Publications by authors named "Ji-chang Zhang"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Krill and salp faecal pellets contribute equally to the carbon flux at the Antarctic Peninsula.

Nat Commun 2021 12 9;12(1):7168. Epub 2021 Dec 9.

Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570, Bremerhaven, Germany.

Krill and salps are important for carbon flux in the Southern Ocean, but the extent of their contribution and the consequences of shifts in dominance from krill to salps remain unclear. We present a direct comparison of the contribution of krill and salp faecal pellets (FP) to vertical carbon flux at the Antarctic Peninsula using a combination of sediment traps, FP production, carbon content, microbial degradation, and krill and salp abundances. Salps produce 4-fold more FP carbon than krill, but the FP from both species contribute equally to the carbon flux at 300 m, accounting for 75% of total carbon. Krill FP are exported to 72% to 300 m, while 80% of salp FP are retained in the mixed layer due to fragmentation. Thus, declining krill abundances could lead to decreased carbon flux, indicating that the Antarctic Peninsula could become a less efficient carbon sink for anthropogenic CO in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-27436-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8660819PMC
December 2021

Feasibility of standardized procedures of white light gastroscopy for clinical practice: A multicenter study in China.

J Dig Dis 2021 Nov;22(11):656-662

Department of Gastroenterology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Objective: We aimed to establish a standardized procedure for white light gastroscopy (WLG) to screen gastric lesions including early gastric cancer (EGC) in China and to verify its efficacy and feasibility in clinical practice.

Methods: A standardized WLG procedure for outpatients at nine tertiary hospitals in Beijing was established. Clinical information of the participants and details of the endoscopic procedures were recorded.

Results: A total of 1051 participants were enrolled in a baseline conventional endoscopic survey between March 2014 and December 2015, while 2156 patients were enrolled in the standardized WLG operation from January 2016 to June 2017. The procedure time of the standardized procedure was significantly longer than that of the baseline conventional procedure (P = 0.003). More images were obtained during the standardized procedure compared with the baseline conventional procedure (P < 0.001). The overall detection rate of gastric lesions in the standardized procedure group was significantly higher than that in the baseline procedure group (52.5% vs 38.4%, P < 0.01). The satisfaction scores of both participants and endoscopists in the standardized procedure group were significantly higher than in the baseline procedure group.

Conclusions: Compared with the conventional procedure, standardized WLG procedure significantly improves the detection rate of gastric lesions as well as the satisfaction score of participants and endoscopists despite its longer procedure time. It is effective and feasible in clinical practice in China for the use of currently available endoscopic equipment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1751-2980.13061DOI Listing
November 2021

[Quantitative evaluation of inhibitory effects of epileptic spikes on theta rhythms in the network of hippocampal CA3 and entorhinal cortex in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy].

Sheng Li Xue Bao 2017 Feb;69(1):77-88

The Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Field and Electrical Apparatus Reliability, Department of Electrical Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130, China.

Epileptic spike is an indicator of hyper-excitability and hyper-synchrony in the neural networks. The inhibitory effects of spikes on theta rhythms (4-8 Hz) might be helpful to understand the mechanism of epileptic damage on the cognitive functions. To quantitatively evaluate the inhibitory effects of spikes on theta rhythms, intracerebral electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings with both sporadic spikes (SSs) and spike-free transient period between adjacent spikes were selected in 4 patients in the status of rapid eyes movement (REM) sleep with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) under the pre-surgical monitoring. The electrodes of hippocampal CA3 and entorhinal cortex (EC) were employed, since CA3 and EC built up one of key loops to investigate cognition and epilepsy. These SSs occurred only in CA3, only in EC, or in both CA3 and EC synchronously. Theta power was respectively estimated around SSs and during the spike-free transient period by Gabor wavelet transform and Hilbert transform. The intermittent extent was then estimated to represent for the loss of theta rhythms during the spike-free transient period. The following findings were obtained: (1) The prominent rhythms were in theta frequency band; (2) The spikes could transiently reduce theta power, and the inhibitory effect was severer around SSs in both CA3 and EC synchronously than that around either SSs only in EC or SSs only in CA3; (3) During the spike-free transient period, theta rhythms were interrupted with the intermittent theta rhythms left and theta power level continued dropping, implying the inhibitory effect was sustained. Additionally, the intermittent extent of theta rhythms was converged to the inhibitory extent around SSs; (4) The average theta power level during the spike-free transient period might not be in line with the inhibitory extent of theta rhythms around SSs. It was concluded that the SSs had negative effects on theta rhythms transiently and directly, the inhibitory effects aroused by SSs sustained during the spike-free transient period and were directly related to the intermittent extent. It was indicated that the loss of theta rhythms might qualify exactly the sustained inhibitory effects on theta rhythms aroused by spikes in EEG. The work provided an argumentation about the relationship between the transient negative impact of interictal spike and the loss of theta rhythms during spike-free activity for the first time, offered an intuitive methodology to estimate the inhibitory effect of spikes by EEG, and might be helpful to the analysis of EEG rhythms based on local field potentials (LFPs) in deep brain.
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February 2017

