Publications by authors named "Ji Hwan Lee"

85 Publications

Predicting body compositions of live finishing pigs based on bioelectrical impedance analysis.

J Anim Sci Technol 2021 Mar 31;63(2):332-338. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Division of Food and Animal Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea.

The objective of this study was to predict body compositions of live pigs using bioelectrical impedance procedures. In experiment 1, 32 crossbred (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) finishing pigs with an average weight at 84.06 kg were used. In experiment 2, 96 crossbred (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) finishing pigs with an average weight at 88.8 kg were used. A four-terminal body composition analyser was utilized to determine fat percentage. Lean meat percentage and backfat thickness were measured with a lean meat measuring meter. In experiment 1, fat percentage was not significantly correlated with lean meat percentage, although a tendency ( < 0.1) of a negative correlation was found. Backfat thickness was significantly correlated with fat percentage and lean meat percentage ( = 0.745 and = -0.961, respectively). Coefficients of determination for fat percentage with lean meat percentage, fat percentage with backfat thickness, and backfat thickness with lean meat percentage were 0.503, 0.566, and 0.923, respectively. In experiment 2, fat percentage was significantly correlated with lean meat percentage ( = -0.972). Backfat thickness was also significantly correlated with fat percentage and lean meat percentage ( = 0.935 and = -0.957, respectively). Results of this study indicate that bioelectrical impedance analysis might be useful for predicting body compositions of live finishing pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2021.e31DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071748PMC
March 2021

Effects of microencapsulated organic acids on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal microbial counts, and blood profiles in weaning pigs.

J Anim Sci Technol 2021 Jan 31;63(1):104-113. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Division of Food and Animal Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea.

This study was conducted to investigate the efficiency of a microencapsulated mixture of organic acids (MOA) with low protein in piglet feed on growth performance, diarrhea score, nutrient digestibility, fecal microbial counts, and blood profiles in weaning pigs. A total of 80 pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc; 6.8 ± 0.48 kg] were randomly assigned to four dietary treatment groups: high protein (HP); low protein (LP); MOA1, LP + 0.2% MOA; and MOA2, LP + 0.3% MOA. The MOA2 group had higher average daily weight gains (during days 0-14 and days 0-28), diarrhea score (during days 0-14, during days 14-28 and days 0-28) and greater digestibility of dry matter (days 14 and 28) compared to the LP group ( < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences ( > 0.05) between the pigs fed diets with the MOA1 and MOA2 in blood profiles and fecal microflora. In conclusion, this study indicates that piglets fed 0.3% MOA in low protein diets maintained similar growth performance and nutrient digestibility, but alleviated the incidence of diarrhea compared to piglets fed high protein diets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2021.e16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7882838PMC
January 2021

Clinical Significance of Retinal Vascular Occlusion in Moyamoya Disease: Case Series and Systematic Review.

Retina 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Vision Research, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1, Yonseiro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea Department of Neurology, Severance Stroke Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1, Yonseiro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Severance Children's Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1, Yonseiro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: Although moyamoya disease (MMD) primarily affects the carotid artery in the ophthalmic artery bifurcation area, retinal vascular abnormalities in MMD have rarely been reported. The purpose of this report is to describe clinical findings of patients with retinal vascular occlusion in moyamoya patients and present its clinical significance.

Methods: We reviewed and analyzed moyamoya patients with retinal vascular occlusions. For this, a retrospective medical chart review was performed in a tertiary medical center and a literature search was performed using PubMed and EMBASE until September 2020.

Results: Retinal arterial occlusion (RAO) patients were significantly younger than retinal vein occlusion (RVO) patients (25.0 versus 40.1 years, p=0.023). Of 14 patients, RVO was the presenting sign of MMD in 8 (57.1%) patients. The occlusion site at the carotid artery was proximal to the ophthalmic artery bifurcation area in 8 (57.1%) patients. Legal blindness occurred in 8 (57.1%) patients at final visits.

Conclusions: Retinal vascular occlusion is a rare but sight-threatening ocular complication in moyamoya patients. In overall, younger age may be a risk factor for RAO, whereas older age for RVO. Retinal vascular occlusion can be an important indicator of MMD screening, especially in relatively younger and healthy patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0000000000003181DOI Listing
April 2021

Identification of gallic acid as a active ingredient of Syzygium aromaticum against tacrolimus-induced damage in renal epithelial LLC-PK1 cells and rat kidney.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 Jun 8;41:128012. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

College of Korean Medicine, Gachon University, Seongnam 13120, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Tacrolimus (FK506), a calcineurin inhibitor, is an effective immunosuppressive agent mainly used to lower the risk of organ rejection after allogeneic organ transplant. However, FK506-associated adverse effects, such as nephrotoxicity, may limit its therapeutic use. In this study, we confirmed that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), sanguiin H-6, and gallic acid increased cell survival following FK506-induced cytotoxicity in renal epithelial LLC-PK1. Among these compounds, gallic acid exerted the strongest protective effect, further confirmed in the FK506-induced nephrotoxicity rat model. Additionally, we identified supporting evidence for the nephroprotective function of gallic acid using molecular docking and bioavailability investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2021.128012DOI Listing
June 2021

Characteristics of fall-related head injury versus non-head injury in the older adults.

BMC Geriatr 2021 03 20;21(1):196. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: This study aimed to examine the characteristics of older adults patients who suffered a head injury after a ground-level fall in comparison to non-head injury patients as well as the factors associated with severity in those with head injury only.

Methods: Patients were classified into two groups, the head injury group and the non-head injury group. The characteristics were compared and factors associated with head injury were evaluated. Factors relating to severe injury in the head injury group were also investigated.

