Publications by authors named "Jia Duan"

38 Publications

Disrupted hemispheric connectivity specialization in patients with major depressive disorder: Evidence from the REST-meta-MDD Project.

J Affect Disord 2021 Apr 12;284:217-228. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, and Department of Psychiatry, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University. Changsha, Hunan 410011, China. Electronic address:

Background: Functional specialization is a feature of human brain for understanding the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). The degree of human specialization refers to within and cross hemispheric interactions. However, most previous studies only focused on interhemispheric connectivity in MDD, and the results varied across studies. Hence, brain functional connectivity asymmetry in MDD should be further studied.

Methods: Resting-state fMRI data of 753 patients with MDD and 451 healthy controls were provided by REST-meta-MDD Project. Twenty-five project contributors preprocessed their data locally with the Data Processing Assistant State fMRI software and shared final indices. The parameter of asymmetry (PAS), a novel voxel-based whole-brain quantitative measure that reflects inter- and intrahemispheric asymmetry, was reported. We also examined the effects of age, sex and clinical variables (including symptom severity, illness duration and three depressive phenotypes).

Results: Compared with healthy controls, patients with MDD showed increased PAS scores (decreased hemispheric specialization) in most of the areas of default mode network, control network, attention network and some regions in the cerebellum and visual cortex. Demographic characteristics and clinical variables have significant effects on these abnormalities.

Limitations: Although a large sample size could improve statistical power, future independent efforts are needed to confirm our results.

Conclusions: Our results highlight the idea that many brain networks contribute to broad clinical pathophysiology of MDD, and indicate that a lateralized, efficient and economical brain information processing system is disrupted in MDD. These findings may help comprehensively clarify the pathophysiology of MDD in a new hemispheric specialization perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.02.030DOI Listing
April 2021

Biotypes of major depressive disorder: Neuroimaging evidence from resting-state default mode network patterns.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 28;28:102514. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Mental Health Center & Psychiatric Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan, China; West China Brain Research Centre, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is heterogeneous disorder associated with aberrant functional connectivity within the default mode network (DMN). This study focused on data-driven identification and validation of potential DMN-pattern-based MDD subtypes to parse heterogeneity of the disorder.

Methods: The sample comprised 1397 participants including 690 patients with MDD and 707 healthy controls (HC) registered from multiple sites based on the REST-meta-MDD Project in China. Baseline resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data was recorded for each participant. Discriminative features were selected from DMN between patients and HC. Patient subgroups were defined by K-means and principle component analysis in the multi-site datasets and validated in an independent single-site dataset. Statistical significance of resultant clustering were confirmed. Demographic and clinical variables were compared between identified patient subgroups.

Results: Two MDD subgroups with differing functional connectivity profiles of DMN were identified in the multi-site datasets, and relatively stable in different validation samples. The predominant dysfunctional connectivity profiles were detected among superior frontal cortex, ventral medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, whereas one subgroup exhibited increases of connectivity (hyperDMN MDD) and another subgroup showed decreases of connectivity (hypoDMN MDD). The hyperDMN subgroup in the discovery dataset had age-related severity of depressive symptoms. Patient subgroups had comparable demographic and clinical symptom variables.

Conclusions: Findings suggest the existence of two neural subtypes of MDD associated with different dysfunctional DMN connectivity patterns, which may provide useful evidence for parsing heterogeneity of depression and be valuable to inform the search for personalized treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724374PMC
November 2020

Antipsychotic ffects on ortical Morphology in chizophrenia and ipolar isorders.

Front Neurosci 2020 10;14:579139. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Previous studies of atypical antipsychotic effects on cortical structures in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) have findings that vary between the short and long term. In particular, there has not been a study exploring the effects of atypical antipsychotics on age-related cortical structural changes in SZ and BD. This study aimed to determine whether mid- to long-term atypical antipsychotic treatment (mean duration = 20 months) is associated with cortical structural changes and whether age-related cortical structural changes are affected by atypical antipsychotics. Structural magnetic resonance imaging images were obtained from 445 participants consisting of 88 medicated patients (67 with SZ, 21 with BD), 84 unmedicated patients (50 with SZ, 34 with BD), and 273 healthy controls (HC). Surface-based analyses were employed to detect differences in thickness and area among the three groups. We examined the age-related effects of atypical antipsychotics after excluding the potential effects of illness duration. Significant differences in cortical thickness were observed in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and insular areas and the isthmus of the cingulate gyrus. The medicated group showed greater cortical thinning in these regions than the unmediated group and HC; furthermore, there were age-related differences in the effects of atypical antipsychotics, and these effects did not relate to illness duration. Moreover, cortical thinning was significantly correlated with lower symptom scores and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) deficits in patients. After false discovery rate correction, cortical thinning in the right middle temporal gyrus in patients was significantly positively correlated with lower HAMD scores. The unmedicated group showed only greater frontotemporal thickness than the HC group. Mid- to long-term atypical antipsychotic use may adversely affect cortical thickness over the course of treatment and ageing and may also result in worsening cognitive function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.579139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7758211PMC
December 2020

Transdiagnostic time-varying dysconnectivity across major psychiatric disorders.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Mar 19;42(4):1182-1196. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) analysis can capture time-varying properties of connectivity. However, studies on large samples using DFC to investigate transdiagnostic dysconnectivity across schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD) are rare. In this study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and a sliding-window method to study DFC in a total of 610 individuals (150 with SZ, 100 with BD, 150 with MDD, and 210 healthy controls [HC]) at a single site. Using k-means clustering, DFCs were clustered into three functional connectivity states: one was a more frequent state with moderate positive and negative connectivity (State 1), and the other two were less frequent states with stronger positive and negative connectivity (State 2 and State 3). Significant 4-group differences (SZ, BD, MDD, and HC groups; q < .05, false-discovery rate [FDR]-corrected) in DFC were nearly only in State 1. Post hoc analyses (q < .05, FDR-corrected) in State 1 showed that transdiagnostic dysconnectivity patterns among SZ, BD and MDD featured consistently decreased connectivity within most networks (the visual, somatomotor, salience and frontoparietal networks), which was most obvious in both range and extent for SZ. Our findings suggest that there is more common dysconnectivity across SZ, BD and MDD than we previously expected and that such dysconnectivity is state-dependent, which provides new insights into the pathophysiological mechanism of major psychiatric disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7856647PMC
March 2021

Correction: Identifying and validating subtypes within major psychiatric disorders based on frontal-posterior functional imbalance via deep learning.

