Publications by authors named "Ji Hyun Kim"

829 Publications

Immediate effect of insoles on balance in older adults.

Foot (Edinb) 2021 Jan 8;47:101768. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Healthcare and Public Health Research, National Rehabilitation Center (Ministry of Health and Welfare), Gangbuk-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: In recent years, fall prevention in older adults has received considerable attention in healthcare. Among many interventions, insoles are considered cost-effective and easily adopted tools to improve balance in older people. Numerous studies have verified the immediate effects of insoles on balance in older adults. However, there is still lack of consensus regarding the immediate benefits of using insoles on balance improvement.

Research Question: Given this, a meta-analysis was conducted to provide more conclusive evidence about the immediate effect of insoles on balance in older adults and answer the question: "Do insoles influence balance in older people?"

Methods: PubMed, NDSL, Medline, Google Scholar, and Web of Science were searched from March to August 2018. The key terms were "insole", "elderly", "gait", "balance", "shoe", "foot", and "postural". Finally, seven primary studies were selected for this meta-analysis. The balance related outcomes were coded to compute effect sizes and the overall effect size of the standardized mean differences was analyzed. Moderating variables included kinematic variables of balance, static and dynamic balance, and type of insole.

Results: The overall effect size of insoles was medium (d = 0.618), which suggests that insoles are beneficial for older adults for improving balance. More specifically, this study revealed that textured and vibration insoles were the most effective types of insoles.

Significance: This finding supports the idea that augmented tactile and mechanical sensory input from insoles can enhance the postural control mechanisms in older adults with age-related deterioration of sensory mechanisms. The use of insoles may lead to a reduction in the rate of falls which are related to decreased quality of life in older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foot.2020.101768DOI Listing
January 2021

Trends of Diabetes and Prediabetes Prevalence among Korean Adolescents From 2007 to 2018.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 May 3;36(17):e112. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Background: To provide updated prevalence data and to estimate changes in the prevalence of diabetes among Korean adolescents by sex and age between 2007 and 2018.

Methods: We used the data of children and adolescents (8,718 subjects aged 10 to 18 years) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV-VII (KNHANES 2007-2018). The recent prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes was estimated by using the latest KNHANES VII. The linear trends were estimated by comparing 3-year KNHANES cycles according to sex and by using logistic regression.

Results: The prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes was 0.298% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.289-0.308) and 7.914% (95% CI, 0.43-0.49). The prevalence of diabetes significantly increased from 0.189 to 0.430 during KNHANE IV and VII. A positive linear trend is significant for diabetes ( trends = 0.006) in only male subjects. The prevalence of pre-diabetes significantly increased from 5.86 to 12.08 in both sexes. During KNHANES IV and VII, the prevalence of obesity increased significantly.

Conclusion: Between 2007 and 2018, the prevalence of diabetes among Korean adolescents increased. Further studies are required to determine the causes of these increases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2021.36.e112DOI Listing
May 2021

A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Gamma Linolenic Acid as an Add-on Therapy to Minocycline for the Treatment of Rosacea.

Ann Dermatol 2020 Dec 11;32(6):466-472. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Dermatology, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan, Korea.

Background: A recent study suggested a possible role of skin barrier dysfunction in the pathogenesis of rosacea, which leads to irritation symptoms. Gamma linolenic acid (GLA) is an essential omega-6 fatty acid that is known to restore defective epidermal skin barrier. GLA supplementation has not previously been performed in rosacea patients.

Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of adding GLA to minocycline compared to minocycline alone in rosacea patients.

Methods: This prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial enrolled 31 rosacea patients. They were randomly assigned to receive 320 mg/day of GLA (Evoprim®) (n=16) or placebo (n=15) in addition to 100 mg/day of minocycline for 8 weeks. Investigator's global assessment (IGA) and patient's global assessment (PGA) were used to assess clinical severity at weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12. Biophysical parameters including melanin index, erythema index, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), lipid concentration, and stratum corneum hydration were measured.

Results: In the GLA group, a higher proportion of patients achieved treatment success (IGA≤1) at week 8 (68.75% vs. 33.33%) and patient satisfaction (PGA≥3) at weeks 8 (75.0% vs. 40.0%) and 12 (81.3% vs. 46.6%). Both groups, throughout 12 weeks of treatment, revealed a trend toward improvement in erythema index, melanin index, TEWL, and stratum corneum hydration. Particularly, there was a significant difference in TEWL and stratum corneum hydration over time between the two groups (=0.033, =0.003, respectively). No serious adverse event was observed in both groups.

Conclusion: GLA is beneficial as an additional therapeutic option for rosacea patients treated with minocycline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5021/ad.2020.32.6.466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7875229PMC
December 2020

Relationship of the fabella with the origins of the plantaris and gastrocnemius lateral head muscles in late-term fetuses: a histological study.

Anat Cell Biol 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Anatomy and Embryology, School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain.

