Publications by authors named "Ji-Eun Lee"

893 Publications

Anticancer Activity of Continentalic Acid in B-Cell Lymphoma.

Molecules 2021 Nov 12;26(22). Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of Integrated Biological Science, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea.

has been used in Korea as a folk remedy for arthralgia, rheumatism, and inflammation. However, its anti-lymphoma effect remains uncharacterized. Here, we demonstrate that extract and its three diterpenes efficiently kill B-lymphoma cells. Our in vitro and in vivo results suggest that the cytotoxic activities of continentalic acid, a major diterpene from extract, are specific towards cancer cells while leaving normal murine cells and tissues unharmed. Mechanistically, continentalic acid represses the expression of pro-survival Bcl-2 family members, such as Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL. It dissociates the mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to the stimulation of effector caspase 3/7 activities and, ultimately, cell death. Intriguingly, this agent therapeutically synergizes with roflumilast, a pan-PDE4 inhibitor that has been successfully repurposed for the treatment of aggressive B-cell malignancies in recent clinical tests. Our findings unveiled that extract and three of the plant's diterpenes exhibit anti-cancer activities. We also demonstrate the synergistic inhibitory effect of continentalic acid on the survival of B-lymphoma cells when combined with roflumilast. Taken in conjunction, continentalic acid may hold significant potential for the treatment of B-cell lymphoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26226845DOI Listing
November 2021

Persistence and plasticity in bacterial gene regulation.

Nat Methods 2021 Nov 25. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Organisms orchestrate cellular functions through transcription factor (TF) interactions with their target genes, although these regulatory relationships are largely unknown in most species. Here we report a high-throughput approach for characterizing TF-target gene interactions across species and its application to 354 TFs across 48 bacteria, generating 17,000 genome-wide binding maps. This dataset revealed themes of ancient conservation and rapid evolution of regulatory modules. We observed rewiring, where the TF sensing and regulatory role is maintained while the arrangement and identity of target genes diverges, in some cases encoding entirely new functions. We further integrated phenotypic information to define new functional regulatory modules and pathways. Finally, we identified 242 new TF DNA binding motifs, including a 70% increase of known Escherichia coli motifs and the first annotation in Pseudomonas simiae, revealing deep conservation in bacterial promoter architecture. Our method provides a versatile tool for functional characterization of genetic pathways in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41592-021-01312-2DOI Listing
November 2021

Herpetic Keratitis Recurred after the Use of a Thermal Medical Device.

Korean J Ophthalmol 2021 Nov 26. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Department of Ophthalmology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan, Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3341/kjo.2021.0015DOI Listing
November 2021

Colossal angular magnetoresistance in ferrimagnetic nodal-line semiconductors.

Nature 2021 Nov 24;599(7886):576-581. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Center for Artificial Low Dimensional Electronic Systems, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Pohang, Korea.

Efficient magnetic control of electronic conduction is at the heart of spintronic functionality for memory and logic applications. Magnets with topological band crossings serve as a good material platform for such control, because their topological band degeneracy can be readily tuned by spin configurations, dramatically modulating electronic conduction. Here we propose that the topological nodal-line degeneracy of spin-polarized bands in magnetic semiconductors induces an extremely large angular response of magnetotransport. Taking a layered ferrimagnet, MnSiTe, and its derived compounds as a model system, we show that the topological band degeneracy, driven by chiral molecular orbital states, is lifted depending on spin orientation, which leads to a metal-insulator transition in the same ferrimagnetic phase. The resulting variation of angular magnetoresistance with rotating magnetization exceeds a trillion per cent per radian, which we call colossal angular magnetoresistance. Our findings demonstrate that magnetic nodal-line semiconductors are a promising platform for realizing extremely sensitive spin- and orbital-dependent functionalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04028-7DOI Listing
November 2021

Corneal endothelial cell damage after scleral fixation of intraocular lens surgery.

Jpn J Ophthalmol 2021 Nov 9. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute of Pusan National University Hospital, 179, Gudeok-ro, Seo-gu, Busan, 49241, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: To analyze corneal endothelial cell damage after scleral fixation of intraocular lens (SFIOL) surgery.

Study Design: Retrospective study.

Methods: Medical records of consecutive eyes undergoing SFIOL surgery performed by a single surgeon were reviewed between January 2011 and June 2019. The patients were classified into three groups according to surgical methods: Group I, re-fixating the existing intraocular lens (IOL) or fixating a new IOL in an aphakic eye; Group II, removing the existing IOL and fixating a new IOL; and Group III, phacoemulsification and fixating a new IOL simultaneously. Preoperative and postoperative specular microscopy (SM) status were compared. Changes in SM were compared among the three groups.

Results: Ninety-four eyes were included. Thirty-four eyes in Group I, 39 in Group II, and 21 in Group III. The endothelial cell density (ECD) loss in Group I was 1.5%, less than the ECD loss of 14.3% (p < 0.001) in Group II and 15.4% (p = 0.005), in Group III. In no eye was there an ECD decrease to < 1000/mm following the surgical procedure.

Conclusions: ECD loss was related to IOL removal or phacoemulsification rather than SFIOL surgery. SFIOL using the existing IOL should be considered preferential in eyes with low ECD and dislocated IOL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10384-021-00884-yDOI Listing
November 2021

Cytotoxicities and wound healing effects of contact lens multipurpose solution on human corneal epithelial cell.

