Publications by authors named "Jia Huang"

567 Publications

Anticoagulation Therapy in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019: Results From a Multicenter International Prospective Registry (Health Outcome Predictive Evaluation for Corona Virus Disease 2019 [HOPE-COVID19]).

Crit Care Med 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

1 Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy. 2 Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain. 3 Hospital Universitario Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Spain. 4 Hospital Universitario La Paz. Instituto de Investigacion, Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid, Spain. 5 Hospital Universitario Getafe, Madrid, Spain. 6 Hospital Universitario Severo Ochoa, Leganés, Spain. 7 Hospital Clinico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain. 8 Hospital Clinico Universitario Virgen de la Victoria, Malaga, Spain. 9 Hospital Puerta de Hierro de Majadahonda, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain. 10 The Second Affiliated Hospital of Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, China. 11 Sant'Andrea Hospital, Vercelli, Italy. 12 San Luigi Gonzaga University Hospital, Orbassano and Rivoli Infermi Hospital, Rivoli, Italy. 13 Institute of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Havana, Cuba. 14 Hospital General del norte de Guayaquil IESS, Los Ceibos, Guayaquil, Ecuador. 15 Hospital de la Arreixaca, Murcia, Spain. 16 University Hospital Alvaro Cunqueiro, Vigo, Spain. 17 University Hospital of Bari, Bari, Italy. 18 Nuestra Señora de América, Madrid, Spain. 19 Hospital Universitario Infanta Sofia, San Sebastian de los Reyes, Madrid, Spain. 20 San Carlo Clinic, Milano, Italy. 21 Hospital Universitario, Burgos, Spain. 22 Kerckhoff Heart and Thorax Center, Bad Nauheim, Germany. 23 Hospital General de Albacete, Albacete, Spain.

Objectives: No standard therapy, including anticoagulation regimens, is currently recommended for coronavirus disease 2019. Aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of anticoagulation in coronavirus disease 2019 hospitalized patients and its impact on survival.

Design: Multicenter international prospective registry (Health Outcome Predictive Evaluation for Corona Virus Disease 2019).

Setting: Hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019.

Patients: Five thousand eight hundred thirty-eight consecutive coronavirus disease 2019 patients.

Interventions: Anticoagulation therapy, including prophylactic and therapeutic regimens, was obtained for each patient.

Measurements And Main Results: Five thousand four hundred eighty patients (94%) did not receive any anticoagulation before hospitalization. Two-thousand six-hundred one patients (44%) during hospitalization received anticoagulation therapy and it was not associated with better survival rate (81% vs 81%; p = 0.94) but with higher risk of bleeding (2.7% vs 1.8%; p = 0.03). Among patients admitted with respiratory failure (49%, n = 2,859, including 391 and 583 patients requiring invasive and noninvasive ventilation, respectively), anticoagulation started during hospitalization was associated with lower mortality rates (32% vs 42%; p < 0.01) and nonsignificant higher risk of bleeding (3.4% vs 2.7%; p = 0.3). Anticoagulation therapy was associated with lower mortality rates in patients treated with invasive ventilation (53% vs 64%; p = 0.05) without increased rates of bleeding (9% vs 8%; p = 0.88) but not in those with noninvasive ventilation (35% vs 38%; p = 0.40). At multivariate Cox' analysis mortality relative risk with anticoagulation was 0.58 (95% CI, 0.49-0.67) in patients admitted with respiratory failure, 0.50 (95% CI, 0.49-0.67) in those requiring invasive ventilation, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.51-1.01) in noninvasive ventilation.

Conclusions: Anticoagulation therapy in general population with coronavirus disease 2019 was not associated with better survival rates but with higher bleeding risk. Better results were observed in patients admitted with respiratory failure and requiring invasive ventilation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000005010DOI Listing
April 2021

Tissue-specific reprogramming of host tRNA transcriptome by the microbiome.

Genome Res 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

South China Normal University;

Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are essential for translation, and tRNA expression and modifications are regulated by many factors. However, the interplay between the microbiome and host tRNA profiles through host-microbiome interactions has not been explored. In this study, we investigated host-microbiome interactions via the tRNA profiling of four tissue types from germ-free and specific pathogen-free mice. Our analyses reveal that cytosolic and mitochondrial tRNA expression and tRNA modifications in the host are reprogrammed in a tissue-specific and microbiome-dependent manner. In terms of tRNA expression, the intestines and brains are more sensitive to the influence of the microbiome than the livers and kidneys. In terms of tRNA modifications, cytosolic tRNAs show more obvious changes in the livers and kidneys in the presence of the microbiome. Our findings reveal a previously unexplored relationship among the microbiome, tRNA abundance, and epitranscriptome in a mammalian host.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.272153.120DOI Listing
April 2021

Lack of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Reduces Susceptibility to Ventricular Arrhythmias During the Acute Phase of Myocardial Infarction.

J Inflamm Res 2021 7;14:1297-1311. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Anesthesiology, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610072, People's Republic of China.

Background: Macrophages are involved in inflammatory responses and play a crucial role in aggravating ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) after myocardial infarction (MI). Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) participates in inflammatory responses during acute MI. In the present study, we hypothesized that knockout (KO) of MIF may prevent VAs during the acute phase of MI by inhibiting macrophage-derived pro-inflammatory mediators.

Methods And Results: We demonstrated that MIF-KO mice in a mouse model of MI exhibited a significant decrease in susceptibility to VAs both in vivo (84.6% vs 40.7%, < 0.05) and ex vivo (86.7% vs 40.0%, < 0.05) at day 3 after MI compared with that in wild-type (WT) mice. Both WT and MIF-KO mice presented similar left ventricular contractility, peri-infarct myocardial fibrosis and sympathetic reinnervation, and circulating and local norepinephrine levels during the acute phase of MI. Meanwhile, MIF-KO mice had inhibited macrophage aggregation, alleviated connexin 43 (Cx43) redistribution, and reduced level of pro-inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β ( < 0.05) at day 3 after MI. The differences in susceptibility to VAs, expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, and Cx43 redistribution after MI between WT and MIF-KO mice disappeared by macrophage depletion with clodronate liposomes in both groups. Furthermore, the pro-inflammatory activity of cultured peritoneal macrophages was inhibited by MIF deficiency and recovered with replenishment of exogenous MIF in vitro.

