type rats. In addition, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry showed that rats with the mutant ATRN gene exhibited significantly reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In summary, our results indicate that mutations in the ATRN gene directly lead to learning and memory impairments and slight motor deficits. These findings provide new clues for the mechanism by which mutant ATRN induces neurodegenerative changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2021.05.006DOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of postovulatory oviduct changes and female restraint stress on aging of mouse oocytes.

Reproduction 2021 Jun 16;162(1):95-105. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, Shandong, China.

Postovulatory oocyte aging is one of the major causes for human early pregnancy loss and for a decline in the population of some mammalian species. Thus, the mechanisms for oocyte aging are worth exploring. While it is known that ovulated oocytes age within the oviduct and that female stresses impair embryo development by inducing apoptosis of oviductal cells, it is unknown whether the oviduct and/or female stress would affect postovulatory oocyte aging. By comparing aging characteristics, including activation susceptibility, maturation-promoting factor activity, developmental potential, cytoplasmic fragmentation, spindle/chromosome morphology, gene expression, and cumulus cell apoptosis, this study showed that oocytes aged faster in vivo in restraint-stressed mice than in unstressed mice than in vitro. Our further analysis demonstrated that oviductal cells underwent apoptosis with decreased production of growth factors with increasing time after ovulation, and female restraint facilitated apoptosis of oviductal cells. Furthermore, mating prevented apoptosis of oviductal cells and alleviated oocyte aging after ovulation. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that mouse oviducts underwent apoptosis and facilitated oocyte aging after ovulation; female restraint facilitated oocyte aging while enhancing apoptosis of oviductal cells; and copulation ameliorated oviductal apoptosis and oocyte aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-21-0160DOI Listing
June 2021

Formation, characterization and modeling of emergent synthetic microbial communities.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2021 9;19:1917-1927. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA.

Microbial communities colonize plant tissues and contribute to host function. How these communities form and how individual members contribute to shaping the microbial community are not well understood. Synthetic microbial communities, where defined individual isolates are combined, can serve as valuable model systems for uncovering the organizational principles of communities. Using genome-defined organisms, systematic analysis by computationally-based network reconstruction can lead to mechanistic insights and the metabolic interactions between species. In this study, 10 bacterial strains isolated from the rhizosphere were combined and passaged in two different media environments to form stable microbial communities. The membership and relative abundances of the strains stabilized after around 5 growth cycles and resulted in just a few dominant strains that depended on the medium. To unravel the underlying metabolic interactions, flux balance analysis was used to model microbial growth and identify potential metabolic exchanges involved in shaping the microbial communities. These analyses were complemented by growth curves of the individual isolates, pairwise interaction screens, and metaproteomics of the community. A fast growth rate is identified as one factor that can provide an advantage for maintaining presence in the community. Final community selection can also depend on selective antagonistic relationships and metabolic exchanges. Revealing the mechanisms of interaction among plant-associated microorganisms provides insights into strategies for engineering microbial communities that can potentially increase plant growth and disease resistance. Further, deciphering the membership and metabolic potentials of a bacterial community will enable the design of synthetic communities with desired biological functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2021.03.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8079826PMC
April 2021

Low-dose IL-2 therapy limits the reduction in absolute numbers of circulating regulatory T cells in rheumatoid arthritis.

Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis 2021 28;13:1759720X211011370. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Rheumatology, the Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University.

Background: Circulating regulatory T cells (Tregs) are responsible for mediating immune tolerance and maintaining immunological homeostasis. Decreases in Tregs may be involved in the onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) has been considered for the treatment of inflammatory diseases mediated by T cells. This study focused on the status of circulating CD4T subsets and the clinical feasibility of IL-2 therapies in patients with RA.

Methods: The subjects included 888 patients with RA and 100 healthy controls (HCs); 233 RA patients received IL-2 treatment with 0.5 million international units (MIU)/day from days 1 through 5. The demographic features, disease activity, and levels of CD4+T cells measured by modified flow cytometry were collected in all RA patients before and after treatment.

Results: RA patients had lower absolute Treg counts (but not Th17) compared with HCs, which was associated with disease activity; previously treated RA patients had the fewest circulating Tregs (0.05). Patients treated with low-dose IL-2 had a three-fold increase in absolute anti-inflammatory Treg counts, as well as a two-fold increase in the other CD4T subsets. Moreover, post-treatment levels of markers of disease activity in RA patients treated with IL-2 were significantly lower than the baseline values (0.001), with no apparent side effects.

Conclusion: Decreased absolute counts of circulating CD4T lymphocyte subsets were observed in patients with RA. Circulating Tregs, which mediate immune tolerance, may be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of RA; however, this was ameliorated by low-dose IL-2, without obvious side effects.

Plain Language Summary: • Circulating Tregs may be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of RA.• The absolute count of Tregs was significantly correlated with disease activity measures.• Low-dose IL-2 was able to effectively expade Tregs and help for RA patients' symptoms remission without evaluated side effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1759720X211011370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107675PMC
April 2021

The Neglected Right Pulmonary Veins.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Congenital Heart Disease, General Hospital of Northern Theater Command, Shenhe District, Shenyang, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2021.03.004DOI Listing
May 2021

Tyloxapol inhibits RANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis and ovariectomized-induced bone loss by restraining NF-κB and MAPK activation.

J Orthop Translat 2021 May 10;28:148-158. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Orthopedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, 215004, China.

Objective: Tyloxapol is a non-ionic surfactant with diverse pharmacological effects including anti-inflammatory, anti-malignant tumor and antioxidant activities. However, the effect of tyloxapol on osteoclastogenesis has not been elucidated. In this study, we intended to clarify the effect of tyloxapol on RANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis and the molecular mechanism both ex vivo and in vivo.