Clin Exp Optom 2021 Nov 9:1-8. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan, South Korea.

Clinical Relevance: Contact lens multipurpose solutions (MPSs) contain several components that have the potential to cause corneal epithelial cell toxicity. Evaluating the components and the toxic effect of MPS should be considered for effective eye care.

Background: The cytotoxic and wound healing effects of five commercially available MPSs on human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) are is investigated.

Methods: The following commercially available MPSs were used: Queen's PLURISOL®, Frenz®, Boston SIMPLUS®, DL+PLUS EYE® (DL), and NEW YORK DEFINE® (NY). The proliferation of HCECs exposed to each MPS for 1, 6, and 24 h and the cytotoxicity of these solutions were analyzed using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium-based colorimetric and lactate dehydrogenase leakage assays, respectively. The cellular morphology was evaluated by inverted phase-contrast and electron microscopy. A scratch-wound assay was performed to measure wound widths 24 h after confluent HCEC monolayers were scratch-wounded.

Results: The tested MPS had a time-dependent inhibitory effect on HCEC proliferation and cytotoxicity, significantly at 24 h after exposure (< 0.05 in all MPSs). HCECs exposed to MPS detached from the bottom of the culture dishes, showed degenerative changes such as loss of microvilli, cytoplasmic vacuole formation and nuclear condensation, and decreased wound healing, compared to the controls (< 0.001 in Boston, DL and NY). Among the tested MPS, DL and NY were more cytotoxic and showed less wound healing.

Conclusion: MPS has a toxic effect on HCECs, which is dependent on the concentration of the disinfecting component. Since the components that constitute the MPS are absorbed and retained in the lens, cautious scrutiny of the concentration and attention to lens cleaning are warranted to mitigate the related cytotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08164622.2021.1986353DOI Listing
November 2021

Proteomic identification of novel plasma biomarkers associated with spontaneous preterm birth in women with preterm labor without infection/inflammation.

PLoS One 2021 28;16(10):e0259265. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea.

Objective: We sought to identify plasma biomarkers associated with spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB, delivery within 21 days of sampling) in women with preterm labor (PTL) without intra-amniotic infection/inflammation (IAI) using label-free quantitative proteomic analysis, as well as to elucidate specific protein pathways involved in these cases.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study comprising 104 singleton pregnant women with PTL (24-32 weeks) who underwent amniocentesis and demonstrated no evidence of IAI. Analysis of pooled plasma samples collected from SPTB cases and term birth (TB) controls (n = 10 for each group) was performed using label-free quantitative mass spectrometry for proteome profiling in a nested case-control study design. Eight candidate proteins of interest were validated by ELISA-based assay and a clot-based assay in the total cohort.

Results: Ninety-one proteins were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) in plasma samples obtained from SPTB cases, of which 53 (58.2%) were upregulated and 38 (41.8%) were downregulated when compared to TD controls. A validation study confirmed that plasma from women who delivered spontaneously within 21 days of sampling contained significantly higher levels of coagulation factor Ⅴ and lower levels of S100 calcium binding protein A9 (S100A9), especially the former which was independent of baseline variables. The top-ranked pathways related to the 91 differentially expressed proteins were liver-X-receptor/retinoid X receptor (RXR) activation, acute phase response signaling, farnesoid X receptor/RXR activation, coagulation system, and complement system.

Conclusions: Proteomic analyses in this study identified potential novel biomarkers (i.e., coagulation factor V and S100A9) and potential protein pathways in plasma associated with SPTB in the absence of IAI in women with PTL. The present findings provide novel insights into the molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic targets specific for idiopathic SPTB.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0259265PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8553083PMC
October 2021

Antioxidant Activity and Inhibitory Effect on Nitric Oxide Production of Hydroponic Ginseng Fermented with KC24.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Oct 13;10(10). Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea.

Meyer is used as a medicinal plant. The aim of this study was to ferment hydroponic ginseng with KC24 and confirm its antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) production. Flavonoid and phenol contents in fermented ginseng extracts were measured. Antioxidant activity was measured by DPPH, ABTS, reducing power, FRAP and β-carotene assays. Additionally, inhibitory effects on NO production and toxicity of the fermented extract were determined using RAW 264.7 cells. Phenol and flavonoid contents increased as the fermentation time increased, and the contents were higher in hydroponic ginseng than in soil-cultivated ginseng. The DPPH assay revealed that the antioxidant activity of the 24 h fermented extract significantly increased from 32.57% to 41% ( < 0.05). The increase in antioxidant activity may be affected by an increase in phenol and flavonoid contents. At 1 mg/mL solid content, the 24 h fermented hydroponic ginseng extract inhibited NO production from 9.87 ± 0.06 μM to 1.62 ± 0.26 μM. In conclusion, the increase in antioxidant activity affects the inhibition of NO production, suggesting that fermented hydroponic ginseng may be used in the industries of functional food and pharmaceutical industry as a functional material with anti-inflammatory effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10101614DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8533331PMC
October 2021

Membraneless organelles formed by liquid-liquid phase separation increase bacterial fitness.

Sci Adv 2021 Oct 20;7(43):eabh2929. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Biomedical Pioneering Innovation Centre (BIOPIC), School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.