Conclusion: In conclusion, we found that lack of MIF reduced the susceptibility to VAs in mouse heart during the acute phase of MI by inhibiting pro-inflammatory activity of macrophages and improving gap-junction and electrical remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S304553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8039209PMC
April 2021

Characteristics of Chinese Families in Which Children and Both Parents Are Diagnosed with Malignant Tumors: A Retrospective Study.

Chin Med Sci J 2021 Mar;36(1):27-34

Department of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Center / National Clinical Research Center for Cancer / Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021, China.

Objective To characterize Chinese families in which both parents and at least one child are diagnosed with malignant diseases and provide reference for cancer screening or early detection in people whose both parents are diagnosed with cancer. Methods Medical records of all clients to the center of cancer screening and prevention of the National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital between January 2008 and February 2018 were screened to select families in which both parents and at least one child were diagnosed with malignant diseases. The cancer profiles of fathers, mothers, sons and daughters, their age distribution at diagnosis, and similarity of cancers between two generations were analyzed. The proportions of each cancer in males and females of the cohort were compared with corresponding data from the National Cancer Center Registry of China (NCCRC) in 2013. Results Totally 135 families were identified from records of 33 200 clients. Proportion of lung cancer in fathers (40/135, 29.6%) and in mothers (38/135, 28.1%) were higher than the national data (23.9% in males and 14.9% in females, respectively). The proportion of breast cancer in daughters (35/109, 32.1%) was higher than that of mothers (14/135, 10.4%) and the national data (17.1%). In 71 father-son pairs of cancer, 46.5% (33/71) were of the same systematic disease, and 16.9% (12/71) were of the same cancer. These two indexes were 31.2% (=34) and 10.1% (=11), respectively in the 109 father-daughter pairs of cancer, 36.6% (=26) and 8.5% (=6) respectively in the 71 mother-son pairs of cancer, and 31.2% (=34) and 20.2% (=20) respectively in the 109 mother-daughter pairs of cancer. Sons were more likely to suffer from cancers originated from the same system as father's cancer than daughters (=4.299, <0.05), and daughters were more likely to suffer from the same cancer as their mother's cancer than sons (=4.506, <0.05). The age (mean ± standard deviation) of the daughters (52.4±12.7) and the sons (59.4±10.9) at diagnosis were significantly younger than the fathers (65.5±12.2) and the mothers (65.7 ±12.5) (all <0.001). Conclusions For people whose both parents are diagnosed as cancer, screening or early detection examinations should cover a full range of cancers rather than the cancers their father and mother have suffered, or cancers stemmed from the same system as their parent's cancers. We suggest screening or early detection program for these special population start earlier than that for the general population, with emphasis on cancers derived from digestive system for males and women-specific cancers, i.e., breast cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer and uterine cancer for females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.24920/003789DOI Listing
March 2021

Predictors and moderators of quality of life in patients with major depressive disorder: An AGTs-MDD study report.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Apr 1;138:96-102. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Clinical Research Center & Division of Mood Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200030, China; CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Shanghai, 200031, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai, 201108, China; Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area Center for Brain Science and Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Guangzhou, 510515, China. Electronic address:

Effective and targeted interventions for improving quality of life (QOL) in addition to achieving 'clinical remission' are imperatives for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to examine potential predictors and moderators of QOL in depression. Data were obtained from the Algorithm Guided Treatment Strategies for Major Depressive Disorder (AGTs-MDD) study, a multisite, randomized controlled trial composed of 980 depressed patients. Mixed Model Repeated Measures (MMRM) analyses were conducted to identify baseline characteristics associated with QOL overall (predictors) and their interaction effects (moderators). Severe core depressive, anxiety and pain symptoms were found to be independently associated with poor QOL over the 12-week acute phase treatment. Severe depression, severe anxiety or pain symptoms, or severe suicidal ideation predicted a larger improvement of QOL during acute phase treatment, whereas males showed less improvement. None of the putative moderators were identified except for the educational level. Patients with lower educational level showed a larger improvement of QOL in the AGT started with escitalopram (AGT-E) group and AGT started with mirtazapine (AGT-M) group compared to the treatment as usual (TAU) group. These findings may help to instruct informed decision-making for heterogeneous patients with MDD in the view of full recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.03.063DOI Listing
April 2021

A hybrid method for real-time stimulation artefact removal during functional electrical stimulation with time-variant parameters.

J Neural Eng 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute of RF- and OE-ICs, Southeast University, No.2, Sipai Lou, Dashiqiao community, Xinjiekou Street, Xuanwu District, Nanjing, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210096, CHINA.

Objective: In this study, a hybrid method combining hardware and software architecture is proposed to remove stimulation artefacts (SA) and extract the volitional surface electromyography (sEMG) in real time during functional electrical stimulations (FES) with time-variant parameters.

Approach: First, an sEMG detection front end (DFE) combining fast recovery, detector and stimulator isolation and blanking is developed and is capable of preventing DFE saturation with a blanking time of 7.6 ms. The fragment between the present stimulus and previous stimulus is set as an SA fragment. Second, an SA database is established to provide 6 high-similarity templates with the current SA fragment. The SA fragment will be de-artefacted by a 6th-order Gram-Schmidt algorithm (GS), a template-subtracting method, using the provided templates, and this database-based GS algorithm is called DBGS. The provided templates are previously collected SA fragments with the same or a similar evoking FES intensity to that of the current SA fragment, and the lengths of the templates are longer than that of the current SA fragment. After denoising, the sEMG will be extracted, and the current SA fragment will be added to the SA database. The prototype system based on DBGS was tested on 8 able-bodied volunteers and 3 individuals with stroke to verify its capacity for stimulation removal and sEMG extraction.

Results: The average stimulus artefact attenuation factor, stimulation artefact index and correlation coefficient between clean sEMG and extracted sEMG for 6th-order DBGS were 12.77±0.85 dB, 1.82±0.37 dB and 0.84±0.33 dB, respectively, which were significantly higher than those for empirical mode decomposition combined with notch filters, pulse-triggered GS algorithm, 1st-order and 3rd-order DBGS. The sEMG-Torque correlation coefficients were 0.78±0.05 and 0.48±0.11 for able-bodied volunteers and individuals with stroke, respectively.