Results: The head injury group comprised 42 % of a study subjects. Male sex; fall time of 18:00-23:59; fall location of medical facility, transportation area, and public or commercial facility; fall in an outdoor area; fall during daily activity; alcohol ingestion; fall from stairs; non-slippery floor conditions; concrete flooring; sloped flooring; and presence of obstacles on the floor were risk factors for head injury in the older adults after a ground-level fall. Male sex and age over 70 years; fall time of 00:00-05:59; fall in a residential facility; fall in an indoor area; fall during daily activity; fall from stairs; non-slippery floor conditions; and presence of obstacles on the floor were factors associated with severe injury in the head injury group.

Conclusions: Male sex with advanced age, indoor fall, and the presence of obstacles on the floor were risk factors for severe injury in the head injury group in older adults individuals who suffered a ground-level fall. It is necessary to develop appropriate ground-level fall prevention programs by evaluating the individual and environmental characteristics of older adults patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-021-02139-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7981902PMC
March 2021

Aromatic and Aliphatic Apiuronides from the Bark of .

J Nat Prod 2021 03 8;84(3):553-561. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Science, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea.

Presl (Cinnamon) has been widely cultivated in the tropical or subtropical areas, such as Yunnan, Fujian, Guandong, and Hainan in China, as well as India, Vietnam, Thailand, and Malaysia. Four new glycosides bearing apiuronic acid (, , , and ) and their sodium or potassium salts (, , and ), together with 31 known compounds, were isolated from a hot water extract of the bark of via repeated chromatography. The structures of the new compounds (-) were determined by NMR, IR, MS, and ICP-AES data and by acid hydrolysis and sugar analysis. This is the first report of the presence of apiuronic acid glycosides. Some of the isolates were evaluated for their analgesic effects on a neuropathic pain animal model induced by paclitaxel. Cinnzeylanol (), cinnacaside (), kelampayoside A (), and syringaresinol () showed analgesic effects against paclitaxel-induced cold allodynia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.0c01062DOI Listing
March 2021

The effect of overcrowding in emergency departments on the admission rate according to the emergency triage level.

PLoS One 2021 17;16(2):e0247042. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Overcrowding in emergency departments is a serious public health issue. Recent studies have reported that overcrowding in emergency departments affects not only the quality of emergency care but also clinical decisions about admission. However, no studies have examined the characteristics of the patient groups whose admission rate is influenced by such overcrowding. This retrospective cohort study was conducted in a single emergency department between January 1 and December 31, 2018. Patients over 19 years old were enrolled and divided into three groups according to the degree of overcrowding-high, low, and non-based on the total number of patients in the emergency department. An emergency triage tool (the Korean Triage and Acuity Scale) was used, which categorizes patients into five different levels. We analyzed whether the degree of change in the admission rate according to the extent of overcrowding differed for each triage group. There were 73,776 patients in this study. In the analysis of all patient groups, the admission rate increased as the degree of overcrowding rose (the adjusted odds ratio for admission was 1.281 (1.225-1.339) in the high overcrowding group versus the non-overcrowding group). The analysis of the patients in each triage level showed an increase in the admission rate associated with the overcrowding, which was greater in the patient groups with a lower triage level (adjusted odds ratios for admission in the high overcrowding group versus non-overcrowding group: Korean Triage and Acuity Scale level 3 = 1.215 [1.120-1.317], level 4 = 1.294 [1.211-1.382], and level 5 = 1.954 [1.614-2.365]).
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0247042PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7888587PMC
February 2021

Roscoe Rhizomes Attenuate Oxaliplatin-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Mice.

Molecules 2021 Jan 21;26(3). Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Physiology, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02453, Korea.

Oxaliplatin is a platinum derivative chemotherapeutic drug widely used against cancers, but even a single treatment can induce a severe allodynia that requires treatment interruption and dose diminution. The rhizome of roscoe (, ginger), has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases causing pain; however, its effect against oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain has never been assessed. In mice, a single oxaliplatin (6 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment induced significant cold and mechanical allodynia. Cold and mechanical allodynia were assessed by acetone drop and von Frey filament tests, respectively. Water extracts of (100, 300, and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly attenuated both cold and mechanical allodynia induced by oxaliplatin. Intrathecal pre-treatment with the antagonist 5-HT (NAN-190, i.t., 1 μg), but not with the antagonist 5-HT (ketanserin, i.t., 1 μg), significantly blocked the analgesic effect of against both cold and mechanical allodynia. However, 5-HT antagonist (MDL-72222, i.t., 15 μg) administration only blocked the anti-allodynic effect of against cold allodynia. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that significantly increased the mRNA expression of the spinal 5-HT receptor that was downregulated after oxaliplatin injection. These results suggest that may be a viable treatment option for oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26030548DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7866215PMC
January 2021

Bee Venom Acupuncture Attenuates Oxaliplatin-Induced Neuropathic Pain by Modulating Action Potential Threshold in A-Fiber Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons.

Toxins (Basel) 2020 11 24;12(12). Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02453, Korea.

Oxaliplatin is a third-generation platinum-based chemotherapeutic drug widely used in colorectal cancer treatment. Although potent against this tumor, it can induce cold and mechanical allodynia even after a single injection. The currently used drugs to attenuate this allodynia can also cause unwanted effects, which limit their use. Bee venom acupuncture (BVA) is widely used in Korean medicine to treat pain. Although the effect of BVA on oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain has been addressed in many studies, its action on dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons has never been investigated. A single oxaliplatin injection (6 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) induced cold and mechanical allodynia, and BVA (0.1 and 1 mg/kg, subcutaneous, ST36) dose-dependently decreased allodynia in rats. On acutely dissociated lumbar 4-6 DRG neurons, 10 min application of oxaliplatin (100 μM) shifted the voltage-dependence of sodium conductance toward negative membrane potentials in A- but not C-fibers. The resting membrane potential remained unchanged, but the action potential threshold decreased significantly compared to that of the control ( < 0.05). However, 0.1 μg/mL of BVA administration increased the lowered action potential threshold. In conclusion, these results suggest that BVA may attenuate oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain by altering the action potential threshold in A-fiber DRG neurons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins12120737DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7760131PMC
November 2020

Effects of different levels of crude protein and protease on nitrogen utilization, nutrient digestibility, and growth performance in growing pigs.