Mol Psychiatry 2020 Nov 17. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-00938-6DOI Listing
November 2020

Disrupted Intersubject Variability Architecture in Functional Connectomes in Schizophrenia.

Schizophr Bull 2020 Nov 2. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.

Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a highly heterogeneous disorder with remarkable intersubject variability in clinical presentations. Previous neuroimaging studies in SCZ have primarily focused on identifying group-averaged differences in the brain connectome between patients and healthy controls (HCs), largely neglecting the intersubject differences among patients. We acquired whole-brain resting-state functional MRI data from 121 SCZ patients and 183 HCs and examined the intersubject variability of the functional connectome (IVFC) in SCZ patients and HCs. Between-group differences were determined using permutation analysis. Then, we evaluated the relationship between IVFC and clinical variables in SCZ. Finally, we used datasets of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) to assess the specificity of IVFC alteration in SCZ. The whole-brain IVFC pattern in the SCZ group was generally similar to that in HCs. Compared with the HC group, the SCZ group exhibited higher IVFC in the bilateral sensorimotor, visual, auditory, and subcortical regions. Moreover, altered IVFC was negatively correlated with age of onset, illness duration, and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores and positively correlated with clinical heterogeneity. Although the SCZ shared altered IVFC in the visual cortex with BD and MDD, the alterations of IVFC in the sensorimotor, auditory, and subcortical cortices were specific to SCZ. The alterations of whole-brain IVFC in SCZ have potential implications for the understanding of the high clinical heterogeneity of SCZ and the future individualized clinical diagnosis and treatment of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbaa155DOI Listing
November 2020

Identifying and validating subtypes within major psychiatric disorders based on frontal-posterior functional imbalance via deep learning.

Mol Psychiatry 2020 Oct 1. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Converging evidence increasingly implicates shared etiologic and pathophysiological characteristics among major psychiatric disorders (MPDs), such as schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). Examining the neurobiology of the psychotic-affective spectrum may greatly advance biological determination of psychiatric diagnosis, which is critical for the development of more effective treatments. In this study, ensemble clustering was developed to identify subtypes within a trans-diagnostic sample of MPDs. Whole brain amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) was used to extract the low-dimensional features for clustering in a total of 944 participants: 581 psychiatric patients (193 with SZ, 171 with BD, and 217 with MDD) and 363 healthy controls (HC). We identified two subtypes with differentiating patterns of functional imbalance between frontal and posterior brain regions, as compared to HC: (1) Archetypal MPDs (60% of MPDs) had increased frontal and decreased posterior ALFF, and decreased cortical thickness and white matter integrity in multiple brain regions that were associated with increased polygenic risk scores and enriched risk gene expression in brain tissues; (2) Atypical MPDs (40% of MPDs) had decreased frontal and increased posterior ALFF with no associated alterations in validity measures. Medicated Archetypal MPDs had lower symptom severity than their unmedicated counterparts; whereas medicated and unmedicated Atypical MPDs had no differences in symptom scores. Our findings suggest that frontal versus posterior functional imbalance as measured by ALFF is a novel putative trans-diagnostic biomarker differentiating subtypes of MPDs that could have implications for precision medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-00892-3DOI Listing
October 2020

Cryo-EM structure of an activated VIP1 receptor-G protein complex revealed by a NanoBiT tethering strategy.

Nat Commun 2020 08 17;11(1):4121. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

The CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201203, China.

Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor (VIP1R) is a widely expressed class B G protein-coupled receptor and a drug target for the treatment of neuronal, metabolic, and inflammatory diseases. However, our understanding of its mechanism of action and the potential of drug discovery targeting this receptor is limited by the lack of structural information of VIP1R. Here we report a cryo-electron microscopy structure of human VIP1R bound to PACAP27 and Gs heterotrimer, whose complex assembly is stabilized by a NanoBiT tethering strategy. Comparison with other class B GPCR structures reveals that PACAP27 engages VIP1R with its N-terminus inserting into the ligand binding pocket at the transmembrane bundle of the receptor, which subsequently couples to the G protein in a receptor-specific manner. This structure has provided insights into the molecular basis of PACAP27 binding and VIP receptor activation. The methodology of the NanoBiT tethering may help to provide structural information of unstable complexes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17933-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7431577PMC
August 2020

Applying dimensional psychopathology: transdiagnostic associations among regional homogeneity, leptin and depressive symptoms.

Transl Psychiatry 2020 07 22;10(1):248. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Brain Function Research Section, the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, 110001, Shenyang, Liaoning, P.R. China.