Significance: The proposed hybrid method can extract sEMG during dynamic FES in real time. Ethical approval number 2016ZDSYLL045.0.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/abf68cDOI Listing
April 2021

Detection and Classification of Breast Lesions With Readout-Segmented Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in a Large Chinese Cohort.

Front Oncol 2021 22;11:636471. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

To evaluate the performance of readout-segmented echo-planar imaging DWI (rs-EPI DWI) in detecting and characterizing breast cancers in a large Chinese cohort with comparison to dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). The institutional review board approved this retrospective study with waived written informed consent. A total of 520 women (mean age, 43.1- ± 10.5-years) were included from July 2013 to October 2019. First, the ability of rs-EPI DWI in detecting breast lesions identified by DCE-MRI was evaluated. The lesion conspicuity of rs-EPI-DWI and DCE-MRI was compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. With pathology as a reference, the performance of rs-EPI DWI and DCE-MRI in distinguishing breast cancers was evaluated and compared using the Chi-square test. Of 520 women, 327/520 (62.9%) patients had 423 lesions confirmed by pathology with 203 benign and 220 malignant lesions. The rs-EPI DWI can detect 90.8% (659/726) (reader 1) and 90.6% (663/732) (reader 2) of lesions identified by DCE-MRI. The lesion visibility was superior for DCE-MRI than rs-EPI-DWI (all < 0.05). With pathology as a reference, the sensitivities and specificities of rs-EPI DWI in diagnosing breast cancers were 95.9% (211/220) and 85.7% (174/203) for reader 1 and 97.7% (215/220) and 86.2% (175/203) for reader 2. No significant differences were found for the performance of DCE-MRI and rs-EPI DWI in discriminating breast cancers (all > 0.05). Although with an inferior lesion visibility, rs-EPI DWI can detect about 90% of breast lesions identified by DCE-MRI and has comparable diagnostic capacity to that of DCE-MRI in identifying breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.636471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020903PMC
March 2021

Polarization resolving and imaging with a single-photon sensitive superconducting nanowire array.

Opt Express 2021 Mar;29(7):11021-11036

Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) have attracted remarkable interest for visible and near-infrared single-photon detection due to their outstanding performance. However, conventional SNSPDs are generally used as binary photon-counting detectors. Another important characteristic of light, i.e., polarization, which can provide additional information of the object, has not been resolved using the standalone SNSPD. In this work, we present a first prototype of the polarimeter based on a four-pixel superconducting nanowire array, capable of resolving the polarization state of linearly-polarized light at the single-photon level. The detector array design is based on a division of focal plane configuration in which the orientation of each nanowire division (pixel) is offset by 45°. Each single nanowire pixel operates as a combination of a photon detector and almost linear polarization filter, with an average polarization extinction ratio of ∼10. The total system detection efficiency of the array is ∼1% at a total dark count rate of 680 cps, with a timing jitter of 126 ps, when the detector array is free-space coupled and illuminated with 1550-nm photons. The mean errors of the measured angle of polarization and degree of linear polarization were about -3° and 0.12, respectively. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrated polarization imaging at low-light level using the proposed detector. Our results pave the way for the development of a single-photon sensitive, fast, and large-scale integrated polarization polarimeter or imager. Such detector may find promising application in photon-starved polarization resolving and imaging with high spatial and temporal resolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.419627DOI Listing
March 2021

Neoadjuvant PD-1 inhibitors and chemotherapy for locally advanced NSCLC: A retrospective study.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Shanghai Lung Cancer Center, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 241 Huai Hai Road, Shanghai, 200030, China. Electronic address:

Background: Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) encompasses a variety of local invasion and nodal involvement and its management is still under debate. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have been shown to improve the survival in metastatic NSCLC, but are far from being accepted as an induction therapy.

Methods: We retrospectively collected data of all patients who received induction ICI (nivolumab or pembrolizumab) and chemotherapy (carboplatin with paclitaxel) for stage IIIA-B NSCLC followed by surgery in our unit between January 2019 and March 2020.

Results: Of the 12 patients (9 males, 3 females) 6 had a squamous cell carcinoma, 3 had adenocarcinoma, 1 had an undifferentiated adenocarcinoma and 1 had adeno-squamous carcinoma. Seven patients had stage IIIA disease and 5 had stage IIIB. After induction therapy, 6 patients had stable disease and 6 had a partial response. The median tumor reduction was 3.05 cm (range 2.30-8.70). All patients, but one due to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 outbreak, had no delay in surgery. Two patients experienced myelosuppression after induction therapy, two had minor adverse effects. Three patients had postoperative complications not related to the induction therapy. All patients had a pathological response: 5 complete, 4 major and 3 partial. Eleven patients are alive (mean months of follow-up 18.17±4.97) and free of disease.

Conclusions: Induction ICI-chemotherapy may be a valid treatment in patients with locally advanced NSCLC, providing important tumor downstaging and rendering patients operable. In our experience patients had few side effects and a good pathological response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2021.03.041DOI Listing
March 2021

Altered activation and functional connectivity in individuals with social anhedonia when envisioning positive future episodes.

Psychol Med 2021 Mar 29:1-9. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Neuropsychology and Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Anticipatory pleasure deficits are closely correlated with negative symptoms in schizophrenia, and may be found in both clinical and subclinical populations along the psychosis continuum. Prospection, which is an important component of anticipatory pleasure, is impaired in individuals with social anhedonia (SocAnh). In this study, we examined the neural correlates of envisioning positive future events in individuals with SocAnh.

Methods: Forty-nine individuals with SocAnh and 33 matched controls were recruited to undergo functional MRI scanning, during which they were instructed to simulate positive or neutral future episodes according to cue words. Two stages of prospection were distinguished: construction and elaboration.

Results: Reduced activation at the caudate and the precuneus when prospecting positive (v. neutral) future events was observed in individuals with SocAnh. Furthermore, compared with controls, increased functional connectivity between the caudate and the inferior occipital gyrus during positive (v. neutral) prospection was found in individuals with SocAnh. Both groups exhibited a similar pattern of brain activation for the construction v. elaboration contrast, regardless of the emotional context.

Conclusions: Our results provide further evidence on the neural mechanism of anticipatory pleasure deficits in subclinical individuals with SocAnh and suggest that altered cortico-striatal circuit may play a role in anticipatory pleasure deficits in these individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291721000970DOI Listing
March 2021

Association between the genetic polymorphisms of the pharmacokinetics of anthracycline drug and myelosuppression in a patient with breast cancer with anthracycline-based chemotherapy.