[Figure: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abh2929DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8528417PMC
October 2021

Combination Therapy of the Active KRAS-Targeting Antibody inRas37 and a PI3K Inhibitor in Pancreatic Cancer.

Biomol Ther (Seoul) 2021 Oct 19. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, and Program in Biomedical Science & Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 22332, Republic of Korea.

KRAS activating mutations, which are present in more than 90% of pancreatic cancers, drive tumor dependency on the RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathways. Therefore, combined targeting of RAS/MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways may be required for optimal therapeutic effect in pancreatic cancer. However, the therapeutic efficacy of combined MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling target inhibitors is unsatisfactory in pancreatic cancer treatment, because it is often accompanied by MAPK pathway reactivation by PI3K/AKT inhibitor. Therefore, we developed an inRas37 antibody, which directly targets the intra-cellularly activated GTP-bound form of oncogenic RAS mutation and investigated its synergistic effect in the presence of the PI3K inhibitor BEZ-235 in pancreatic cancer. In this study, inRas37 remarkably increased the drug response of BEZ-235 to pancreatic cancer cells by inhibiting MAPK reactivation. Moreover, the co-treatment synergistically inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and exhibited synergistic anticancer activity by inhibiting the MAPK and PI3K pathways. The combined administration of inRas37and BEZ-235 significantly inhibited tumor growth in mouse models. Our results demonstrated that inRas37 synergistically increased the antitumor activity of BEZ-235 by inhibiting MAPK reactivation, suggesting that inRas37 and BEZ-235 co-treatment could be a potential treatment approach for pancreatic cancer patients with KRAS mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2021.145DOI Listing
October 2021

Primary Cilia in Glial Cells: An Oasis in the Journey to Overcoming Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Front Neurosci 2021 30;15:736888. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, South Korea.

Many neurodegenerative diseases have been associated with defects in primary cilia, which are cellular organelles involved in diverse cellular processes and homeostasis. Several types of glial cells in both the central and peripheral nervous systems not only support the development and function of neurons but also play significant roles in the mechanisms of neurological disease. Nevertheless, most studies have focused on investigating the role of primary cilia in neurons. Accordingly, the interest of recent studies has expanded to elucidate the role of primary cilia in glial cells. Correspondingly, several reports have added to the growing evidence that most glial cells have primary cilia and that impairment of cilia leads to neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we aimed to understand the regulatory mechanisms of cilia formation and the disease-related functions of cilia, which are common or specific to each glial cell. Moreover, we have paid close attention to the signal transduction and pathological mechanisms mediated by glia cilia in representative neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, we expect that this field of research will clarify the mechanisms involved in the formation and function of glial cilia to provide novel insights and ideas for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.736888DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8514955PMC
September 2021

Comparison of a preservative-free non-steroidal anti-Inflammatory drug and preservative-free corticosteroid after uncomplicated cataract Surgery: A multicenter, randomized, evaluator-blinded clinical trial (Free NACC study).

J Cataract Refract Surg 2021 Oct 8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea Department of Ophthalmology, Konyang University College of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea Department of Ophthalmology, Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju, Korea Department of Ophthalmology, Bucheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, Korea Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea Department of Ophthalmology, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea Department of Ophthalmology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea Department of Ophthalmology, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, Korea Department of Ophthalmology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan, Korea Department of Ophthalmology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: This study aimed to compare the efficacy of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and steroidal eye drops for inflammation management after cataract surgery using slit lamp indicators.

Setting: Eleven eye centers in South Korea.

Design: A randomized prospective multicenter study with a blinded evaluator.

Method: In 125 patients undergoing cataract surgery, 0.1% bromfenac sodium hydratewas applied twice a day in one eye while the other eye was treated with 0.1% fluorometholone; 4 times a day for 4 weeks after surgery. The primary efficacy outcome was the presence of anterior chamber cells and flare at 1 week after surgery. Anterior chamber cells and flare at 4 and 8 weeks, best corrected visual acuity, central corneal thickness, conjunctival hyperemia, dry eye parameters, foveal thickness, and ocular and visual discomfort were evaluated as secondary outcomes.

Results: At week 1, residual anterior chamber inflammation was not significantly different between the groups (-1.03±1.27vs.-0.95±1.24, p=0.4850). However, the NSAID group recovered from conjunctival hyperemia more rapidly than the steroid group (0.30±0.52vs.0.44±0.81, p=0.0144 at week 1). The increase in central corneal thickness in the NSAID group was less than that in the steroid group 1 week after surgery (7.87±22.46vs.29.47±46.60μm, p<0.0001). The change in foveal thickness in the NSAID group was significantly less than that in the steroid group (18.11±68.19vs.22.25±42.37μm, p=0.0002). Lower levels of postoperative ocular and visual discomfort were reported in the NSAID group than in the steroid group under treatment.