Dimensional psychopathology and its neurobiological underpinnings could provide important insights into major psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. In a dimensional transdiagnostic approach, we examined depressive symptoms and their relationships with regional homogeneity and leptin across major psychiatric disorders. A total of 728 participants (including 403 patients with major psychiatric disorders and 325 age-gender-matched healthy controls) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging at a single site. We obtained plasma leptin levels and depressive symptom measures (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD)) within 24 h of scanning and compared the regional homogeneity (ReHo), plasma leptin levels and HAMD total score and factor scores between patients and healthy controls. To reveal the potential relationships, we performed correlational and mediational analyses. Patients with major psychiatric disorders had significant lower ReHo in primary sensory and visual association cortices and higher ReHo in the frontal cortex and angular gyrus; plasma leptin levels were also elevated. Furthermore, ReHo alterations, leptin and HAMD factor scores had significant correlations. We also found that leptin mediated the transdiagnostic relationships among ReHo alterations in primary somatosensory and visual association cortices, core depressive symptoms and body mass index. The transdiagnostic associations we demonstrated support the common neuroanatomical substrates and neurobiological mechanisms. Moreover, leptin could be an important association among ReHo, core depressive symptoms and body mass index, suggesting a potential therapeutic target for dimensional depressive symptoms across major psychiatric disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-00932-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7376105PMC
July 2020

Altered structural connectivity and cytokine levels in Schizophrenia and Genetic high-risk individuals: Associations with disease states and vulnerability.

Schizophr Res 2020 09 17;223:158-165. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Psychiatry, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, PR China; Brain Function Research Section, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, PR China; Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, PR China; Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Alterations of white matter (WM) integrity have been observed in both schizophrenia (SZ) and individuals at genetic high risk for SZ (GHR-SZ); however, the molecular mechanisms underlying WM disruption remain unclear. Cytokines are chemical messengers of the immune system that are closely related to inflammation and neurogenesis in the brain. This study aimed to identify abnormalities in WM integrity, cytokine levels, and their association in SZ and GHR-SZ.

Methods: A total of 355 participants (126 with SZ, 99 GHR-SZ, and 130 healthy controls [HCs]) were recruited. All participants underwent diffusion tensor imaging and blood samples were obtained from 113 participants within 24 h of imaging.

Results: In SZ, there was decreased fractional anisotropy(FA) in the genu and body of the corpus callosum (GCC/BCC), anterior corona radiata, anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule (ALIC/PLIC), superior fronto-occipital fasciculus, external capsule, and fornix, and elevated IL-6 levels. In both SZ and GHR-SZ, decreased FA in the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC), posterior corona radiate (PCR), and posterior thalamic radiation (PTR) was observed, and elevated leptin levels were present. Additionally, the IL-6 levels were negatively correlated with FA in the GCC and ALIC in SZ, and leptin levels were negatively correlated with the SCC, PCR, and PTR in SZ and GHR-SZ.

Conclusions: Abnormal WM integrity in SZ may reflect the state of disease and is associated with increased IL-6 levels. In addition, these leptin-associated WM integrity abnormalities in both SZ and GHR-SZ may reflect a genetic vulnerability to SZ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2020.05.044DOI Listing
September 2020

[Changes of Gene Expression Profile in Cardiac Mesenchymal Cells in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Screening of Their Related Environmental Chemicals].

Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2020 Feb;42(1):37-46

School of Public Health,Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine,Xianyang,Shaanxi 712046,China.

To study the gene expression of cardiac mesenchymal cells in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)based on a whole-genome high-throughput sequencing dataset,screen differentially expressed genes,analyze the genetics signature of cardiac mesenchymal cells in T2DM patients by bioinformatics analysis,and explore the environmental chemicals related to the key differentially expressed genes. The dataset GSE106177 was obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database.The dataset was pre-processed and analyzed by Network Analyst,Cytoscape 3.7.1,String11.0,CTD,and HMDD for screening for differentially expressed genes,enrichment analysis,establishment of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks,and screening for relevant environmental chemicals. The gene expression pattern of cardiac mesenchymal cells in T2DM patients was significantly different from that in the control group.There were 135 differentially expressed genes,of which 58 (42.96%) were up-regulated and 77 (57.04%) were down-regulated.The differentially expressed genes mainly participated in biological processes such as multicellular organism development,anatomical structure development,and system development and were mainly involved in hepatocellular carcinoma,Cushing's syndrome,and cholesterol metabolism.PPI network showed that UBC was the core protein node.The microRNA-Gene interaction network showed that seven microRNAs,represented by hsa-mir-8485,interacted with the differentially expressed genes.Key T2DM related genes such as UBC,DNER,and CNTN1 interacted with bisphenol A. The gene expression profile of cardiac mesenchymal cells markedly changes in T2DM patients,during which UBC may play an important biological role.Bisphenol A exposure may also affect the development and normal function of cardiac cells in T2DM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3881/j.issn.1000-503X.11497DOI Listing
February 2020

Age-Related Alterations of White Matter Integrity in Adolescents and Young Adults With Bipolar Disorder.

Front Psychiatry 2019 28;10:1010. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Background: Alterations of white matter integrity during adolescence/young adulthood may contribute to the neurodevelopmental pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD), but it remains unknown how white matter integrity changes in BD patients during this critical period of brain development. In the present study, we aimed to identify possible age-associated alterations of white matter integrity in adolescents and young adults with BD across the age range of 13-30 years.

Methods: We divided the participants into two groups by age as follows: adolescent group involving individuals of 13-21 years old (39 patients with BD and 39 healthy controls) and young adult group involving individuals of 22-30 years old (47 patients with BD and 47 healthy controls). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed in all participants to assess white matter integrity.

Results: In the adolescent group, compared to those of healthy controls, fractional anisotropy (FA) values were significantly lower in BD patients in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, splenium of the corpus callosum and posterior thalamic radiation. In the young adult group, BD patients showed significantly decreased FA values in the bilateral uncinate fasciculus, genu of the corpus callosum, right anterior limb of internal capsule and fornix compared to healthy controls. White matter impairments changed from the posterior brain to the anterior brain representing a back-to-front spatiotemporal directionality in an age-related pattern.

Conclusions: Our findings provide neuroimaging evidence supporting a back-to-front spatiotemporal directionality of the altered development of white matter integrity associated with age in BD patients during adolescence/young adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.01010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6997540PMC
January 2020

Altered resting-state dynamic functional brain networks in major depressive disorder: Findings from the REST-meta-MDD consortium.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 7;26:102163. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Department of Psychiatry, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 139 Middle Renmin Road, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China; Mental Health Institute, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China. Electronic address:

Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is known to be characterized by altered brain functional connectivity (FC) patterns. However, whether and how the features of dynamic FC would change in patients with MDD are unclear. In this study, we aimed to characterize dynamic FC in MDD using a large multi-site sample and a novel dynamic network-based approach.