J Anim Sci Technol 2020 Sep 30;62(5):659-667. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Division of Food and Animal Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea.

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of crude protein (CP) and protease on nitrogen (N) utilization, nutrient digestibility, and growth performance in growing pigs. A total of six crossbred ([Landrace × Yorkshire] × Duroc) barrows were individually accepted in 1.2 m × 0.7 m × 0.96 m stainless steel metabolism cages. The pigs (average initial body weight of 27.91 ± 1.84 kg) randomly assigned to six diets with six weeks (6 × 6 Latin square design). The experiment was carried out in an environment with a temperature of 23 ± 1.5°C, a relative humidity of 83 ± 2.3% and a wind speed of 0.25 ± 0.03 m/s. The dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial design with two levels of CP (15.3% or 17.1%) and three levels of protease (0 ppm, 150 ppm, or 300 ppm). The average daily gain and gain to feed ratio (G:F) tended to increase ( = 0.074) with increasing amounts of protease. The low CP level diet reduced ( < 0.050) urinary and fecal N concentrations, the total N excretion in feces, and increased ( < 0.050) N retention. Different protease levels in the diet did not affect ( > 0.05) at N intake, but supplementation of the diets with 300 ppm protease decreased ( < 0.050) the N concentration in urine and feces and tended to increase ( = 0.061) the percentage of N retention retained of the total N intake. The dietary CP level did not affect ( > 0.050) the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, digestible energy (DE), and metabolic energy (ME), but diet supplementation with 300 ppm protease showed higher ( < 0.050) ATTD of DE and ME than in the protease-free diet. Therefore, a low protein diet with protease could improve the utilization of nitrogen, thereby reducing the negative effect of N excretion into the environment while maintaining or increasing growth performance compared to a high protein diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2020.62.5.659DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7553848PMC
September 2020

The Role of Satellite Glial Cells, Astrocytes, and Microglia in Oxaliplatin-Induced Neuropathic Pain.

Biomedicines 2020 Sep 2;8(9). Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Department of Physiology, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02453, Korea.

Oxaliplatin is a third-generation platinum-based chemotherapeutic drug. Although its efficacy against colorectal cancer is well known, peripheral neuropathy that develops during and after infusion of the agents could decrease the quality of life of the patients. Various pathways have been reported to be the cause of the oxaliplatin-induced paresthesia and dysesthesia; however, its mechanism of action has not been fully understood yet. In recent years, researchers have investigated the function of glia in pain, and demonstrated that glia in the peripheral and central nervous system could play a critical role in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. These results suggest that targeting the glia may be an effective therapeutic option. In the past ten years, 20 more papers focused on the role of glia in oxaliplatin-induced thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity. However, to date no review has been written to summarize and discuss their results. Thus, in this study, by reviewing 23 studies that conducted in vivo experiments in rodents, the change of satellite glial cells, astrocytes, and microglia activation in the dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord, and the brain of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain animals is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8090324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7554902PMC
September 2020

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Modeling of Best Disease and Autosomal Recessive Bestrophinopathy.

Yonsei Med J 2020 Sep;61(9):816-825

Department of Ophthalmology, The Institute of Vision Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: To understand the pathophysiology of Best disease (BD) and autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy (ARB) by establishing an in vitro model using human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC).

Materials And Methods: Human iPSC lines were generated from mononuclear cells in peripheral blood of one ARB patient, one autosomal dominant BD patient, and two normal controls. Immunocytochemistry and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in iPSC lines were conducted to demonstrate the pluripotent markers. After the differentiation of iPSC into functional retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), morphological characteristics of the RPE were evaluated using confocal microscopy and immunocytochemistry. The rates of fluid flow across iPSC-RPE monolayer were measured to compare apical to basal fluid transports by RPE. RNA sequencing was performed on iPSC-RPE to identify the differences in gene expression profiles, and specific gene sets were tested using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis.

Results: Morphological characteristics, gene expression, and epithelial integrity of ARB iPSC were comparable to those of BD patient or normal control. Fluid transport from apical to basal was significantly decreased in ARB iPSC-RPE compared with BD iPSC-RPE or control iPSC-RPE. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis confirmed that ARB iPSC-RPE exhibited significant enrichments of epithelial-mesenchymal transition gene set and TNF-α signaling via NF-κB gene set compared to control iPSC-RPE or BD iPSC-RPE.

Conclusion: A human iPSC model of ARB showed a functional deficiency rather than anatomical defects. ARB may be caused by RPE dysfunction following mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2020.61.9.816DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7471084PMC
September 2020

Effects of replacing soybean meal with perilla seed meal on growth performance, and meat quality of broilers.