Conclusion: Preservative-free bromfenac was as effective as preservative-free fluorometholone eye drops in anterior chamber inflammation control and showed better signs and symptoms after cataract surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/j.jcrs.0000000000000841DOI Listing
October 2021

Transcranial focused ultrasound modulates cortical and thalamic motor activity in awake sheep.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 29;11(1):19274. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Transcranial application of pulsed low-intensity focused ultrasound (FUS) modulates the excitability of region-specific brain areas, and anesthetic confounders on brain activity warrant the evaluation of the technique in awake animals. We examined the neuromodulatory effects of FUS in unanesthetized sheep by developing a custom-fit headgear capable of reproducibly placing an acoustic focus on the unilateral motor cortex (M1) and corresponding thalamic area. The efferent responses to sonication, based on the acoustic parameters previously identified in anesthetized sheep, were measured using electromyography (EMG) from both hind limbs across three experimental conditions: on-target sonication, off-target sonication, and without sonication. Excitatory sonication yielded greater amplitude of EMG signals obtained from the hind limb contralateral to sonication than that from the ipsilateral limb. Spurious appearance of motion-related EMG signals limited the amount of analyzed data (~ 10% selection of acquired data) during excitatory sonication, and the averaged EMG response rates elicited by the M1 and thalamic stimulations were 7.5 ± 1.4% and 6.7 ± 1.5%, respectively. Suppressive sonication, while sheep walked on the treadmill, temporarily reduced the EMG amplitude from the limb contralateral to sonication. No significant change was found in the EMG amplitudes during the off-target sonication. Behavioral observation throughout the study and histological analysis showed no sign of brain tissue damage caused by the acoustic stimulation. Marginal response rates observed during excitatory sonication call for technical refinement to reduce motion artifacts during EMG acquisitions as well as acoustic aberration correction schemes to improve spatial accuracy of sonication. Yet, our results indicate that low-intensity FUS modulated the excitability of regional brain tissues reversibly and safely in awake sheep, supporting its potential in theragnostic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-98920-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8481295PMC
September 2021

Reassortant Highly Pathogenic H5N6 Avian Influenza Virus Containing Low Pathogenic Viral Genes in a Local Live Poultry Market, Vietnam.

Curr Microbiol 2021 Nov 21;78(11):3835-3842. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Bio-Nanotechnologytechnology Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon, 34141, South Korea.

Sites of live poultry trade and marketing are hot spots for avian influenza virus (AIV) transmission. We conducted active surveillance at a local live poultry market (LPM) in northern Vietnamese provinces in December 2016. Feces samples from the market were collected and tested for AIV. A new reassorted AIV strain was isolated from female chickens, named A/chicken/Vietnam/AI-1606/2016 (H5N6), and was found to belong to group C of clade 2.3.4.4 H5N6 highly pathogenic (HP) AIVs. The neuraminidase gene belongs to the reassortant B type. The viral genome also contained polymerase basic 2 and polymerase acidic, which were most closely related to domestic-duck-origin low pathogenic AIVs in Japan (H3N8) and Mongolia (H4N6). The other six genes were most closely related to poultry-origin H5N6 HP AIVs in Vietnam and had over 97% sequence identity with human AIV isolate A/Guangzhou/39715/2014 (H5N6). The new reassorted AIV isolate A/chicken/Vietnam/AI-1606/2016 (H5N6) identified in this study exemplifies AIVs reassortment and evolution through contact among wild birds, poultry farms, and LPMs. Therefore, active surveillance of AIVs is necessary to prevent potential threats to human and animal health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-021-02661-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8486720PMC
November 2021

Potential of Carbon-Based Nanocomposites for Dental Tissue Engineering and Regeneration.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Sep 6;14(17). Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, College of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea.

While conventional dental implants focus on mechanical properties, recent advances in functional carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) accelerated the facilitation of functionalities including osteoinduction, osteoconduction, and osseointegration. The surface functionalization with CNMs in dental implants has emerged as a novel strategy for reinforcement and as a bioactive cue due to their potential for mechanical reinforcing, osseointegration, and antimicrobial properties. Numerous developments in the fabrication and biological studies of CNMs have provided various opportunities to expand their application to dental regeneration and restoration. In this review, we discuss the advances in novel dental implants with CNMs in terms of tissue engineering, including material combination, coating strategies, and biofunctionalities. We present a brief overview of recent findings and progression in the research to show the promising aspect of CNMs for dental implant application. In conclusion, it is shown that further development of surface functionalization with CNMs may provide innovative results with clinical potential for improved osseointegration after implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14175104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8434078PMC
September 2021

Cost-effectiveness and long-term outcomes of liver transplantation using hepatitis B core antibody-positive grafts with hepatitis B immunoglobulin prophylaxis in Korea.

Clin Mol Hepatol 2021 10 8;27(4):603-615. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background/aims: Hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc)-positive donors are used as an extended donor pool, and current guidelines recommend the usage of nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) as prophylaxis for preventing de novo hepatitis B virus infection (DNH). We analyzed the long-term outcomes of a large cohort of liver transplantation (LT) patients receiving anti-HBc-positive grafts and evaluated the risk of DNH when hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) monotherapy was used as prophylaxis. We also compared the cost-effectiveness of HBIG and NAs.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 457 patients with anti-HBc-positive grafts and 898 patients with anti-HBc-negative grafts who underwent LT between January 2001 and December 2018. We compared recipient characteristics according to the anti-HBc status of the donor, and compared the costs of using NAs for the rest of the patient's life and using HBIG to maintain hepatitis B surface antibody titers above 200 IU/L.