Methods: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired from a total of 460 MDD patients and 473 healthy controls, as a part of the REST-meta-MDD consortium. Resting-state dynamic functional brain networks were constructed for each subject by a sliding-window approach. Multiple spatio-temporal features of dynamic brain networks, including temporal variability, temporal clustering and temporal efficiency, were then compared between patients and healthy subjects at both global and local levels.

Results: The group of MDD patients showed significantly higher temporal variability, lower temporal correlation coefficient (indicating decreased temporal clustering) and shorter characteristic temporal path length (indicating increased temporal efficiency) compared with healthy controls (corrected p < 3.14×10). Corresponding local changes in MDD were mainly found in the default-mode, sensorimotor and subcortical areas. Measures of temporal variability and characteristic temporal path length were significantly correlated with depression severity in patients (corrected p < 0.05). Moreover, the observed between-group differences were robustly present in both first-episode, drug-naïve (FEDN) and non-FEDN patients.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that excessive temporal variations of brain FC, reflecting abnormal communications between large-scale bran networks over time, may underlie the neuropathology of MDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7229351PMC
February 2021

Elevated glutamate, glutamine and GABA levels and reduced taurine level in a schizophrenia model using an in vitro proton nuclear magnetic resonance method.

Am J Transl Res 2019 15;11(9):5919-5931. Epub 2019 Sep 15.

Department of Psychiatry, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University Shenyang, Liaoning, P. R. China.

Accumulating evidence suggests that brain metabolic changes may be associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Both and studies have found glutamatergic and GABAergic abnormalities in different brain regions of individuals with schizophrenia. We report a longitudinal behavioral study in a methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) rat model of schizophrenia at three different age periods: prepuberty, late-puberty and early-adulthood. MAM-treated rats showed stable hypolocomotive activity, anxiety and cognitive deficits from late-puberty to early-adulthood. Therefore we detected the metabolites changes of adult MAM-treated rats using an proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR) method. In the MAM-treated rats, glutamate was increased in the thalamus and hypothalamus, glutamine was increased in the hippocampus and GABA was increased in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, while taurine showed a decrease in the striatum, temporal cortex and parietal cortex. These abnormalities may be helped further understanding the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6789232PMC
September 2019

Neurobiological commonalities and distinctions among 3 major psychiatric disorders: a graph theoretical analysis of the structural connectome

J Psychiatry Neurosci 2020 01;45(1):15-22

From the Department of Psychiatry, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China (S. Wang, Duan, Yin, Tang, F. Wang); the State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning & IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China (Gong, Zhong); the Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China (Chang, Wei, Jiang, F. Wang); the Brain Function Research Section, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China (S. Wang, Duan, Chang, Wei, Jiang, Zhou, Tang, F. Wang); and the Department of Gerontology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China (Zhou, Tang).

Background: White matter network alterations have increasingly been implicated in major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to identify shared and distinct white matter network alterations among the 3 disorders.

Methods: We used analysis of covariance, with age and gender as covariates, to investigate white matter network alterations in 123 patients with schizophrenia, 123 with bipolar disorder, 124 with major depressive disorder and 209 healthy controls.

Results: We found significant group differences in global network efficiency (F = 3.386, p = 0.018), nodal efficiency (F = 8.015, p < 0.001 corrected for false discovery rate [FDR]) and nodal degree (F = 5.971, pFDR < 0.001) in the left middle occipital gyrus, as well as nodal efficiency (F = 6.930, pFDR < 0.001) and nodal degree (F = 5.884, pFDR < 0.001) in the left postcentral gyrus. We found no significant alterations in patients with major depressive disorder. Post hoc analyses revealed that compared with healthy controls, patients in the schizophrenia and bipolar disorder groups showed decreased global network efficiency, nodal efficiency and nodal degree in the left middle occipital gyrus. Furthermore, patients in the schizophrenia group showed decreased nodal efficiency and nodal degree in the left postcentral gyrus compared with healthy controls.

Limitations: Our findings could have been confounded in part by treatment differences.

Conclusion: Our findings implicate graded white matter network alterations across the 3 disorders, enhancing our understanding of shared and distinct pathophysiological mechanisms across diagnoses and providing vital insights into neuroimaging-based methods for diagnosis and research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/jpn.180162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6919917PMC
January 2020

Relationship Between White Matter Integrity and Plasma Leptin Levels in Drug-Naïve and Medicated Patients With Major Depressive Disorder.

Front Neurosci 2019 12;13:707. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Department of Psychiatry, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Many previous studies have noticed obvious alterations in different white matter tracts among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Growing evidence also strongly suggest a role of leptin in the pathogenesis of MDD, but with conflicting results of leptin levels. However, no previous studies have examined the relationship between leptin and white matter integrity of patients with MDD. Therefore, we aimed in this study to investigate the relationship between white matter alterations and plasma leptin levels in both drug-naïve and medicated MDD patients. We measured plasma leptin levels and white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and voxel-based analysis (VBA) in 140 participants (40 drug-naïve MDD patients; 40 medicated MDD patients; 60 healthy controls) aged between 18 and 49 years old. A significant reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) value in the dorsomedial thalamus was found for both drug-naïve and medicated MDD patients compared to the healthy non-depressed participants ( < 0.01, corrected). In addition, leptin levels were significantly higher in the drug-naïve MDD patients and were negatively correlated with the detected white matter alteration. Our results suggest that the elevated plasma leptin levels in the drug-naïve MDD group might be associated with the changes of the white matter integrity in the dorsomedial thalamus region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2019.00707DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6639733PMC
July 2019