J Anim Sci Technol 2020 Jul 31;62(4):495-503. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Division of Food and Animal Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of replacing soybean meal with perilla seed meal (PSM) on growth performance, proximate composition of meat, meat quality, and fatty acids composition of meat in broilers. A total of 60 one-day-old chicks of (initial body weight of 44.8 ± 0.4 g) were randomly allotted to four treatment groups (15 replicate cages with 1 broilers per cage) in a period of 5 weeks. Dietary treatments included control (CON) basal diet (corn-soybean meal-based diets) and test diets in which PSM was included at 0.5% (T1), 1% (T2), or 2% (T3) to gradually replace soybean meal. At the end of experiment, all broilers were slaughtered for collecting breast and thigh meat. At 5 weeks, T2 and T3 treatment groups had higher ( < 0.05) body weights than CON and T1 treatment groups. Weight gain was increased ( < 0.05) in T2 and T3 treatment groups. Feed intake was decreased ( < 0.05) in T3 treatment group. Broilers in T2 treatment group had lower ( < 0.05) feed conversion ratio than those in other treatment groups. In proximate composition of breast meat, there was no significant ( > 0.05) difference in moisture and ash. Fat composition of breast meat was significantly ( < 0.05) increased in T2 and T3 treatment groups. Regarding meat quality, broilers fed T3 diet had higher ( < 0.05) water holding capacity than those fed other diets. Regarding fatty acids composition of thigh meat, broilers fed T3 diet had higher ( < 0.05) linolenic acid than those fed other diets. In conclusion, soybean meal replaced by 2% perilla seed meal in broiler diet can improve growth performance, meat quality, and fatty acids composition of thigh meat in broilers. Perilla seed meal can be a lot of potential alternatives feedstuff for soybean meal in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2020.62.4.495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7416164PMC
July 2020

Prognostic Factors and Long-term Surgical Outcomes for Exudative Age-related Macular Degeneration with Breakthrough Vitreous Hemorrhage.

Korean J Ophthalmol 2020 08;34(4):281-289

Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Vision Research, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: We sought to evaluate the long-term outcomes for patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) undergoing vitrectomy for breakthrough vitreous hemorrhage and to investigate possible prognostic factors.

Methods: Consecutive patients treated at two high-volume referral-based tertiary hospitals between July 2006 and December 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Surgery was performed using the standard three-port vitrectomy. The primary outcome was the change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) over long-term follow-up, while secondary outcomes included the assessment of possible prognostic factors.

Results: Among 50 eyes from 50 patients included in this study, 23 (46%) were diagnosed with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) and 27 (54%) were diagnosed with neovascular AMD. Preoperative vision at the time of vitreous hemorrhage onset was 20 / 3,027 (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR], 2.18 ± 0.34). At 12 months after surgery, the mean BCVA improved to 20 / 873 (logMAR, 1.64 ± 0.76; < 0.001). At 24 months, the BCVA was 20 / 853 (logMAR, 1.63 ± 0.75; < 0.001). Univariate analysis revealed that older age (odds ratio [OR], 0.879; = 0.007] and the presence of submacular hemorrhage (OR, 0.081; = 0.022) were factors associated with a poor 2-year visual outcome. Multivariable regression showed that older age (OR, 0.876; = 0.026) and neovascular AMD (as compared with PCV) (OR, 0.137; = 0.014) were significant negative factors influencing the 2-year visual outcome. The mean injection interval prior to vitrectomy was 4.53 months, which extended to 27.64 months after vitrectomy ( = 0.028).

Conclusions: Younger age, the absence of submacular hemorrhage, and PCV type were associated with a favorable 2-year visual outcome after vitrectomy for vitreous hemorrhage in patients with exudative AMD. Overall, vitrectomy resulted in improved visual acuity and patients showed a decreased need for anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy thereafter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3341/kjo.2020.0014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7419239PMC
August 2020

Differential Dynamics of the Ruminal Microbiome of Jersey Cows in a Heat Stress Environment.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 2;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Dairy Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Cheonan 31000, Korea.

The microbial community within the rumen can be changed and shaped by heat stress. Accumulating data have suggested that different breeds of dairy cows have differential heat stress resistance; however, the underlying mechanism by which nonanimal factors contribute to heat stress are yet to be understood. This study is designed to determine changes in the rumen microbiome of Holstein and Jersey cows to normal and heat stress conditions. Under heat stress conditions, Holstein cows had a significantly higher respiration rate than Jersey cows. Heat stress increased the rectal temperature of Holstein but not Jersey cows. In the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, Jersey cows had a significantly higher proportion of genes associated with energy metabolism in the normal condition than that with other treatments. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) results identified six taxa as distinguishing taxa between normal and heat stress conditions in Holstein cows; in Jersey cows, 29 such taxa were identified. Changes in the rumen bacterial taxa were more sensitive to heat stress in Jersey cows than in Holstein cows, suggesting that the rumen mechanism is different in both breeds in adapting to heat stress. Collectively, distinct changes in rumen bacterial taxa and functional gene abundance in Jersey cows may be associated with better adaptation ability to heat stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7401637PMC
July 2020

Influence of Overcrowding in the Emergency Department on Return Visit within 72 Hours.

J Clin Med 2020 May 9;9(5). Epub 2020 May 9.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea.

This study was conducted to determine whether overcrowding in the emergency department (ED) affects the occurrence of a return visit (RV) within 72 hours. The crowding indicator of index visit was the average number of total patients, patients under observation, and boarding patients during the first 1 and 4 hours from ED arrival time and the last 1 h before ED departure. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine whether each indicator affects the occurrence of RV and post-RV admission. Of the 87,360 discharged patients, 3743 (4.3%) returned to the ED within 72 hours. Of the crowding indicators pertaining to total patients, the last 1 h significantly affected decrease in RV ( = 0.0046). Boarding patients were found to increase RV occurrence during the first 1 h ( = 0.0146) and 4 hours ( = 0.0326). Crowding indicators that increased the likelihood of admission post-RV were total number of patients during the first 1 h ( = 0.0166) and 4 hours ( = 0.0335) and evaluating patients during the first 1 h ( = 0.0059). Overcrowding in the ED increased the incidence of RV and likelihood of post-RV admission. However, overcrowding at the time of ED departure was related to reduced RV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7290478PMC
May 2020

Effects of different standardized ileal digestible lysine: net energy proportion in growing and finishing pigs.

J Anim Sci Technol 2020 Mar 31;62(2):198-207. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Division of Food and Animal Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea.