Previous studies of midterm fetuses indicated that a cartilaginous fabella appeared to be embedded in the plantaris (PL), and was fused with the gastrocnemius lateral head (GL). We re-examined the topographical anatomy of the fabella or its analogue (a tight fibrous mass) originating in the GL and/or PL by evaluating histological sections of the unilateral knees of 15 late-term fetuses. Regardless of whether the cartilaginous fabella was present (6 fetuses) or absent (9 fetuses), the origins of the PL and GL muscles each had three parts. In each fetus, the fabella or its analogue was embedded in a thick common tendinous origin of the GL and PL. PL1 (whose origin is similar to that of the adult PL) originated from the femoral condyle immediately above the common tendon; PL2 originated from the posteromedial aspect of the fabella or its analogue; and PL3 originated from the inferior aspect of the fabella or its analogue. The muscle fibers of PL1, PL2, and PL3 joined to provide a thick plantaris. GL1 (which is adjacent to PL2) originated from the common tendon in the superior side of the fabella or its analogue and GL2 originated from the inferior side of the fabella or its analogue. GL1 and GL2 joined to provide a thick bundle, whereas GL3 (located far below the fabella or its analogue) originated from the posterior surface aponeurosis. Therefore, drastic reconstruction at these muscle origins was necessary during development. Due to the strong mechanical stress from the GL and the space-occupying effect of the muscle, we hypothesize that PL2 and PL3 are degraded or absorbed into the GL1 and GL2 during the postnatal period, so that the remaining PL1 was likely the remaining PL in adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5115/acb.20.326DOI Listing
April 2021

Stochastic Kinetics of Nanocatalytic Systems.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Mar;126(12):126001

Creative Research Initiative Center for Chemical Dynamics in Living Cells, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, Korea.

Catalytic reaction events occurring on the surface of a nanoparticle constitute a complex stochastic process. Although advances in modern single-molecule experiments enable direct measurements of individual catalytic turnover events occurring on a segment of a single nanoparticle, we do not yet know how to measure the number of catalytic sites in each segment or how the catalytic turnover counting statistics and the catalytic turnover time distribution are related to the microscopic dynamics of catalytic reactions. Here, we address these issues by presenting a stochastic kinetics for nanoparticle catalytic systems. We propose a new experimental measure of the number of catalytic sites in terms of the mean and variance of the catalytic event count. By considering three types of nanocatalytic systems, we investigate how the mean, the variance, and the distribution of the catalytic turnover time depend on the catalytic reaction dynamics, the heterogeneity of catalytic activity, and communication among catalytic sites. This work enables accurate quantitative analyses of single-molecule experiments for nanocatalytic systems and enzymes with multiple catalytic sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.126001DOI Listing
March 2021

Comparison of Mobile Application-Based ECG Consultation by Collective Intelligence and ECG Interpretation by Conventional System in a Tertiary-Level Hospital.

Korean Circ J 2021 Apr;51(4):351-357

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Goyang, Korea.

Background And Objectives: A mobile application (app)-based electrocardiogram (ECG) consultation system (InterMD Co., Ltd., Seoul, Korea) using the collective intelligence (CI) and the availability of large-scale digitized ECG data would extend the utility of ECGs beyond their current limitations, while at the same time preserving interpretability that remains critical to medical decision-making.

Methods: We developed a new mobile app-based ECG consultation system by CI for general practitioners. We compared the responses of ECG reading between the mobile app-based CI system and the conventional system in a tertiary referring hospital.

Results: We analyzed 376 consecutive ECGs between December 2017 and May 2019. Of these, 159 ECGs (42.3%) were interpreted by CI through the mobile app-based ECG consultation system and 217 ECGs (57.7%) were analyzed by cardiologists in the conventional systems based on electronic medical record data in a tertiary hospital. All ECG readings were confirmed by an electrophysiologist (EP). The time to an initial response by the CI system was faster than that of the conventional system (6.6 hours vs. 35.8 hours, p<0.0001). The number of responses of each ECG in CI system outnumbered those of the conventional system in the tertiary hospital (3.1 vs. 1.2, p<0.0001). The consensus of the ECG readings with EP was similar in both systems (98.6% vs. 100%, p=0.158).

Conclusions: The mobile app-based ECG consultation system by CI is as reliable method as the conventional referral system. It would expand the app of the 12-lead ECG with the collaboration of physicians in clinics and hospitals without time and space constraints.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2020.0364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8022025PMC
April 2021

Surface Potential-Controlled Oscillation in FET-Based Biosensors.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 10;21(6). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

Field-effect transistor (FET)-based biosensors have garnered significant attention for their label-free electrical detection of charged biomolecules. Whereas conventional output parameters such as threshold voltage and channel current have been widely used for the detection and quantitation of analytes of interest, they require bulky instruments and specialized readout circuits, which often limit point-of-care testing applications. In this study, we demonstrate a simple conversion method that transforms the surface potential into an oscillating signal as an output of the FET-based biosensor. The oscillation frequency is proposed as a parameter for FET-based biosensors owing to its intrinsic advantages of simple and compact implementation of readout circuits as well as high compatibility with neuromorphic applications. An extended-gate biosensor comprising an AlO-deposited sensing electrode and a readout transistor is connected to a ring oscillator that generates surface potential-controlled oscillation for pH sensing. Electrical measurement of the oscillation frequency as a function of pH reveals that the oscillation frequency can be used as a sensitive and reliable output parameter in FET-based biosensors for the detection of chemical and biological species. We confirmed that the oscillation frequency is directly correlated with the threshold voltage. For signal amplification, the effects of circuit parameters on pH sensitivity are investigated using different methods, including electrical measurements, analytical calculations, and circuit simulations. An Arduino board to measure the oscillation frequency is integrated with the proposed sensor to enable portable and real-time pH measurement for point-of-care testing applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21061939DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8061884PMC
March 2021

Do financial incentives help or harm performance in interesting tasks?

J Appl Psychol 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Human Resource Management, National Central University.