Results: The 1-, 5-, and 10-year patient survival rates were 87.7%, 73.5%, and 67.7%, respectively, in patients with anti-HBc-positive grafts, and 88.5%, 77.4%, and 70.3%, respectively, in patients with anti-HBc-negative grafts (P=0.113). Among 457 recipients with anti-HBc-positive grafts, 117 (25.6%) were non-HBV recipients. The overall incidence of DNH was 0.9%. When using HBIG under insurance coverage, the cumulative cost was lower compared with using NA continuously without insurance coverage in Korea.

Conclusion: Anti-HBc-positive grafts alone do not affect patient survival or graft survival. HBIG monoprophylaxis has good outcomes for preventing DNH, and the patient's long-term cost burden is low in Korea because of the national insurance system in this cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3350/cmh.2021.0137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8524070PMC
October 2021

Intramitochondrial Disulfide Polymerization Controls Cancer Cell Fate.

ACS Nano 2021 09 3;15(9):14492-14508. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Chemistry, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 44919, Republic of Korea.

Recent advances in supramolecular chemistry research have led to the development of artificial chemical systems that can form self-assembled structures that imitate proteins involved in the regulation of cellular function. However, intracellular polymerization systems that operate inside living cells have been seldom reported. In this study, we developed an intramitochondrial polymerization-induced self-assembly system for regulating the cellular fate of cancer cells. It showed that polymeric disulfide formation inside cells occurred due to the high reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration of cancer mitochondria. This polymerization barely occurs elsewhere in the cell owing to the reductive intracellular environment. The polymerization of the thiol-containing monomers further increases the ROS level inside the mitochondria, thereby autocatalyzing the polymerization process and creating fibrous polymeric structures. This process induces dysfunction of the mitochondria, which in turn activates cell necroptosis. Thus, this polymerization system shows great potential for cancer treatment, including that of drug-resistant cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c04015DOI Listing
September 2021

Antimicrobial Activity and Action Mechanisms of Arg-Rich Short Analog Peptides Designed from the C-Terminal Loop Region of American Oyster Defensin (AOD).

Mar Drugs 2021 Aug 6;19(8). Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Biotechnology Research Division, National Institute of Fisheries Science, Busan 46083, Korea.

American oyster defensin (AOD) was previously purified from acidified gill extract of the American oyster, . AOD is composed of 38 amino acids with three disulfide bonds and exhibits strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria as well as significant activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Here, to develop promising peptides into antibiotic candidates, we designed five arginine-rich analogs (A0, A1, A2, A3, and A4), predicted their loop and extended strand/random structures-including nine amino acids and a disulfide bond derived from the C-terminus of AOD-and described their antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects, as well as their modes of action. In our experimental results, the A3 and A4 analogs exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against all test organisms-including four Gram-positive bacteria, six Gram-negative bacteria, and -without cell toxicity. A sequence of experiments, including a membrane permeabilization assay, DNA binding study, and DNA polymerization inhibition test, indicated that the two analogs (A3 and A4) possibly did not act directly on the bacterial membrane but instead interacted with intracellular components such as DNA or DNA amplification reactions. AOD analogs also showed strong bacterial inhibition activity in the plasma environment. In addition, analog-treated microbial cells clearly exhibited membrane disruption, damage, and leakage of cytoplasmic contents. Collectively, our results suggest that two analogs, A3 and A4, have potent antimicrobial activity via DNA interaction and have the potential for development into novel antimicrobial agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md19080451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8400246PMC
August 2021

Pterygium surgery by double-sliding flaps procedure: Comparison between primary and recurrent pterygia.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2021 Sep;69(9):2406-2411

Department of Ophthalmology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the surgical outcomes of pterygial excision for primary and recurrent pterygia by a single method of pterygia excision combined with two conjunctival flaps.

Methods: This retrospective study divided 193 cases of pterygium into the primary (140 cases) and recurrent (53 cases) pterygium groups. Following double-sliding conjunctival transposition flap operation and surgical excision of the pterygium, the success and recurrence rates of pterygial surgery were assessed based on visual acuity and corneal and total astigmatism during follow-up at least 6 months.

Results: Both primary and recurrent pterygium groups showed significant improvements in visual acuity and astigmatism (corneal and total) between before and after this procedure. Total astigmatism and success rate of primary pterygium were significantly better than those for recurrent pterygium. Two cases (1.4%) of primary pterygium and four cases (7.5%) of recurrent pterygium developed recurrence, corresponding to a rate of 3.1% (6/193 cases). The success rates significantly make a difference between primary and recurrent groups but did not differ significantly between the first recurrent and over twice recurrent pterygium. However, visual acuity, cornea, and total astigmatism improved significantly after surgery in first recurrent group but not in over twice recurrent group.

Conclusion: The double-sliding conjunctival flaps surgery appeared to be a useful method, with a better success rate and lower pterygial recurrence in pterygium surgery. Especially, when pterygium is larger or recurrent type, this technique can be easily covered the bare sclera, as compared to any transposition conjunctival flap operation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_2982_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8544112PMC
September 2021

Regulation of Melanophilin (Mlph) gene expression by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR).

Sci Rep 2021 08 19;11(1):16813. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Genetic Engineering & Graduate School of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Gyeonggi-do, 17104, Republic of Korea.