This experiment was performed to evaluate the optimal proportion of dietary standardized ileal digestible lysine (SID Lys) to net energy (NE) proportion in growing to finishing pigs. A total of seventy-two pigs were used at phase 1 (initial body weight 37.23 ± 0.23 kilogram, for 42 d) and at phase 2 (initial body weight 54.16 ± 0.20 kilogram, for 77 d). They were arbitrarily assigned to three treatments groups consisting of four duplicates per treatment (six pigs in duplicates, respectively). Diet treatments were as follows: CON = basal diets (phase 1, crude protein (CP): 19.1%; SID Lys: 0.94%; SID Lys: NE proportion: 0.91 g/MJ / phase 2, CP: 17.0%; SID Lys: 0.84%; SID Lys: NE proportion: 0.79 g/MJ), TRT1 (phase 1, CP: 18.0%; SID Lys: 0.92%; SID Lys: NE proportion: 0.89 g/MJ / phase 2, CP: 15.8%; SID Lys: 0.8%; SID Lys: NE proportion: 0.75 g/MJ), TRT2 (phase 1, CP: 17.3%; SID Lys: 0.82%; SID Lys: NE proportion: 0.79 g/MJ / phase 2, CP: 14.8%; SID Lys: 0.7%; SID Lys: NE proportion: 0.65 g/MJ). In phase 1 and 2, growth performance did not meaningfully be affected when SID Lys: NE proportion decreased with reducing CP content. In phase 2, the nitrogen digestibility of CON group in 11 week was higher ( < 0.05) than other treatments. Also, marbling and firmness scores of TRT2 group diets increased ( < 0.05) compared with those of CON group, but dissimilarities of other meat qualities did not be detected among treatments. In conclusion, introduction of NE system can reduce negative problems introduced when dietary CP decreased. Also, 0.79 and 0.65 g/MJ of SID Lys: NE proportion is the optimal Lys: NE proportion to achieve improved pork quality without impairing the growth performance in growing-finishing pigs, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2020.62.2.198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7142283PMC
March 2020

Effect of replacing corn with soy hulls on nutrient digestibility of growing pigs.

J Anim Sci Technol 2020 Mar 31;62(2):180-186. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Division of Food and Animal Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea.

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of replacing corn with soy hulls on nutrient digestibility of growing pigs. Three experimental diets were tested using a 3 × 3 Latin square design using three barrows per group (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc, average initial body weight of 36.9 ± 4.0 kg) in individual metabolic cages. The dietary treatments were the control (CON) basal diet (corn-soybean meal based diet), whereas in the test diets, soy hulls were included at 5% (H1), 10% (H2), gradually replacing corn. The daily feed allowance was adjusted to 2.7 times the maintenance requirement for digestible energy (DE) (2.7 × 110 kcal of DE/kg BW). Intake of crude fiber (CF) was different among treatments ( < 0.05). Pigs fed with H2 diet excreted higher concentrations of dry matter (DM), and CF than pigs fed with H1 diet and basal diet ( < 0.05). Pigs fed with H1 and H2 diets excreted higher concentrations of crude protein (CP) than pigs fed with CON diet ( < 0.05). The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CF from H1 and H2 diets were higher than CON diet ( < 0.05). Pigs fed with H2 diets were significantly lower ( < 0.05) the ATTD of CP than the pigs fed with CON and H1 diets. The current data suggest that 10% inclusion soy hulls can slightly decrease CP digestibility. However, soy hulls considerably increased CF digestibility.It is concluded that 5% soy hulls may be a usable alternative to corn in growing pig diets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2020.62.2.180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7142280PMC
March 2020

Effects of exogenous emulsifier supplementation on growth performance, energy digestibility, and meat quality in broilers.

J Anim Sci Technol 2020 Jan 31;62(1):43-51. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Division of Food and Animal Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea.

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of exogenous emulsifier supplementation on growth performance, energy digestibility, and meat quality in broilers. A total of 60 Ross 308 broilers were treated for two weeks. The three dietary treatments were: (CON) basal diet; (T1) basal diet + 0.1% exogenous emulsifier, and (T2) basal diet + 0.2% exogenous emulsifier. In Period 1 (0-7 days), broilers in the T2 group showed significantly higher body weight gain (BWG) ( < 0.05) and broilers in the T1 and T2 treatment groups had significantly lower feed conversion ratios (FCR) ( < 0.05). In Period 2 (8-14 days), broilers in the T2 treatment group had significantly higher feed intake (FI) ( < 0.05). Therefore, in this experiment (from days 0 to 19), BWG and FCR were affected ( < 0.05) by the T1 and T2 treatments. Additionally, the T1 and T2 treatments with added exogenous emulsifier in the broiler feed showed significantly higher energy digestibility ( < 0.05) than the CON treatment. Broilers fed the T2 diet had higher water-holding capacity (WHC) ( < 0.05) and cooking loss than the broilers fed the CON and T1 diets. Moreover, the shearing force in the meat was decreased ( < 0.05) in broilers fed the T2 diet. In conclusion, supplementation with exogenous emulsifier to broiler diets improved growth performance, energy digestibility, and meat quality. The optimal amount of exogenous emulsifier supplementation requires further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2020.62.1.43DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7008118PMC
January 2020

Neuroprotective Effects of Tetrahydrocurcumin against Glutamate-Induced Oxidative Stress in Hippocampal HT22 Cells.

Molecules 2019 Dec 30;25(1). Epub 2019 Dec 30.

College of Korean Medicine, Gachon University, Seongnam 13120, Korea.