There continues to be disagreement about whether financial incentives help or harm performance, especially in interesting tasks. Although the Jenkins, Mitra, Gupta, and Shaw (1998) meta-analysis finds a positive effect of incentives, including in interesting tasks (reported ρ ^ = +.34; our computed δ = +.79), a more recent and widely cited meta-analysis by Weibel et al. (2010) reports, in contrast, a negative effect (δ = -.13) of incentives on performance in interesting tasks. Thus, the effect size for interesting tasks differs by .92 standard deviation (SD) between the two meta-analyses, a very large difference. We incorporate primary studies from these two meta-analyses and other sources in a new, more complete meta-analysis of incentives-performance in interesting and noninteresting tasks. We also examine additional key moderators (incentive intensity, how motivation-driven performance is, and autonomy). We find that the incentives-performance relationship is positive in both interesting (δ = +.58) and noninteresting tasks (δ = +.52). In addition, we find that the positive incentives-performance relationship is robust to not only task interest, but also to incentive intensity, how motivation-driven performance is, and autonomy. However, the incentives-performance relationship is less positive for performance measured as quality, especially in interesting tasks. We provide suggestions for future research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/apl0000851DOI Listing
March 2021

Variety-seeking, learning and performance.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(3):e0247034. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Yonsei School of Business, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.

According to the variance hypothesis, variety-seeking or exploration is a critical condition for improving learning and performance over time. Extant computational learning models support this hypothesis by showing how individuals who are exposed to diverse knowledge sources are more likely to find superior solutions to a particular problem. Yet this research provides no precise guidelines about how broadly individuals should search. Our goal in this paper is to elucidate the conditions under which variety-seeking in organizations is beneficial. To this end, we developed a computational model in which individuals learn as they interact with other individuals, and update their knowledge as a result of this interaction. The model reveals how the type of learning environment (performance landscape) in which the learning dynamic unfolds determines when the benefits of variety-seeking outweigh the costs. Variety-seeking is performance-enhancing only when the knowledge of the chosen learning targets (i.e., individuals to learn from) provide useful information about the features of the performance landscape. The results further suggest that superior knowledge might be available locally, i.e., in the proximity of an individual's current location. We also identify the point beyond which variety-seeking causes a sharp performance decline and show how this point depends on the type of landscape in which the learning dynamic unfolds and the degree of specialization of individual knowledge. The presence of this critical point explains why exploration becomes very costly. The implications of our findings for establishing the boundaries of exploration are discussed.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0247034PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7939370PMC
March 2021

Consistency of Helicobacter pylori eradication rates of first-line concomitant and sequential therapies in Korea: A nationwide multicenter retrospective study for the last 10 years.

Helicobacter 2021 Apr 17;26(2):e12780. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Internal Medicine, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju, South Korea.

Background: Eradication rate of standard triple therapy for H. pylori has declined to unacceptable level, and alternative regimens such as concomitant and sequential therapy have been introduced. We aimed to assess the consistency of eradication rates of concomitant and sequential therapies as for the first-line H. pylori eradication in Korea.

Methods: A nationwide multicenter retrospective study was conducted including 18 medical centers from January 2008 to December 2017. We included 3,800 adults who had test to confirm H. pylori eradication within 1 year after concomitant or sequential therapy.

Results: Concomitant and sequential therapy were prescribed for 2508 and 1292 patients, respectively. The overall eradication rate of concomitant therapy was significantly higher than that of sequential therapy (91.8% vs. 86.1%, p < .001). In time trend analysis, the eradication rates of concomitant therapy were 90.2%, 88.2%, 92.1%, 94.3%, 91.1%, and 93.4% for each year from 2012 to 2017 with an increasing trend (p = .0146), while those of ST showed no significant trend (p = .0873). Among 263 patients with second-line therapy, bismuth quadruple therapy showed significantly higher eradication rate than quinolone-based triple therapy (73.9% vs. 51.5% in ITT analysis, p = .001; 82.7% vs. 63.0% in PP analysis, p = .002).

Conclusion: Concomitant therapy is the best regimen for the first-line H. pylori eradication showing consistently higher eradication rate with an increasing trend for the last 10 years in Korea. Bismuth quadruple therapy should be considered for second-line therapy after eradication failure using non-bismuth quadruple therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hel.12780DOI Listing
April 2021

Involvement of bilateral insula in brand extension evaluation: an fMRI study.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 9;11(1):3387. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-Gil 50, Ulsan, 44919, Republic of Korea.

The present study aims to investigate functional involvement of brain areas in consumers' evaluation of brand extension that refers to the use of well-established brand for launching new offerings. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning, participants viewed a beverage brand name followed by an extension goods name selected from the beverage or household appliance categories. They responded acceptability to given brand extension. Both acceptability responses and reaction time revealed a noticeable pattern that participants responded to acceptable stimuli more carefully. General linear model (GLM) analyses revealed the involvement of insular activity in brand extension evaluation. Especially, insular activity was lateralized according to valence. Furthermore, its activity could explain behavioral response in parametric modulation model. According to these results, we speculate that insula activity is relevant to emotional processing. Finally, we divided neural activities during brand extension into separated clusters using a hierarchical clustering-based connectivity analysis. Excluding two of them related to sensorimotor functions for behavioral responses, the remaining cluster, including bilateral insula, was likely to reflect brand extension assessment. Hence, we speculate that consumers' brand extension evaluation may involve emotional processes, shown as insular activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83057-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7873197PMC
February 2021

Coronary Artery Lumen Segmentation Using Location-Adaptive Threshold in Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography: A Proof-of-Concept.

Korean J Radiol 2021 05 21;22(5):688-696. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: To compare the lumen parameters measured by the location-adaptive threshold method (LATM), in which the inter- and intra-scan attenuation variabilities of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) were corrected, and the scan-adaptive threshold method (SATM), in which only the inter-scan variability was corrected, with the reference standard measurement by intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS).