Down-regulation of microRNA-320 suppresses cardiomyocyte apoptosis and protects against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury by targeting IGF-1.

Oncotarget 2016 Jun;7(26):39740-39757

Department of Cardiology, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130041, P. R. China.

Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is an important regulator of cardiomyocyte homeostasis and cardiac structure, and the prosurvival and antiapoptotic effects of IGF-1 have been investigated. However, the effect of microRNA-320 (miR-320) in ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) by targeting IGF-1 is rarely discussed. We investigated the role of miR-320 in I/R injury. A total of 192 healthy female Wistar rats were divided into eight groups (n = 24). Rat heart I/R model was established. Hemodynamics, infarct size weight (ISW), heart function, and rat cardiomyocyte apoptosis were measured. Hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) in rat cardiomyocyte was used to simulate the I/R process. The mRNA levels of miR-320 and IGF-1, and proteins levels of IGF-1, IGF-1R, p-IGF-1R, p-ASK1, p-JNK, p-p38, Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-3 were measured. In vivo inhibition of miR-320 expression significantly increased IGF-1 and IGF-1R mRNA levels, elevated the absolute values of SBP, DBP, MAP, ± dp/dtmax, LVEF and LVFS, decreased ISW, LVESD and LVEDd and the number of TUNEL positive cells, lowered the levels of p-ASK1, p-JNK, p-p38, Bax and Caspase-3 and increased expression of Bcl-2 compared to the I/R + NC group. Compared to H/R + NC group in vitro, miR-320 inhibition increased IGF-1 mRNA levels, inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis, down-regulated p-ASK, p-JNK, p-p38, Bax and Caspase-3 levels, and up-regulated Bcl-2 level. MiR-320 inhibition target elevated IGF-1 mRNA and protein levels, suppress early cardiomyocyte apoptosis of I/R, and inhibited ASK1-JNK/p38 pathway, which provides a new target for clinical study of I/R injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.9240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5129967PMC
June 2016

Initial clinical experience of CrossBoss catheter for in-stent chronic total occlusion lesions: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Oct;95(40):e5045

Department of Cardiology, Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province, China.

Background: The CrossBoss coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO) crossing catheter has been demonstrated to have greatly improved the success rate of crossing CTO lesions, but there are no published data on its application for in-stent CTO lesions.

Methods: In the current study, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 8 patients with in-stent CTO lesions that were managed with the CrossBoss catheter and herein we report the efficacy and safety of the CrossBoss crossing and re-entry system for this clinically challenging condition.