Reduced default mode network functional connectivity in patients with recurrent major depressive disorder.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 04 12;116(18):9078-9083. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Center for Cognition and Brain Disorders, Institutes of Psychological Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 311121, China;

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is common and disabling, but its neuropathophysiology remains unclear. Most studies of functional brain networks in MDD have had limited statistical power and data analysis approaches have varied widely. The REST-meta-MDD Project of resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) addresses these issues. Twenty-five research groups in China established the REST-meta-MDD Consortium by contributing R-fMRI data from 1,300 patients with MDD and 1,128 normal controls (NCs). Data were preprocessed locally with a standardized protocol before aggregated group analyses. We focused on functional connectivity (FC) within the default mode network (DMN), frequently reported to be increased in MDD. Instead, we found decreased DMN FC when we compared 848 patients with MDD to 794 NCs from 17 sites after data exclusion. We found FC reduction only in recurrent MDD, not in first-episode drug-naïve MDD. Decreased DMN FC was associated with medication usage but not with MDD duration. DMN FC was also positively related to symptom severity but only in recurrent MDD. Exploratory analyses also revealed alterations in FC of visual, sensory-motor, and dorsal attention networks in MDD. We confirmed the key role of DMN in MDD but found reduced rather than increased FC within the DMN. Future studies should test whether decreased DMN FC mediates response to treatment. All R-fMRI indices of data contributed by the REST-meta-MDD consortium are being shared publicly via the R-fMRI Maps Project.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1900390116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6500168PMC
April 2019

[Community characteristics and canopy structure of pine-oak forest at the Lingkong Mountain in Shanxi, China].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2019 Jan;30(1):49-57

College of Environmental Science and Resources, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China.

We conducted a field investigation at 400 10 m×10 m quadrats in a 4-hm plot of mixed forest dominated by pine (Pinus tabuliformis) and oak (Quercus wutaishanica), which was established in 2011 in the Lingkong Mountain of Shanxi Province, China. The community characteristics in the year of 2016 were analyzed. The digital hemisphere photograph (DHP) approach was employed to measure the canopy structure and the understory light parameters. The results showed that a total of 5558 individuals of trees of 25 species from 15 genera and 10 families were recorded. The canopy openness (CO) varied from 15.0% to 25.0%, the leaf area index (LAI) varied from 1.5 to 2.5, and the understory light parameters varied from 10.0% to 30.0%. The distribution of dominant species drove the canopy structure and the undergrowth light factors. The canopy structure defined the impacts of light factors in the forest. The leaf area index was more optimal in describing the canopy’s dynamic function. The canopy openness and leaf area index were negatively correlated to understory light availability, especially to the abundance of the incident rays of diffused light. Since the canopy structure was relatively uniform in the temperate pine-oak mixed forest, the understory light spots generally distributed in clusters. The tree species and canopy structure had significant effects on light environment in the forest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.201901.027DOI Listing
January 2019

Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) may be associated with cognitive impairment in schizophrenia: a correlation study.

BMC Psychiatry 2019 01 17;19(1):30. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Psychiatry, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, 110001, People's Republic of China.

Background: Cognitive impairments are prominent in schizophrenia (SZ). Imaging studies have demonstrated that functional changes of several areas of the brain exist in SZ patients. The relationships between these two indexes are largely unexplored in SZ. The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) was used to measure cognitive impairment in multi-dimensional cognitive fields of SZ patients. This study was conducted to explore the relationship between cognitive functional impairment and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in SZ patients.

Method: A total of 104 participants (44 SZ patients and 60 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC)) were recruited for this study. The MCCB was used to assess cognitive function of the participants, while brain activity was assessed using the ALFF. The relationship between the MCCB and the ALFF was investigated by using a correlation analysis.

Results: There were significant differences between SZ patients and HC in MCCB total and domain scores as well as in ALFF results. The reduction of ALFF in the bilateral postcentral gyri and paracentral lobule in SZ patients has a negative correlation with the MCCB sub-test of symbol coding.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that the reduction of ALFF in bilateral postcentral gyri and paracentral lobule may be related to cognitive impairment in SZ patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-018-1992-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6337807PMC
January 2019

Dynamic changes of functional segregation and integration in vulnerability and resilience to schizophrenia.

Hum Brain Mapp 2019 05 15;40(7):2200-2211. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of Psychiatry, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, People's Republic of China.

Schizophrenia (SZ) is a highly heritable disease with neurodevelopmental origins and significant functional brain network dysfunction. Functional network is heavily influenced by neurodevelopment processes and can be characterized by the degree of segregation and integration. This study examines functional segregation and integration in SZ and their first-degree relatives (high risk [HR]) to better understand the dynamic changes in vulnerability and resiliency, and disease markers. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data acquired from 137 SZ, 89 HR, and 210 healthy controls (HCs). Small-worldness σ was computed at voxel level to quantify balance between segregation and integration. Interregional functional associations were examined based on Euclidean distance between regions and reflect degree of segregation and integration. Distance strength maps were used to localize regions of altered distance-based functional connectivity. σ was significantly decreased in SZ compared to HC, with no differences in high risk (HR). In three-group comparison, significant differences were noted in short-range connectivity (primarily in the primary sensory, motor and their association cortices, and the thalamus) and medium/long-range connectivity (in the prefrontal cortices [PFCs]). Decreased short- and increased medium/long-range connectivity was found in SZ. Decreased short-range connectivity was seen in SZ and HR, while HR had decreased medium/long-range connectivity. We observed disrupted balance between segregation and integration in SZ, whereas relatively preserved in HR. Similarities and differences between SZ and HR, specific changes of SZ were found. These might reflect dynamic changes of segregation in primary cortices and integration in PFCs in vulnerability and resilience, and disease markers in SZ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.24518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6865589PMC
May 2019

Shared and Distinct Functional Architectures of Brain Networks Across Psychiatric Disorders.