Materials And Methods: The Hounsfield unit (HU) values of whole voxels and the centerline in each of the cross-sections of the 22 target coronary artery segments were obtained from 15 patients between March 2009 and June 2010, in addition to the corresponding voxel size. Lumen volume was calculated mathematically as the voxel volume multiplied by the number of voxels with HU within a given range, defined as the lumen for each method, and compared with the IVUS-derived reference standard. Subgroup analysis of the lumen area was performed to investigate the effect of lumen size on the studied methods. Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate the agreement between the measurements.

Results: Lumen volumes measured by SATM was significantly smaller than that measured by IVUS (mean difference, 14.6 mm³; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.9-24.3 mm³); the lumen volumes measured by LATM and IVUS were not significantly different (mean difference, -0.7 mm³; 95% CI, -9.1-7.7 mm³). The lumen area measured by SATM was significantly smaller than that measured by LATM in the smaller lumen area group (mean of difference, 1.07 mm²; 95% CI, 0.89-1.25 mm²) but not in the larger lumen area group (mean of difference, -0.07 mm²; 95% CI, -0.22-0.08 mm²). In the smaller lumen group, the mean difference was lower in the Bland-Altman plot of IVUS and LATM (0.46 mm²; 95% CI, 0.27-0.65 mm²) than in that of IVUS and SATM (1.53 mm²; 95% CI, 1.27-1.79 mm²).

Conclusion: SATM underestimated the lumen parameters for computed lumen segmentation in CCTA, and this may be overcome by using LATM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2020.0296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8076829PMC
May 2021

Accelerating neovascularization and kidney tissue formation with a 3D vascular scaffold capturing native vascular structure.

Acta Biomater 2021 04 30;124:233-243. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Establishing an adequate vascularization of three-dimensional (3D) bioengineered tissues remains a critical challenge. We previously fabricated a vascular scaffold using the vascular corrosion casting technique, which provides a similar 3D geometry of native kidney vasculature. In this study, we functionalized the collagen vascular scaffold with a controlled release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF vascular scaffold) to further promote vascularization. The VEGF vascular scaffold showed improved angiogenic capability in 2-dimensional (2D) and 3D in vitro settings. Implantation of the VEGF vascular scaffold seeded with human renal cells into a rat kidney demonstrated enhanced implant vascularization and reduced apoptosis of implanted human renal cells. Hybrid renal tubule-like structures composed of implanted human and migrated host renal cells were formed. This work highlights the critical role of early vascularization of the geometrically mimetic vascular scaffold using the VEGF incorporated vascular scaffold in reducing apoptosis of implanted cells as well as the formation of renal tissue structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2021.01.040DOI Listing
April 2021

Cholecystoduodenal fistula presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Jan;9(2):410-415

Anatomy and Pathology, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Chuncheon 200947, Kangwon Do, South Korea.

Background: Cholecystoduodenal fistula is a rare complication of cholelithiasis. Symptoms are usually non-specific and often indistinguishable from those of etiologic diseases, but it rarely presents as severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Bleeding associated with cholecystoduodenal fistula usually requires surgery because significant bleeding from the cystic artery is unlikely to be resolved by conservative management or endoscopic hemostasis.

Case Summary: We report a case of cholecystoduodenal fistula that presented with hematemesis which was diagnosed by endoscopy and computed tomography. Endoscopic hemostasis could not be achieved, but surgical treatment was successful. Additionally, we have presented a literature review.

Conclusion: Cholecystoduodenal fistula should be considered as differential diagnosis when a patient with history of gallstone disease presents with gastrointestinal bleeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i2.410DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7812896PMC
January 2021

Combined Extract of Houtt, L., and Ohwi Improved Hot Flashes and Depression in an Ovariectomized Rat Model of Menopause.

Foods 2021 Jan 18;10(1). Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea.

Menopause leads to ovarian hormone loss, which causes symptoms such as weight gain, hot flashes, and depression. Exploring nutraceuticals is important for treating menopausal symptoms that extensively impact women's quality of life. We hypothesized that a combination of Houtt, L., and Ohwi (LEPE) would alleviate menopausal symptoms in an ovariectomized menopausal rat model. Bilateral ovariectomy was performed and animals were assigned to five groups: (1) Sham, (2) Vehicle, (-) Control, (3) LEPE (100 mg/kg bw), (4) LEPE (200 mg/kg bw), and (5) Estradiol (3 μg/kg bw). LEPE was orally administered daily for 12 weeks. LEPE supplementation did not affect growth performance (body weight and feed intake) or body composition (lean mass and fat in tissue). LEPE did not cause deviations in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, estradiol, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels, indicating no hepatotoxicity or endocrine disturbance. LEPE decreased type I collagen (CTX-1) but did not affect bone mineral density or osteocalcin. LEPE decreased tail temperature and increased rectal temperature, improving menopause-related vasomotor symptoms. Furthermore, LEPE ameliorated depression-related behavior, including in forced swimming and tail suspension tests. Thus, LEPE may improve menopausal symptoms by enhancing vasomotor symptoms and depression in an ovariectomized rat menopause model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10010180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7829883PMC
January 2021

Impact of immune checkpoint gene CD155 Ala67Thr and CD226 Gly307Ser polymorphisms on small cell lung cancer clinical outcome.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 19;11(1):1794. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41944, Republic of Korea.