Life Sci 2021 Mar 24;276:119392. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Breast Surgery, Affiliated Cancer Hospital and Institute of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510095, PR China. Electronic address:

Aims: Exploring the genetic polymorphisms involved in the metabolism of anthracyclines can explain the causes of individual differences in myelosuppression during anthracycline-based chemotherapy.

Main Methods: By PCR and Sanger sequencing, SNP of candidate genes participating into the pharmacokinetics of anthracycline, including chemotherapeutic drug intake (SLC22A16 rs6907567), metabolism (AKR1A1 rs2088102, CBR1 rs20572) and transfer (ABCG2 rs2231142) are detected in 194 breast cancer patients undergoing anthracycline-based postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy.

Key Findings: The CBR1 rs20572 (C>T) polymorphic allele, the ABCG2 rs2231142 (G>T) polymorphic allele, or the two polymorphic allele in combination significantly reduced the risk of leukopenia (OR 0.412, 95% CI 0.187-0.905, p = 0.025) and neutropenia (OR 0.354, 95% CI 0.148-0.846, p = 0.018). Either polymorphic allele T of CBR1 rs20572, or polymorphic allele C of AKR1A1 rs2088102 combined with the presence of both ABCG2 rs2231142(G>T) and SLC22A16 rs6907567(A>G) mutations were at extremely low risk of severe anemia of grades 3 and 4 (OR 0.058, 95% CI 0.006-0.554, p = 0.008, OR 0.065, 95% CI 0.006-0.689, p = 0.022, OR 0.037, 95% CI 0.004-0.36, p = 0.015, respectively).

Significance: These results suggested CBR1 rs20572, ABCG2 rs2231142, SLC22A16 rs6907567 and AKR1A1 rs2088102 might be potential protective factors for the reduction of hematologic toxicity incidence during anthracycline-based chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119392DOI Listing
March 2021

Non-invasive ventilation for SARS-CoV-2 acute respiratory failure: a subanalysis from the HOPE COVID-19 registry.

Emerg Med J 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Cardiovascular Institute, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Madrid, Community of Madrid, Spain.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has seriously challenged worldwide healthcare systems and limited intensive care facilities, leading to physicians considering the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for managing SARS-CoV-2-related acute respiratory failure (ARF).

Methods: We conducted an interim analysis of the international, multicentre HOPE COVID-19 registry including patients admitted for a confirmed or highly suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection until 18 April 2020. Those treated with NIV were considered. The primary endpoint was a composite of death or need for intubation. The components of the composite endpoint were the secondary outcomes. Unadjusted and adjusted predictors of the primary endpoint within those initially treated with NIV were investigated.

Results: 1933 patients who were included in the registry during the study period had data on oxygen support type. Among them, 390 patients (20%) were treated with NIV. Compared with those receiving other non-invasive oxygen strategy, patients receiving NIV showed significantly worse clinical and laboratory signs of ARF at presentation. Of the 390 patients treated with NIV, 173 patients (44.4%) met the composite endpoint. In-hospital death was the main determinant (147, 37.7%), while 62 patients (15.9%) needed invasive ventilation. Those requiring invasive ventilation had the lowest survival rate (41.9%). After adjustment, age (adjusted OR (adj(OR)) for 5-year increase: 1.37, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.63, p<0.001), hypertension (adj(OR) 2.95, 95% CI 1.14 to 7.61, p=0.03), room air O saturation <92% at presentation (adj(OR) 3.05, 95% CI 1.28 to 7.28, p=0.01), lymphocytopenia (adj(OR) 3.55, 95% CI 1.16 to 10.85, p=0.03) and in-hospital use of antibiotic therapy (adj(OR) 4.91, 95% CI 1.69 to 14.26, p=0.003) were independently associated with the composite endpoint.

Conclusion: NIV was used in a significant proportion of patients within our cohort, and more than half of these patients survived without the need for intubation. NIV may represent a viable strategy particularly in case of overcrowded and limited intensive care resources, but prompt identification of failure is mandatory to avoid harm. Further studies are required to better clarify our hypothesis.

Trial Registration Numbers: NCT04334291/EUPAS34399.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2020-210411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7970657PMC
March 2021

The significance of systematic lymph node dissection in surgery for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients aged ≤40 years.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Feb;13(2):1196-1204

Shanghai Lung Cancer Center, Shanghai Chest Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Surgery remains the best option for treating early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and lymph node dissection (LND) is an important step in this approach. However, the extent of LND in the general age population, especially in young patients, is controversial. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the correlation between systematic lymph node dissection (SLND) and prognosis in young (≤40 years) patients with stage IA NSCLC.

Methods: Clinicopathological data of 191 patients aged ≤40 years who underwent surgical pulmonary resection for stage IA NSCLC between January 2010 and December 2016 were retrospectively collected. Of the patients, 104 received SLND (SLND group), while the other 87 patients underwent sampling or no LND (non-SLND group). The disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) curves of the patients from each group were plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the correlations of the patients' clinical factors with prognosis were also analyzed.

Results: The median follow-up period was 55 months. During follow-up, 7 patients died, and recurrence or metastasis was detected in 16 patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed no difference in DFS (P=0.132) between the SLND and non-SLND group, but a significant difference was found between the groups in OS (P=0.022). Additionally, there was no statistically pronounced difference in OS or DFS between male and female patients. Multivariate survival analysis showed that the type of SLND, as well as tumor size, is an independent prognostic factor for DFS (HR, 3.530; 95% CI, 1.120-11.119; P=0.031) and OS (HR, 13.076; 95% CI, 1.209-141.443; P=0.034).

Conclusions: For young (age ≤40) stage IA NSCLC patients with pathological invasive adenocarcinoma, intraoperative SLND can improve the DFS and OS. Further studies are needed to verify the most optimal degree of LND in young patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-21-190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947521PMC
February 2021

Retina-Inspired Organic Heterojunction-Based Optoelectronic Synapses for Artificial Visual Systems.

Research (Wash D C) 2021 22;2021:7131895. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Interdisciplinary Materials Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Intelligent Science and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804, China.