Mlph plays a crucial role in regulating skin pigmentation through the melanosome transport process. Although Mlph is a major component involved in melanosome transport, the mechanism that regulates the expression of the Mlph gene has not been identified. In this study, we demonstrate that Mlph expression is regulated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Alteration of GR activity using a specific GR agonist or antagonist only regulated the expression of Mlph among the 3 key melanosome transport proteins. Translocation of GR from the cytosol into the nucleus following Dex treatment was confirmed by separating the cytosol and nuclear fractions and by immunofluorescence staining. In ChIP assays, Dex induced GR binding to the Mlph promoter and we determined that Dex induced the GR binding motif on the Mlph promoter. Our findings contribute to understanding the regulation of Mlph expression and to the novel role of GR in Mlph gene expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-96276-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8376885PMC
August 2021

Retinal Capillary Reperfusion from Ischemic Retinal Vasculitis in Henoch-Schönlein Purpura: A Case Report.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2021 Aug 17:1-6. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Ophthalmology,Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, South Korea.

Introduction: We present a case of ischemic retinal vasculitis in adult-onset Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) and the first report of capillary reperfusion through regenerative angiogenesis using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA).

Case Report: A 34-year-old male complained of bilateral blurred vision after successive episodes of abdominal pain, purpura, and hematuria. Fundus examination showed perivascular infiltration and phlebitis. Fluorescein angiography and OCTA revealed extensive capillary nonperfusion. Laser photocoagulation was performed on the peripheral nonperfused area. Intravenous methylprednisolone with azathioprine was administered and continuously tapered. With consecutive OCTA follow-up, the capillary nonperfusion of the maculae progressively reperfused. Capillary buds and loops emerged within the nonperfused area, continued to elongate and branch, and finally connected with adjacent preexisting capillaries.

Conclusions: Regenerative angiogenesis was the mainstay process for capillary reperfusion in this patient. Systemic steroid therapy might support capillary reperfusion and recover the damaged ischemic maculae from ischemic retinal vasculitis of HSP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09273948.2021.1957120DOI Listing
August 2021

Factors associated with the effectiveness of part-time patching for intermittent exotropia in children.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2021 Aug 10:11206721211037826. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Ophthalmology, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan, South Korea.

Purpose: To evaluate the factors associated with the efficacy of low-dose part-time patching in children with intermittent exotropia (IXT).

Methods: In this prospective observational study, we enrolled 186 patients diagnosed with IXT. Outcome measures included office based control scales, magnitude of exo-deviation, and stereoacuity at near and distance after daily patching for 2 h. We analyzed the clinical data and demographic factors association with improvement of IXT.

Results: The study was completed by 152 subjects of total enrolled patients on a consecutive basis followed up for 1 year. Decrease in the magnitude of exo-deviation, improvement of control, and or gain of stereoacuity were observed in 31.6% patients of the recruited subjects after part-time patching. Multivariate analyses showed that prognostic factors determining improvement to part-time patching included convergence insufficiency (CI) type IXT ( = 0.016), poor distance stereopsis ( = 0.044), and large exotropic deviation at distance ( = 0.025).

Conclusions: CI-type exotropia, large distance magnitude of exo-deviation, or poor distance stereopsis appear to be associated with a better response to part-time patching. Therefore low dose part-time patching may be a useful non-surgical treatment alternative to delay surgery in these cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/11206721211037826DOI Listing
August 2021

Author Correction: Correlation of dynamic membrane fluctuations in red blood cells with diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular risks.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 27;11(1):15633. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam, Republic of Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-94538-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8316338PMC
July 2021

ANGPTL4 accelerates KRAS-Induced acinar to ductal metaplasia and pancreatic carcinogenesis.

Cancer Lett 2021 Oct 24;519:185-198. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, and Program in Biomedical Sciences & Engineering, Inha University, 366, Seohae-daero, Jung-gu, Incheon, 22332, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Oncogenic KRAS induces neoplastic transformation of pancreatic acinar cells through acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM) and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), and drives pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) is known to be involved in the regulation of cancer growth and metastasis. However, whether ANGPTL4 affects KRAS-mediated ADM and early PDAC intervention remains unknown. In the current study, we investigated the role of ANGPTL4 in KRAS-induced ADM, PanIN formation, and PDAC maintenance. We found that ANGPTL4 was highly expressed in human and mouse ADM lesions and contributed to the promotion of KRAS-driven ADM in mice. Consistently, ANGPTL4 rapidly induced ADM in three-dimensional culture of acinar cells with KRAS mutation and formed ductal cysts that silenced acinar genes and activated ductal genes, which are characteristic of in vivo ADM/PanIN lesions. We also found that periostin works as a downstream regulator of ANGPTL4-mediated ADM/PDAC. Genetic ablation of periostin diminished the ADM/PanIN phenotype induced by ANGPTL4. A high correlation between ANGPTL4 and periostin was confirmed in human samples. These results demonstrate that ANGPTL4 is critical for ADM/PanIN initiation and PDAC progression through the regulation of periostin. Thus, the ANGPTL4/periostin axis is considered a potential target for ADM-derived PDAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2021.07.036DOI Listing
October 2021

Impact of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic on Medical Use of Military Hospitals in Korea.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 Jul 19;36(28):e204. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Armed Forces Capital Hospital, Seongnam, Korea.