This study was conducted to investigate the impact of genetic variants of immune checkpoint genes on the treatment outcome in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). In the present study, 261 platinum doublet-treated SCLC patients were enrolled. A total of 96 polymorphisms in 33 immune checkpoint-related genes were selected, and their association with chemotherapy response and survival outcomes were analyzed. Among the polymorphisms studied, CD155 rs1058402G > A (Ala67Thr, A67T) and CD226 rs763361C > T (Gly307Ser, G307S) were significantly associated with SCLC treatment outcome. The rs1058402G > A had a worse chemotherapy response and overall survival (under a dominant model, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.27-0.99, P = 0.05; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.12-2.14, P = 0.01, respectively). The rs763361C > T had better chemotherapy response and overall survival (under a dominant model, aOR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.10-3.75, P = 0.02; aHR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.51-0.94, P = 0.02, respectively). When the rs1058402GA/AA and rs763361CC genotypes were combined, the chemotherapy response and overall survival were significantly decreased as the number of bad genotypes increased (aOR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.33-0.81, Ptrend = 0.004; aHR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.19-1.84, Ptrend = 4 × 10, respectively). The 3-D structural model showed that CD155 A67T created a new hydrogen bond and structural change on CD155. These changes resulted in extending the distance and losing the hydrogen bonds between CD155 and CD226, thus weakening CD155/CD226 binding activity. In conclusion, CD155 rs1058402G > A and CD226 rs763361C > T may be useful for predicting the clinical outcomes of SCLC patients after chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81260-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7815735PMC
January 2021

Fetal development of the thoracolumbar fascia with special reference to the fascial connection with the transversus abdominis, latissimus dorsi, and serratus posterior inferior muscles.

Surg Radiol Anat 2021 Jan 12. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Anatomy, Wuxi Medical School, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China.

Purpose: The three-layered thoracolumbar fascia (TLF) encapsulates the erector spinae and the quadratus lumborum and has been a major concern for physical therapists. However, knowledge of its prenatal development and growth is limited.

Methods: Histological examination of 25 embryos and fetuses at 6-37 weeks (CRLs, 15-310 mm).

Results: At the posterior end, the abdominal muscles continued toward an initial posterior layer of the TLF (pTLF) at 6 weeks, but the connection became narrow and limited to the obliquus externus aponeurosis until near term. The middle layer of the TLF (mTLF) appeared as a posterior continuation of the transversalis fascia at 9 weeks and, depending on a mechanical demand for the vertebral column extension near term, it grew as a thick intermuscular septum between the iliocostalis and quadratus lumborum. Thus, the mTLF lateral end changed from the abdominal wall to the back or pTLF. The serratus posterior inferior originated from the pTLF after 9 weeks, but a connection of the latissimus dorsi with the fascia was established much later. Near term, the gluteus maximus was attached to an aponeurosis covering the multifidus behind the sacrum. Therefore, the pTLF extended to cover the gluteal muscles.

Conclusion: We rejected the hypothesis that the mTLF develops as a marginal tissue between the primitive epaxial and hypaxial muscles. This study seemed to be the first report showing a fact that, within prenatal life, a drastic change is likely to occur in interfascial connections and their topographical relation to muscles; the TLF might be the best sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00276-020-02668-4DOI Listing
January 2021

How Do Parameters of Implant Primary Stability Correspond with CT-Evaluated Bone Quality in the Posterior Maxilla? A Correlation Analysis.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jan 7;14(2). Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Periodontics, One-Stop Specialty Center, Seoul National University, Dental Hospital, Seoul 03080, Korea.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate correlations between bone density and implant primary stability, considering various determinants such as age, gender, and geometry of implants (design, diameter). Bone density of edentulous posterior maxillae was assessed by computed tomography (CT)-derived Hounsfield units, and implant primary stability values were measured with insertion torque and resonance frequency analysis (RFA). A total of 60 implants in 30 partially edentulous patients were evaluated in the posterior maxilla with two different types of dental implants. The bone density evaluated by CT-derived Hounsfield units showed a significant correlation with primary stability parameters. The bone quality was more influenced by gender rather than age, and the type of implant was insignificant when determining primary stability. Such results imply that primary stability parameters can be used for objective assessment of bone quality, allowing surgical modifications especially in sites suspected of poor bone quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14020270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7828085PMC
January 2021

Successful Management of a Tracheo-gastric Conduit Fistula after a Three-field Esophagectomy with Combined Sternocleidomastoid Muscle Rotation Flap and Histoacryl Injection Treatment.

J Gastric Cancer 2020 Dec 28;20(4):454-460. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Eunpyeong St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Tracheo-gastric conduit fistula is an extremely rare but severe complication that is difficult to manage. Conservative care, esophageal or tracheal stent placement, or cutaneomuscular flaps have been suggested; however, no definite treatment has been proven. We report a case of tracheo-gastric conduit fistula that occurred after a minimally invasive radical three-field esophagectomy. Following the primary surgery, the diagnosis was made while evaluating the patient's frequent aspiration and coughing. Conservative management failed, and a surgical correction was undertaken to identify the multifocal mucosal defect and exposed tracheal ring. A sternocleidomastoid muscle rotation flap and subsequent Histoacryl injection into the remaining fistula were performed, and the fistula was successfully managed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5230/jgc.2020.20.e38DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7781752PMC
December 2020

Clinical Relevance of Fluid Volume Status Assessment by Bioimpedance Spectroscopy in Children Receiving Maintenance Hemodialysis or Peritoneal Dialysis.

J Clin Med 2020 Dec 28;10(1). Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul 03080, Korea.

Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is a noninvasive method used to evaluate body fluid volume status in dialysis patients, but reports on its effectiveness in pediatrics are scarce. We investigated the correlation between BIS and clinical characteristics and identified the changes in patients whose dialysis prescription was modified based on BIS. The medical records of children on maintenance dialysis who had undergone BIS between 2017 and 2019 were reviewed. Of the 49 patients, 14 were overhydrated, based on the >15% proportion of overhydration relative to extracellular water (OH/ECW) measured by BIS. Intake of ≥two antihypertensive medications was noted in the majority (85.7%) of children with fluid overload and only in 48.6% of those without fluid overload ( = 0.017). Elevated blood pressure despite medication use was significantly more common in patients with fluid overload than in those without fluid overload (78.6% vs. 45.7%, = 0.037). Of the 14 overhydrated children, 13 (92.9%) had significant changes in body weight, OH/ECW, the number of antihypertensive drugs, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, and cardiothoracic ratio after the change in dialysis prescription. BIS is a useful and noninvasive method to assess fluid status in dialysis children. Long-term follow-up and correlation with a more objective clinical indicator of fluid overload is necessary to verify the clinical effectiveness of BIS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10010079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7795279PMC
December 2020

Clinical Relevance of Fluid Volume Status Assessment by Bioimpedance Spectroscopy in Children Receiving Maintenance Hemodialysis or Peritoneal Dialysis.

J Clin Med 2020 Dec 28;10(1). Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul 03080, Korea.

Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is a noninvasive method used to evaluate body fluid volume status in dialysis patients, but reports on its effectiveness in pediatrics are scarce. We investigated the correlation between BIS and clinical characteristics and identified the changes in patients whose dialysis prescription was modified based on BIS. The medical records of children on maintenance dialysis who had undergone BIS between 2017 and 2019 were reviewed. Of the 49 patients, 14 were overhydrated, based on the >15% proportion of overhydration relative to extracellular water (OH/ECW) measured by BIS. Intake of ≥two antihypertensive medications was noted in the majority (85.7%) of children with fluid overload and only in 48.6% of those without fluid overload ( = 0.017). Elevated blood pressure despite medication use was significantly more common in patients with fluid overload than in those without fluid overload (78.6% vs. 45.7%, = 0.037). Of the 14 overhydrated children, 13 (92.9%) had significant changes in body weight, OH/ECW, the number of antihypertensive drugs, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, and cardiothoracic ratio after the change in dialysis prescription. BIS is a useful and noninvasive method to assess fluid status in dialysis children. Long-term follow-up and correlation with a more objective clinical indicator of fluid overload is necessary to verify the clinical effectiveness of BIS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10010079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7795279PMC
December 2020

Pelvic floor muscle function recovery using biofabricated tissue constructs with neuromuscular junctions.

Acta Biomater 2021 02 13;121:237-249. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1094, USA. Electronic address:

Damages in pelvic floor muscles often cause dysfunction of the entire pelvic urogenital system, which is clinically challenging. A bioengineered skeletal muscle construct that mimics structural and functional characteristics of native skeletal muscle could provide a therapeutic option to restore normal muscle function. However, most of the current bioengineered muscle constructs are unable to provide timely innervation necessary for successful grafting and functional recovery. We previously have demonstrated that post-synaptic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) clusters can be pre-formed on cultured skeletal muscle myofibers with agrin treatment and suggested that implantation of AChR clusters containing myofibers could accelerate innervation and recovery of muscle function. In this study, we develop a 3-dimensional (3D) bioprinted human skeletal muscle construct, consisting of multi-layers bundles with aligned and AChR clusters pre-formed human myofibers, and investigate the effect of pre-formed AChR clusters in bioprinted skeletal muscle constructs and innervation efficiency in vivo. Agrin treatment successfully pre-formed functional AChR clusters on the bioprinted muscle constructs in vitro that increased neuromuscular junction (NMJ) formation in vivo in a transposed nerve implantation model in rats. In a rat model of pelvic floor muscle injury, implantation of skeletal muscle constructs containing the pre-formed AChR clusters resulted in functional muscle reconstruction with accelerated construct innervation. This approach may provide a therapeutic solution to the many challenges associated with pelvic floor reconstruction resulting from the lack of suitable bioengineered tissue for efficient innervation and muscle function restoration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2020.12.012DOI Listing
February 2021

Structural Basis for Design of New Purine-Based Inhibitors Targeting the Hydrophobic Binding Pocket of Hsp90.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Dec 9;21(24). Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Center for Neuro-Medicine, Brain Science Institute, KIST, Seoul 02792, Korea.

Inhibition of the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) represents a promising approach for cancer treatment. BIIB021 is a highly potent Hsp90 inhibitor with remarkable anticancer activity; however, its clinical application is limited by lack of potency and response. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of replacing the hydrophobic moiety of BIIB021, 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridine, with various five-membered ring structures on the binding to Hsp90. A focused array of /-substituted purines, featuring aromatic and non-aromatic rings, was designed, considering the size of hydrophobic pocket B in Hsp90 to obtain insights into their binding modes within the ATP binding site of Hsp90 in terms of π-π stacking interactions in pocket B as well as outer α-helix 4 configurations. The target molecules were synthesized and evaluated for their Hsp90α inhibitory activity in cell-free assays. Among the tested compounds, the isoxazole derivatives and , and the sole six-membered derivative showed favorable Hsp90α inhibitory activity, with IC values of 1.76 µM, 0.203 µM, and 1.00 µM, respectively. Furthermore, compound 14 elicited promising anticancer activity against MCF-7, SK-BR-3, and HCT116 cell lines. The X-ray structures of compounds , , , , and bound to the -terminal domain of Hsp90 were determined in order to understand the obtained results and to acquire additional structural insights, which might enable further optimization of BIIB021.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249377DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7763603PMC
December 2020

Variations in Laminar Arrangements of the Mesocolon and Retropancreatic Fascia: a Histological Study Using Human Fetuses Near Term.