Schizophr Bull 2019 03;45(2):450-463

Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, PR China.

Brain network alterations have increasingly been implicated in schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about the similarities and differences in functional brain networks among patients with SCZ, BD, and MDD. A total of 512 participants (121 with SCZ, 100 with BD, 108 with MDD, and 183 healthy controls, matched for age and sex) completed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging at a single site. Four global measures (the clustering coefficient, the characteristic shortest path length, the normalized clustering coefficient, and the normalized characteristic path length) were computed at a voxel level to quantify segregated and integrated configurations. Inter-regional functional associations were examined based on the Euclidean distance between regions. Distance strength maps were used to localize regions with altered distances based on functional connectivity. Patient groups exhibited shifts in their network architectures toward randomized configurations, with SCZ>BD>MDD in the degree of randomization. Patient groups displayed significantly decreased short-range connectivity and increased medium-/long-range connectivity. Decreases in short-range connectivity were similar across the SZ, BD, and MDD groups and were primarily distributed in the primary sensory and association cortices and the thalamus. Increases in medium-/long-range connectivity were differentially localized within the prefrontal cortices among the patient groups. We highlight shared and distinct connectivity features in functional brain networks among patients with SCZ, BD, and MDD, which expands our understanding of the common and distinct pathophysiological mechanisms and provides crucial insights into neuroimaging-based methods for the early diagnosis of and interventions for psychiatric disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sby046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6403059PMC
March 2019

Local functional connectivity alterations in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.

J Affect Disord 2018 08 10;236:266-273. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Department of Psychiatry, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001, PR China; Brain Function Research Section, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001, PR China; Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Local functional connectivity (FC) indicates local or short-distance functional interactions and may serve as a neuroimaging marker to investigate the human brain connectome. Local FC alterations suggest a disrupted balance in the local functionality of the whole brain network and are increasingly implicated in schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD).

Methods: We aim to examine the similarities and differences in the local FC across SZ, BD, and MDD. In total, 537 participants (SZ, 126; BD, 97; MDD, 126; and healthy controls, 188) completed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging at a single site. The local FC at resting state was calculated and compared across SZ, BD, and MDD.

Results: The local FC increased across SZ, BD, and MDD within the bilateral orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and additional region in the left OFC extending to putamen and decreased in the primary visual, auditory, and motor cortices, right supplemental motor area, and bilateral thalami. There was a gradient in the extent of alterations such that SZ > BD > MDD.

Limitations: This cross-sectional study cannot consider medications and other clinical variables.

Conclusions: These findings indicate a disrupted balance between network integration and segregation in SZ, BD, and MDD, including over-integration via increased local FC in the OFC and diminished segregation of neural processing with the weakening of the local FC in the primary sensory cortices and thalamus. The shared local FC abnormalities across SZ, BD, and MDD may shed new light on the potential biological mechanisms underlying these disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.069DOI Listing
August 2018

High myopia in Greater Beijing School Children in 2016.

PLoS One 2017 9;12(11):e0187396. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty Mannheim of the Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Seegartenklinik Heidelberg, Germany.

Purpose: To assess prevalence and associated factors of myopia and high myopia in schoolchildren in Greater Beijing.

Methods: The school-based, cross-sectional Greater Beijing School Children Myopia study was carried out in the year 2016 in 54 schools randomly selected from 15 districts in Beijing. Non-cycloplegic auto-refractometry of the right eyes was performed.

Results: The study included 35,745 (99.4%) out of 35,968 eligible pupils with a mean age of 12.6±3.4 years (range 6-18 years). Prevalence of myopia defined as myopic refractive error of ≥-0.50 diopters (D),≥-1D,≥-6D,≥-8D and ≥-10D was 70.9%(95% confidence intervals (CI):70.5,71.4), 60.9% (95%CI:60.4,61.4), 8.6%(95%CI:8.4,8.9), 2.2%(95%CI:2.0,2.4), and 0.3% (95%CI:0.3,0.4), respectively. The frequency of high myopia (≥-6D, ≥-8D, ≥-10D) increased from 1.5% (95%CI:1.0,2.0), 0.4% (95%CI:0.1,0.6) and 0.1% (95%CI:0.00,0.02), respectively in 10-year-olds to 19.4% (95%CI:17.3,21.6), 5.2% (95%CI:4.0,6.4) and 0.9% (95%CI:0.4,1.5), respectively, in 18-year-olds. Mean refractive error in the 18-year-olds was -3.74±2.56D (median:-3.63D;range:-19.6D to + 6.25D). Higher prevalence of high myopia (≥-6D and ≥-8D) was correlated (all P<0.001) with older age (OR:1.18, and 1.15, respectively), female gender (OR: 1.44 and 1.40, respectively), higher body mass index (OR: 1.02 and 1.03, respectively), taller body height (OR: 1.03 and 1.02, respectively), urban region of habitation (OR: 1.26 and 1.33, respectively) and higher school type (OR:1.57 and 2.22, respectively). Prevalence of severe high myopia (≥-10D) was associated only with older age (P<0.001; OR: 1.44; 95%CI: 1.31, 1.59) but not with any education-related parameter such as higher school type (P = 0.48), urban region of habitation (P = 0.07) or female gender (P = 0.37).

Conclusion: In this most recent survey, prevalence of high myopia (≥-6D:19.4%;≥-8D:5.2%;≥-10D:0.9%) in 18-year-old school children was higher than in previous surveys from mainland China. In contrast to minor high myopia and moderate high myopia (defined as myopic refractive error of <-10D), severe high myopia (myopic refractive error ≥-10D) was not strongly correlated with educational parameters.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0187396PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5679536PMC
November 2017

Polyethylene glycol modified PAMAM dendrimer delivery of kartogenin to induce chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

Nanomedicine 2017 Oct 1;13(7):2189-2198. Epub 2017 Jun 1.