Results: The CrossBoss catheter was used for 8 patients with in-stent CTO lesions, which resulted in success in 6 cases and failure in 2 cases, with a 75% success rate. Of the 6 patients with successful treatment, 5 cases had the occlusive lesions crossed with the CrossBoss catheter through a proximal lumen-to-distal lumen approach, whereas the remaining case had his occlusive lesions penetrated by the CrossBoss catheter and the guidewire. Two cases failed in treatment as the CrossBoss catheter could not cross the occlusive lesions. The 6 cases with successful treatment included 3 cases with occlusive lesions in the left anterior descending artery, 1 case with occlusive lesions in the obtuse marginal branches, and 2 cases with occlusive lesions in the right coronary artery, and the 2 cases with failure in treatment had their occlusive lesions in the right coronary artery. In addition, patients with a higher Japan chronic total occlusion score were found to have a lower success rate of crossing the occlusive lesions. None of the patients developed complications.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that the CrossBoss catheter has a high success rate and is safe for in-stent CTOs and can be recommended for this rather clinically challenging condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000005045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5059071PMC
October 2016

MicroRNA-130a alleviates human coronary artery endothelial cell injury and inflammatory responses by targeting PTEN via activating PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway.

Oncotarget 2016 Nov;7(44):71922-71936

Department of Cardiology, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130041, Jilin Province, China.

Our study aims to investigate the roles of microRNA-130a (miR-130a) in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) injury and inflammatory responses by targeting PTEN through the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. HCAECs were treated with 1.0 mmol/L homocysteine (HCY) and assigned into eight groups: the blank group, the negative control (NC) group, the miR-130a mimics group, the miR-130a inhibitors group, the si-PTEN group, the Wortmannin group, the miR-130a inhibitors + si-PTEN group and the miR-130a mimics + Wortmannin group. Luciferase reporter gene assay was used to validate the relationship between miR-130a and PTEN. The expressions of miR-130a, PTEN and PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway-related proteins were detected by qRT-PCR assay and Western blotting. MTT assay and Hoechst 33258 staining were adopted to testify cell growth and apoptosis. The NO kit assay was used to detect the NO release. ELISA was conducted to measure serum cytokine levels. Luciferase reporter gene assay confirmed the target relationship between miR-130a and PTEN. Compared with the blank and NC groups, the miR-130a mimics and si-PTEN groups showed significant increases in the expressions of PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway-related proteins, cell viability and the NO release, while serum cytokine levels and cell apoptosis were decreased; by contrast, an opposite trend was observed in miR-130a inhibitors and Wortmannin groups. However, no significant difference was found in the miR-130a inhibitors + si-PTEN and miR-130a mimics + Wortmannin groups when compared with the blank group. These results indicate that miR-130a could alleviate HCAECs injury and inflammatory responses by down-regulating PTEN and activating PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.12431DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5342133PMC
November 2016

Diagnostic Value of Serum YKL-40 Level for Coronary Artery Disease: A Meta-Analysis.

J Clin Lab Anal 2016 Jan;30(1):23-31

Objective: This meta-analysis aimed to identify the value of serum YKL-40 level for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD).

Methods: Through searching the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Library Database (Issue 12, 2013), Web of Science (1945 ∼ 2013), PubMed (1966 ∼ 2013), CINAHL (1982 ∼ 2013), EMBASE (1980 ∼ 2013), and the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM; 1982 ∼ 2013), related articles were determined without any language restrictions. STATA statistical software (Version 12.0, Stata Corporation, College Station, TX) was chosen to deal with statistical data. Standard mean difference (SMD) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated.

Results: Eleven clinical case-control studies that recruited 1,175 CAD patients and 1,261 healthy controls were selected for statistical analysis. The main findings of our meta-analysis showed that serum YKL-40 level in CAD patients was significantly higher than that in control subjects (SMD = 2.79, 95% CI = 1.73 ∼ 3.85, P < 0.001). Ethnicity-stratified analysis indicated a higher serum YKL-40 level in CAD patients than control subjects among China, Korea, and Denmark populations (China: SMD = 2.97, 95% CI = 1.21 ∼ 4.74, P = 0.001; Korea: SMD = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.17 ∼ 1.15, P = 0.008; Denmark: SMD = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.42 ∼ 2.29, P < 0.001; respectively), but not in Turkey (SMD = 4.52, 95% CI = -2.87 ∼ 11.91, P = 0.231).