In the central nervous system, glutamate is a major excitable neurotransmitter responsible for many cellular functions. However, excessive levels of glutamate induce neuronal cell death via oxidative stress during acute brain injuries as well as chronic neurodegenerative diseases. The present study was conducted to examine the effect of tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), a major secondary metabolite of curcumin, and its possible mechanism against glutamate-induced cell death. We prepared THC using curcumin isolated from (turmeric) and demonstrated the protective effect of THC against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in HT22 cells. THC abrogated glutamate-induced HT22 cell death and showed a strong antioxidant effect. THC also significantly reduced intracellular calcium ion increased by glutamate. Additionally, THC significantly reduced the accumulation of intracellular oxidative stress induced by glutamate. Furthermore, THC significantly diminished apoptotic cell death indicated by annexin V-positive in HT22 cells. Western blot analysis indicated that the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases including c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-related kinases 1/2, and p38 by glutamate was significantly diminished by treatment with THC. In conclusion, THC is a potent neuroprotectant against glutamate-induced neuronal cell death by inhibiting the accumulation of oxidative stress and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25010144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6983265PMC
December 2019

Comparison of Half-Time and Half-Irradiance Photodynamic Therapy in Nonresolving Central Serous Chorioretinopathy.

J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2020 03 11;36(2):109-115. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Institute of Vision Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

To compare the efficacy of half-time and half-irradiance photodynamic therapy (PDT) in patients with nonresolving central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) This retrospective study included 32 patients with nonresolving CSC, of whom 14 were treated with half-time PDT and 18 with half-irradiance PDT. Therapeutic outcomes, including central retinal thickness (CRT), subretinal fluid (SRF) height, subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT), thickness of the Haller layer (HL), thickness of the choriocapillaris/Sattler layer (SL), and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), were measured at baseline, and at 1 and 3 months after treatment. CRT, SRF, and SFCT decreased significantly at 1 and 3 months after treatment in both groups. Thickness of the HL decreased significantly at 1 and 3 months, whereas thickness of the choriocapillaris/SL did not. BCVA demonstrated a significant improvement at 3 months in both groups. Changes in outcome parameters were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Both half-time and half-irradiance PDT were effective in SRF resolution and visual improvement, reducing choroidal thickness mainly on HL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jop.2019.0003DOI Listing
March 2020

Predictive performance of plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin for neurologic outcomes in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients treated with targeted temperature management: A prospective observational study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Aug;98(34):e16930

Department of Emergency Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine.

Few studies have demonstrated the prognostic potential of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in post-cardiac arrest patients. This study evaluated the usefulness of plasma NGAL in predicting neurologic outcome and mortality in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients treated with targeted temperature management (TTM). A prospective observational study was conducted between October 2013 and April 2016 at a single tertiary hospital. We enrolled 75 patients treated with TTM and collected their demographic data, cardiopulmonary resuscitation-related information, data on plasma NGAL concentration, and prognostic test results. Plasma NGAL was measured at 4 hours after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The primary endpoint was the neurologic outcome at discharge and the secondary outcome was 28-day mortality. Neurologic outcomes were analyzed using a stepwise multivariate logistic regression while 28-day mortality was analyzed using a stepwise Cox regression. The predictive performance of plasma NGAL for neurologic outcome was measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and the predictability of 28-day mortality was measured using Harrell C-index. We also compared the predictive performance of plasma NGAL to that of other traditional prognostic modalities for outcome variables. Thirty patients (40%) had good neurologic outcomes and 53 (70.7%) survived for more than 28 days. Plasma NGAL in patients with good neurologic outcomes was 122.7 ± 146.7 ng/ml, which was significantly lower than that in the poor neurologic outcome group (307.5 ± 269.6 ng/ml; P < .001). The probability of a poor neurologic outcome was more than 3.3-fold in the NGAL >124.3 ng/ml group (odds ratio, 3.321; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.265-8.721]). Plasma NGAL in the survived group was significantly lower than that in the non-survived group (172.7 ± 191.6 vs 379.9 ± 297.8 ng/ml; P = .005). Plasma NGAL was significantly correlated with 28-day mortality (hazard ratio 1.003, 95% CI 1.001-1.004; P < .001). The predictive performance of plasma NGAL was not inferior to that of other prognostic modalities except electroencephalography. Plasma NGAL is valuable for predicting the neurologic outcome and 28-day mortality of patients with OHCA at an early stage after ROSC.This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov on November 19, 2013 (Identifier: NCT01987466).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000016930DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6716698PMC
August 2019

Quantifiable and feasible estrus detection using the ultrasonic sensor array and digital infrared thermography.

J Anim Sci Technol 2019 May 31;61(3):163-169. Epub 2019 May 31.

Division of Food and Animal Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea.

Detection of estrus is an essential factor as a method of successful breeding in the sow. As increasing the adaption of the information and communication technology (ICT) into swine industry, this study focuses on a possibility and quantification of standing time, vulva and body temperature as methods of estrus detection, comparing each time and temperature in estrus and non-estrus period, and analyzing each success rate of new and existing methods. Ultrasonic sensor array and digital infrared thermography were used to evaluate whether new methods such as standing time and number, and vulva and skin temperature can be replaced, or these methods can be quantifiable in estrus period. Ultrasonic sensor array was installed beside the stall and digital infrared thermography was placed in the rear of sow to collect the dates of sow in estrus and non-estrus period. This study showed total standing time, number and number over 10 minutes, and vulva temperature of the sow in estrus period were increased ( < 0.05) compared with those of sow in non-estrus period, respectively. Detection of estrus using standing time and vulva temperature tended ( = 0.06) to increase the success rate when artificial insemination (AI) was performed. In conclusion, standing time and vulva temperature increased when estrus happened. Success rate of AI of sow using these methods showed an increasing trend. Therefore, existing method using the naked eye can be replaced to new method such as vulvar temperature and standing time when detecting the estrus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2019.61.3.163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582922PMC
May 2019

Over-triage occurs when considering the patient's pain in Korean Triage and Acuity Scale (KTAS).