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, China; School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, China. Electronic address:

Partly PEGylated polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer was used as the nanocarrier for the cytoplasmic delivery of kartogenin (KGN) to induce chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Here, KGN was conjugated to the surface of PAMAM and the end group of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to obtain PEG-PAMAM-KGN (PPK) and KGN-PEG-PAMAM (KPP) conjugate, respectively. The effects of PPK and KPP on the in vitro chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs were evaluated. KPP induced higher expression of chondrogenic markers than PPK and free KGN. In particular, after treatment of KPP, CBF β nuclear localization intensity was significantly increased, indicating enhanced efficacy of chondrogenesis. The fluorescein labeled PEG-PAMAM was capable to persist in the joint cavity for a prolonged time of both healthy and osteoarthritis (OA) rats. Thus, PEG-PAMAM could be a useful nanocarrier for intra-articular (IA) delivery of drug to treat OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nano.2017.05.011DOI Listing
October 2017

Positive expression of KIF20A indicates poor prognosis of glioma patients.

Onco Targets Ther 2016 2;9:6741-6749. Epub 2016 Nov 2.

Department of Neurosurgery, Suining Central Hospital, Suining, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Glioma patients have a poor overall survival; however, patients can show distinct clinical outcomes due to the high heterogeneity of the tumor, which may be indicated by certain clinicobiological parameters. Kinesin family member 20A (KIF20A), which participates in cytokinesis and intracellular transportation, has been recently reported to be upregulated in pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, and bladder cancer. In the current study, we investigated the expression of KIF20A in gliomas and its significance in predicting the prognosis after surgery. We found that KIF20A positive expression in glioma tissues correlated significantly with Ki67 protein expression and advanced World Health Organization grade. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that KIF20A can act as an independent prognostic factor for predicting the overall survival of glioma patients. Moreover, we demonstrated that KIF20A can positively regulate the expression of Ki67 in glioma cell lines. Correspondingly, overexpression of KIF20A can promote cell proliferation and invasion, whereas knockdown of KIF20A can inhibit cell viability and invasion capacity. In vitro study also showed that under the treatment of plumbagin, an anticancer drug, KIF20A expression decreased in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the overexpression of KIF20A can also increase the drug resistance toward plumbagin, which provided the possibility that KIF20A may contribute to the chemotherapy resistance of gliomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S115974DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5098585PMC
November 2016

Prevalence and associated factors of myopia in high-school students in Beijing.

PLoS One 2015 24;10(3):e0120764. Epub 2015 Mar 24.

School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Epidemiology, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Purpose: To evaluate prevalence and associated factors for myopia in high school students in Beijing.

Methods: Grade 10 and 11 high school students were randomly selected from nine randomly selected districts of Beijing. The students underwent non-cylcoplegic auto-refractometry and an interview.

Results: Out of 4798 eligible students, 4677 (93.4%) students (mean age:16.9±0.7years;range:16-18 years) participated. Mean refractive error of right eyes and left eyes was -2.78±2.29 diopters and -2.59±2.50 diopters, respectively. Prevalence of myopia (defined as ≤ -1.00 diopters in the worse eye) was 80.7% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 79.6-81.8%). Out of 3773 students with myopia, 1525 (40.4%) wore glasses daily. In multiple logistic regression analysis, a higher prevalence of myopia was associated with female sex (odds ratio (OR) = 1.31;95%CI:1.11-1.55), Han ethnicity (OR = 1.64;95%CI:1.28-2.11), attending key schools (OR = 1.48;95%CI:1.24,1.77), higher family income (OR = 1.37;95%CI:1.09-1.71), longer time spent for near work (OR = 1.43;95%CI:1.06-1.93), shorter near work distance (OR = 1.87;95%CI:1.55-2.26), lower frequency of active rest during studying (OR = 1.40;95%CI:1.16-1.70), and parental myopia (OR = 2.28;95%CI:1.80-2.87). The interaction between distance from near work and time spent for near work was statistically (P = 0.03) significant. In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher prevalence of high myopia (≤-6.0 diopters) was associated with studying in key schools (OR = 1.38;95%CI:1.05,1.81), lower frequency of active rest during studying (OR = 1.40;95%CI:1.09,1.79), and a higher number of myopic parents (OR = 2.66;95%CI:2.08,3.40).

Conclusions: A prevalence of about 80% for myopia and a prevalence of about 10% for high myopia in students aged 16 to 18 years and attending classes of grade 10 and 11 in a Chinese metropolitan region is another example of the high prevalence of moderate and high myopia in metropolitan areas of China. With this young myopic generation getting older, myopia as cause for visual impairment and blindness may further increase in importance. Future studies may address whether active rests during studying with looking into the distance are preventive against myopia development or progression.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0120764PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4372519PMC
February 2016

Prevalence of myopia in school children in greater Beijing: the Beijing Childhood Eye Study.

Acta Ophthalmol 2014 Aug 28;92(5):e398-406. Epub 2013 Oct 28.

Purpose: To determine the prevalence of myopia in school children in Greater Beijing.

Methods: The Beijing Childhood Eye Study was a school-based cross-sectional study. One school of each level (primary, junior high, senior high) was randomly selected from nine randomly selected districts of Greater Beijing. The children underwent non-cycloplegic refractometry and their parents an interview.