For the realization of retina-inspired neuromorphic visual systems which simulate basic functions of human visual systems, optoelectronic synapses capable of combining perceiving, processing, and memorizing in a single device have attracted immense interests. Here, optoelectronic synaptic transistors based on tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium (Ir(ppy)) and poly(3,3-didodecylquarterthiophene) (PQT-12) heterojunction structure are presented. The organic heterojunction serves as a basis for distinctive synaptic characteristics under different wavelengths of light. Furthermore, synaptic transistor arrays are fabricated to demonstrate their optical perception efficiency and color recognition capability under multiple illuminating conditions. The wavelength-tunability of synaptic behaviors further enables the mimicry of mood-modulated visual learning and memorizing processes of humans. More significantly, the computational dynamics of neurons of synaptic outputs including associated learning and optical logic functions can be successfully demonstrated on the presented devices. This work may locate the stage for future studies on optoelectronic synaptic devices toward the implementation of artificial visual systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34133/2021/7131895DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7926506PMC
February 2021

Development and validation of a CT-based radiomics nomogram for preoperative prediction of tumor histologic grade in gastric adenocarcinoma.

Chin J Cancer Res 2021 Feb;33(1):69-78

Department of Radiology, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou 510080, China.

Objectives: To develop and validate a radiomics nomogram for preoperative prediction of tumor histologic grade in gastric adenocarcinoma (GA).

Methods: This retrospective study enrolled 592 patients with clinicopathologically confirmed GA (low-grade: n=154; high-grade: n=438) from January 2008 to March 2018 who were divided into training (n=450) and validation (n=142) sets according to the time of computed tomography (CT) examination. Radiomic features were extracted from the portal venous phase CT images. The Mann-Whitney U test and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression model were used for feature selection, data dimension reduction and radiomics signature construction. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was applied to develop the prediction model. The radiomics signature and independent clinicopathologic risk factors were incorporated and presented as a radiomics nomogram. The performance of the nomogram was assessed with respect to its calibration and discrimination.

Results: A radiomics signature containing 12 selected features was significantly associated with the histologic grade of GA (P<0.001 for both training and validation sets). A nomogram including the radiomics signature and tumor location as predictors was developed. The model showed both good calibration and good discrimination, in which C-index in the training set, 0.752 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.701-0.803]; C-index in the validation set, 0.793 (95% CI: 0.711-0.874).

Conclusions: This study developed a radiomics nomogram that incorporates tumor location and radiomics signatures, which can be useful in facilitating preoperative individualized prediction of histologic grade of GA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21147/j.issn.1000-9604.2021.01.08DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7941693PMC
February 2021

Effects of physical activity on cognitive function among patients with diabetes in China: a nationally longitudinal study.

BMC Public Health 2021 Mar 11;21(1):481. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, 100191, China.

Background: We aimed to examine the effect of physical activity on different cognitive domains among patients with diabetes.

Methods: We used two waves of data from the Chinese Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, 2013-2015), a nationally representative dataset of Chinese population aged over 45. Total physical activity scores were calculated based on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Executive function and episodic memory were used as measures of cognitive function. We conducted lagged dependent variable models to explore the association between physical activity and cognitive function in full sample as well as two different age groups (45-65, ≥65).

Results: 862 diabetic patients were included. We found that diabetic participants who had greater level of physical activity at baseline were associated with better episodic memory function in 2 years (p < 0.05). Moreover, physical activity was significantly associated with less decline in episodic memory in fully adjusted models, and the associations were stronger among patients aged 45-65 years (p < 0.05). No statistically significant association was found between physical activity and executive function in all age groups.

Conclusions: Physical activity may prevent some of the potential decline in episodic memory in diabetic patients. Clinicians and public health departments should strengthen the promotion of physical activity and develop early screening tools among diabetic participants to prevent the progression of cognitive impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10537-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7948339PMC
March 2021

The effect of effort-reward imbalance on brain structure and resting-state functional connectivity in individuals with high levels of schizotypal traits.

Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2021 May 11;26(3):166-182. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Neuropsychology and Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Effort-reward imbalance (ERI) is a typical psychosocial stress. Schizotypal traits are attenuated features of schizophrenia in the general population. According to the diathesis-stress model, schizotypal traits and psychosocial stress contribute to the onset of schizophrenia. However, few studies examined the effects of these factors on brain alterations. This study aimed to examine relationships between ERI, schizotypal traits and brain structures and functions.

Methods: We recruited 37 (13 male, 24 female) participants with high levels of schizotypal traits and 36 (12 male, 24 female) participants with low levels of schizotypal traits by the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). The Chinese school version of the effort-reward imbalance questionnaire (C-ERI-S) was used to measure ERI. We conducted the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and whole brain resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) analysis using reward or stress-related regions as seeds.

Results: Participants with high levels of schizotypal traits were more likely to perceive ERI. The severity of ERI was correlated with grey matter volume (GMV) reduction of the left pallidum and altered rsFC among the prefrontal, striatum and cerebellum in participants with high levels of schizotypal traits.

Conclusion: ERI is associated with GMV reduction and altered rsFC in individuals with high levels of schizotypal traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13546805.2021.1899906DOI Listing
May 2021

Highly sensitive 2D organic field-effect transistors for the detection of lithium-ion battery electrolyte leakage.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Apr 9;57(28):3464-3467. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Interdisciplinary Materials Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Intelligent Science and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai, 201804, P. R. China.

Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) have become indispensable in daily life. Here, we fabricated a broad range of polymer semiconductor films as thin as 2 nm via a standard spin-coating method, and utilized the resulting organic transistors for the detection of LIB electrolytes, which can give an early warning signal before LIB failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc00086aDOI Listing
April 2021

Gastrointestinal Symptoms During Depressive Episodes in 3256 Patients with Major Depressive Disorders: Findings from the NSSD.

J Affect Disord 2021 May 17;286:27-32. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Division of Mood Disorder, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200030, China; Clinical Research Center, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200030, China. Electronic address:

Background: Little is known how often depressive episodes are accompanied by gastrointestinal symptoms in major depressive disorders (MDD). The authors sought to determine the frequency and clinical correlates of gastrointestinal symptoms during episodes of depressive disorder.

Methods: 3,256 MDD patients from the National Survey on Symptomatology of Depression (NSSD), which was designed to investigate the magnitude of symptoms of current major depressive episodes in China, were enrolled and assessed for gastrointestinal symptoms in this study. Illness characteristics were compared in patients with a different frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms. Pearson correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were employed to investigate the associations between gastrointestinal symptoms and psychological characteristics in the patients.