Conclusion: The present meta-analysis suggests that an elevated serum YKL-40 level may be used as a promising diagnostic tool for early identification of CAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.21804DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6806691PMC
January 2016

Study of novel coating strategy for coronary stents: simutaneous coating of VEGF and anti- CD34 antibody.

Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 2015 Mar-Apr;30(2):159-63

The Second Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China.

Introduction: Intravascular coronary stenting has been used in the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD), with a major limitation of in-stent restenosis (ISR). The 316 stainless steel has been widely used for coronary stents. In this study, we developed a novel coating method to reduce ISR by simultaneously coating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and anti-CD34 antibody on 316L stainless steel.

Methods: Round 316L stainless steel sheets in the D-H group were polymerized with compounds generated from condensation reaction of dopamine and heparin using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Sixteen sheets from the D-H group were further immersed into 1ug/ml VEGF165 and 3mg/ml heparin sodium one after another for 10 times, and named as the D-(H-V)10 group. Eight sheets from the D-(H-V)10 group were coated with anti-CD34 antibody and termed as the D-(H-V)10-A group. Immunofluorescence assay and ELISA were used to evaluate whether the 316L stainless steel disks were successfully coated with VEGF and anti-CD34 antibody.

Results: The results of immunofluorescence assay and ELISA showed that VEGF could be detected in the D-(H-V)10 and D-(H-V)10-A group, suggesting the steel sheets were successfully covered with VEGF. Anti-CD34 antibody could only be observed in the D-(H-V)10-A group, which was the only group coated with CD34 antibody. Both results suggested that the 316L stainless steel sheets were successfully coated with VEGF and anti-CD34 antibody.

Conclusion: Our study developed a method to simultaneously coat VEGF and anti-CD34 antibody to stainless metal steel. This research serves as a fundamental role for a novel coating strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/1678-9741.20150016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4462960PMC
March 2016

Anti-apoptotic effect of microRNA-30b in early phase of rat myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury model.

J Cell Biochem 2015 Nov;116(11):2610-9

Department of Cardiology, the Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 130041, P. R. China.

This study aimed to investigate the effect of microRNA-30b (miR-30b) in rat myocardial ischemic-reperfusion (I/R) injury model. We randomly divided Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n = 80) into five groups: 1) control group; 2) miR-30b group; 3) sham-operated group; 4) I/R group, and 5) I/R+miR-30b group. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis were conducted. TUNEL assay was employed for testing cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Our results showed that miR-30b levels were down-regulated in I/R group and I/R + miR-30b group compared with sham-operated group (both P < 0.05). However, miR-30b level in I/R + miR-30b group was higher than I/R group (P < 0.05). Markedly, the apoptotic rate in I/R group showed highest in I/R group (P < 0.05). Additionally, the results illustrated that protein levels of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 were at higher levels in ischemic regions in I/R group, comparing to sham-operated group (all P < 0.05), while Bcl-2/Bax was reduced (P < 0.05). Bcl-2 level and Bcl-2/Bax were obviously increased in I/R + miR-30b group by comparison with I/R group, and expression levels of Bax and caspase-3 were down-regulated (all P < 0.05). We also found that in I/R + miR-30b group, KRAS level was apparently lower and p-AKT level was higher by comparing with I/R group (both P < 0.05). Our study indicated that miR-30b overexpression had anti-apoptotic effect on early phase of rat myocardial ischemia injury model through targeting KRAS and activating the Ras/Akt pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.25208DOI Listing
November 2015

[Spatial-temporal and environmental effects of catch rate on Antarctic krill fishery in the South Georgia Island in the austral winter season based on the fine scale data].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2014 Aug;25(8):2397-404