Results: Of 16 771 eligible students, 15 066 (89.8%) children with a mean age of 13.2 ± 3.4 years (range: 7-18 years) participated. Prevalence of myopia defined as refractive error of ≤-0.50 diopters (D), ≤-1.00 D, ≤-6.00 D and ≤-8.00 D in the right eye was 64.9 ± 0.4%, 53.0 ± 0.4%, 4.3 ± 0.2% and 1.0 ± 0.1% respectively. In multivariate analysis, prevalence of myopia was significantly (p < 0.001) associated with higher age, female gender, urban region and school type. Prevalence of myopia of ≤-1.00 D and of ≤-8.0 D increased from 9.7% and 0% in 7 year olds, respectively, to 74.2% and 1.8% in 17- or 18 year olds respectively. The latter figure was already similar (p = 0.39) to the prevalence of high myopia in the elderly Beijing Eye Study population (1.6%). In a subset of 1082 children undergoing cycloplegia, difference in refractive error between prior to and after cycloplegia was 0.31 ± 0.47 diopters.

Conclusions: On the basis of previous investigations from China, our study indicated an ongoing myopic shift in the young generation. Since the prevalence of high myopia in children aged 17 or 18 years was already similar to the one in the elderly Beijing population, the data prognosticate an increase in vision threatening high myopia in the future adult population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.12299DOI Listing
August 2014

Identification of additive components in powdered milk by NIR imaging methods.

Food Chem 2014 Feb 4;145:278-83. Epub 2013 Jul 4.

College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, PR China; Third Class Tobacco Supervision Station, Beijing 101121, PR China.

The express assay of excessive additives in powdered milk is of vital necessity, especially during industrial production. Near-infrared microscopy provides chemical information on the spatial distribution and cluster side of components in milk-based products when materials are mixed together. Distributions of two additive components and one banned chemical in powdered milk were simulated in this study. The distribution of inorganic additive ZnSO4 was identified using the relationship imaging mode. The distribution image of lactose was obtained by assigning the wavenumber region and by using principal component analysis coupled with correlation coefficient imaging. In addition, classical least square regression was employed to quantify the banned additive, melamine, in the powdered milk. Lastly, the detection limit of melamine in powdered milk was determined using the relationship imaging mode.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.06.116DOI Listing
February 2014

Factors associated with myopia in school children in China: the Beijing childhood eye study.

PLoS One 2012 27;7(12):e52668. Epub 2012 Dec 27.

Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Purpose: To assess factors associated with myopia in school children in rural and urban parts of Greater Beijing.

Methods: The Beijing Pedriatic Eye Study was a population-based cross-sectional study, in which one school of each level (primary, junior high, senior high) was randomly selected from nine randomly selected districts out of 18 districts of Greater Beijing. The children underwent non-cylcoplegic refractometry and their parents an interview.

Results: Of 16,771 eligible students, 15,066 (89.8%) children (7,769 (51.6%) girls) participated, with 8,860 (58.8%) participants living in the rural region. Mean age was 13.2±3.4 years (range:7-18 years). In multivariate analysis, prevalence of myopia (defined as ≤-1.00 diopters) was associated with higher age (Odds ratio(OR):1.37; 95% confidence interval(CI):1.35,1.39), female gender (OR:1.35;95%CI:1.25,1.47), key school type (OR:0.77;95%CI: 0.70,0.85), higher family income (OR:1.04;95%CI:1.01,1.07), parental myopia (OR:1.46;95%CI:1.40,1.53), dim reading illumination (OR:0.93;95%CI: 0.88,0.98), longer daily studying duration (OR:1.10;95%CI:1.06,1.15), shorter duration of watching television (or computer) (OR:0.93;95%CI:0.89,0.97), higher self-reported protein intake (OR:0.94;95%CI:0.90,0.99), feeling well about life and status (OR:0.93;95%CI:0.89,0.98), and feeling tired or dizzy (OR:0.94;95%CI:0.91,0.97). Prevalence of high myopia (defined as ≤-6.00 diopters) was associated with higher age (OR:1.43;95%CI:1.38, 1.48), key school type (OR:0.61;95%CI:0.49,0.74), family income (OR:1.07;95%CI:1.02,1.13), parental myopia (OR:1.65;95%CI:1.54,1.76), dim reading illumination (OR:0.86;95%CI:0.77,0.96), less rest during studying (OR:1.18;95%CI:1.10,1.27), feeling well about life and studying (OR:0.88;95%CI: 0.81,0.96) and feeling dizzy or tired (OR:0.93;95%CI:0.87,0.99). Prevalence of high myopia (defined as ≤-8.00 diopters) was significantly associated with higher age (OR:1.39;95%CI:1.31,1.48;), key school type (OR:0.61;95%CI:0.42,0.88) and parental myopia (OR:1.87;95%CI:1.66,2.12).

Conclusions: Myopia in school children in Greater Beijing was associated with higher age, female gender, school type, parental myopia, higher socioeconomic background, dim reading illumination, longer daily studying duration, less rest during study, shorter duration of watching television (or computer), higher self-reported protein intake, feeling well about life and status, and feeling tired and dizzy.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0052668PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3531363PMC
June 2013

Sucrose as chiral selector for determining enantiomeric composition of metalaxyl by UV-vis spectroscopy and PLS regression.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2013 Jan 29;101:349-55. Epub 2012 Sep 29.

College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, PR China.

This study revealed that it was possible to determine the enantiomeric composition of with multivariate regression models of spectral data obtained by ordinary UV-vis spectrophotometry of enantiomeric guest-host complexes. The total 60samples involving three concentration levels of metalaxyl as low, medium and high were prepared for spectral collecting. Four methods of modeling were subsequently proposed and compared including two common ways and two compensating ways for variations in total analyte concentration. Firstly, without normalization robust modeling was failed to achieve while employing the medium concentration levels as calibration and the other two levels as a validation. The same case occurred when full-cross validation was conducted. Besides, two enhanced methods were developed to account for the systematic variation. One of which normalized the spectra with respect to the total concentration of enantiomeric, along with spectral data, as a variable in the statistical analysis. The other one ignored variations in total concentration, relying on the specific band normalization to sort out any variations due to total concentration differences. The results clearly demonstrated that the spectra according to concentration provided the acceptable predictive ability in determining enantiomeric composition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2012.09.065DOI Listing
January 2013