Tokai J Exp Clin Med 2020 Dec 20;45(4):214-223. Epub 2020 Dec 20.

Department of Anatomy, Division of Basic Medical Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193, Japan.

Objective: The embryonic mesentery of the ascending and descending colons as well as the pancreas disappears due to peritoneal fusion, but there might be no or few photographic demonstrations of the intermediate morphologies during the process. The aims of this study were to characterize the morphological relationship of the interface between the renal fascia and peritoneum.

Methods: Fourteen late-stage fetuses with crown rump lengths (CRLs) of 250-325 mm (gestational age: 30-38 weeks) were histologically examined.

Results: The renal fascia, a thick or thin layer consisting of densely-distributed abundant fibers, was consistently separated from the renal capsule by a perirenal space containing fat. The transverse colon carried a typical mesocolon histologically different from the renal fascia. The ascending and descending mesocolons were irregularly divided into multiple laminae and the colic external longitudinal muscle appeared to directly contact the renal fascia. There was a spectrum of variations from multiple laminae to a single thick fascia between the pancreatic body and the left kidney or adrenal.

Conclusions: A fascial development after retroperitoneal fusion of the mesentery showed great individual and site-dependent differences in proportion of 1) a complete fusion with the renal fascia and 2) a multilaminar structure including the remnant peritoneum. These variations masked the likely stage-dependent change.
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December 2020

Abnormal Intestinal Anatomy in Late-stage Human Fetuses: Three Case Series.

Tokai J Exp Clin Med 2020 Dec 20;45(4):162-169. Epub 2020 Dec 20.

Department of Anatomy, Division of Basic Medical Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193, Japan.

Objective: We reported three cases of fetuses with abnormal intestinal anatomy found during our recent study of the transverse mesocolon using 20 late-stage fetuses.

Cases: The first case (CRL: 328 mm) appeared to have a duodenum and transverse colon trapped in Winslow's foramen (foramen epiploicum) and the duodenum superior portion elongated rightward. The second case (CRL: 264 mm) had a transverse colon inserted deeply into a space between the right kidney and duodenum. The third case (CRL: 276 mm) had a descending colon that ran inferiorly through a deep space between the left kidney and duodenum. Each case had a greater omentum that was shifted leftward, but this is usual. These 3 abnormalities were not evident in the anterior view during dissection of the liver, stomach, jejunum, and ileum. With underdeveloped pancreatic ducts due to unknown reason other than the internal hernia, the first case seemed to be fatal after birth. However, the second and third cases could have recovered after birth because there was no evidence of definite malrotation and because of loose attachments of the intestines to surrounding structures.

Conclusions: The intestinal morphologies described here could cause some sort of symptoms, such as abdominal pain, whose cause might be difficult to determine.
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December 2020

Case of catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome presenting as neuroretinitis and vaso-occlusive retinopathy.

BMC Ophthalmol 2020 Dec 9;20(1):482. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080, South Korea.

Background: Ocular involvement in catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS), a rare, life-threatening form of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) that results in multiorgan failure and a high mortality rate, has rarely been reported.

Case Presentation: A 15-year-old girl presented with sudden vision blurring in both eyes. She had marked optic disc swelling and macular exudates in the right eye and intra-arterial white plaques, a few retinal blot hemorrhages, and a white ischemic retina in the left eye. Systemic examination revealed she had acute kidney injury with thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), multiple cerebral infarcts, valvular dysfunction, and a high titer of triple aPL. Thus, she was diagnosed with CAPS involving the brain, eyes, heart, and kidneys. Plasma exchange and the administration of glucocorticoids, immunoglobulin, warfarin, and rituximab brought a sustained recovery of the TMA, visual symptoms, and echocardiographic findings.

Conclusions: Ocular involvement of both vaso-occlusive retinopathy, an APS-related thrombotic microangiopathy, and neuroretinitis, a non-thrombotic microangiopathy, can occur as an initial presentation of CAPS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12886-020-01755-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7727181PMC
December 2020

Duration-dependent extensive volume and shape changes of mesolimbic structures in surgically treated unilateral patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 01 27;114(Pt A):107517. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

The Department of Neurosurgery, Guro Hospital, Korea University Medicine, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Purpose: Although surgical treatment of drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) has proven efficacy, surgical referrals are often delayed. Knowledge of the abnormalities of mesolimbic structures beyond the hippocampus may be important for patients with MTLE because of its usefulness in the understanding of progressive disabilities in affected structures. This study aimed to identify volume and shape changes of mesolimbic structures in surgically treated patients with unilateral MTLE and their correlation with various clinical parameters.

Methods: Twenty-four patients with unilateral MTLE (12 with left MTLE [LMTLE] and 12 with right MTLE [RMTLE]) who were surgically treated with standard temporal lobectomy, including amygdalohippocampectomy, and 24 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were enrolled. Preoperatively, volumetric analysis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 27 mesolimbic substructures (11 from each hemisphere and 5 from the midline) was performed. We also investigated the three-dimensional morphometric differences of the mesolimbic structures between the unilateral MTLE and control groups using shape analyses.