Results: More than 70% of the subjects with depressive episodes had concomitant gastrointestinal symptoms. A higher frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms was associated with an increased risk of suicide ideation, suicide attempts, anxious mood, depressed mood, insomnia, feeling a failure, poor concentration, body pain, hopelessness, anger, and irritability. Pearson correlation analysis indicated moderate but significant associations between gastrointestinal symptoms and psychological characteristics (p<0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that suicide ideation (β=0.161, p<0.001), anxiety mood (β=0.166, p = 0.006), insomnia (β =0.262, p<0.001), anger (β=0.144, p<0.001), feeling a failure (β =0.365, p<0.001), and body pain (β=0.581 p<0.001) were independently associated with gastrointestinal symptoms in MDD patients.

Conclusion: Gastrointestinal symptoms were one of the most prevalent clinical presentations of MDD. The associations between gastrointestinal symptoms and psychological characteristics may prove useful in expanding our understanding of how gastrointestinal symptoms contributes to MDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.02.039DOI Listing
May 2021

Inhibition of hypertrophic scar formation with oral asiaticoside treatment in a rabbit ear scar model.

Int Wound J 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Hypertrophic scar (HS) is a fibrotic skin disease characterised by over-productive collagen and excessive inflammatory reaction, which can be functionally and cosmetically problematic. A scar-prone constitute will accelerate HS formation and functional disorder, which deserves systemic therapy with oral medicine. To examine the oral therapeutic effectiveness on HS with convincing evidence of gross view and histological improvement, a rabbit ear HS model was employed with oral administration of asiaticoside (AS) at the doses of 12 and 24 mg kg  d daily for 60 consecutive days. Gross observation and histological findings showed that oral AS treatment could significantly inhibit HS formation in a dose dependent manner. Semi-quantification of scar elevation index at days 7, 15, 30, and 60, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction at days 30 and 60 also provided the evidences of reduced scar thickness and inhibited fibrotic gene expressions of collagens I, III, TGF-β1, interleukins 1β, 6 and 8, and enhanced gene expression of SMAD 7 and PPAR-γ with a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated that AS is likely to serve as a systemic therapeutic agent of HS treatment for those who may have scar-prone constitute via anti-inflammation, inhibiting fibrotic process, and enhancing matrix degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/iwj.13561DOI Listing
March 2021

Fecal microbiota transplantation mitigates vaginal atrophy in ovariectomized mice.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 02 26;13(5):7589-7607. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Cancer Biology Research Center, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, Hubei, People's Republic of China.

Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) is a common menopause-related symptom affecting more than 50% of midlife and older women and cancer patients whose ovarian function are lost or damaged. Regardless of estrogen deficiency, whether other factors such as the gut microbiota play role in VVA have not been thoroughly investigated. To this end, we performed ovariectomy on 12-weeks' old mice and follow-up at 4 weeks after ovariectomy, and observed atrophied vagina and an altered gut microbiota in ovariectomized mice.. We further performed fecal microbiota transplantation with feces from another cohort of ovary-intact fecund female mice to the ovariectomized ones, and found that the vaginal epithelial atrophy was significantly alleviated as well as the gut microbiota was pointedly changed. All these results suggest that ovarian activity has some influence on the gut microbiota, and the latter from the ovary-intact female mice can somehow make the vagina of mice deficient in ovarian function healthier maybe by up-expressing ESR1 in vaginal cells and enhancing regeneration in vagina. This kind of association between gut microbiota and vaginal health need further exploration such that it may provide an alternative treatment by modulating gut microbiota in patients suffering from VVA but may be reluctant to hormone therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993734PMC
February 2021

COVID-19 anosmia and gustatory symptoms as a prognosis factor: a subanalysis of the HOPE COVID-19 (Health Outcome Predictive Evaluation for COVID-19) registry.

Infection 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain.

Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions (OGD) are a frequent symptom of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It has been proposed that the neuroinvasive potential of the novel SARS-CoV-2 could be due to olfactory bulb invasion, conversely studies suggest it could be a good prognostic factor. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prognosis value of OGD in COVID-19. These symptoms were recorded on admission from a cohort study of 5868 patients with confirmed or highly suspected COVID-19 infection included in the multicenter international HOPE Registry (NCT04334291). There was statistical relation in multivariate analysis for OGD in gender, more frequent in female 12.41% vs 8.67% in male, related to age, more frequent under 65 years, presence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, smoke, renal insufficiency, lung, heart, cancer and neurological disease. We did not find statistical differences in pregnant (p = 0.505), patient suffering cognitive (p = 0.484), liver (p = 0.1) or immune disease (p = 0.32). There was inverse relation (protective) between OGD and prone positioning (0.005) and death (< 0.0001), but no with ICU (0.165) or mechanical ventilation (0.292). On univariable logistic regression, OGD was found to be inversely related to death in COVID-19 patients. The odds ratio was 0.26 (0.15-0.44) (p < 0.001) and Z was - 5.05. The presence of anosmia is fundamental in the diagnosis of SARS.CoV-2 infection, but also could be important in classifying patients and in therapeutic decisions. Even more knowing that it is an early symptom of the disease. Knowing that other situations as being Afro-American or Latino-American, hypertension, renal insufficiency, or increase of C-reactive protein (CRP) imply a worse prognosis we can make a clinical score to estimate the vital prognosis of the patient. The exact pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 that causes olfactory and gustative disorders remains unknown but seems related to the prognosis. This point is fundamental, insomuch as could be a plausible way to find a treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s15010-021-01587-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7917537PMC
March 2021

Longitudinal tracing of neurochemical metabolic disorders in working memory neural circuit and optogenetics modulation in rats with vascular cognitive impairment.