PLoS One 2019 9;14(5):e0216519. Epub 2019 May 9.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: The Korean Triage and Acuity Scale (KTAS) was developed based on the Canadian Emergency Department Triage and Acuity Scale. In patients with pain, to determine the KTAS level, the pain scale is considered; however, since the degree of pain is subjective, this may affect the accuracy of KTAS. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of KTAS in predicting patient's severity with the degree of pain used as a modifier.

Method: A retrospective observational cohort study was conducted in an urban tertiary hospital emergency department (ED). We investigated patients over 16 years old from January to June 2016. The patients were divided into the pain and non-pain groups according to whether the degree of pain was used as a modifier or not. We compared the predictive power of KTAS on the urgency of patients between the two groups. Acute area registration in the ED, emergency procedure, emergency operation, hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, and 7-day mortality were used as markers to determine urgent patients.

Results: Overall, 24,253 patients were included in the study, with 9,175 (37.8%) in the pain group. The proportions of patients with KTAS 1-3 were 61.4% in the pain and 75.6% in the non-pain groups. Among patients with KTAS 2-3, the proportion of urgent patients was higher in the non-pain group than the pain group (p<0.001). The odds ratios for urgent patients at each KTAS level revealed a more evident discriminatory power of KTAS for urgent patients in the non-pain group. The predictability of KTAS for urgent patients was higher in the non-pain group than the pain group (area under the curve; 0.736 vs. 0.765, p-value <0.001).

Conclusions: Considering the degree of pain with KTAS led to overestimation of patient severity and had a negative impact on the predictability of KTAS for urgent patients.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0216519PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6508716PMC
January 2020

The Analgesic Effect of Venlafaxine and Its Mechanism on Oxaliplatin-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Apr 3;20(7). Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of East-West Medicine, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

The analgesic effect of venlafaxine (VLX), which is a selective serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), has been observed on oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain in mice. Significant allodynia was shown after oxaliplatin treatment (6 mg/kg, i.p.); acetone and von Frey hair tests were used to assess cold and mechanical allodynia, respectively. Intraperitoneal administration of VLX at 40 and 60 mg/kg, but not 10 mg/kg, significantly alleviated these allodynia. Noradrenaline depletion by pretreatment of -(2-Chloroethyl)--ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4, 50 mg/kg, i.p.) blocked the relieving effect of VLX (40 mg/kg, i.p.) on cold and mechanical allodynia. However, serotonin depletion by three consecutive pretreatments of para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 150 mg/kg/day, i.p.) only blocked the effect of VLX on mechanical allodynia. In cold allodynia, the α₂-adrenergic antagonist idazoxan (10 μg, i.t.), but not the α₁-adrenergic antagonist prazosin (10 μg, i.t.), abolished VLX-induced analgesia. Furthermore, idazoxan and 5-HT₃ receptor antagonist bemesetron (MDL-72222, 15 μg, i.t.), but not prazosin or mixed 5-HT receptor antagonist methysergide (10 μg, i.t.), abolished VLX-induced analgesia in mechanical allodynia. In conclusion, 40 mg/kg of VLX treatment has a potent relieving effect against oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain, and α₂-adrenergic receptor, and both α₂-adrenergic and 5-HT₃ receptors are involved in this effect of VLX on cold and mechanical allodynia, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071652DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6479607PMC
April 2019

Effects of azathioprine and its metabolites on inflammatory cytokines in human nasal polyp organ cultures.

Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2019 06 12;9(6):648-655. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Biomedical Research Center, Gangneung Asan Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Gangneung, Republic of Korea.

Background: Oral steroids are recommended for the treatment of nasal polyps (NPs), but prolonged use is avoided because of side effects. Topical steroids can also control NPs without significant complications; however, the response to this is partially successful, and additional therapies are needed to treat glucocorticoid-resistant NPs. Azathioprine (AZA) and its first metabolite 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) are important immunosuppressants used for the therapy of various diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AZA and 6-MP on inflammatory cytokines in organ-cultured NPs.

Methods: NP explants were cultured using an air-liquid interface method. Cultures were maintained in the absence and presence of steroid, AZA, and 6-MP for 72 hours. Elaboration of cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 into the supernatant was quantitated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in cultured mucosa were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of cultured mucosa was performed to observe inflammatory cells. Immunohistochemistry was done to evaluate the distribution pattern of inflammatory cytokines in NP explants.

Results: On histologic examination, less inflammatory cell infiltration was found in NPs treated by steroid, AZA, and 6-MP than in control, but there was no statistical significance (p = 0.218). On immunohistochemistry, IL-13 showed a steady falling tendency in submucosal glands by steroid, AZA, and 6-MP. Expression of TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 mRNA in the NPs treated by steroid, AZA, and 6-MP were significantly lower than those of the control (p < 0.001 for all). By ELISA, IL-2 and IL-13 were significantly lower with topical steroid, AZA, and 6-MP treatment (p = 0.012 and p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Topical AZT decreases inflammatory cytokines on human NP explants and this could have future therapeutic implications for NPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alr.22303DOI Listing
June 2019

Punctate Inner Choroidopathy and Choroidal Neovascularization in Korean Patients.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2020 14;28(1):14-19. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Institute of Vision Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

: To describe the clinical features and outcomes of punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) in Korean patients: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with PIC between 2004 and 2015. The main outcome measures included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), and optical coherence tomography findings. Patients with and without CNV were compared.: Forty eyes of 26 patients were included. The final BCVA was better than 20/40 in 33 eyes (82.5%). CNV was initially present in 12 eyes (30.0%). The mean initial and final logMAR BCVA was poorer for eyes with CNV than for eyes without CNV. Eyes with CNV exhibited a larger myopic refractive error, inflammatory lesions confined within the posterior pole, and a decreased final subfoveal choroidal thickness compared with eyes without CNV.: PIC in the Korean population generally exhibits favorable visual outcomes, and eyes with CNV show more abnormalities and poorer outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09273948.2018.1489060DOI Listing
December 2020

Itraconazole Attenuates Peritoneal Fibrosis Through Its Effect on the Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Pathway in Mice.