The waters around the South Georgia Island is one of the main fishing ground of Antarctic krill fishery and many predators such as sea seal and whale inhabited this island target Antarctic krill as a food source. So it is very important for further understanding Antarctic ecosystem to conduct the research on abundance fluctuation of Antarctic krill resource around this island. Consequently, based on the fine scale fishery data collected in the winter 2013, using the generalized additive model (GAM), the present study analyzed the relationship between environmental factors and the catch rate of Antarctic krill. The results showed the model could explain 32.0% of the accumulation of deviance of the catch rate. The variable that provided the maximum contribution was ten-day with a contribution rate of 21.4% and followed by the latitude (4.4%). Generally, the catch rate decreased from the first 10 days of July to September. Higher catch rates occurred in the eastern fishing ground, particularly the central-eastern part of survey area, and lower catch rates presented in the northern part. The mean catch rate deceased with the increasing change rate of bathymetry. The oceanographic condition with wind scale below 4 was suitable for fishing operation and associated with the higher catch rate, but the wind direction did not significantly affect the catch rate. The mean catch rate increased with the increasing sea surface temperature within 0.5 to 2.0 degrees C.
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August 2014

The protective effect of microRNA-320 on left ventricular remodeling after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat model.

Int J Mol Sci 2014 Sep 29;15(10):17442-56. Epub 2014 Sep 29.

Department of Cardiology, the Second Hospital of Jilin University, Ziqiang Street No. 218, Nanguan District, Changchun 130000, China.

The primary objective of this study investigated the role of microRNA-320 (miR-320) on left ventricular remodeling in the rat model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, and we intended to explore the myocardial mechanism of miR-320-mediated myocardium protection. We collected 120 male Wistar rats (240-280 g) in this study and then randomly divided them into three groups: (1) sham surgery group (sham group: n=40); (2) ischemia-reperfusion model group (I/R group: n=40); and (3) I/R model with antagomir-320 group (I/R+antagomir-320 group: n=40). Value changes of heart function in transesophageal echocardiography were recorded at various time points (day 1, day 3, day 7, day 15 and day 30) after surgery in each group. Myocardial sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and examined with optical microscope. The degree of myocardial fibrosis was assessed by Sirius Red staining. Terminal dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and qRT-PCR methods were used to measure the apoptosis rate and to determine the miR-320 expression levels in myocardial tissues. Transesophageal echocardiography showed that the values of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS), left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and ±dp/dtmax in the I/R group were obviously lower than those in the sham group, while the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) value was higher than that in the sham group. The values of LVEF, LVFS, LVSP and ±dp/dtmax showed a gradual decrease in the I/R group, while the LVEDP value showed an up tendency along with the extension of reperfusion time. The H&E staining revealed that rat myocardial tissue in the I/R group presented extensive myocardial damage; for the I/R+antagomir-320 group, however, the degree of damage in myocardial cells was obviously better than that of the I/R group. The Sirius Red staining results showed that the degree of myocardial fibrosis in the I/R group was more severe along with the extension of the time of reperfusion. For the I/R+antagomir-320 group, the degree of myocardial fibrosis was less severe than that in the I/R group. Tissues samples in both the sham and I/R+antagomir-320 groups showed a lower apoptosis rate compared to I/R group. The qRT-PCR results indicated that miR-320 expression in the I/R group was significantly higher than that in both the sham and I/R+antagomir-320 groups. The expression level of miR-320 is significantly up-regulated in the rat model of myocardial I/R injury, and it may be implicated in the prevention of myocardial I/R injury-triggered left ventricular remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms151017442DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4227171PMC
September 2014

Ghrelin and obestatin levels in hypertensive obese patients.

J Int Med Res 2014 Dec 3;42(6):1202-8. Epub 2014 Sep 3.

Department of Cardiology, Second Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province, China.

Objectives: To investigate plasma total ghrelin and obestatin levels and the ghrelin/obestatin ratio prospectively, in hypertensive obese patients.

Methods: Height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences were measured in hypertensive and normotensive obese patients and matched healthy controls; the body mass index and waist to hip ratio were calculated. Fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was determined. Fasting ghrelin and obestatin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay and the ghrelin/obestatin ratio was calculated.