Results: Patients with LMTLE showed significant volume reductions in various ipsilateral mesolimbic (72.7%, 8/11) and contralateral structures (27.3%, 3/11). Patients with RMTLE had also significant reduced volumes in ipsilateral (63.6%, 7/11) and contralateral structures (73.3%, 3/11). Among the clinical parameters, only the duration of epilepsy had a statistically significant inverse correlation with the volumes of the hippocampus, parahippocampus, entorhinal cortex, cingulate, and corpus callosum. In the shape analysis of the bilateral hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampus, and entorhinal cortex, after accounting for the effects of age and total intracranial volume, significant shape changes in the anterolateral area of the ipsilateral hippocampus were noted, which corresponds to the cornu ammonis (CA)1 and subiculum of the hippocampus.

Conclusions: The extensive volume reductions in the multiple mesolimbic structures and the substantial inverse correlation between the duration of epilepsy and the volumes of the various mesolimbic structures in our study supports that MTLE is not restricted to the hippocampus, but it progressively involves extensive mesolimbic structures. The duration-dependent atrophic changes in multiple subcortical structures seen in this study also suggest a positive role of early surgical intervention for patients with drug-resistant TLE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.107517DOI Listing
January 2021

Cerebellar neuromodulation improves naming in post-stroke aphasia.

Brain Commun 2020 9;2(2):fcaa179. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Transcranial direct current stimulation has been shown to increase the efficiency of language therapy in chronic aphasia; however, to date, an optimal stimulation site has not been identified. We investigated whether neuromodulation of the right cerebellum can improve naming skills in chronic aphasia. Using a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled, within-subject crossover study design, participants received anodal cerebellar stimulation ( = 12) or cathodal cerebellar stimulation ( = 12) + computerized aphasia therapy then sham + computerized aphasia therapy, or the opposite order. There was no significant effect of treatment (cerebellar stimulation versus sham) for trained naming. However, there was a significant order x treatment interaction, indicating that cerebellar stimulation was more effective than sham immediately post-treatment for participants who received cerebellar stimulation in the first phase. There was a significant effect of treatment (cerebellar stimulation versus sham) for untrained naming immediately post-treatment and the significant improvement in untrained naming was maintained at two months post-treatment. Greater gains in naming (relative to sham) were noted for participants receiving cathodal stimulation for both trained and untrained items. Thus, our study provides evidence that repetitive cerebellar transcranial direct stimulation combined with computerized aphasia treatment can improve picture naming in chronic post-stroke aphasia. These findings suggest that the right cerebellum might be an optimal stimulation site for aphasia rehabilitation and this could be an answer to handle heterogeneous participants who vary in their size and site of left hemisphere lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/braincomms/fcaa179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7677607PMC
November 2020

Antioxidant Activity and Acteoside Analysis of .

Antioxidants (Basel) 2020 Nov 19;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Plant Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Anseong 17546, Korea.

This study determined acteoside and its content in via HPLC/UV and LC/ESI-MS to obtain insights into the potential use of this plant as an antioxidant agent. Moreover, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), and O radical scavenging activity assays were performed to assess in vitro antioxidative activity. The DPPH, OH, and O radical scavenging activities of leaf EtOH extracts at a 250 μg/mL concentration were 88.32%, 94.48%, and 14.36%, respectively, whereas those of stem extracts at the same concentration were 88.15%, 88.99%, and 15.36%, respectively. The contents of acteoside in leaves and stems were 162.11 and 29.68 mg/g, respectively. Acteoside was identified as the main antioxidant compound in leaves, which resulted in DPPH, OH, and O radical scavenging activities of 82.84%, 89.46%, and 30.31%, respectively, at a 25 μg/mL concentration. These results indicate that leaves and stems containing the antioxidant acteoside can be used as natural ingredients for functional and nutritional supplements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox9111148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7699419PMC
November 2020

Environmental monitoring of toxic metals in roadside soil and dust in Ulsan, South Korea: pollution evaluation and distribution characteristics.

Environ Monit Assess 2020 Nov 20;192(12):773. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ulsan, 93 Daehak-ro, Nam-gu, Ulsan, 44610, South Korea.

This study investigated toxic metal distribution in roadside soil and dust in the metropolitan city of Ulsan, South Korea, and the factors affecting distribution, using Korean waste-leaching tests, determination of total concentrations, sequential extraction, and statistical analysis. Composite grab samples were collected from high-traffic roads (7 sites), low-traffic roads (2 sites), and an uncontaminated control area (2 sites) in Ulsan. The pH of roadside soil and dust was slightly alkaline. The concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc in soil as determined by Korean waste-leaching tests decreased as soil depth increased, while those of arsenic, nickel, and chromium increased. Leaching concentrations in dust were lower than in soil, with the exception of copper. Total concentrations decreased as soil depth increased, and total concentrations of metals in dust were higher than in soil. The sampling sites that exceeded the regulation levels of soil contamination in South Korea were 7 points in topsoil, 3 points in middle soil, and 9 points in dust. TCLP tests showed that the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, and lead in topsoil and dust at Duwang and Myeongchon intersections were higher than regulatory levels. The maximum correlation coefficient among two metals in soil and dust was 0.987 (p < 0.01), for cadmium and lead. Concentrations of cadmium, copper, arsenic, lead, nickel, and mercury, mostly from tire and brake-pad abrasion, were highly correlated. The strong positive correlation between traffic volume and metals in dust suggests that vehicle emissions may be responsible for metal contamination of soil and dust. Pollution indices of topsoil at 4 sites and all dust at 7 high-traffic sites were higher than 1.0, which is consistent with an effect of vehicle traffic on metal contamination in soil and dust.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08745-wDOI Listing
November 2020