Am J Nephrol 2018 23;48(6):456-464. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea,

Background: Peritoneal fibrosis is a devastating complication of peritoneal dialysis. However, its precise mechanism is unclear, and specific treatments have not yet been established. Recent evidence suggests that the sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway is involved in tissue fibrogenesis. Drugs that inhibit this pathway are emerging in the field of anti-fibrosis therapy. Itraconazole, an anti-fungal agent, was also recently recognized as an inhibitor of the SHH signaling pathway. In this study, we used a mouse model to investigate whether the SHH signaling pathway is involved in the development of peritoneal fibrosis and the effects of itraconazole on peritoneal fibrosis.

Methods: Peritoneal fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 0.1% chlorhexidine gluconate (CG) solution every other day for 4 weeks, with or without itraconazole treatment (20 mg/kg, IP injection on a daily basis). Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 4 groups: saline group, saline plus itraconazole group, CG group, and CG plus itraconazole group. Isotonic saline was administered intraperitoneally to the control group. The peritoneal tissues were evaluated for histological changes, expression of fibrosis markers, and the main components of the SHH signaling pathway.

Results: Peritoneal thickening was evident in the CG group and was significantly decreased by itraconazole administration (80.4 ± 7.7 vs. 28.2 ± 3.8 µm, p < 0.001). The expression of the following SHH signaling pathway components was upregulated in the CG group and suppressed by itraconazole treatment: SHH, patched, smoothened, and glioma-associated oncogene transcription factor 1. The IP injection of CG solution increased the expression of fibrosis markers such as α-smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor-β1 in the peritoneal tissues. Itraconazole treatment significantly decreased the expression of these markers.

Conclusion: Our study provides the first evidence that the SHH signaling pathway may be implicated in peritoneal fibrosis. It also demonstrates that itraconazole treatment has protective effects on peritoneal fibrosis through the regulation of the SHH signaling pathway. These findings suggest that blockage of the SHH signaling pathway is a potential therapeutic strategy for peritoneal fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000493550DOI Listing
November 2019

Effects of corn particle size on nutrient utilization in pigs evaluated under optimal and heat stress conditions.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2019 Feb 20;51(2):443-448. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk, 28644, Republic of Korea.

The effects of corn particle size on nutrient digestibility and energy utilization in pigs were determined under optimal (experiment 1, 25 ± 1 °C) or heat stress (experiment 2, 37 ± 1 °C) conditions. In Exp. 1 and 2, five experimental diets were tested using a 5 × 5 Latin square design involving five barrows (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc, average initial body weight of 30 ± 1 kg and 45.0 ± 1.8 kg, respectively, in individual metabolic cages). Dietary treatments were as follows: 200-, 300-, 400-, 600-, 800-μm corn particle sizes obtained by mesh screens. Under optimal thermal conditions, digestibility of dry matter (DM) and crude fiber (CF) from 200-μm diet was higher (P < 0.05) compared to that from the 300-μm and 400-μm diets. The digestibility of crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) was the highest (P < 0.05) at the 200-μm particle size. The apparent total tract digestibility of energy was significantly higher (P < 0.05) on the 200-μm diet. Under heat stress, digestibility of CF when corn was ground to 600 μm was higher (P < 0.05) compared to 300 and 400 μm. Digestibility of NDF and ADF was the highest (P < 0.05) at 600-μm corn particle size. In conclusion, grinding corn to 200-μm corn particles had a positive effect on DM, CP, EE, and CF under optimal thermal condition, while the 600-μm corn particle size had positive effects on digestibility of CF, NDF, and ADF than 200-μm corn particle size under heat stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-018-1711-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6510778PMC
February 2019

Comparison of Modified Transtibial and Outside-In Techniques in Anatomic Single-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

Arthroscopy 2018 10 6;34(10):2857-2870. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, KonKuk University Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: To compare the bending angle of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft at femoral tunnel, graft maturation, and tunnel positions and the clinical outcomes of the modified transtibial (mTT) and outside-in (OI) techniques.

Methods: Patients who met the inclusion criteria were divided into the mTT group (n = 50) and the OI group (n = 50). Using 3-dimensional computed tomography (3-D CT), tunnel placement and femoral tunnel bending angle were analyzed. The 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to assess the graft signal intensity (indicative of maturation) with signal/noise quotient (SNQ). Graft tension and synovialization were evaluated with second-look arthroscopy in all cases. Clinical and functional tests were completed at 36 months of follow-up.

Results: When tunnel placements were analyzed using the quadrant method, no significant differences were found between the mTT group and the OI group. The femoral graft bending angle was reduced in the mTT group, and the total mean of SNQ values and mean SNQ values at the femoral intraosseous and proximal graft of the mTT group were significantly lower than in the OI group (P < .001), respectively. The femoral graft bending angle on the coronal and axial planes showed moderate-to-strong correlation with the SNQ values at the femoral intraosseous and proximal graft. Second-look arthroscopy revealed better synovialization in the mTT group than in the OI group (P = .040), with no significant difference in graft tension between the 2 groups (P = .328).

Conclusions: Anatomic tunnel placements did not vary between the mTT group and the OI group. However, the mTT group had more benefits in femoral graft bending angle and showed higher graft maturity and better synovial coverage than the OI group, although there were no significant differences in clinical outcomes. The acute femoral graft bending angle might negatively affect the maturation of proximal graft. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, retrospective comparative study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2018.05.041DOI Listing
October 2018