Methods: In vitro osteoclastogenesis assay was performed in BMMs and Raw 264.7 cells. The mature osteoclasts were visualized by TRAP staining. The osteoblsats were visualized by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and Von Kossa staining. To assess whether tyloxapol inhibited the function of mature osteoclasts, F-actin belts and pit formation assays were carried out in BMMs. To evaluate the effect of tyloxapol on post-menopausal osteoporosis, the OVX mouse model were utilized. The bone tissue TRAP staining was used to evaluate the osteoclast activity in vivo. The von kossa staining and micro computed tomography were used to evaluate the histomorphometric parameters. The Goldner's staining was used to evaluate the osteoblast activity. The expression of osteoclastogenesis-associated markers were evaluated by Real-time PCR. The NF-κB and NFATc1 transcriptional activities were illustrated utilizing the assay of luciferase reporter. The effect of tyloxapol pretreatment on IκBa degradation and p65 phosphorylation was evaluated using Western bloting assay. The effect of tyloxapol pretreatment on p65 nuclear translocation was evaluated utilizing immunofluorescence. The effect of tyloxapol pretreatment on the phosphorylatio of ERK, p38 and JNK was examined utilizing Western bloting assay.

Results: In our research, we found that tyloxapol suppresses RANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis in a dose dependent manner and in the initial stage of osteoclastogenesis. Through F-actin belts and pit formation assays, we found that tyloxapol had the ability to inhibit the function of mature osteoclasts in vitro. The results of animal experiments demonstrated that tyloxapol inhibits OVX-induced bone mass loss by inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts but had a limited effect on osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization. Molecularly, we found that tyloxapol suppresses RANKL-stimulated NF-κB activation through suppressing degradation of IκBα, phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65. At last, MAPK signaling pathway was also suppressed by tyloxapol in dose and time-dependent manners.

Conclusion: Our research illustrated that tyloxapol was able to suppress osteoclastogenesis in vitro and ovariectomized-induced bone loss in vivo by restraining NF-κB and MAPK activation. This is pioneer research could pave the way for the development of tyloxapol as a potential therapeutic treatment for osteoporosis.

The Translational Potential Of This Article: This study explores that tyloxapol, also known as Triton WR-1339, may be a drug candidate for osteoclastogenic sicknesses like osteoporosis. Our study may also extend the clinical therapeutic spectrum of tyloxapol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jot.2021.01.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8063697PMC
May 2021

Structure and folding of four putative kink turns identified in structured RNA species in a test of structural prediction rules.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 06;49(10):5916-5924

Cancer Research UK Nucleic Acid Structure Research Group, MSI/WTB Complex, The University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK.

k-Turns are widespread key architectural elements that occur in many classes of RNA molecules. We have shown previously that their folding properties (whether or not they fold into their tightly kinked structure on addition of metal ions) and conformation depend on their local sequence, and we have elucidated a series of rules for prediction of these properties from sequence. In this work, we have expanded the rules for prediction of folding properties, and then applied the full set to predict the folding and conformation of four probable k-turns we have identified amongst 224 structured RNA species found in bacterial intergenenic regions by the Breaker lab (1). We have analyzed the ion-dependence of folding of the four k-turns using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and determined the conformation of two of them using X-ray crystallography. We find that the experimental data fully conform to both the predicted folding and conformational properties. We conclude that our folding rules are robust, and can be applied to new k-turns of unknown characteristics with confidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkab333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8191799PMC
June 2021

Massive congenital immature teratoma of the lateral ventricle in a 33-day infant comorbidity with atrial septal defect.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Pediatric Neurosurgery, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Congenital teratomas are extremely rare and mainly midline tumors arising in the pineal regions in childhood brain tumors which are rarer cases occur in the lateral ventricle. Atrial septal defect (ASD) is detected in approximately 0.15% of newborns. We report an intracranial massive immature teratoma of the lateral ventricle in a 33-day-old infant on account of its rare location, comorbidity, and rapidly increasing size after surgery. Based on our information, this was the first case of congenital immature teratoma of the lateral ventricle comorbidity with ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-021-05168-xDOI Listing
May 2021

Understandings, Attitudes, and Barriers About Diabetes Care: Analysis of Factors Influencing Community Pharmacists in China.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 3;14:1999-2009. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Basic Medicine and Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been known as a major chronic health problem in China. Suboptimal management of diabetic patients may incur serious complications, even death. The quality of post-hospital care has a good relationship with community pharmacists. However, data describing the current situation from care between community pharmacists and patients in China are lacking. Our article is to investigate community pharmacists' activities, evaluate their attitudes towards providing diabetes care, assess their understandings, and identify perceived barriers.

Methods: A survey divided into four parts was carried out randomly in China. The part of basic characteristics, understandings, and pharmacists' perceived barriers was rated with a few listed choices scales, while the Likert scale was used to identify on the part of attitudes. Quantitative data were shown in frequency and valid percent. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and non-parametric test conducted on data. A P-value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: A total of 737 surveys were collected. The respondent pharmacists maintained a simply moderate understanding of diabetes care and the pharmaceutical services provided met basic needs rather than clinical ones, though they showed a good momentum towards providing better service. The respondent pharmacists considered patients lacking knowledge on self-management, shortage of funds as the main barriers.

Conclusion: Efforts are supposed to make to expand pharmacists' scope of practice, lessen patients' reluctance, and create platforms for pharmacists receiving further education.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S304066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8104972PMC
May 2021