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic began in December 2019. While it has not yet ended, COVID-19 has already created transitions in health care, one of which is a decrease in medical use for health-related issues other than COVID-19 infection. Korean soldiers are relatively homogeneous in terms of age and physical condition. They show a similar disease distribution pattern every year and are directly affected by changes in government attempts to control COVID-19 with nonpharmaceutical interventions. This study aimed to identify the changes in patterns of outpatient visits and admissions to military hospitals for a range of disease types during a pandemic.

Methods: Outpatient attendance and admission data from all military hospitals in South Korea from January 2016 to December 2020 were analyzed. Only active enlisted soldiers aged 18-32 years were included. Outpatient visits where there was a diagnosis of pneumonia, acute upper respiratory tract infection, infectious conjunctivitis, infectious enteritis, asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis, urticaria, and fractures were analyzed. Admissions for pneumonia, acute enteritis, and fractures were also analyzed. All outpatient visits and admissions in 2020 for each disease were counted on a weekly basis and compared with the average number of visits over the same period of each year from 2016 to 2019. The corrected value was calculated by dividing the ratio of total weekly number of outpatient visits or admissions to the corresponding medical department in 2020 to the average in 2016-2019.

Results: A total of 5,813,304 cases of outpatient care and 143,022 cases of admission were analyzed. For pneumonia, the observed and corrected numbers of outpatient visits and admissions in 2020 decreased significantly compared with the average of other years ( < 0.001). The results were similar for outpatient visits for acute upper respiratory tract infection and infectious conjunctivitis ( < 0.001), while the corrected number of outpatient visits for infectious enteritis showed a significant increase in 2020 ( = 0.005). The corrected number of outpatient visits for asthma in 2020 did not differ from the average of the previous 4 years but the number of visits for the other allergic diseases increased significantly ( < 0.001). For fractures, the observed and corrected numbers of outpatient visits and admissions in 2020 decreased significantly compared with the average of other years ( < 0.001).

Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic, outpatient visits to military hospitals for respiratory and conjunctival infections and fractures decreased, whereas visits for allergic diseases did not change or increased only slightly. Admissions for pneumonia decreased significantly in 2020, while those for acute enteritis and fractures also decreased, but showed an increased proportion compared with previous years. These results are important because they illustrate the changing patterns in lifestyle as a result of public encouragement to adopt nonpharmaceutical interventions during the pandemic and their effect on medical needs for both infectious and noninfectious diseases in a select group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2021.36.e204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8289717PMC
July 2021

Memantine exerts neuroprotective effects by modulating α-synuclein transmission in a parkinsonian model.

Exp Neurol 2021 Oct 14;344:113810. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Neurology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Ample evidence has demonstrated that α-Synuclein can propagate from one area of the brain to others via cell-to-cell transmission, which might be the underlying mechanism for pathological propagation and the disease progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent reports have demonstrated cell surface receptor-mediated cell-to-cell transmission of α-synuclein. Memantine decreased the levels of internalized cytosolic α-synuclein and led to attenuation in α-synuclein-induced cell death. Specifically, memantine attenuated α-synuclein-induced expression of clathrin and EEA1, and increased expression of NR2A subunits. Moreover, memantine inhibited propagation of extracellular α-synuclein and thus, decreased the expression of the phosphorylated form of α-synuclein in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra, which was accompanied by increased survival of dopaminergic neurons with functional improvement of motor deficits. The present study demonstrated that memantine modulates extracellular α-synuclein propagation by inhibiting interactions between α-synuclein and NR2A subunits, which leads to neuroprotective effects on nigral dopaminergic neurons against α-synuclein-enriched conditions. The repositioning use of memantine in α-synuclein propagation needs to be further evaluated in patients with α-synucleinopathies as an effective therapeutic approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2021.113810DOI Listing
October 2021

Unexpected remission of hyperparathyroidism caused by hemorrhage due to the use of fine-needle aspiration biopsy: two cases report.

Gland Surg 2021 Jun;10(6):2047-2053

Department of Surgery, Severance Hospital, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Hyperparathyroidism is not a rare disease; if a parathyroid adenoma is confirmed, the treatment of choice is the surgical resection. Diagnostic use of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) for histological confirmation in patients with hyperparathyroidism is controversial. And spontaneous remission of hyperparathyroidism caused by bleeding or infarction of the adenoma rarely occurs. Here we have reported two cases of hyperparathyroidism in which spontaneous remission occurred due to the use of FNAB for diagnosis. The remission was confirmed after surgical removal and pathological review of the adenoma. The first patient diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) had neck pain and severe swelling 4 days after FNAB, and spontaneous remission due to intracapsular hemorrhage was confirmed after surgery. In the second patient receiving hemodialysis treatment for end-stage renal disease, hyperparathyroidism spontaneously resolved after FNAB and the parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels normalized after surgery. The first patient maintained a normal level of PTH for 6 years, and the second patient received kidney transplantation 6 years after surgery, and the normal level of PTH was confirmed for 13 years. Caution is needed while performing FNAB for diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism and during decision making regarding whether to observe the patient or perform surgery after spontaneous remission due to bleeding or infarction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/gs-21-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258889PMC
June 2021

Consent for withholding life-sustaining treatment in cancer patients: a retrospective comparative analysis before and after the enforcement of the Life Extension Medical Decision law.