Brain Res Bull 2021 May 15;170:174-186. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

National-Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Rehabilitation Medicine Technology & Traditional Chinese Medicine Rehabilitation Research Center of State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350122, PR China; Rehabilitation Industry Institute, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350122, PR China. Electronic address:

Chronic cerebral ischemia leads to vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) that exacerbates along with ischemia time and eventually develops into dementia. Recent advances in molecular neuroimaging contribute to understand its pathological characteristics. We previously traced the anisotropic diffusion of water molecules suggests that chronic cerebral ischemia leads to irreversible progressive damage to white matter integrity. However, the abnormalities of gray matter activity following chronic cerebral ischemia remains not entirely understood. In this study, in vivo hydrogen proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) was applied to longitudinally track the neurochemical metabolic disorder of gray matter associated with working memory, and optogenetics modulation of neurochemical metabolism was performed for targeted treatment of VCI. The results showed that the concentration of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in the right hippocampus, left hippocampus, right medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and mediodorsal thalamus was decreased as early as 7 days after chronic cerebral ischemia, subsequently gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) declined whereas myo-inositol (mI) and glutamate (Glu) increased at 14 days, as well as choline (Cho) lost at 28 days, concurrently the change of Glu and GABA in the mPFC and hippocampus was ischemia time-dependent manner within 1 month. Behaviorally, working memory and object recognition memory were impaired at 14 days, 28 days that significantly correlated with neurochemical metabolic disorders. Interestingly, using optogenetics modulation of PV neurons in the mPFC, the metabolic abnormalities of NAA and GABA in working memory neural circuit could be repaired after chronic cerebral ischemia, together with behavior improvements. These findings suggested that as early as 1∼4 weeks after chronic cerebral ischemia, the metabolism of NAA, Glu, mI and Cho was synchronously impaired in neural circuit of hippocampus-mediodorsal thalamus-mPFC, and the loss of GABA delayed in the hippocampus, and optogenetics modulation of parvalbumin (PV) neurons in the mPFC can improve the neurochemical metabolism of working memory neural circuit and enhance working memory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2021.02.013DOI Listing
May 2021

Hemicolectomy Does Not Provide Survival Benefit for Right-Sided Mucinous Colon Adenocarcinoma.

Front Oncol 2020 1;10:608836. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Institute of Clinical Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital, University of South China, Hengyang, China.

Background: The extent of bowel resection is widely debated in colon cancer surgery. Right hemicolectomy (RHC) and partial colectomy (PC) are the most common operation options for right-sided colon cancer (RCC). However, there are still no treatment guidelines or published studies to guide surgical options for mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC) of RCC.

Methods: Patients with MAC and non-specific adenocarcinoma (AC) of RCC who underwent RHC and PC from 2010 to 2015 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database were retrieved. The general characteristics and survival were compared and analyzed.

Results: A total of 27,910 RCC patients were enrolled in this study, among them 3,413 were MAC. The results showed that race, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, perineural invasion (PNI), tumor size, tumor location, TNM stage, liver metastasis, chemotherapy were significantly different between MAC and AC groups. The MAC group had similar dissected lymph nodes, but more positive lymph nodes than the AC group. The overall survival (OS) of the MAC group was poorer than that of the AC group, but cancer-specific survival (CSS) was similar between the two groups. The RHC subgroup of the MAC group had more patients of age ≤60 years, larger tumor size, cecum/ascending colon location and dissected lymph nodes than the PC subgroup, but similar positive lymph nodes, perioperative mortality, OS and CSS as the PC subgroup. Moreover, the univariate and multivariable analyses for the survival of RCC patients with MAC showed that RHC might not be a superior predictor for OS and CSS compared with PC.

Conclusions: RHC could not dissect more positive lymph nodes or provide long-term survival benefits for RCC patients with MAC compared with PC. This study could provide some evidence for surgery treatment selection for MAC of RCC, which has important clinical value in individual management of colon cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.608836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7882730PMC
February 2021

Electronic Health Record-Based Prediction of 1-Year Risk of Incident Cardiac Dysrhythmia: Prospective Case-Finding Algorithm Development and Validation Study.

JMIR Med Inform 2021 Feb 17;9(2):e23606. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States.

Background: Cardiac dysrhythmia is currently an extremely common disease. Severe arrhythmias often cause a series of complications, including congestive heart failure, fainting or syncope, stroke, and sudden death.

Objective: The aim of this study was to predict incident arrhythmia prospectively within a 1-year period to provide early warning of impending arrhythmia.

Methods: Retrospective (1,033,856 individuals enrolled between October 1, 2016, and October 1, 2017) and prospective (1,040,767 individuals enrolled between October 1, 2017, and October 1, 2018) cohorts were constructed from integrated electronic health records in Maine, United States. An ensemble learning workflow was built through multiple machine learning algorithms. Differentiating features, including acute and chronic diseases, procedures, health status, laboratory tests, prescriptions, clinical utilization indicators, and socioeconomic determinants, were compiled for incident arrhythmia assessment. The predictive model was retrospectively trained and calibrated using an isotonic regression method and was prospectively validated. Model performance was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC).

Results: The cardiac dysrhythmia case-finding algorithm (retrospective: AUROC 0.854; prospective: AUROC 0.827) stratified the population into 5 risk groups: 53.35% (555,233/1,040,767), 44.83% (466,594/1,040,767), 1.76% (18,290/1,040,767), 0.06% (623/1,040,767), and 0.003% (27/1,040,767) were in the very low-risk, low-risk, medium-risk, high-risk, and very high-risk groups, respectively; 51.85% (14/27) patients in the very high-risk subgroup were confirmed to have incident cardiac dysrhythmia within the subsequent 1 year.

Conclusions: Our case-finding algorithm is promising for prospectively predicting 1-year incident cardiac dysrhythmias in a general population, and we believe that our case-finding algorithm can serve as an early warning system to allow statewide population-level screening and surveillance to improve cardiac dysrhythmia care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/23606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7929752PMC
February 2021

Effect of tai chi on glycaemic control, lipid metabolism and body composition in adults with type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

J Rehabil Med 2021 Mar 22;53(3):jrm00165. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Rehabilitation Medicine College, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, China. E-mail:

Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of tai chi on metabolic control and body composition indicators in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of existing literature.

Methods: Electronic resource databases were searched to collect eligible studies. Two reviewers selected studies and independently evaluated method-ological quality.

Results: Twenty-three studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that tai chi had significant effects in improving metabolic indices, such as fasting blood glucose (mean differ-ence (MD) = -1.04; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) -1.42 to 0.66; p < 0.01) and total cholesterol (MD = -0.50; 95% CI -0.86 to -0.13; p < 0.01) compared with conventional clinical therapy. Most in-dices did not support the use of tai chi over aerobic exercise, except for glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (MD = -0.24; 95% CI -0.49 to 0.00; p < 0.01) and high-density lipoprotein (MD = 0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.12; p < 0.01).