Results: A total of 38 hypertensive obese patients, 40 normotensive obese patients and 38 controls were enrolled. Hypertensive obese patients had lower plasma levels of ghrelin and obestatin than normotensive obese patients or controls. In addition, normotensive obese patients had lower plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels than controls. In hypertensive obese patients, ghrelin and obestatin levels were negatively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. In normotensive obese patients, ghrelin, obestatin and the ghrelin/obestatin ratio were negatively associated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. In both patient groups, fasting obestatin and ghrelin concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with each other.

Conclusion: Changes in the levels of ghrelin and obestatin may play a role in the pathophysiology of obesity and hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060514543040DOI Listing
December 2014

[Comparison study of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration and transbronchial needle aspiration for the diagnosis of hilar and mediastinal lesions].

Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2013 Jun;45(3):464-8

Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing, China.

Objective: To compare the values of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and TBNA for the diagnosis of hilar and mediastinal lesions.

Methods: The clinical data of 100 patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA (n=50) and TBNA (n=50) between January 2010 and May 2011 were retrospectively reviewed, and the results and complications were recorded.

Results: A total of 121 lesions in the 100 patients were evaluated, the sample yeilds of EBUS-TBNA and TBNA were 90.6% and 78.9% and the diagnostic accuracy rates in the two groups were 90.0% and 72.0%(P=0.022), respectively. No major complications happened. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of EBUS-TBNA were higher and the complication rate was not increased as compared with TBNA.

Conclusion: EBUS-TBNA has a higher diagnostic yield for the evaluation of hilar and mediastinal lesions.
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June 2013

[Effects of probucol, aspirin and atorvastatin combination therapy upon atherosclerosis].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2009 Jul;89(28):1986-8

Department of Cardiology, Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130041, China.

Objective: To investigate the effects of probucol, aspirin and atorvastatin (PAS) combination therapy upon atherosclerosis.

Methods: A total of 436 patients with coronary artery disease were selected and randomly divided into control group (aspirin 100 mg, atorvastatin 10 mg daily) and PAS group (aspirin 100 mg, atorvastatin 10 mg and probucol 0.25 g daily). After a 1-year treatment course, 378 cases remained in the study (201 in control group vs. 177 in PAS group). These patients were followed for throughout the study course and their serum levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL), ox-LDL, TXB2 and MMP-9 were measured at 6 and 12 months respectively. Twenty cases were diagnosed with carotid artery plaque by carotid ultrasound and 16 cases remained in the PAS group. They were followed with ultrasound for plaque thickness.

Results: In the control group, the pre-treatment level of MMPs and ox-LDL were not statistically different from the post-treatment level (P > 0.05). In the PAS group, the pre-treatment level of ox-LDL was (23.46 +/- 0.01) mmol/L and the post-treatment level (16.13 +/- 0.02) mmol/L. There was a decrease of 31.7% (P < 0.05). The pre-treatment level of MMPs and MMP-9 in the control group was not statistically different from the post-treatment level. The pre-treatment level of MMP-9 in the PAS group was (7.15 +/- 0.01) mmol/L and the post-treatment level (4.19 +/- 0.02) mmol/L. There was a decrease of 42.4% (P < 0.05). During the course of follow-up, the hospitalization rate, angina recurrence rate, myocardial infarction rate and mortality rate for the control group were 23 (11.4%), 28 (13.9%), 4 (2.0%) and 2 (1.0%) respectively. In the PAS group, the corresponding values were 6 (3.4%), 13 (7.3%), 1 (0.6%) and 0 respectively. All parameters of adverse events showed a significant decrease in the PAS group (P < 0.05). Among the cases with carotid plaque, the pretreatment measurements of intima thickness and plaque thickness were (0.103 +/- 0.002) cm and (0.248 +/- 0.001) cm while the post-treatment corresponding measurements (0.097 +/- 0.001) cm and (0.209 +/- 0.002) cm respectively. There was a significant difference between the PAS group and the control group (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Antioxidant probucol significantly inhibits the generation of ox-LDL and MMP-9. PAS therapy also reduces the plaque thickness and decreases the rate of adverse event in patients with atherosclerosis. Antioxidants can be considered as a new adjunct therapy in the treatment of atherosclerosis.
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July 2009
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