BMC Med Ethics 2021 06 17;22(1):72. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu 120-752, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: The Life Extension Medical Decision law enacted on February 4, 2018 in South Korea was the first to consider the suspension of futile life-sustaining treatment, and its enactment caused a big controversy in Korean society. However, no study has evaluated whether the actual implementation of life-sustaining treatment has decreased after the enforcement of this law. This study aimed to compare the provision of patient consent before and after the enforcement of this law among cancer patients who visited a tertiary university hospital's emergency room to understand the effects of this law on the clinical care of cancer patients.

Methods: This retrospective single cohort study included advanced cancer patients aged over 19 years who visited the emergency room of a tertiary university hospital. The two study periods were as follows: from February 2017 to January 2018 (before) and from May 2018 to April 2019 (after). The primary outcome was the length of hospital stay. The consent rates to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), intubation, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), and intensive care unit (ICU) admission were the secondary outcomes.

Results: The length of hospital stay decreased after the law was enforced from 4 to 2 days (p = 0.001). The rates of direct transfers to secondary hospitals and nursing hospitals increased from 8.2 to 21.2% (p = 0.001) and from 1.0 to 9.7%, respectively (p < 0.001). The consent rate for admission to the ICU decreased from 6.7 to 2.3% (p = 0.032). For CPR and CRRT, the consent rates decreased from 1.0 to 0.0% and from 13.9 to 8.8%, respectively, but the differences were not significant (p = 0.226 and p = 0.109, respectively).

Conclusion: After the enforcement of the Life Extension Medical Decision law, the length of stay in the tertiary university hospital decreased in patients who established their life-sustaining treatment plans in the emergency room. Moreover, the rate of consent for ICU admission decreased.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-021-00644-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8210737PMC
June 2021

Atypical Retinal Hemorrhages after Vitrectomy for Idiopathic Macular Hole: Possible Toxicity of Brilliant Blue G.

Korean J Ophthalmol 2021 06 4;35(3):207-214. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Ophthalmology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan, Korea.

Purpose: To describe the development of multiple retinal hemorrhages after uncomplicated macular hole (MH) surgery, and to determine the associated factors.

Methods: The medical records of 163 patients (167 eyes) diagnosed with idiopathic MHs and who underwent surgery at Pusan National University Hospital between March 2016 and July 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. The development of retinal hemorrhages was evaluated using ultra-widefield fundus photographs. Multiple retinal hemorrhages were defined as three or more dot or blot hemorrhages that had not been observed before and during the surgery. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of multiple retinal hemorrhages. The variable parameters were compared between the two groups to find the risk factors. The associated factors were evaluated further for the independent factor using multiple logistic regression analysis.

Results: Multiple retinal hemorrhages were observed in 31 eyes (18.6%) after MH surgery. The associated factors were the surgical induction of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) (p = 0.003), use of the internal limiting membrane flap technique (p = 0.028), and staining with Brilliant Blue G (BBG) (p = 0.003). Retinal hemorrhages were exclusively observed in eyes in which BBG was used. Surgical PVD induction was the only independent risk factor (odds ratio, 13.099; p = 0.013). No statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups in the postoperative visual outcomes and MH closure rate. Additionally, patients who underwent surgery for idiopathic epiretinal membrane during the study period were reviewed to validate the above findings. Multiple retinal hemorrhages were noted in only one case (0.4%) in which BBG was used after surgical induction of PVD.

Conclusions: Multiple retinal hemorrhages after MH surgery appear to be related to the intravitreal use of BBG in eyes that sustained mechanical damage because of surgical induction of PVD; however, they did not affect surgical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3341/kjo.2020.0124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200588PMC
June 2021

Reference Values for Skeletal Muscle Mass at the Third Lumbar Vertebral Level Measured by Computed Tomography in a Healthy Korean Population.

Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 2021 Jun 8;36(3):672-677. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

School of Computer Science and Engineering, Soongsil University, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Sarcopenia is defined as the loss of skeletal muscle mass and is associated with negative clinical outcomes. This study aimed to establish sex-specific cutoff values for the skeletal muscle area (SMA) and skeletal muscle index (SMI) at the third lumbar vertebral (L3) level using computed tomography (CT) imaging to identify sarcopenia in healthy Korean liver donors.

Methods: This retrospective study included 659 healthy liver donors (408 men and 251 women) aged 20 to 60 years who had undergone abdominal CT examinations between January 2017 and December 2018. Assessment of body composition was performed with an automated segmentation technique using a deep-learning system. Sex-specific SMA and SMI distributions were assessed, and cutoff values for determining sarcopenia were defined as values at either two standard deviations (SDs) below the mean reference value or below the fifth percentile.

Results: Using the SD definition, cutoff values for SMA and SMI were 117.04 cm2 and 39.33 cm2/m2, respectively, in men and 71.39 cm2 and 27.77 cm2/m2, respectively, in women. Using the fifth percentile definition, cutoff values for SMA and SMI were 126.88 cm2 and 40.96 cm2/m2, respectively, in men and 78.85 cm2 and 30.60 cm2/m2, respectively, in women.

Conclusion: Our data provide sex-specific cutoff values for the SMA and SMI at the L3 level measured by CT imaging in a healthy Korean population, which may be applicable for identifying sarcopenia in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258333PMC
June 2021
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