Conclusion: Tai chi had better effects on metabolic control and body composition indicators than clinical conventional therapy, but only on HbA1c and HDL were superior than that of aerobic exercise. The best time-window for tai chi intervention may differ with different metabolic indices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2340/16501977-2799DOI Listing
March 2021

Degradable Photonic Synaptic Transistors Based on Natural Biomaterials and Carbon Nanotubes.

Small 2021 Mar 15;17(10):e2007241. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Interdisciplinary Materials Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Intelligent Science and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai, 201804, P. R. China.

Artificial synaptic devices have potential for overcoming the bottleneck of von Neumann architecture and building artificial brain-like computers. Up to now, developing synaptic devices by utilizing biocompatible and biodegradable materials in electronic devices has been an interesting research direction due to the requirements of sustainable development. Here, a degradable photonic synaptic device is reported by combining biomaterials chlorophyll-a and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Several basic synaptic functions, including excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC), paired pulse facilitation (PPF), transition from short-term memory (STM) to long-term memory (LTM), and learning and forgetting behaviors, are successfully emulated through the chlorophyll-a/SWCNTs synaptic device. Furthermore, decent synaptic behaviors can still be achieved at a low drain voltage of -0.0001 V, which results in quite low energy consumption of 17.5 fJ per pulse. Finally, the degradability of this chlorophyll-a/SWCNTs transistor array is demonstrated, indicating that the device can be environmentally friendly. This work provides a new guide to the development of next-generation green and degradable neuromorphic computing electronics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202007241DOI Listing
March 2021

MEK inhibition remodels the immune landscape of mutant KRAS tumors to overcome resistance to PARP and immune checkpoint inhibitors.

Cancer Res 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Cancer Biology Research Center, Tongji Hospital.

Mutant KRAS tumors are associated with poor outcomes at least in part due to decreased therapeutic sensitivity. Here we show that KRAS mutations are associated with resistance to monotherapy and combination therapy with Poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) and immune checkpoint blockade with anti-PD-L1 antibodies. In mutant KRAS tumors, inhibition of KRAS signaling with MEK inhibitors (MEKi) triggered and amplified PARPi-induced DNA damage, cytosolic double-stranded DNA accumulation, STING pathway activation and CD8+ T cell recruitment. Moreover, MEKi decreased myeloid-derived suppressor cell infiltration in part by inhibiting IL-6 and GM-CSF production. Importantly, addition of MEKi to PARPi and anti-PD-L1 resulted in marked tumor inhibition in immunocompetent mutant KRAS tumor models. These studies provide the underlying mechanistic data to support evaluation of PARPi, MEKi, and anti-PD-L1 combination in clinical trials of mutant KRAS tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-2370DOI Listing
February 2021

Motivational differences in unipolar and bipolar depression, manic bipolar, acute and stable phase schizophrenia.

J Affect Disord 2021 Mar 2;283:254-261. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of psychiatry, Brains Hospital of Hunan province, Changsha, China. Electronic address:

Background: Motivational anhedonia has been observed in patients with a wide range of mental disorders. However, the similarity and uniqueness of this deficit across diagnostic groups has not been thoroughly investigated.

Method: The study compared motivational deficits in 37 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), 32 with bipolar depression, 33 with manic bipolar disorder (BD), 30 with acute phase and 33 with stable phase schizophrenia, as well as 47 healthy controls. Participants were administered the Effort-Expenditure for Reward Task which measures allocation of effort between a high-effort and a low-effort task for monetary rewards at varying magnitudes and probabilities.

Results: Compared with healthy controls, BD manic, acute and stable phase schizophrenia patients were significantly less likely to choose the high-effort task in the high reward magnitude condition. BD manic and acute phase schizophrenia patients were significantly less likely to choose the high-effort task in the high probability condition. Acute and stable phase schizophrenia patients made less effort in the high estimated value condition. Bipolar manic patients made excessive effort in low estimated value but less effort in high estimated value. Contrary to expectations, both the unipolar and bipolar depression patients did not differ significantly from healthy controls in reward magnitude, probability, and estimated value conditions. Anhedonia and negative symptoms were associated with fewer high-effort task choices in schizophrenia patients.

Conclusion: Motivation anhedonia showed distinct patterns across psychiatric patients: acute phase schizophrenia was the most severely affected, bipolar mania was similar to schizophrenia, but bipolar depression was similar to unipolar depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.01.075DOI Listing
March 2021

Clinical presentation, therapeutic approach, and outcome of young patients admitted for COVID-19, with respect to the elderly counterpart.

Clin Exp Med 2021 May 8;21(2):249-268. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain.

There is limited information on the presenting characteristics, prognosis, and therapeutic approaches of young patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We sought to investigate the baseline characteristics, in-hospital treatment, and outcomes of a wide cohort < 65 years admitted for COVID-19. Using the international multicenter HOPE-COVID-19 registry, we evaluated the baseline characteristics, clinical presentation, therapeutic approach, and prognosis of patients < 65 years discharged (deceased or alive) after hospital admission for COVID-19, also compared with the elderly counterpart. Of the included 5746 patients, 2676 were < 65 and 3070 ≥ 65 years. All risk factors and several parameters suggestive of worse clinical presentation augmented through increasing age classes. In-hospital mortality rates were 6.8% and 32.1% in the younger and older cohort, respectively (p < 0.001). Among young patients, mortality, access to ICU and treatment with IMVwere positively correlated with age. Contrariwise, over 65 years of age this trend was broken so that only the association between age and mortality was persistent, while the rates of access to ICU and IMV started to decline. Younger patients also recognized specific predictors of case fatality, such as obesity and gender. Age negatively impacts on mortality, access to ICU and treatment with IMV in patients < 65 years. In elderly patients only case fatality rate keeps augmenting in a stepwise manner through increasing age categories, while therapeutic approaches become more conservative. Besides age, obesity, gender, history of cancer, and severe dyspnea, tachypnea, chest X-ray bilateral abnormalities, abnormal level of creatinine and leucocyte among admission parameters seem to play a central role in the outcome of patients younger than 65 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10238-021-00684-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7868661PMC
May 2021